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Encyclopedia > A priori (languages)

In the art of language construction, there are two ways to build a usable vocabulary. One possibility is to create words completely from scratch; these languages are called a priori (i.e., from first (principles)) constructed languages, e.g., Ro, Solresol, and Klingon. Alternatively, language creators may draw on existing languages and use one of them exclusively with more or less subtle variations (e.g., Latino sine flexione) or use a mixture of various languages (e.g., Interlingua); these are called a posteriori constructed languages. An artificial or constructed language (known colloquially as a conlang among aficionados), is a language whose phonology, grammar and vocabulary are specifically devised by an individual or small group, rather than having naturally evolved as part of a culture the way natural languages do. ... A vocabulary is a set of words known to a person or other entity, or that are part of a specific language. ... Ro is an a priori constructed language created by Rev. ... Solresol is an artificial language, devised by a Frenchman, Jean François Sudre, beginning in 1817. ... The Klingon language or Klingonese (tlhIngan Hol in Klingon) is the constructed language spoken by Klingons in the fictional Star Trek universe. ... Latino sine flexione (Latin without inflections) is an auxiliary language invented by the mathematician Giuseppe Peano in 1903. ... Interlingua is an international auxiliary language (IAL) published in 1951 by the International Auxiliary Language Association (IALA). ...


Some a priori constructed languages try to categorize their vocabulary, either to express an underlying philosophical system or to make it easier to memorize the completely new vocabulary. The first letter or syllable of a word may express the class (verb, noun, attribute), while the second may serve to classify the word in case as referring to something alive, dead, or artificial, and so on. These languages are more commonly known as taxonomic languages. Furthermore, though theoretically the meaning of any word can be deduced from a knowledge of the meaning of the individual syllables alone, taxonomic languages tend to be fairly awkward to use, because the classification schemes inevitably get very complex. For example, "apples" might be described as "red fruit". But since probably there is no category for "fruit", the term would need to be specified as something like "tree food". Moreover, "tree" itself would might appear as something like "big plant", so the word for "apple" could be the equivalent of "noun: red food from big plant" or something even more complex. In this case, the word would still be ambiguous, because, e.g., cherries fit the same description.


  Results from FactBites:
 
A priori (languages) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (351 words)
One may draw on existing languages and use one of them exclusively with more or less subtle variations (eg Latino sine flexione), or use a mixture from various languages (e.g.
In a more narrow sense, a priori constructed languages are those which try to categorize their vocabulary, either to express an underlying philosophical system, or to make it easier to memorize the completely new vocabulary.
Though theoretically the meaning of any word can be deduced from a knowledge of the meaning of the individual syllables alone, taxonomic languages tend to be fairly awkward to use, because the classification schemes inevitably get very complex (not to say "messy").
Klingon language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3559 words)
The Klingon language or Klingonese (tlhIngan Hol in Klingon) is the constructed language spoken by Klingons in the fictional Star Trek universe.
Later in the pilot episode of the prequel Star Trek: Enterprise, "Broken Bow" (2001), the Klingon language is described as having "eighty polyguttural dialects constructed on an adaptive syntax"; however, Klingon as described on television is often not entirely congruous with Klingon developed by Okrand.
Although natural languages use a number of different airstream mechanisms besides the common pulmonic egressive, these other mechanisms are not used in Klingon.
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