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Encyclopedia > A. E. Housman

Alfred Edward Housman (IPA: [ˈælfɹɪd ˈedwəd ˈhaʊsmən]; March 26, 1859April 30, 1936), usually known as A.E. Housman, was an English poet and classical scholar, now best known for his cycle of poems A Shropshire Lad. March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1859 (MDCCCLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The poor poet A poet is a person who writes poetry. ... For other uses, see Classics (disambiguation). ... A Shropshire Lad is a cycle of sixty-three poems by the English poet Alfred Edward Housman. ...

Contents

Life

Housman was born in Fockbury, Worcestershire, the eldest of seven children of a country solicitor. His brother Laurence Housman and sister Clemence Housman also became writers. A. E. Housman File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For the condiment, see Worcestershire sauce. ... A solicitor is a type of lawyer in many common law jurisdictions, such as the United Kingdom, Hong Kong, Republic of Ireland, Australia, New Zealand and Canada, and in a few regions of the United States. ... Laurence Housman (July 18, 1865 - [February 20,1959]]) was an English playwright. ...


Housman was educated first at King Edward's School, then Bromsgrove School, where he acquired a strong academic grounding and won prizes for his poetry. In 1877 he won an open scholarship to St John's College, Oxford, where he studied classics. He was a brilliant student, gaining first class honours in classical moderations, but a withdrawn person whose only friends were his roommates Moses Jackson and A. W. Pollard. Housman had sexual feelings for Jackson which were rejected as Jackson was heterosexual (Summers ed. 1995:371, Page 2004). This rejection could explain Housman's unexpected failure in his final exams (the "Greats) in 1881 (Cunningham 2000:981). Housman took this failure very seriously but managed to take the exams for a pass degree the next year, after a brief period of teaching in Bromsgrove School. King Edwards School or King Edward VI School is the name of several schools in England, the majority of them founded during the reign of King Edward VI of England. ... Bromsgrove School was founded in 1553 and is located in the small Worcestershire town of Bromsgrove, UK. First known as a chantry school in the Middle Ages with the earliest recorded date of 1476, it was re-established as a Tudor Grammar School between 1548 and 1553. ... College name St Johns College Collegium Divi Joannis Baptistae Named after Saint John the Baptist Established 1555 Sister College Sidney Sussex College President Sir Michael Scholar KCB JCR President Rhys Jones Undergraduates 381 Graduates 184 Homepage Boatclub St Johns College is one of the constituent colleges of the... Bromsgrove School was founded in 1553 and is located in the small Worcestershire town of Bromsgrove, UK. First known as a chantry school in the Middle Ages with the earliest recorded date of 1476, it was re-established as a Tudor Grammar School between 1548 and 1553. ...


After graduating, Jackson got a job as a clerk in the Patent Office in London and arranged a job there for Housman as well. They shared an apartment with Jackson's brother Adalbert until 1885 when Housman moved in to lodgings of his own. Moses Jackson married and moved to Karachi, India in 1887 and Adalbert Jackson died in 1892. Housman continued pursuing classical studies independently and published scholarly articles on such authors as Horace, Propertius, Ovid, Aeschylus, Euripides and Sophocles. He gradually acquired such a high reputation that in 1892 he was offered the professorship of Latin at University College London, which he accepted. A patent examiner or patent clerk is an employee, usually a civil servant, working within a patent office. ... A patent office is a governmental or intergovernmental organisation which controls the issue of patents. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Horace, as imagined by Anton von Werner Quintus Horatius Flaccus, (December 8, 65 BC - November 27, 8 BC), known in the English-speaking world as Horace, was the leading Roman lyric poet during the time of Augustus. ... Sextus Aurelius Propertius was a Latin elegiac poet born between 57 BC and 46 BC in or near Mevania, who died in around 12 BC. Like Virgil and Ovid, Propertius was also a member of the poetic circle of neoteric poets which collected around Mæcenas. ... For other uses, see Ovid (disambiguation) Publius Ovidius Naso (March 20, 43 BC – 17 AD) was a Roman poet known to the English-speaking world as Ovid who wrote on topics of love, abandoned women and mythological transformations. ... This article is about the ancient Greek playwright. ... A statue of Euripides. ... This article is about the Greek tragedian. ... Affiliations University of London Russell Group LERU EUA ACU Golden Triangle G5 Website http://www. ...


Although Housman's sphere of responsibilities as professor included both Latin and Greek, he put most of his energy into the study of Latin classics. His reputation in this field grew steadily, and in 1911 he took the Kennedy Professorship of Latin at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he remained for the rest of his life. It was unusual at the time for an Oxford man such as Housman to be hired at Cambridge. During 1903–1930, he published his critical edition of Manilius's Astronomicon in five volumes. He also edited works of Juvenal (1905) and Lucan (1926). Many colleagues were afraid of his scathing critical attacks on those whom he found guilty of unscholarly sloppiness. To his students he appeared as a severe, reticent, remote authority. The only pleasures he allowed himself in his spare time were those of gastronomy which he also practised on frequent visits to France (Page 2004). For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... The Kennedy Professorship of Latin is the senior professorship of Latin at the University of Cambridge. ... Full name The College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity Motto Virtus vera nobilitas Virtue is true Nobility Named after The Holy Trinity Previous names King’s Hall and Michaelhouse (until merged in 1546) Established 1546 Sister College(s) Christ Church Master The Lord Rees of Ludlow Location Trinity Street... The University of Oxford (informally Oxford University), located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the worlds most prestigious universities. ... Marcus Manilius (fl. ... Frontispiece depicting Juvenal and Persius, from a volume translated by John Dryden in 1711. ... Marcus Annaeus Lucanus (November 3, AD 39-April 30, 65), better known in English as Lucan, was a Roman poet, and is one of the outstanding figures of the Silver Latin period. ... Gastronomy is the study of relationship between culture and food. ...


Housman always found his true vocation in classical studies and treated poetry as a secondary activity. He never spoke about his poetry in public until 1933 when he gave a lecture, "The Name and Nature of Poetry", in which he argued that poetry should appeal to emotions rather than intellect. He died two years later in Cambridge. His ashes are buried near St Laurence's Church, Ludlow, Shropshire. This article is about the town in Shropshire, England. ...


Poetry

During his years in London, A E Housman completed his cycle of 63 poems, A Shropshire Lad. After several publishers had turned it down, he published it at his own expense in 1896. The volume surprised both his colleagues and students. At first the book sold slowly, but Housman's nostalgic depiction of brave English soldiers struck a chord with English readers and his poems became a lasting success. Later, World War I further increased their popularity. A Shropshire Lad is a cycle of sixty-three poems by the English poet Alfred Edward Housman. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


Housman was surprised by the success of A Shropshire Lad because it, like all his poetry, is imbued with a deep pessimism and an obsession with all-pervasive death, with no place for the consolations of religion. Set in a half-imaginative pastoral Shropshire, "the land of lost content" (in fact Housman wrote most of the poems before ever visiting the place), the poems explore themes of fleetingness of love and decay of youth in a spare, uncomplicated style which many critics of the time found out of date compared with the exuberance of some of his late Victorian contemporaries. Housman himself acknowledged the influence of the songs of William Shakespeare, the Scottish Border Ballads and Heinrich Heine, but specifically denied any influence of Greek and Latin classics in his poetry. A Shropshire Lad is a cycle of sixty-three poems by the English poet Alfred Edward Housman. ... Shropshire (pronounced /, -/), alternatively known as Salop[6] or abbreviated Shrops[7], is a county in the West Midlands of England. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Christian Johann Heinrich Heine (December 13, 1797 – February 17, 1856) was a journalist, an essayist, and one of the most significant German romantic poets. ...


In the early 1920s, when Moses Jackson was dying in Canada, Housman wanted to assemble his best unpublished poems together so that Jackson could read them before his death. These later poems, most of them written before 1910, show a greater variety of subject and form than those in A Shropshire Lad but also a certain lack of the kind of consistency found in his previously published work. He published them as his Last Poems (1922) because he thought that his poetic inspiration was running out and that he would not publish any more poems in his lifetime. This proved true. A. E. Housman wrote a poem called The Oracles which can be found in his book Last Poems: Tis mute, the word they went to hear on high Dodona mountain When winds were in the oakenshaws and all the cauldrons tolled, And mutes the midland navel-stone beside the...


After his death Housman's brother, Laurence, published further poems which appeared in More Poems (1936) and Collected Poems (1939). He also deposited an essay entitled "A. E. Housman's 'De Amicitica'" in the British Library in 1942 (with the proviso that it was not to be published for twenty-five years). The essay discussed A. E. Housman's homosexuality and his love for Jackson (Summers ed. 1995: 371). Given the conservative nature of the times it is not surprising that there was no unambiguous autobiographical statement about Housman's sexuality during his life. In Last Poems we have no. VI, 'Lancer,' in which he goes for a soldier, with its refrain, 'O who would not sleep with the brave?' More Poems was more explicit, as in no. 31 about Jackson 'Because I liked you better / Than suits a man to say' (Summers ed. 1995:372). His poem 'Oh who is that young sinner with the handcuffs on his wrists?', written after the trial of Oscar Wilde showed that he also explored the more general question of societal injustice regarding homosexuality in addition to his personal emotions (Housman 1937:213). In the poem the prisoner is suffering 'for the colour of his hair' a natural and God-given attribute which - in a clearly coded reference to homosexuality - is regarded as 'nameless and abominable' (recalling the legal phrase 'peccatum horribile, inter christianos non nominandum', 'the horrible sin, not to be named amongst Christians'). Oscar Fingal OFlahertie Wills Wilde (October 16, 1854 – November 30, 1900) was an Irish playwright, novelist, poet, and author of short stories. ...


Housman also wrote a parodic Fragment of a Greek Tragedy, in English, and humorous poems published posthumously under the title Unkind to Unicorns.


John Sparrow John Hanbury Angus Sparrow (see above) cites a letter written before he died in which Housman describes how his poems came into existence: John Hanbury Angus Sparrow (1906-1992) John Sparrow was educated at Winchester College and New College, Oxford. ...


"Poetry was for him ...'a morbid secretion', as the pearl is for the oyster. The desire, or the need, did not come upon him often, and it came usually when he was feeling ill or depressed; then whole lines and stanzas would present themselves to him without any effort, or any consciousness of composition on his part. Sometimes they wanted a little alteration, sometime none; sometimes the lines needed in order to make a complete poem would come later, spontaneously or with 'a little coaxing'; sometimes he had to sit down and finish the poem with his head. That .... was a long and laborious process ... "


On this, he adds as a footnote later in the preface:-


"How difficult it is to achieve a satisfactory analysis may be judged by considering the last poem in A Shropshire Lad. Of its four stanzas, Housman tells us that two were 'given' him ready made; one was coaxed forth from his subconsciousness an hour or two later; the remaining one took months of conscious composition. No one can tell for certain which was which."


Housman in other artforms

Literature

Housman is the main character in the 1998 Tom Stoppard play The Invention of Love. Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Sir Tom Stoppard, OM, CBE (born as Tomáš Straussler on July 3, 1937)[1] is an Academy Award winning British playwright of more than 24 plays. ... The Invention of Love is a play by Tom Stoppard portraying the life of poet A.E. Housman, focusing specifically on his homosexuality and love for a college roommate. ...


Housman's poetry ("There's this to say for life and breath, it gives a man a taste for death") supplies the title and is quoted in Peter O'Donnell's Modesty Blaise thriller, A Taste for Death. Peter ODonnell (born 1920), British cartoon writer and author and creator of Modesty Blaise. ... Cover of the first Modesty Blaise novel. ... A Taste for Death is the title of an action-adventure novel by Peter ODonnell which was first published in 1969, featuring the character Modesty Blaise which ODonnell had created for a comic strip several years earlier. ...


"A Taste for Death" is also the title of P.D. James´ 1986 crime novel, the 7th in her Adam Dalgliesh series.


A Shropshire Lad is mentioned in E.M. Forster's A Room with a View: one of the characters, Reverend Beebe, picks up the book from a stack whilst visiting the Emerson home, and remarks, "Never heard of it", perhaps lamenting the son's "unconventional" - if not sacrilegious - literary taste. [1] Edward Morgan Forster (January 1, 1879 - June 7, 1970) was an English novelist. ... This article is about the E. M Forster novel. ...


Housman is mentioned and quoted several times by Diana Gabaldon in her popular historical fiction series, starting with Outlander. Diana Gabaldon (born January 11, 1952) is an American author of Mexican and English ancestry. ... Outlander (1991) is a historical fiction novel, written by Diana Gabaldon. ...


There is a reference to Housman in Ian McEwan's novel Atonement, when Robbie, an English literature graduate from Cambridge, glances at his copy of Poems and A Shropshire Lad. Ian McEwan CBE (born June 21, 1948) is a British novelist. ... Atonement (2001) is a novel by British writer Ian McEwan. ...


Another reference to Housman can be found in The Secret History by Donna Tartt. "With Rue My Heart Is Laden" is recited by Henry during the burial ceremony of Bunny. The Secret History, the first novel by Mississippi-born writer Donna Tartt, was published by Alfred A. Knopf in 1992. ... Donna Tartt (born 23 December 1963) is an American novelist. ...


In Chinua Achebe's novel No Longer At Ease the main character Obi frequently refers to Housman's poetry, particularly "Easter Hymn." Chinua Achebe (pronounced [2]), born Albert Chinualumogu Achebe on November 16, 1930, is a Nigerian novelist, poet and critic. ... No Longer At Ease is a 1960 novel by Nigerian author Chinua Achebe. ...


In John Dos Passos' novel Three Soldiers, a quote from Housman's A Shropshire Lad is cited by the educated Andrews in part four, chapter one, "mocking" Andrews as it jingles through his head. John Roderigo Dos Passos (January 14, 1896 — September 28, 1970) was an American novelist and artist. ... Three Soldiers is a 1921 novel by the American writer and critic John Dos Passos. ...


Patrick O'Brian has a minor character quote from one of Houseman's poems (Poem AP IX "When the bells justle in the tower") in his novel The Thirteen Gun Salute [2] Patrick OBrian (12 December 1914 – 2 January 2000; born as Richard Patrick Russ) was an English novelist and translator, best known for his Aubrey–Maturin series of novels set in the Royal Navy during the Napoleonic Wars and centered on the friendship of Captain Jack Aubrey and the Irish... This book is part of the Aubrey-Maturin series The Thirteen Gun Salute, (1989) is a further historical novel in the series by Patrick OBrian. ...


In the film of Out of Africa, Karen Blixen, played by Meryl Streep, reads Housman's "To an Athlete Dying Young" over the grave of her lover Denys Finch Hatton. For the 1985 film based on this novel, see Out of Africa (film). ... Baroness Karen von Blixen-Finecke (April 17, 1885 – September 7, 1962), née Karen Dinesen, was a Danish author also known under her pen name Isak Dinesen. ... Mary Louise Streep, mostly known as Meryl Streep (born June 22, 1949) is an Academy Award-winning American actress who has worked in theatre, television, and film. ... Denys George Finch Hatton (April 24, 1887 - May 14, 1931) was a big-game hunter, and presumably the lover of Karen Blixen (also known by her pen name as Isak Dinesen), who wrote about him in her autobiographical book Out of Africa first published in 1937. ...


Music and art song

Housman's poetry appealed to a significant number of British - and in particular English - composers in the first half of the 20th century. The national, pastoral and traditional elements of his style resonated with similar trends in English music. It is also suggested that the melancholy strain in the poems appealed to a generation of composers deeply influenced by the carnage of the First World War. George Butterworth, Ivor Gurney, John Ireland, Arthur Somervell, and Ralph Vaughan Williams all wrote Housman settings. A 1976 catalogue listed 400 musical settings of Housman's poems (Palmer and Banfield 2001). Gerald Finzi repeatedly began settings, though never finished any. Even composers not normally associated with the pastoral tradition, such as Arnold Bax, Lennox Berkeley and Arthur Bliss, were attracted to Housman's poetry. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... George Sainton Kaye Butterworth (July 12, 1885 - August 5, 1916) was a British composer best known for his settings of A. E. Housmans poems. ... The grave of Ivor Gurney at Twigworth, Gloucestershire Ivor Gurney (August 28, 1890 - December 26, 1937) was an English composer and poet. ... John Nicholson Ireland (13 August 1879 – 12 June 1962) was an English composer. ... Insert non-formatted text here 62. ... A statue of Ralph Vaughan Williams in Dorking. ... Gerald Raphael Finzi (July 14, 1901 – September 27, 1956) was a British composer, whose popularity has increased considerably in the years since his death. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Sir Lennox Berkeley (May 12, 1903 - December 26, 1989) was a British composer. ... Sir Arthur Edward Drummond Bliss, CH, KCVO (August 2, 1891 - March 27, 1975) was a British composer. ...


While Housman's poetry had a marked impact on British music, it has not been limited in its appeal by time, place or style. The American composer Samuel Barber set With rue my heart is laden. The contemporary New Zealand composer David Downes includes a setting of March on his CD The Rusted Wheel of Things. Samuel Barber, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1944 Samuel Osborne Barber II (March 9, 1910 – January 23, 1981) was an American composer of classical music ranging from orchestral, to opera, choral, and piano music. ... David Downes, born 1967 in Wellington, New Zealand, is a composer of theatre and film scores, orchestral and electro-acoustic pieces. ...


Visual art

A wall hanging of A Shropshire Lad was created and now hangs prominently in the St Laurence Church, Ludlow, England. A plaque honouring the poet is also installed on the church grounds. A Shropshire Lad is a cycle of sixty-three poems by the English poet Alfred Edward Housman. ... St Laurence Church: One of the large stained glass windows St Laurence Church, Ludlow was established as a Norman place of worship in association with the founding of Ludlow in the 11th century AD. This parish church in Shropshire, England contains an extensive set of misericords in the choir stalls...


Film

Nicolas Roeg's 1971 film Walkabout concludes with lines from A Shropshire Lad, spoken by a narrator. Nicolas Jack Roeg, born on August 15, 1928 in London, is an internationally-known cinematographer and film director. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar, known as the year of cyclohexanol. ... Walkabout is a 1971 British film set in Australia. ...


John Irvin's (1981) The Dogs of War (film) ends with Epitaph for an Army of Mercenaries being sung over the end titles. John Irvin (born May 7, 1940 in Newcastle upon Tyne) is a British film director. ... Based on the best-selling novel by Frederick Forsyth, The Dogs Of War is a 1981 film starring Christopher Walken and Tom Berenger as part of a small group of mercenaries hired to depose the leader of the fictional African Republic of Zangaro, so that a British tycoon can gain...


Meryl Streep, portraying Karen Blixen, quotes "To an Athlete Dying Young" at the gravesite of Denis Finch-Hatton in Out of Africa (1985). Toward the end of the film, she accepts a drink from the exclusive all men's club in Nairobi, and toasts "rose-lipped maidens, lightfoot lads" -- an allusion to Houseman's "With Rue My Heart Is Laden". Mary Louise Streep, mostly known as Meryl Streep (born June 22, 1949) is an Academy Award-winning American actress who has worked in theatre, television, and film. ... Baroness Karen von Blixen-Finecke (April 17, 1885 – September 7, 1962), née Karen Dinesen, was a Danish author also known under her pen name Isak Dinesen. ... In 1985, the film Out of Africa was released, based loosely on the autobiographical book by Isak Dinesen published in 1937, as well as Dinesens Shadows on the Grass and other sources. ...


A line from Housman's poem XVI "How Clear, How Lovely Bright", was used for the title of the last episode of the television movie series "Inspector Morse" (The Remorseful Day). Morse also quotes the last stanza of the poem 27 minutes into the episode. Morse (left) as played by John Thaw in the television adaption (with Kevin Whately as Lewis (right)). Detective Chief Inspector Morse is a fictional character, who features in a series of thirteen detective novels by British author Colin Dexter, though he is better known for the 33 episode TV series... In poetry, a stanza is a unit within a larger poem. ...


Blue Remembered Hills, a television play by Dennis Potter, takes its title from A Shropshire Lad. and features Potter reading part of the poem. Blue Remembered Hills is a television play by Dennis Potter, originally broadcast in January 30th 1979 as part of the BBCs Play for Today series. ... Liber Amoris Dennis Christopher George Potter (17 May 1935—7 June 1994) was a controversial British dramatist who is best known for several widely acclaimed television dramas which mixed fantasy and reality, the personal and the social. ...


Works

Poetry

  • A Shropshire Lad (1896)
  • Last Poems (1922)
  • More Poems (1936)
  • Collected Poems (1939); the poems included in this volume but not the three above are known as Additional Poems. The Penguin Edition of 1956 includes an Introduction by John Sparrow.
  • Manuscript Poems: Eight Hundred Lines of Hitherto Un-collected Verse from the Author's Notebooks, ed. Tom Burns Haber (1955)
  • Unkind to Unicorns: Selected Comic Verse, ed. J. Roy Birch (1995; 2nd ed. 1999)
  • The Poems of A. E. Housman, ed. Archie Burnett (1997)

A Shropshire Lad is a cycle of sixty-three poems by the English poet Alfred Edward Housman. ... A. E. Housman wrote a poem called The Oracles which can be found in his book Last Poems: Tis mute, the word they went to hear on high Dodona mountain When winds were in the oakenshaws and all the cauldrons tolled, And mutes the midland navel-stone beside the... John Sparrow-Drummer and Percussionist (July 18, 1976- ) Drummer and Percussionist, currently on tour with Violent Femmes. ...

Classical scholarship

Marcus Manilius (fl. ... Woodcut of Juvenal from the Nuremberg Chronicle Decimus Iunius Iuvenalis, Anglicized as Juvenal, was a Roman satiric poet of the late 1st century and early 2nd century. ... Frontispiece depicting Juvenal and Persius, from a volume translated by John Dryden in 1711. ... Marcus Annaeus Lucanus (November 3, AD 39-April 30, 65), better known in English as Lucan, was a Roman poet, and is one of the outstanding figures of the Silver Latin period. ... This article is about the poem. ...

Published lectures

These lectures are listed by date of delivery, with date of first publication given separately if different.

  • Introductory Lecture (1892)
  • "Swinburne" (1910; published 1969)
  • Cambridge Inaugural Lecture (1911; published 1969 as "The Confines of Criticism")
  • "The Application of Thought to Textual Criticism" (1921; published 1922)
  • "The Name and Nature of Poetry" (1933)

Algernon Swinburne, Portrait by Rossetti Algernon Charles Swinburne (April 5, 1837 – April 10, 1909) was a Victorian era English poet. ...

Letters

  • The Letters of A.E. Housman, ed. Henry Maas (1971)
  • The Letters of A.E. Housman, ed. Archie Burnett (2007)

References

  • Housman, Laurence, A.E.H.: Some Poems, Some Letters and a Personal Memoir by his Brother (London: Jonathan Cape, 1937)
  • Cunningham, Valentine ed., The Victorians: An Anthology of Poetry and Poetics (Oxford: Blackwell, 2000)
  • Page, Norman, ‘Housman, Alfred Edward (1859–1936)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004)
  • Palmer, Christopher and Stephen Banfield, 'A. E. Housman', The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians (London: Macmillan, 2001)
  • Summers, Claude J. ed., The Gay and Lesbian Literary Heritage (New York: Henry Holt and Co., 1995)

Further reading

  • Shaw, Robin, "Housman's Places" (The Housman Society, 1995)

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ...

On Housman in general and his life

Topics

The New Criterion is a New York-based magazine, a journal of art and cultural criticism. ...

Texts online

Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... Bryant Harrison McGill (born November 7, 1969) is an American editor and author. ...

A Shropshire Lad


 
 

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