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Encyclopedia > A People's History of the United States
A People's History of the United States, 2003 hardcover edition
A People's History of the United States, 2003 hardcover edition

A People's History of the United States is a nonfiction book by American historian and political scientist Howard Zinn, in which he seeks to present American history through the eyes of those rarely heard in mainstream histories. A People's History, though originally a dissident work, has become a major success and was a runner-up in 1980 for the National Book Award. It has been adopted for reading in some high schools and colleges across the United States and has been frequently revised, with the most recent edition covering events through 2003. In 2003, Zinn was awarded the Prix des Amis du Monde Diplomatique for the French version of this book, Une histoire populaire des Etats-Unis.[1] Over one million copies have been sold. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (439x648, 34 KB) Summary Jan 2003 hardcover Licensing This image is of a book cover, and the copyright for it is most likely owned either by the artist who drew the cover or the publisher of the book. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (439x648, 34 KB) Summary Jan 2003 hardcover Licensing This image is of a book cover, and the copyright for it is most likely owned either by the artist who drew the cover or the publisher of the book. ... Non-fiction is a truthful account or representation of a subject which is composed of facts. ... For other uses, see Historian (disambiguation). ... See also: Political Science Notable political scientists Kenneth Arrow - Nobel Memorial Prize winning economist who published influential paper on his widely cited Arrows Impossibility Theorem Robert Axelrod Duncan Black - Responsible for unearthing the work of many early political scientists, including Charles Dodgson Jean-Charles de Borda - 18th century mathematician... Howard Zinn (born August 24, 1922) is an American historian, political scientist, social critic, activist and playwright, best known as author of the bestseller[5] , A Peoples History of the United States. ... American history redirects here. ... The National Book Awards is one of the most preeminent literary prizes in the United States. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This monthly magazine is not to be mistaken for the daily Le Monde. Le Monde diplomatique (nicknamed Le Diplo by its French readers) is a monthly publication offering analysis and opinion on politics, culture, and current affairs. ...


A reviewer for the The New York Times suggested the book should be "required reading" for students.[2] In a 1998 interview prior to a speaking engagement at the University of Georgia, Zinn told Catherine Parayre he had set "quiet revolution" as his goal for writing A People's History. "Not a revolution in the classical sense of a seizure of power, but rather from people beginning to take power from within the institutions. In the workplace, the workers would take power to control the conditions of their lives."[3] In 2004, Zinn published a companion volume with Anthony Arnove, titled Voices of a People's History of the United States. The book parallels A People's History in structure, supplementing it with material from frequently overlooked primary sources. The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... UGA Main Library The University of Georgia (UGA) is the largest institution of higher learning in the U.S. state of Georgia. ... Anthony Arnove is a book editor, agent and activist. ... Voices of a Peoples History of the United States is an anthology edited by Howard Zinn and Anthony Arnove. ...

Contents

Overview

Columbus to the Robber Barons

Chapter 1, "Columbus, the Indians, and Human Progress" covers early Native American civilization in North America and the Bahamas, the genocide and slavery committed by the crew of Christopher Columbus, and the violent colonization by early settlers. Topics include the Arawaks, Bartolomé de las Casas, the Aztecs, Hernando Cortes, Pizarro, Powhatan, the Pequot, the Narragansett, Metacom, King Philip's War, and the Iroquois. For other uses, see Native Americans (disambiguation). ... [--168. ... Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator, colonizer, and explorer and one of the first Europeans to explore the Americas after the Vikings. ... Arowak woman (John Gabriel Stedman) The term Arawak (from aru, the Lokono word for cassava flour), was used to designate the Amerindians encountered by the Spanish in the West Indies. ... Bartolomé de las Casas This article is about a Spanish priest in the 16th century. ... For other uses, see Aztec (disambiguation). ... Hernán Cortés Hernán Cortés (1485 - December 2, 1547) (who was known as Hernando or Fernando Cortés during his lifetime and signed all his letters Fernán Cortés) was the conquistador who conquered Mexico for Spain. ... Francisco Pizarro ( 1475–June 26, 1541) was a Spanish conquistador, conqueror of the Inca Empire and founder of the city of Lima. ... This article is about the Algonquian tribe. ... See Main articles: Mashantucket Pequot Eastern Pequot Tribal Nation. ... Tribal flag The Narragansett tribe, or more accurately Nahahiganseck Sovereign Nation, are a Native American tribe who controlled the area surrounding Narragansett Bay in present-day Rhode Island, and also portions of Connecticut, and eastern Massachusetts. ... Metacomet (died August 12, 1676), also known as King Philip or Metacom, was a war chief or sachem of the Wampanoag Indians and their leader in King Philips War. ... Attack King Philips War, sometimes called Metacoms War or Metacoms Rebellion,[1] was an armed conflict between Indian inhabitants of present-day southern New England and English colonists and their Indian allies from 1675–1676. ... For other uses, see Iroquois (disambiguation). ...


Chapter 2, "Drawing the Color Line" addresses early slavery of African Americans and servitude of poor British people in the Thirteen Colonies. Zinn writes of the methods by which racism was artificially created in order to enforce the economic system. He argues that racism is not natural because there are recorded instances of camaraderie and cooperation between black slaves and white servants in escaping from and in opposing their subjugation. African Americans, also known as Afro-Americans or black Americans, are an ethnic group in the United States of America whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Sub-Saharan and West Africa. ... In 1775, the British claimed authority over the red and pink areas on this map and Spain ruled the orange. ...


Chapter 3, "Persons of Mean and Vile Condition" describes Bacon's Rebellion, the economic conditions of the poor in the colonies, and opposition to their poverty. Bacons Rebellion or the Virginia Rebellion was an uprising in 1676 in the Virginia Colony, led by Nathaniel Bacon. ... Economics (deriving from the Greek words οίκω [okos], house, and νέμω [nemo], rules hence household management) is the social science that studies the allocation of scarce resources to satisfy unlimited wants. ...


Chapter 4, "Tyranny is Tyranny" covers the movement for "leveling" (economic equality) in the colonies and the causes of the American Revolutionary War. Zinn argues that the Founding Fathers agitated for war to distract the people from their own economic problems and stop popular movements, a strategy that he claims the country's leaders would continue to use in the future. This article is about military actions only. ... Scene at the Signing of the Constitution of the United States, by Howard Chandler Christy. ...


Chapter 5, "A Kind of Revolution" covers the war and resistance to participating in war, the effects on the Native American people, and the continued inequalities in the new United States. When the land of veterans of the Revolutionary War was seized for non-payment of taxes, it led to instances of resistance to the government, as in the case of Shay's Rebellion. Zinn wrote that "governments - including the government of the United States - are not neutral... they represent the dominant economic interests, and... their constitutions are intended to serve these interests."[4] Shays Rebellion (also Shayss or Shays) was an armed uprising in Western Massachusetts that lasted from 1786 to 1787. ...


Chapter 6, "The Intimately Oppressed" describes resistance to inequalities in the lives of women in the early years of the U.S. Zinn tells the stories of women who resisted the status quo, including Polly Baker, Anne Hutchinson, Mary Dyer, Amelia Bloomer, Catharine Beecher, Emma Willard, Harriot Hunt, Elizabeth Blackwell, Lucy Stone, Elizabeth Cady Stanton, Margaret Fuller, Sarah Grimké, Angelina Grimké, Dorothea Dix, Frances Wright, Lucretia Mott, and Sojourner Truth. Polly Baker is the story of a woman put on trial in 1747 for having an illegitimate child. ... Anne Hutchinson on Trial by Edwin Austin Abbey Anne Hutchinson (July 1591 – August 1643) was the unauthorized Puritan minister of a dissident church discussion group and a pioneer settler in Massachusetts, Rhode Island and New Netherlands. ... Mary Dyer is led to the gallows Mary Barrett Dyer (1611? - June 1, 1660) was an English Quaker who was hanged in Boston, Massachusetts for repeatedly defying a law banning Quakers from the colony. ... Amelia Jenks Bloomer (May 27, 1818—December 30, 1894) was an American womens rights and temperance advocate. ... Catherine Beecher Catherine Esther Beecher (September 6, 1800 – May 12, 1878), the daughter of Lyman Beecher and sister to Harriet Beecher Stowe, was a very active supporter for the cause of womens education. ... Emma C. (Hart) Willard (February 23, 1787 - April 15, 1870), was an American womens rights advocate, and the pioneer who founded the first womens school of higher education. ... This biography does not cite any references or sources. ... Blackwell was commemorated on a U.S. postage stamp. ... Lucy Stone (August 13, 1818 – October 19, 1893) was a prominent American suffragist. ... Elizabeth Cady Stanton (November 12, 1815 – October 26, 1902) was an American social activist and leading figure of the early womans movement. ... Margaret Fuller, by Marchioness Ossoli. ... Sarah Moore Grimké (November 26, 1792 - December 23, 1873) was born in South Carolina, the daughter of a plantation owner who was also an attorney and a judge in South Carolina. ... Angelina Emily Grimké (1805–1879) was an American abolitionist and suffragist. ... Dorothea Lynde Dix (April 4, 1802 – July 17, 1887) was an American activist on behalf of the indigent insane who, through a vigorous program of lobbying state legislatures and the United States Congress, created the first generation of American mental asylums. ... Frances Wright (1795-1852) was a lecturer who grew up in London and toured the United States from 1818 to 1820. ... Lucretia Coffin Mott (January 3, 1793 – November 11, 1880) was an American Quaker minister, abolitionist, social reformer and proponent of womens rights. ... Sojourner Truth (c. ...


Chapter 7, "As Long As Grass Grows or Water Runs" discusses 19th Century conflicts between the U.S. government and Native Americans (such as the Seminole Wars) and Indian removal, especially that done by the administrations of Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren. This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... Combatants United States Seminole Commanders Andrew Jackson Osceola The Seminole Wars, also known as the Florida Wars, were three wars or conflicts in Florida between various groups of Indians collectively known as Seminoles and the United States. ... Indian Removal was a nineteenth century policy of the government of the United States that sought to relocate American Indian (or Native American) tribes living east of the Mississippi River to lands west of the river. ... For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ... Martin Van Buren (December 5, 1782 – July 24, 1862), nicknamed Old Kinderhook, was the eighth President of the United States from 1837 to 1841. ...


Chapter 8, "We Take Nothing By Conquest, Thank God" describes the Mexican-American War. Zinn writes that President James Polk agitated for war for the purpose of expansionism. Citing evidence, Zinn states that the war was unpopular but that newspapers of that era misrepresented the popular sentiment. Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 25,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 AWOL: 9,200+ 25,000... James Knox Polk (November 2, 1795–June 15, 1849) was an American politician and the eleventh U.S. President, serving from March 4, 1845 to March 4, 1849. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Chapter 9, "Slavery Without Submission, Emancipation Without Freedom" addresses slave rebellions, the abolition movement, the Civil War, and the effect of these events on African-Americans. Zinn writes that the large-scale violence of the war was used to end slavery instead of the small-scale violence of the rebellions because the latter may have expanded beyond anti-slavery, resulting in a movement against the capitalist system. He writes that the war could limit the freedom granted to African-Americans by allowing the government control over how that freedom was gained. A slave rebellion is an armed uprising by slaves. ... This article is about slavery. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total...


Chapter 10, "The Other Civil War", covers the Anti-Rent movement, the Dorr Rebellion, the Flour Riot of 1837, the Molly Maguires, the rise of labor unions, the Lowell girls movement, and other class struggles centered around the various depressions of the 19th Century. He describes the abuse of government power by corporations and the efforts by workers to resist those abuses. Here is an excerpt on the subject of the Great Railroad Strike of 1877. [1][5] The Anti-Rent War (also known as the Helderberg War) was a tenants revolt in upstate New York during the early 19th century, beginning with the death of Stephen Van Rensselaer in 1839. ... The Dorr Rebellion was a short-lived armed insurrection in Rhode Island in 1841 and 1842, led by Thomas Wilson Dorr who was agitating for changes to the states electoral system. ... For the movie, see The Molly Maguires (film). ... A union (labor union in American English; trade union, sometimes trades union, in British English; either labour union or trade union in Canadian English) is a legal entity consisting of employees or workers having a common interest, such as all the assembly workers for one employer, or all the workers... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The South African Police Crush Another Demonstration by the Shack dwellers Movement Abahlali baseMjondolo, 28 September, 2007 Class struggle is the active expression of class conflict looked at from any kind of socialist perspective. ... In economics, a depression is a term commonly used for a sustained downturn in the economy. ... Great Railroad Strike of 1877 The Great Railroad Strike of 1877 began on July 14 in Martinsburg, West Virginia, and ended some 45 days later after it was put down by local and state militias, as well as by federal troops. ...


Chapter 11, "Robber Barons and Rebels" covers the rise of industrial corporations such as the railroads and banks and their transformation into the nation's dominant institutions, with corruption resulting in both industry and government. Also covered are the popular movements and individuals that opposed corruption, such as the Knights of Labor, Edward Bellamy, the Socialist Labor Party, the Haymarket martyrs, the Homestead strikers, Alexander Berkman, Emma Goldman, Eugene V. Debs, the American Railway Union, the Farmers' Alliance, and the Populist Party. Knights of Labor seal The Knights of Labor, also known as Noble and Holy Order of the Knights of Labor, was founded by seven Philadelp tailors in 1869, led by Uriah S. Stephens. ... Edward Bellamy, circa 1889. ... The Socialist Labor Party of America (SLP) is the oldest socialist political party in the United States that advocated Marxism[1] and the second oldest socialist party in the world. ... The Haymarket Riot on 4 May 1886 in Chicago, Illinois is the origin of international May Day observances and in popular literature inspired the caricature of the bomb-throwing anarchist. The causes of the incident are still controversial, although deeply polarized attitudes separating the business and working communities in late... The Homestead Strike was a labor lockout and strike which began on June 30, 1892, culminating in a battle between strikers and private security agents on July 6, 1892. ... Alexander Berkman, 1892 Alexander Berkman (November 21, 1870 – June 28, 1936) was a Russian-American writer and a leading member of the anarchist movement of the 19th and early 20th centuries. ... Emma Goldman, circa 1910 Emma Goldman (June 27, 1869 – May 14, 1940) was an anarchist known for her political activism, writing, and speeches. ... Eugene Victor Debs (November 5, 1855 – October 20, 1926) was an American labor and political leader, one of the founders of the International Labor Union, the Industrial Workers of the World (IWW), and five-time Socialist Party of America candidate for President of the United States. ... On June 20, 1893, railway workers gathered in Chicago, Illinois, and founded the American Railway Union (ARU), the largest union of its time, and the first industrial union in the United States. ... The Farmers Alliance was an organized agrarian economic movement among U.S. farmers that flourished in the 1880s. ... Populist Party campaign poster from 1904 The Populist Party (also known as the Peoples Party) was a relatively short-lived political party in the United States in the late 19th century. ...


The Twentieth Century

Chapter 12, "The Empire and the People", covers American imperialism during the Spanish-American War and the Philippine-American War, as well as in other lands such as Hawaii, Guam, and Puerto Rico. Zinn portrays the wars as being racist and imperialist and opposed by large segments of the American people. At its start, the United States was a collection of small colonies on the eastern seaboard with little international import. ... Belligerents United States Republic of Cuba Philippine Republic Kingdom of Spain Commanders Nelson A. Miles William R. Shafter George Dewey Máximo Gómez Emilio Aguinaldo Patricio Montojo Pascual Cervera Arsenio Linares Manuel Macías y Casado Ramón Blanco y Erenas Casualties and losses 385 KIA USA 5,000... Belligerents United States Philippine Constabulary Philippine Scouts First Philippine Republic several groups post-1902 Commanders William McKinley Theodore Roosevelt Emilio Aguinaldo Miguel Malvar several unofficial leaders post-1902 Strength 126,000 soldiers[1] First Philippine Republic: 80,000 soldiers Casualties and losses ~5,000-7,000[1][2] ~12,000...


Chapter 13, "The Socialist Challenge", covers the rise of socialism and anarchism as popular political ideologies in the United States. Covered in the chapter are the American Federation of Labor (which Zinn argues provided too exclusive of a union for non-white, female, and unskilled workers; Zinn argues in Chapter 24 that this changes in the 1990s), Industrial Workers of the World, Mother Jones, Joe Hill, the Socialist Labor Party, W. E. B. Du Bois, and the Progressive Party (which Zinn portrays as dishonest reformers). Socialism refers to the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... Anarchist redirects here. ... The American Federation of Labor (AFL) was one of the first federations of labor unions in the United States. ... The Industrial Workers of the World (IWW or the Wobblies) is an international union currently headquartered in Cincinnati, Ohio, USA. At its peak in 1923 the organization claimed some 100,000 members in good standing, and could marshal the support of perhaps 300,000 workers. ... Mary Harris Jones (August 1, 1837 – November 30, 1930), better known as Mother Jones, was a prominent American labor and community organizer, and Wobbly. ... For other persons named Joe Hill, see Joe Hill (disambiguation). ... William Edward Burghardt Du Bois (pronounced [1]) (February 23, 1868 – August 27, 1963) was an African American civil rights activist, leader, Pan-Africanist, sociologist, educator, historian, writer, editor, poet, and scholar. ... The United States Progressive Party of 1912 was a political party created by a split in the Republican Party in the presidential election 1912. ...


Chapter 14, "War is the Health of the State", covers World War I and the anti-war movement that happened during it, which was met with the heavily enforced Espionage Act of 1917. Zinn argues that the United States entered the war in order to expand its foreign markets and economic influence. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The Espionage Act of 1917 was a United States federal law passed shortly after entering World War I, on June 15, 1917, which made it a crime for a person to convey information with intent to interfere with the operation or success of the armed forces of the United States...


Chapter 15, "Self-Help in Hard Times", covers the government's campaign to destroy the IWW and the Great Depression. Zinn claims that, despite popular belief, the 1920s were not a time of prosperity, and the problems of the Depression were simply the problems of the poor (who Zinn claims are in permanent depression) extended to the rest of the society. Also covered is the Communist Party's attempts to help the poor during the Depression. For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... The Communist Party of the United States of America (CPUSA) is a Marxist-Leninist political party in the United States. ...


Chapter 16, "A People's War?", covers World War II, opposition to the war, and the effects of the war on the people. Zinn, a veteran of the war himself, notes that "it was the most popular war the US ever fought,"[6] but claims that this support may have been manufactured through the institutions of American society. He cites various instances of opposition to fighting (in some cases greater than those during WWI) as proof. Zinn also argues against the US's stated intentions to fight racism in Europe, as it was not fighting against systematic racism in the US such as the Jim Crow laws (leading to opposition to the war from African-Americans). Another argument made by Zinn is that the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were not necessary, as the US government had already known that the Japanese were considering surrender beforehand. Other subjects from WWII covered include Japanese American internment and the bombing of Dresden. The chapter continues into the Cold War. Here, Zinn argues that the US government used the Cold War to increase control over the American people (for instance, eliminating such radical elements as the Communist Party) and at the same time create a state of permanent war, which allowed for the creation of the modern military-industrial complex. Zinn believes this was possible because both conservatives and liberals willingly worked together in hysterical reaction to anti-Communism. Also covered is the US's involvement in the Greek Civil War, the Korean War, Julius and Ethel Rosenberg, and the Marshall Plan. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Gay bashing Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation Integration Equal opportunity Counter-discriminatory Affirmative action Racial... The mushroom cloud over Hiroshima after the dropping of Little Boy. ... Residents of Japanese ancestry waiting in line for the bus that will transport them to an internment camp. ... The bombing of Dresden, led by Royal Air Force (RAF) and followed by the United States Army Air Force (USAAF) between February 13 and February 15, 1945, remains one of the more controversial Allied actions of World War II. The exact number of casualties is uncertain, but most historians agree... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... President Dwight Eisenhower famously referred to the military-industrial complex in his farewell address. ... Ideologies Communist internationals Prominent communists Related subjects Anti-communism refers to opposition to communism. ... Combatants Hellenic Army, Royalist forces, Republicans United Kingdom Communist Party of Greece (ELAS, DSE) Commanders Alexander Papagos, Thrasyvoulos Tsakalotos, James Van Fleet Markos Vafiadis Strength 150,000 men 50,000 men and women Casualties 15,000 killed 32,000+ killed or captured The Greek Civil War (Ελληνικός εμφύλιος πόλεμος [ellinikos emfilios polemos]) was... Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... Julius Rosenberg (May 12, 1918 – June 19, 1953) and Ethel Greenglass Rosenberg (September 25, 1915 – June 19, 1953) were American citizens who received international attention when they were executed having been found guilty of conspiracy to commit espionage in relation to passing information on the American atomic bomb to the... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ...


Chapter 17, "'Or Does It Explode?'" (named after a line from Langston Hughes' poem "A Dream Deferred," referred to as "Lenox Avenue Mural" by Zinn), covers the Civil Rights movement. Zinn argues that the government began making reforms against discrimination (although without making fundamental changes) for the sake of changing its international image, but often did not enforce the laws that it passed. Zinn also argues that while nonviolent tactics may have been required for Southern civil rights activists, militant actions (such as those proposed by Malcolm X) were needed to solve the problems of black ghettos. Also covered is the involvement of the Communist Party in the movement, the Congress of Racial Equality, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, the Freedom Riders, COINTELPRO, and the Black Panther Party. Langston Hughes (February 1, 1902 – May 22, 1967) was an American poet, novelist, playwright, short story writer, and columnist. ... Prominent figures of the African-American Civil Rights Movement. ... Malcolm X, born Malcolm Little, also known as Detroit Red and Al-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz (Omaha, Nebraska, May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965 in New York City) was a Muslim Minister and National Spokesman for the Nation of Islam. ... “CORE” redirects here. ... The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (or SNCC, pronounced snick) was one of the principle organizations of the American Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Freedom rides. ... COINTELPRO (an acronym for Counter Intelligence Program) was a series of covert and illegal projects conducted by the United States Federal Bureau of Investigation aimed at investigating and disrupting dissident political organizations within the United States. ... The Black Panther Party (originally called the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense) was an African American organization founded to promote civil rights and self-defense. ...


Chapter 18, "The Impossible Victory: Vietnam", covers the Vietnam War and resistance to it. Zinn argues that America was fighting a war that it could not win, as the Vietnamese people were in favor of the government of Ho Chi Minh and opposed the regime of Ngo Dinh Diem, thus allowing them to keep morale high. Meanwhile, the American military's morale for the war was very low, as many soldiers were put off by the atrocities that they were made to take part in, such as the My Lai massacre. Zinn also tries to dispel the popular belief that opposition to the war was mainly amongst college students and middle-class intellectuals, using statistics from the era to show higher opposition from the working class. Zinn argues that the troops themselves also opposed the war, citing desertions and refusals to go to war, as well as movements such as Vietnam Veterans Against the War. Also covered is the US invasions of Laos and Cambodia, Agent Orange, the Pentagon Papers, Ron Kovic, and raids on draft boards. Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Opposition to U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War began slowly and in small numbers in 1964 on various college campuses in the United States and had spread to the United Kingdom by May of 1965 [1]. By the end of 1968, as U.S. troop casualties mounted and the... For the city named after him, see Ho Chi Minh City. ...   «ngoh dihn zih-ehm» (January 3, 1901 – November 2, 1963) was the first President of South Vietnam (1955–1963). ... The My Lai Massacre ( , approximately ) (Vietnamese: ) was the mass murder of 347 to 504 unarmed citizens of the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam), mostly civilians and majority of them women and children, conducted by U.S. Army forces on March 16, 1968. ... Vietnam Veterans Against the War (VVAW) is a tax-exempt Non-profit organization and corporation, originally created to oppose the Vietnam War. ... For other uses, see Agent Orange (disambiguation). ... The Pentagon Papers is the colloquial term for United States-Vietnam Relations, 1945-1967: A Study Prepared by the Department of Defense, a 47 volume, 7,000-page, top-secret United States Department of Defense history of the United States political and military involvement in the Vietnam War from 1945... Ron Kovic, (left) with Brian Willson at a Veterans for Peace conference. ...


Chapter 19, "Surprises", covers other movements that happened during the 1960s, such as second-wave feminism, the prison reform/prison abolition movement, the Native American rights movement, and the counterculture. People and events from the feminist movement covered include Betty Friedan's The Feminine Mystique, Women's International Terrorist Conspiracy from Hell, Patricia Robinson, the National Domestic Workers Union, National Organization for Women, Roe v. Wade, Susan Brownmiller's Against Our Will, and Our Bodies, Ourselves. People and events from the prison movement covered include George Jackson, the Attica Prison riots, and Jerry Sousa. People and events from the Native American rights movement covered include the National Indian Youth Council, Sid Mills, Akwesasne Notes, Indians of All Tribes, the First Convocation of American Indian Scholars, Frank James, the American Indian Movement, and the Wounded Knee incident. People and events from the counterculture covered include Pete Seeger, Bob Dylan, Joan Baez, Malvina Reynolds, Jessica Mitford's The American Way of Death, Jonathan Kozol, George Denison, and Ivan Illich. A Womens Lib march in Washington, D.C. in 1970 Second-wave feminism refers to a period of feminist activity which began during the 1960s and lasted through the late 1970s. ... Prison reform is the attempt to improve conditions inside prisons, aiming at a more effective penal system. ... The aim of the prison abolition movement is to eliminate prisons, jails, immigration detention centers, and prisoner of war camps by alternatives which they argue are more useful and more humane. ... Counterculture (also counter-culture) is a sociological word used to describe the values and norms of behavior of a cultural group, or subculture, that run counter to those of the social mainstream of the day,[1] the cultural equivalent of political opposition. ... Betty Friedan, 1960 Betty Friedan (February 4, 1921 – February 4, 2006) was an American feminist, activist and writer, best known for starting what is commonly known as the Second Wave of feminism through the writing of her book The Feminine Mystique. ... Cover of the original paperback edition of The Feminine Mystique The Feminine Mystique is a 1963 book written by Betty Friedan which attacked the popular notion that women during this time could only find fulfillment through childbearing and homemaking. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The National Organization for Women (NOW) is an American feminist group, founded in 1966, claiming a membership of 500,000 people and 550 chapters in all 50 U.S. states and the District of Columbia. ... Holding Texas law making it a crime to assist a woman to get an abortion violated her due process rights. ... Susan Brownmiller (b. ... The cover of the 2005 edition, calling itself a new edition for a new era. ... Cover of Soledad Brother George Jackson (September 23, 1941 – August 21, 1971) was a Black American militant who became a member of the Black Panther Party while in prison, where he spent the last 12 years of his life. ... The Attica Prison riots were a rebellion by prisoners at the Attica Correctional Facility in Attica, New York, United States. ... Founder Bernie Whitebear and other Native Americans invaded the land which was originally Indian land to start. ... AIM logo AIM flag The American Indian Movement (AIM), is a Native American activist organization in the United States. ... The Wounded Knee Incident began in February 1973, and represented the longest civil disorder in the history of the Marshals Service. ... Peter Seeger (born May 3, 1919), better known as Pete Seeger, is a folk singer, political activist, and a key figure in the mid-20th century American folk music revival. ... This article is about the recording artist. ... Joan Chandos Baez (born January 9, 1941) is an American folk singer and songwriter known for her highly individual vocal style. ... Ear to the Ground, a posthumous release of Malvina Reynolds recordings on the Folkways label, 2000. ... The Honourable Jessica Lucy Freeman-Mitford, known to friends and family as Decca (September 11, 1917–July 22, 1996), self-described muckraker and political radical, was one of the noted Mitford sisters, daughters of David Bertram Ogilvy Freeman-Mitford, the 2nd Baron Redesdale. ... The American Way of Death was an exposé of abuses in the funeral home industry in the United States, written by Jessica Mitford and published in 1963. ... Jonathan Kozol at Pomona College April 17, 2003 Jonathan Kozol (born 1936 in Boston, Massachusetts) is a non-fiction writer, educator, and activist, best known for his books on public education in the United States. ... George Denison (February 22, 1790 - August 20, 1831) was a member of the United States House of Representatives from Pennsylvania. ... This article is about the Austrian philosopher. ...


Chapter 20, "The Seventies: Under Control?", covers American disillusion with the government during the 1970s and political corruption that was exposed during the decade. Zinn argues that the resignation of Richard Nixon and the exposure of crimes committed by the CIA and FBI during the decade were done by the government in order to regain support for the government from the American people without making fundamental changes to the system; according to Zinn, Gerald Ford's presidency continued the same basic policies of the Nixon administration. Other topics covered include protests against the Honeywell Corporation, Angela Davis, Committee to Re-elect the President, the Watergate scandal, International Telephone and Telegraph's involvement in the 1973 Chilean coup d'état, the Mayagüez incident, Project MKULTRA, the Church Committee, the Pike Committee, the Trilateral Commission's The Governability of Democracies, and the People's Bi-Centennial. Nixon redirects here. ... For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ... Honeywell (NYSE: HON) is a major American multinational corporation that produces electronic control systems and automation equipment. ... Angela Yvonne Davis (born January 26, 1944 in Birmingham, Alabama) is an American socialist organizer, professor who was associated with the Black Panther Party (BPP) and the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC). ... The Committee to Re-elect the President, often abbreviated to CRP or CREEP, was a Nixon White House fundraising organization. ... Watergate redirects here. ... This article needs cleanup. ... Prisoners outside the La Moneda Palace after their surrender during the coup (1973). ... Combatants United States of America Democratic Kampuchea Commanders Lt. ... MKULTRA redirects here. ... The Church Committee is the common term referring to the United States Senate Select Committee to Study Governmental Operations with Respect to Intelligence Activities, a U.S. Senate committee chaired by Senator Frank Church (D-ID) in 1975. ... The Pike Committee is the common name for the House Select Committee on Intelligence during the period when it was chaired by Democratic Representative Otis G. Pike of New York. ... The Trilateral Commission is a private organization, founded in July 1973, at the initiative of David Rockefeller; who was Chairman of the Council on Foreign Relations at that time and the Commission is widely seen as a counterpart to the Council on Foreign Relations. ...


Chapter 21, "Carter-Reagan-Bush: The Bipartisan Consensus", covers the Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan, and George H. W. Bush administrations and their effects on both the American people and foreign countries. Zinn argues that the Democratic and Republican parties keep the government essentially the same (that is, they handled the government in a way that was favorable for corporations rather than for the people) and continued to have a militant foreign policy no matter which party was in power. Zinn uses similarities between the three administrations' methods as proof of this. Other topics covered include the Fairness Doctrine, the Indonesian invasion of East Timor, Noam Chomsky, global warming, Roy Benavidez, the Trident submarine, the Star Wars program, the Sandinista National Liberation Front, the Iran-Contra Affair, the War Powers Act, US invasion of Lebanon during the Lebanese Civil War, the Invasion of Grenada, Óscar Romero, the El Mozote massacre, the Bombing of Libya, the collapse of the Soviet Union, the United States invasion of Panama, and the Gulf War. For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... Reagan redirects here. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... The Fairness Doctrine was a United States FCC regulation requiring broadcast licensees to present controversial issues of public importance in a manner deemed by the FCC to be honest, equitable and balanced. ... Belligerents Indonesia FRETILIN (FALINTIL) Commanders Suharto Maraden Panggabean Benny Moerdani Nicolau Lobato † Xanana Gusmao Mau Honi Nino Konis Santana Taur Matan Ruak Strength 35,000 soldiers 2,500 regular troops 7,000 milita 10,000 reservists Total 20,000 Casualties and losses Indonesians killed, wounded, or missing 1,000 Estimates... Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, political activist, author, and lecturer. ... Global warming refers to the increase in the average temperature of the Earths near-surface air and oceans in recent decades and its projected continuation. ... Roy Perez Benavidez (August 5, 1935 - November 29, 1998) from DeWitt County, Cuero, Texas, was a U.S. Army Special Forces soldier who was awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions near Loc Ninh, Vietnam on May 2, 1968. ... The United States has 18 Ohio class submarines: 14 nuclear-powered SSBNs, each armed with 24 Trident II SLBMs; they are also known as Trident submarines, and provide the sea-based leg of the nuclear triad of the United States strategic deterrent forces 4 nuclear-powered SSGNs, each armed with... The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was proposed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983[1] to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. ... Sandinista redirects here. ... The Iran-Contra affair was a political scandal which was revealed in 1986 as a result of earlier events during the Reagan administration. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with War Powers Resolution. ... Combatants Lebanese Front Syria LNM PLO Israel Commanders Bachir Gemayel Dany Chamoun Kamal Jumblatt Yasser Arafat Ariel Sharon The Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990) was a multifaceted civil war whose antecedents trace back to the conflicts and political compromises reached after the end of Lebanons administration by the Ottoman... Combatants  United States  Antigua and Barbuda  Barbados  Dominica  Jamaica  Saint Lucia  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines  Grenada  Cuba Commanders Ronald Reagan Joseph Metcalf H. Norman Schwarzkopf Hudson Austin Pedro Tortolo Strength 7,300 Grenada: 1,500 regulars Cuba: about 722 (mostly military engineers)[1] Casualties 19 killed; 116 wounded[2... Óscar Arnulfo Romero y Galdámez (August 15, 1917 – March 24, 1980), commonly known as Monseñor Romero, was a bishop of the Roman Catholic Church in El Salvador. ... The memorial at El Mozote The El Mozote Massacre took place in the village of El Mozote, in Morazán department, El Salvador, on December 11, 1981, when Salvadoran armed forces killed an estimated 900 civilians in an anti-guerrilla campaign. ... The Soviet Unions collapse into independent nations began in earnest in 1985. ... Combatants Panama United States Commanders Manuel Noriega Maxwell R. Thurman Strength 16,000+ 27,684+ Casualties 100-1,000 killed 24 Killed 325 Wounded 300-3,000 civilians killed Rangers from Charlie Company, 3rd Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment prepare to take La Comandancia in the El Chorrillo neighborhood of Panama... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ...


Chapter 22, "The Unreported Resistance", covers several movements that happened during the Carter-Reagan-Bush years that were ignored by much of the mainstream media. Topics covered include the anti-nuclear movement, the Plowshares Movement, the Council for a Nuclear Weapons Freeze, the Physicians for Social Responsibility, George Kistiakowsky, The Fate of the Earth, Marian Wright Edelman, the Citizens' Clearinghouse for Hazardous Wastes, the Three Mile Island accident, the Winooski Forty-four, Abbie Hoffman, Amy Carter, the Piedmont Peace Project, Anne Braden, César Chávez, the United Farm Workers, the Farm Labor Organizing Committee, Teatro Campesino, LGBT social movements, the Stonewall riots, Food Not Bombs, the anti-war movement during the Gulf War, David Barsamian, opposition to Columbus Day, Indigenous Thought, Rethinking Schools, and the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990. The anti-nuclear movement holds that nuclear power is inherently dangerous and thus ought to be replaced with safe and affordable renewable energy. ... Daniel Berrigan at College of the Holy Cross, September 28, 2005. ... Physicians for Social Responsibility is an member of the International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War ... George Kistiakowskys ID badge photo from Los Alamos. ... Marian Wright Edelman (born June 6, 1939) is the president and founder of the Childrens Defense Fund. ... For details on this station, see Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station. ... Abbott Howard Abbie Hoffman (November 30, 1936 – April 12, 1989) was a social and political activist in the United States who co-founded the Youth International Party (Yippies). Later he became a fugitive from the law, who lived under an alias following a conviction for dealing cocaine. ... Amy Lynn Carter Wentzel (born October 19, 1967) is the only daughter of U.S. president Jimmy Carter and his wife Rosalynn. ... Anne Braden (July 28, 1924 - March 6, 2006) was a white American civil rights activist tried for sedition as a result of her and her husband buying a house in an all-white neighborhood and reselling it to a black family. ... César Estrada Chávez (March 31, 1927 – April 23, 1993), born in Yuma, Arizona, was an American farm worker of Mexican descent, labor leader, and civil rights activist who, with Dolores Huerta, co-founded the National Farm Workers Association, which later became the United Farm Workers. ... The United Farm Workers of America (UFW) is a labor union that evolved from unions founded in 1962 by César Chávez, Philip Vera Cruz, Dolores Huerta, and Larry Itliong. ... The Farm Labor Organizing Committee, AFL-CIO (FLOC), is a labor union representing migrant farm workers in the United States in North Carolina and Ohio. ... Poster for Teatro Campesino performing at a strike benefit with Quicksilver Messenger Service July 1966 at the Fillmore Auditorium, San Francisco. ... For the LGBT rights article for a particular country, see LGBT rights by country. ... LGBT rights Around the world By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Discrimination Violence This box:      The Stonewall riots were a series of violent conflicts between New York City police officers and groups of gay and transgender people that began during the early... Logo Food Not Bombs is a loose-knit group of independent collectives, serving free vegan and vegetarian food to others. ... Anti war protest in Melbourne, Australia, 2003 Anti_war is a name that is widely adopted by any social movement or person that seeks to end or oppose a future or current war. ... Barsamian interviewing Chomsky David Barsamian is an American radio broadcaster and writer of Armenian descent. ... Columbus Day is a holiday celebrating the anniversary of Christopher Columbuss arrival in the Americas, which happened on the October 12, 1492 in the Julian calendar, or October 21, 1492 in the modern Gregorian calendar. ... The Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (ADA) is the short title of United States Public Law 101-336, 104 Stat. ...


Chapter 23, "The Coming Revolt of the Guards", covers Zinn's theory on a possible future radical movement against the inequality in America. Zinn argues that there will eventually be a movement made up not only of previous groups that were involved in radical change (such as labor organizers, black radicals, Native Americans, feminists), but also members of the middle class who are starting to become discontented with the state of the nation. Zinn expects this movement to use "demonstrations, marches, civil disobedience; strikes and boycotts and general strikes; direct action to redistribute wealth, to reconstruct institutions, to revamp relationships."[7] For other uses, see Civil disobedience (disambiguation). ... A general strike is a strike action by an entire labour force in a city, region or country. ... For the Canadian urban guerrilla group Direct Action, see Squamish Five. ...


Chapter 24, "The Clinton Presidency", covers the effects of the Bill Clinton administration on the US and the world. Zinn argues that, despite Clinton's claims that he would bring changes to the country, his presidency kept many things the same as in Reagan-Bush era. Topics covered include Jocelyn Elders, the Waco Siege, the Oklahoma City bombing, the Crime Bill of 1996, the Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996, the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996, the 1993 bombing of Iraq, Operation Gothic Serpent, the Rwandan Genocide, the War in Bosnia and Herzegovina, the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the North American Free Trade Agreement, the 1998 bombing of Afghanistan and Sudan, the Impeachment of Bill Clinton, Barbara Ehrenreich's Nickel and Dimed, Stand for Children, Jesse Jackson, the Million Man March, Mumia Abu-Jamal, John Sweeney, the Service Employees International Union, the Union of Needletrades, Industrial and Textile Employees, the Worker Rights Consortium, the Poor People's Economic Human Rights Campaign, the UN Universal Declaration of Human Rights, the Telecommunications Act of 1996, Spare Change, the North American Street Newspaper Association, the National Coalition for the Homeless, anti-globalization, and WTO Ministerial Conference of 1999 protest activity. William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Minnie Joycelyn Elders (born August 13, 1933) was the United States Surgeon General from September 8, 1993 to December 31, 1994, most famous for her outspokenness on sensitive issues of public health. ... Combatants ATF, FBI, U.S. Army Branch Davidians Commanders Assault: Phil Chojnacki Siege: Many David Koresh† Strength Assault: 75 ATF agents Siege: Hundreds of federal agents and soldiers 50+ men, 75+ women and children Casualties 4 dead, 21 wounded in assault 6 dead and 3+ wounded in assault, 79 dead... The Oklahoma City bombing was a domestic terrorist attack on April 19, 1995 aimed at the U.S. government in which the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building was bombed in an office complex in downtown Oklahoma City, Oklahoma. ... The Antiterrorism and Effective Death Penalty Act of 1996 (also known as AEDPA) is a series of laws in the United States signed into law on April 24, 1996 to deter terrorism, provide justice for victims, provide for an effective death penalty, and for other purposes. ... The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act of 1996 (PRWORA, Pub. ... Combatants United States Habar Gedir other Mogadishu local militia Commanders Maj. ... The Rwandan Genocide was the systematic murder of the countrys Tutsi minority and the moderates of its Hutu majority, in 1994. ... Combatants  Bosnia and Herzegovina Volunteers from Islamic countries Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia  Croatia Volunteers from Western Europe  Republika Srpska  Yugoslavia Various paramilitary units from FR Yugoslavia Volunteers from Eastern Europe Commanders Alija Izetbegović (President of Bosnia and Herzegovina) Sefer Halilović (Army chief of staff 1992-1993) Rasim Delić (Army... The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ... IMF redirects here. ... NAFTA redirects here. ... The impeachment trial of President Clinton in 1999, Chief Justice William H. Rehnquist presiding. ... Barbara Ehrenreich (born August 26, 1941, in Butte, Montana) is a prominent liberal American writer, columnist, feminist, socialist and political activist. ... Cover of the 2001 Metropolitan Books edition Nickel and Dimed: On (Not) Getting By in America is a book authored by Barbara Ehrenreich. ... Stand for Children is an American grass roots non-profit organization that provides a political voice for childrens issues by organizing parents, child-care and education professionals and other concerned citizens. ... Jesse Louis Jackson, Sr. ... The Million Man March was a Black march of protest and unity convened by Nation of Islam leader Louis Farrakhan in Washington, DC on October 16, 1995. ... Mumia Abu-Jamal (IPA: ); (born Wesley Cook on April 24, 1954) is a former Black Panther Party activist, cab driver, author, and journalist from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, convicted for the murder of police officer Daniel Faulkner in 1981. ... John Sweeney John Sweeney (born May 5, 1934 in The Bronx, New York) is the president of the AFL-CIO. An AFL-CIO vice president since 1980, he was elected president of the AFL-CIO at the federations biennial convention in October 1995 and was most recently re-elected... Service Employees International Union (SEIU) is a labor union representing 1. ... The Union of Needletrades, Industrial, and Textile Employees (UNITE) was a labor union in the United States, formed in 1995 as a merger between the International Ladies Garment Workers Union (ILGWU) and the Amalgamated Clothing and Textile Workers Union (ACTWU). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Poor Peoples Economic Human Rights Campaign is a coalition of grassroots organizations, community groups, and non-profit organizations committed to uniting the poor across color lines as the leadership base for a broad movement to abolish poverty. ... The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (also UDHR) is a declaration adopted by the United Nations General Assembly (A/RES/217, December 10, 1948), outlining basic human rights. ... The Telecommunications Act of 1996[1] was the first major overhaul of United States telecommunications law in nearly 62 years, amending the Communications Act of 1934, and leading to media consolidation. ... Spare Change is a newspaper published through the efforts of the Homeless Empowerment Project, a grassroots organization created to help end homelessness (from their website, [1]). As of 2004, each vendor of the paper typically receives $.75 for every $1. ... The National Coalition for the Homeless is a non-profit organization providing direct assistance for homeless people with a variety of needs which include shelter, food, affordable housing and opportunities to work and earn a living wage. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... {{Infobox Military Conflict |conflict=Battle of Seattle |date=November 30, 1999 |place=Seattle, Washington |result=WTO meetings delayed, $20,000,000 in damage |combatant1=Protesters, Rioters, Anarchists |combatant2=King County Sheriffs Office, Seattle Police Department |commander1= none |commander2=[[= Chief Norm Stamper |strength1=42,000+ |strength2=unknown}} A Rainforest Action...


Chapter 25, "The 2000 Election and the 'War On Terrorism'", covers the 2000 presidential election and the War on Terrorism. Zinn argues that attacks on the US by Arab terrorists (such as the September 11, 2001 attacks) are not caused by a hatred for our freedom (as claimed by President George W. Bush), but by grievances with US foreign policies such as "stationing of U.S. troops in Saudi Arabia... sanctions against Iraq which... had resulted in the deaths of hundreds of thousands of children; [and] the continued U.S. support of Israel's occupation of Palestinian land."[8] Other topics covered include Ralph Nader, the War in Afghanistan, and the USA PATRIOT Act. The United States presidential election of 2000 was a contest between the Democratic candidate Al Gore versus the Republican candidate of George W. Bush. ... The War on Terrorism (also known as the War on Terror) is campaign begun by the Bush administration which includes various military, political, and legal actions taken to ostensibly curb the spread of terrorism following the September 11, 2001 attacks on the United States. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Ralph Nader (born February 27, 1934) is an American attorney, author, lecturer, political activist, and candidate for President of the United States in five elections. ... For other uses of War in Afghanistan, see War in Afghanistan. ... In the United States, the Uniting and Strengthening America by Providing Appropriate Tools Required to Intercept and Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (Public Law 107-56), known as the USA PATRIOT Act or simply the Patriot Act, is an Act of Congress which President George W. Bush signed into law...


Criticism

In a 2004 article critiquing the 5th edition of A People's History of the United States, Georgetown University professor of history Michael Kazin argues that Zinn's book is too focused on class conflict, and wrongly attributes sinister motives to the American political elite. He also characterized the book as an overly simplistic narrative of elite villains and oppressed people with no attempt to understand historical actors in the context of the time in which they lived. Kazin writes, "The ironic effect of such portraits of rulers is to rob 'the people' of cultural richness and variety, characteristics that might gain the respect and not just the sympathy of contemporary readers. For Zinn, ordinary Americans seem to live only to fight the rich and haughty and, inevitably, to be fooled by them."[9] Furthermore, Kazin argues that A People's History fails to explain why the American political-economic model continues to attract millions of minorities, women, workers, and immigrants, or why the socialist and radical political movements that Zinn favors have failed to gain widespread support among the American public. Georgetown University is a Jesuit private university located in Georgetown, Washington, D.C. Father John Carroll founded the school in 1789, though its roots extend back to 1634. ... Class conflict is both the friction that accompanies social relationships between members or groups of different social classes and the underlying tensions or antagonisms which exist in society. ...


Much earlier, in 1980, Harvard historian Oscar Handlin criticized the book in The American Scholar, calling it a "deranged fairy tale". Oscar Handlin (born September 29, 1915, Brooklyn) is a U.S. historian. ... The American Scholar is the literary quarterly of the Phi Beta Kappa Society, founded in 1932. ...

It simply is not true that “what Columbus did to the Arawaks of the Bahamas, Cortez did to the Aztecs of Mexico, Pizarro to the Incas of Peru, and the English settlers of Virginia and Massachusetts to the Powhatans and the Pequots.” It simply is not true that the farmers of the Chesapeake colonies in the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries avidly desired the importation of black slaves, or that the gap between rich and poor widened in the eighteenth-century colonies. Zinn gulps down as literally true the proven hoax of Polly Baker and the improbable Plough Jogger, and he repeats uncritically the old charge that President Lincoln altered his views to suit his audience. The Geneva assembly of 1954 did not agree on elections in a unified Vietnam; that was simply the hope expressed by the British chairman when the parties concerned could not agree. The United States did not back Batista in 1959; it had ended aid to Cuba and washed its hands of him well before then. “Tet” was not evidence of the unpopularity of the Saigon government, but a resounding rejection of the northern invaders.[10]

Zinn responded to the charges, writing in to a future issue of the magazine, and Handlin responded again, "Zinn's letter displays the same inability to present the facts accurately that characterized his book."[11]


Other editions and related works

A version of the book titled The Twentieth Century contains only chapters 12-25 ("The Empire and the People" to "The 2000 Election and the 'War on Terrorism'"). Though it was originally meant to be an expansion of the original book, recent editions of A People's History now contain all of the later chapters from it.


In 2004, Zinn and Anthony Arnove published a collection of more than 200 primary source documents titled Voices of a People's History of the United States, available both as a book and as a CD of dramatic readings. Writer Aaron Sarver notes that although Kazin "savaged" Zinn’s A People’s History of the United States, "one of the few concessions Kazin made was his approval of Zinn punctuating 'his narrative with hundreds of quotes from slaves and Populists, anonymous wage-earners and ... articulate radicals.'"[12] Anthony Arnove is a book editor, agent and activist. ...


Whether Zinn intended it or not, Voices serves as a useful response to Kazin’s critique. As Sarver observes, "Voices is a vast anthology that tells heartbreaking and uplifting stories of American history. Kazin will be hard-pressed to charge Zinn with politicizing the intelligence here; the volume offers only Zinn’s sparse introductions to each piece, letting the actors and their words speak for themselves."[12]


Younger readers version

After many years of requests from parents and teachers, in July 2007 Seven Stories Press released A Young People's History of the United States, an illustrated, two-volume adaptation of A People's History for young adult readers (ages 10-14). The new version, adapted from the original text by Rebecca Stefoff, is updated through the end of 2006, and includes a new introduction and afterward by Howard Zinn. Seven Stories Press is an independent publishing company located in New York City, USA that concentrates on fiction and timely, informative nonfiction. ...


In his introduction, Zinn writes, "It seems to me it is wrong to treat young readers as if they are not mature enough to look at their nation's policies honestly. I am not worried about disillusioning young people by pointing to the flaws in the traditional heroes." In the afterword, "Rise like lions", he asks young readers to "Imagine the American people united for the first time in a movement for fundamental change."


In addition, the New Press released an updated (2007) version of The Wall Charts for A People's History — a 2-piece fold-out poster featuring an illustrated timeline of U.S. history, with an explanatory booklet. The New Press is a not-for-profit, United States-based publishing house that operates in the public interest. ...


References in popular culture

In the 1997 film, Good Will Hunting, Will Hunting (Matt Damon) tells Sean Maguire (Robin Williams) that A People's History will "knock you on your ass." Zinn mentioned the film's stars, Matt Damon and Ben Affleck, in a later edition of the book. In February of 2007, an abridged audio presentation of A People's History was released featuring an introduction by Zinn himself, with Matt Damon reading excerpts from the book. Damon, in his youth, was a neighbor of Zinn's. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Matthew Paige Matt Damon (born October 8, 1970) is an American screenwriter and actor. ... For the American cement businessman, see B. F. Affleck. ...


In The Sopranos episode, "Christopher", Tony Soprano's son A.J. is assigned to read the book for a history class which is studying Christopher Columbus. A.J. tells his father that the book says Columbus was a slave trader, which prompts Tony to call the book "bullshit". The episode deals with Columbus' legacy and the different views people have on him. This article is about the television series. ... Anthony John Soprano, Sr. ... Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator, colonizer, and explorer and one of the first Europeans to explore the Americas after the Vikings. ...


In 2005, American composer R. Chris Dahlgren (b. 1961) set portions of the book to music in his contemporary classical work, A People's History, scored for baritone, flute, clarinet, piano, percussion, violin, and cello.[13] A composer is a person who writes music. ... In the broadest sense, contemporary music is any music being written in the present day. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Percussion redirects here. ...


In The Simpsons episode, "That 90's Show", Marge Simpson, after having entered college, is seen reading the book. Simpsons redirects here. ... Marjorie Marge Simpson (née Bouvier) is a fictional character featured in the animated television series The Simpsons and is voiced by Julie Kavner. ...


Referenced by the band NOFX in the song, Franco Un-American off 2003's the War on Errorism album. "I never looked around, never second-guessed / Then I read some Howard Zinn now I'm always depressed" NOFX is an American punk rock band formed in Los Angeles, California (now based in San Francisco), in 1983. ... War On Errorism is the ninth studio album by the punk rock band NOFX released on May 6, 2003. ...


Current editions

  • Zinn, Howard (2005). A People's History of the United States: 1492-present. Harper Perennial Modern Classics. ISBN 0-06-083865-5. 
  • Zinn, Howard (2003). A People's History of the United States: 1492-present. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-052842-7. 
  • Zinn, Howard (1980). A People's History of the United States. Harper & Row. ISBN 0-06-014803-9. 
  • Zinn, Howard (2003). The Twentieth Century. Harper Perennial. ISBN 0060530340
  • Zinn, Howard (2005). in Arnove, Anthony: Voices of a People's History of the United States. Seven Stories Press. ISBN 1-58322-628-1. 
  • A Young People's History of the United States, adapted from the original text by Rebecca Stefoff; illustrated, in two volumes; Seven Stories Press, New York, 2007
    • Vol. 1: Columbus to the Spanish-American War. ISBN 978-1-58322-759-6
    • Vol. 2: Class Struggle to the War on Terror. ISBN 978-1-58322-760-2
  • Teaching Editions
    • A People's History of the United States: Teaching Edition
    • A People's History of the United States, Abridged Teaching Edition, Updated Edition
    • A People's History of the United States: Volume 1: American Beginnings to Reconstruction, Teaching Edition
    • A People's History of the United States, Vol. 2: The Civil War to the Present, Teaching Edition
  • A People's History of the United States: The Wall Charts; designed by Howard Zinn and George Kirschner; New Press (2007). ISBN 978-1-56584-171-0

Seven Stories Press is an independent publishing company located in New York City, USA that concentrates on fiction and timely, informative nonfiction. ... The New Press is a not-for-profit, United States-based publishing house that operates in the public interest. ...

See also

Lies My Teacher Told Me: Everything Your History Textbook Got Wrong, by James W. Loewen, is a critical review of the gulf between the best evidence available to historians and the evidence presented to American high school students in the 12 most popular history textbooks. ... A peoples history is a type of historical work which tries to look at historical events from the perspective of the common people: the disenfranchized, oppressed, poor, non-conformist, or otherwise forgotten, as opposed to that of the power structure. ...

References

  1. ^ Prix des Amis du Monde diplomatique 2003 announcement, December 1, 2003.
  2. ^ Flynn, Dan (2003-06-03). Master of Deceit. FrontpageMag.com. Retrieved on 2006-12-31.
  3. ^ Catherine Parayre, "The Conscience of the Past: An interview with historian Howard Zinn", Flagpole Magazine Online, 18 February 1998.
  4. ^ Zinn, Howard. A People's History of the United States. New York: Perennial Classics, 2003. p.98 ISBN 0060528370
  5. ^ Zinn, Howard. A People's History of the United States. New York: HarperCollins, 1999. p.245-251 ISBN 0060528370
  6. ^ Zinn, p.407
  7. ^ Zinn, p.639-640
  8. ^ Zinn, p.681
  9. ^ "Howard Zinn's History Lessons", by Michael Kazin, Dissent, Spring 2004
  10. ^ Handlin, Oscar (1980). "Arawaks". The American Scholar 49(4), 546.
  11. ^ Zinn, Howard and Handlin, Oscar (1981). "The Reader Replies". The American Scholar 50(3), 540.
  12. ^ a b Aaron Sarver, The Secret History", In These Times, 16 September 2005
  13. ^ [silence] S.E.M. Ensemble Annual Reading of New Compositions

is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Dissent Magazine is a left-wing magazine that was started in 1954 by Irving Howe and Lewis Coser. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
History of the United States - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4106 words)
During this period, the United States government was established by its first president, George Washington, and the Louisiana Purchase, the War of 1812, the Mexican-American War, and various Indian Wars expanded and consolidated the land expanse of the United States--while largely displacing the indigenous population.
The post-war era in the United States was defined internationally by the beginning of the Cold War, in which the United States and the Soviet Union attempted to expand their influence at the expense of the other, checked by each side's massive nuclear arsenal and the doctrine of mutual assured destruction.
A People's History of the United States, Perennial, 2003.
United States - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6960 words)
In 1787 the United States Constitution was ratified by the Constitutional Convention to establish a federal union of sovereign states and a federal government to operate it.
Federal law overrides state law in the areas that the federal government is empowered to act, but the powers of the federal government are subject to limits outlined in the Constitution of the United States.
The federal government of the United States is comprised of a Legislative Branch (led by the Congress), an Executive Branch (led by the President), and a Judicial Branch (led by the Supreme Court).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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