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Encyclopedia > A Midsummer Night's Dream
Facsimile of the first page of A Midsummer Night's Dream from the First Folio, published in 1623.
Facsimile of the first page of A Midsummer Night's Dream from the First Folio, published in 1623.

A Midsummer Night's Dream is a romantic comedy by William Shakespeare, written sometime in the 1590s. It portrays the adventures of four young Athenian lovers and a group of amateur actors, their interactions with the Duke and Duchess of Athens, Theseus and Hippolyta, and with the fairies who inhabit a moonlit forest. The play is one of Shakespeare's most popular works for the stage and is widely performed across the world. A Midsummer Nights Dream is a play by William Shakespeare. ... The title page of the First Folio with the famous engraved portrait of Shakespeare by Martin Droeshout The First Folio is the name given by modern scholars to the first published collection of William Shakespeares plays; its actual title is Mr. ... This article primarily discusses philosophical ideologies in relation to the subject of romantic love. ... Shakespearean comedies are one of the three (sometimes four) genres of plays by William Shakespeare. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... March 14 - Battle of Ivry - Henry IV of France again defeats the forces of the Catholic League under the Duc de Mayenne. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Theseus (Greek ) was a legendary king of Athens, son of Aethra, and fathered by Aegeus and Poseidon, with whom Aethra lay in one night (By some accounts, this was presented as a rape). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... by Sophie Anderson A fairy, or faery, is a creature from stories and mythology, often portrayed in art and literature as a minuscule humanoid with wings. ...

Contents

Sources

Title page of the first quarto (1600)
Title page of the first quarto (1600)

It is not known exactly when A Midsummer Night's Dream was written or first performed, but, on the basis of topical references and an allusion to Spenser's Epithalamion, it is usually dated 1595 or 1596. Some have theorised that the play might have been written for an aristocratic wedding (numerous such weddings took place in 1596), while others suggest that it was written for the Queen to celebrate the feast day of St. John. No concrete evidence exists to support either theory. In any case, it would have been performed at The Theatre and, later, The Globe in London. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (641x938, 242 KB)[edit] Summary Title page of the first quarto of A Midsummer Nights Dream [edit] Licensing The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (641x938, 242 KB)[edit] Summary Title page of the first quarto of A Midsummer Nights Dream [edit] Licensing The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those... First quarto is a bibliographic term, usually encountered in the study of English literature in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, especially in regard to the early printings of the plays of English Renaissance theatre. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Events January 30 - William Shakespeares Romeo and Juliet is performed for the first time. ... Events February 5 - 26 catholics crucified in Nagasaki, Japan. ... Elizabeth I redirects here. ... This article is about one specific theatre in London; for information on theatres in general, see Theater. ... This article is about the original Globe Theatre of Shakespeare and the modern reconstruction in London known as Shakespeares Globe Theatre. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


Some features of the plot and characters can be traced to elements of earlier mythologically-based literature; for example, the story of Pyramus and Thisbe is told in Ovid's Metamorphoses and the transformation of Bottom into an ass is descended from Apuleius' The Golden Ass. Lysander was also an ancient Greek warlord while Theseus and Hippolyta were respectively the Duke of Athens and Queen of the Amazons. In addition, Shakespeare could have been working on Romeo and Juliet at about the same time that he wrote A Midsummer Night's Dream, and it is possible to see Pyramus and Thisbe as a comic reworking of the tragic play. A further, seldom noted source is The Knight's Tale in Chaucer's Canterbury Tales.[1] For the river of Asia Minor, see Pyramus (river). ... For other uses, see Ovid (disambiguation). ... // Cover of George Sandyss 1632 edition of Ovids Metamorphosis Englished The Metamorphoses by the Roman poet Ovid is a poem in fifteen books that describes the creation and history of the world in terms according to Greek and Roman points of view. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 For other uses, see Donkey (disambiguation). ... Lucius Apuleius (c. ... The Metamorphoses of Lucius Apuleius, which according to St. ... For other uses, see Romeo and Juliet (disambiguation). ... The Knights Tale is the first tale from Geoffrey Chaucers The Canterbury Tales. ... Chaucer: Illustration from Cassells History of England, circa 1902 Chanticleer the rooster from an outdoor production of Chanticleer and the Fox at Ashby_de_la_Zouch castle Geoffrey Chaucer (ca. ... Canterbury Tales Woodcut 1484 The Canterbury Tales is a collection of stories written by Geoffrey Chaucer in the 14th century (two of them in prose, the rest in verse). ...


Date and text

The play was entered into the Register of the Stationers Company on 8 October 1600 by the bookseller Thomas Fisher, who published the first quarto edition later that year. A second quarto was printed in 1619 by William Jaggard, as part of his so-called False Folio. The play next appeared in print in the First Folio of 1623. The title page of Q1 states that the play was "sundry times publicly acted" prior to 1600. The first performance known with certainty occurred at Court on January 1, 1604. The Stationers Register was a journal maintained by the Stationers Company of London. ... The Worshipful Company of Stationers and Newspaper Makers is one of the Livery Companies of the City of London. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1600 was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... First quarto is a bibliographic term, usually encountered in the study of English literature in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, especially in regard to the early printings of the plays of English Renaissance theatre. ... Second quarto is a bibliographic term, most often encountered in the study of English literature in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, especially in regard to the early printings of the plays of English Renaissance theatre. ... False Folio is the term that Shakespeare scholars and bibliographers have applied to the earliest attempt to create a collection of Shakepearean works in a single volume, that being William Jaggards printing of ten Shakespearean and pseudo-Shakespearean plays together in 1619. ... The title page of the First Folio with the famous engraved portrait of Shakespeare by Martin Droeshout The First Folio is the name given by modern scholars to the first published collection of William Shakespeares plays; its actual title is Mr. ... First quarto is a bibliographic term, usually encountered in the study of English literature in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, especially in regard to the early printings of the plays of English Renaissance theatre. ...


Synopsis

The play features three interlocking plots, connected by a celebration of the wedding of Duke Theseus of Athens and the Amazonian queen Hippolyta, and set simultaneously in the woodland, and in the realm of Fairyland, under the light of the moon.[2] For other uses, see Wedding (disambiguation). ... Theseus (Greek ) was a legendary king of Athens, son of Aethra, and fathered by Aegeus and Poseidon, with whom Aethra lay in one night (By some accounts, this was presented as a rape). ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... The Amazons (in Greek, ) were a mythical ancient nation of all-female warriors. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Fairyland can have several meanings in English Faerie, a locus of strong and impressive magical powers, but has tended in modern times to become trivialised as a sort of Never-Never Land, an uncomplicated, child-like world. ...


In the opening scene, Hermia refuses to comply with her father Egeus's wish for her to marry his chosen man, Demetrius. In response, Egeus quotes before Theseus an ancient Athenian law whereby a daughter must marry the suitor chosen by her father, or else face death. Theseus does not want this young girl to die, and offers her another choice, lifelong chastity worshipping Diana as a nun. (The word 'nun' in this sense is an anachronism.) The Diana of Versailles In Roman mythology, Diana was the goddess of the hunt, in literature the equivalent of the Greek goddess Artemis, though in cult she was Italic in origin. ... For other uses, see Nun (disambiguation). ... Look up Anachronism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Hermia and her lover Lysander decide to elope by escaping through the forest at night. Hermia informs her best friend Helena, but Helena has recently been rejected by Demetrius and decides to win back his favour by revealing the plan to him. Demetrius, followed doggedly by Helena, chases Hermia. Hermia and Lysander, believing themselves safely out of reach, sleep in the woods. To elope, most literally, merely means to run away. ...

Study for The Quarrel of Oberon and Titania by Joseph Noel Paton
Study for The Quarrel of Oberon and Titania by Joseph Noel Paton

Meanwhile, Oberon, king of the fairies, and his queen, Titania, arrive in the forest outside Athens. Titania tells Oberon that she plans to stay there until after she has attended Theseus and Hippolyta's wedding. Oberon and Titania are estranged because Titania refuses to give her Indian changeling to Oberon for use as his "knight" or "henchman," since the child's mother was one of Titania's worshippers. Oberon seeks to punish Titania's disobedience and recruits the mischievous Puck (also called Hobgoblin and Robin Goodfellow) to help him apply a magical juice from a flower called "love-in-idleness" (a.k.a. pansy), which makes the victim fall in love with the first living thing seen upon awakening. He instructs Puck to retrieve the flower so that he can make Titania fall in love with some vile creature of the forest. Oberon applies the juice to Titania in order to distract her and force her to give up the page-boy. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Study for The Quarrel of Oberon and Titania Joseph Noel Paton (13 December 1821 – 26 December 1901) is a Scottish artist, born in Woolers Alley, Dunfermline, Fife. ... Oberon, also Auberon, King of the Fairies, is most well-known as a character in William Shakespeares play, A Midsummer Nights Dream, written in the mid-1590s. ... For other uses, see Titania (disambiguation). ... Trolls with the changeling they have raised, John Bauer, 1913. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Puck (mythology). ... Hobgoblin is a term typically applied in folktales to a friendly or amusing goblin. ... Robin Goodfellow in English folklore is a euphemistic personification of a half-tamed, troublesome elf or hob-goblin, a prankster who is the domesticated aspect of Puck. ... For other uses, see Flower (disambiguation). ...


Having seen Demetrius act cruelly toward Helena, Oberon orders Puck to spread some of the elixir on the eyelids of the young Athenian man. Instead, Puck accidentally puts the juice on the eyes of Lysander, who then falls in love with Helena. Oberon sees Demetrius still following Hermia and is enraged. When Demetrius decides to go to sleep, Oberon sends Puck to get Helena while he charms Demetrius' eyes. Due to Puck's errors, both lovers now fight over Helena instead of Hermia. Helena, however, is convinced that her two suitors are mocking her, as neither loved her originally. The four pursue and quarrel with each other most of the night, until they become so enraged that they seek a place to duel each other to the death to settle the quarrel. Oberon orders Puck to keep the lovers from catching up with one another in the forest and to re-charm Lysander for Hermia, to prevent them all from killing each other.


Meanwhile, a band of lower-class labourers ("rude mechanicals", as they are famously described by Puck) have arranged to perform a crude play about Pyramus and Thisbe for Theseus' wedding, and venture into the forest, near Titania's bower, for their rehearsal. Nick Bottom, a stage-struck weaver, is spotted by Puck, who transforms his head into that of an ass (donkey). Titania is awakened by Bottom's singing and immediately falls in love with him. She treats him like a nobleman and lavishes him with attention. While in this state of devotion, she encounters Oberon and casually gives him the Indian boy. Having achieved his goals, Oberon releases Titania and orders Puck to remove the ass's head from Bottom. The magical enchantment is removed from Lysander but is allowed to remain on Demetrius, so that he may reciprocate Helena's love. For the river of Asia Minor, see Pyramus (river). ... A dwelling is a structure in which humans or other animals live. ... Nick Bottom is a character in Shakespeares A Midsummer Nights Dream who provides comic relief throughout the play, and is famously known for getting his head transformed into that of a donkey by the elusive Puck within the play. ... Genera Many:see text The Weavers are small passerine birds related to the finches. ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 For other uses, see Donkey (disambiguation). ...


The fairies then disappear, and Theseus and Hippolyta arrive on the scene, during an early morning hunt. They wake the lovers and, since Demetrius doesn't love Hermia anymore, Theseus over-rules Egeus's demands and arranges a group wedding. The lovers decide that the night's events must have been a dream. After they all exit, Bottom awakes, and he too decides that he must have experienced a dream "past the wit of man." In Athens, Theseus, Hippolyta and the lovers watch the mechanicals perform "Pyramus and Thisbe." It is ridiculous and badly performed but gives everyone pleasure regardless, and afterward everyone retires to bed. Finally, as night falls, Oberon and Titania bless the house, its occupants, and the future children of the newlyweds, and Puck delivers a soliloquy to the audience. For other uses, see Dream (disambiguation). ... Soliloquy is an audible oratory or conversation with oneself. ...


Characters

  • The men and women in the play of high social class:
    • Lysander, beloved of Hermia
    • Hermia, beloved of Lysander, engaged to Demetrius
    • Helena, in love with Demetrius
    • Demetrius, in love with Hermia but then falls in love with Helena later on. Engaged to Hermia
    • Egeus, father of Hermia, wants to force Hermia to wed Demetrius
    • Theseus, Duke of Athens, good friend of Egeus
    • Hippolyta, Queen of the Amazons and betrothed of Theseus
  • The lower-class citizens in the play:
    • Philostrate, Master of the Revels for Theseus
    • The acting troupe (otherwise known as The Mechanicals):
      • Peter Quince, carpenter, who leads the troupe
      • Nick Bottom, weaver; he plays Pyramus in the troupe's production of "Pyramus and Thisbe," and gets a donkey head put on him by Puck so that Titania will magically fall in love with a monster.
      • Francis Flute, the bellows-mender who plays Thisbe.
      • Robin Starveling, the tailor who plays Moonshine.
      • Tom Snout, the tinker who plays the wall.
      • Snug, the joiner who plays the lion.
  • The supernatural characters:
    • Puck, a.k.a. Hobgoblin or Robin Goodfellow; a faun, servant to Oberon
    • Oberon, King of Fairies
    • Titania, Queen of Fairies
    • Titania's fairy servants (her "train"):
      • First Fairy
      • Peaseblossom, fairy
      • Cobweb, fairy
      • Moth (sometimes rendered as 'Mote') fairy
      • Mustardseed, fairy

Lysander is one of the iconic lovers in William Shakespeares play: A Midsummer Nights Dream. ... Hermia is a Technology Centre near Tampere University of Technology (TUT). ... Washington Allstons 1818 painting Hermia and Helena. ... Look up Demetrius in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Egeus is a secondary character in Shakespeares play A Midsummer Nights Dream. Egeus is the defensive father of Hermia. ... Theseus (Greek ) was a legendary king of Athens, son of Aethra, and fathered by Aegeus and Poseidon, with whom Aethra lay in one night (By some accounts, this was presented as a rape). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Philostrate is the master of revels at Theseus court in William Shakespeares A Midsummer Nights Dream. ... In William Shakespeares A Midsummer Nights Dream, Peter Quince is a carpenter that works in Athens. ... Nick Bottom is a character in Shakespeares A Midsummer Nights Dream who provides comic relief throughout the play, and is famously known for getting his head transformed into that of a donkey by the elusive Puck within the play. ... Francis Flute is a character in the play A Midsummer Nights Dream. ... Robin Starveling is a character in William Shakespeares Midsummer Nights Dream. ... Tom Snout plays the Wall in William Shakespeares A Midsummer Nights Dream Category: Actor stubs ... Snug is a minor character from William Shakespeares play A Midsummer Nights Dream. ... A Joiner is a woodworker who makes and installs architectural woodwork, including things that are called Finish carpentry and millwork in the USA. Joiners fabricate and install building components such as doors, windows, stairs, wooden panelling, mouldings, shop cabinets, kitchen cabinets, and other wooden fittings. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Puck (mythology). ... Oberon, also Auberon, King of the Fairies, is most well-known as a character in William Shakespeares play, A Midsummer Nights Dream, written in the mid-1590s. ... For other uses, see Titania (disambiguation). ...

Analysis and Criticism

Themes

Love

Writer David Bevington finds in the play what he refers to as the dark side of love. He writes that the fairies make light of love by mistaking the lovers and by applying a love potion to Titania’s eyes, forcing her to fall in love with Bottom as an ass [3]. There are many dark sides of love that occur in A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Hippolyta is “woo’d” by a sword instead of being given “love-tokens” in the same way Lysander has won Hermia’s love (1.1.17-30)[4]. What is even more disturbing is the possible outcome that could have taken place at the forest. Shakespeare borrows the myth of Pyramus and Thisbe from Ovid’s Metamorphoses, transforming it into a play that is performed at the end and using ideas of the myth for the entire play. Like Pyramus and Thisbe, Hermia and Lysander escape to the forest to avoid the tyranny of Hermia’s father. In the forest, both couples are met by problems and assume that a partner is dead at some point. Hermia and Lysander are both met by Puck, who provides some comedic relief in the play by confusing the four lovers in the forest. Despite the darkness and difficulty that obstructs the love in A Midsummer Night’s Dream, it is still a comedy as Benedetto Croce indicates. He writes, “love is sincere, yet deceives and is deceived; it imagines itself to be firm and constant, and turns out to be fragile and fleeting” [5]. This passage, like the play juxtaposes one idea next to another. The play is a comedy, yet it harbors serious ideas. At the end of the play, Hermia and Lysander, happily married, watch the play about the unfortunate lovers, Pyramus and Thisbe, and are able to enjoy and laugh about the play, not realizing the similarities between them. Although their story is very similar to that of Pyramus and Thisbe, it does not end in tragic death [6]. Hermia and Lysander are both oblivious to the dark side of their love. They are not aware of the possible outcome that could have taken place at the forest. Benedetto Croce (February 25, 1866 - November 20, 1952) was an Italian critic, idealist philosopher, and politician. ...


Loss of Individual Identity

Maurice Hunt, Chair of the English Department at Baylor University writes of the blurring of the identities of fantasy and reality in the play that make possible “that pleasing, narcotic dreaminess associated with the fairies of the play” [7]. By emphasizing this theme even in the setting of the play, Shakespeare prepares the reader’s mind to accept the fantastic reality of the fairy world and its magical happenings. This also seems to be the axis around which the plot conflicts in the play occur. Hunt suggests that it is the breaking down of individual identities leads to the central conflict in the story[8]. It is the brawl between Oberon and Titania, based on a lack of recognition for the other in the relationship, that drives the rest of the drama in the story and makes it dangerous for any of the other lovers to come together due to the disturbance of Nature caused by a fairy dispute [9]. Similarly, this failure to identify and make distinction is what leads Puck to mistake one set of lovers for another in the forest and place the juice of the flower on Lysander’s eyes instead of Demetrius’. Victor Kiernan, a Marxist scholar and historian, writes that it is for the greater sake of love that this loss of identity takes place and that individual characters are made to suffer accordingly: “It was the more extravagant cult of love that struck sensible people as irrational, and likely to have dubious effects on its acolytes” [10]. He believes that identities in the play are not so much lost as they are blended together to create a type of haze through which distinction becomes nearly impossible. It is driven by a desire for new and more practical ties between characters as a means of coping with the strange world within the forest, even in relationships as diverse and seemingly unrealistic as the brief love between Titania and Bottom the Ass: “It was the tidal force of this social need that lent energy to relationships” [11]. David Marshall, an aesthetics scholar and English Professor at the University of California - Santa Barbara, takes this theme to an even further conclusion, pointing out that the loss of identity is especially played out in the description of the mechanicals their assumption of other identities. In describing the occupations of the acting troupe, he writes “Two construct or put together, two mend and repair, one weaves and one sews. All join together what is apart or mend what has been rent, broken, or sundered” [12]. In Marshall’s opinion, this loss of individual identity not only blurs specificities, it creates new identities found in community, which Marshall points out may lead to some understanding of Shakespeare’s opinions on love and marriage. Further, the mechanicals understand this theme as they take on their individual parts for a corporate performance of Pyramus and Thisbe. Marshall remarks that “To be an actor is to double and divide oneself, to discover oneself in two parts: both oneself and not oneself, both the part and not the part” [13]. He claims that the mechanicals understand this and that each character, particularly among the lovers, has a sense of laying down individual identity for the greater benefit of the group or pairing [14]. It seems that a desire to lose one’s individuality and find identity in the love of another is what quietly moves the events of A Midsummer Night’s Dream. It is the primary sense of motivation and is even reflected in the scenery and mood of the story. {{Infobox_University |image_name = 135px-Baylor_seal. ...


Ambiguous sexuality

In his essay "Preposterous Pleasures, Queer Theories and A Midsummer Night's Dream", Douglas E. Green explores possible interpretations of alternate sexuality that he finds within the text of the play, in juxtaposition to the proscribed social mores of the culture at the time the play was written. He writes that his essay "does not (seek to) rewrite A Midsummer Night's Dream as a gay play but rather explores some of its 'homoerotic significations'...moments of 'queer' disruption and eruption in this Shakespearean comedy."[15]. Green states that he does not consider Shakspeare to have been a "sexual radical", but that the play represented a "topsy-turvy world" or "temporary holiday" that mediates or negotiates the "discontents of civilization", which while resolved neatly in the story's conclusion, do not resolve so neatly in real life.[16] Green writes that the "sodomitical elements", "homoeroticism", "lesbianism", and even "compulsory heterosexuality" in the story must be considered in the context of the "culture of early modern England" as a commentary on the "aesthetic rigidities of comic form and political ideologies of the prevailing order." Aspects of ambiguous sexuality and gender conflict in the story are also addressed in essays by Shirley Garner [17] and William W.E. Slights [18].


Other interpretations

Feminist

Male dominance is one thematic element found in A Midsummer Night's Dream. Shakespeare's comedies often include a section in which females enjoy more power and freedom than they actually possess[citation needed]. In A Midsummer Night's Dream, Helena and Hermia escape into the woods for a night where they do not fall under the laws of Theseus or Egeus. Upon their arrival in Athens, the couples are married. Marriage is seen as the ultimate social achievement for women while men can go on to do many other great things and gain societal recognition [19]. In his article, "The Imperial Votaress," Louis Montrose draws attention to male and female gender roles and norms present in the comedy in connection with Elizabethan culture. In reference to the triple wedding, he says, "The festive conclusion in A Midsummer Night's Dream depends upon the success of a process by which the feminine pride and power manifested in Amazon warriors, possessive mothers, unruly wives, and willful daughters are brought under the control of lords and husbands" [20]. He says that the consummation of marriage is how power over a woman changes hands from father to husband. A connection between flowers and sexuality is drawn. The juice employed by Oberon can be seen as symbolizing menstrual blood as well as the sexual blood shed by virgins. While blood as a result of menstruation is representative of a woman's power, blood as a result of a first sexual encounter represents man's power over women [21].


There are points in the play, however, when there is an absence of patriarchal control. In his book, Power on Display, Leonard Tennenhouse says the problem in A Midsummer Night's Dream is the problem of "authority gone archaic" [22]. The Athenian law requiring a daughter to die if she does not do her father's will is outdated. Tennenhouse contrasts the patriarchal rule of Theseus in Athens with that of Oberon in the carnivalistic Faerie world. The disorder in the land of the faeries completely opposes the world of Athens. He states that during times of carnival and festival, male power is broken down. For example, what happens to the four lovers in the woods as well as Bottom's dream represents chaos that contrasts with Thesus' political order. However, Theseus does not punish the lovers for their disobedience. According to Tennenhouse, by forgiving of the lovers, he has made a distinction between the law of the patriarch (Egeus) and that of the monarch (Theseus), creating two different voices of authority. This distinction can be compared to the time of Elizabeth I in which monarchs were seen as having two bodies: the body natural and the body mystical. Elizabeth's succession itself represented both the voice of a patriarch as well as the voice of a monarch: (1) her father's will which stated that the crown should pass to her and (2) the fact that she was the daughter of a king[23]. The challenge to patriarchal rule in A Midsummer Night's Dream mirrors exactly what was occurring in the age of Elizabeth I.


Religious

Patricia Parker, professor of English at Stanford University and the editor of the New Arden edition of this play has argued that it contains a religious allegory. It has been well established for two centuries that Puck and Robin Goodfellow are both names for the devil from English folklore. Parker argues that the character of 'Wall' acted by Snout represents the partition that exists between Earth and Heaven and that comes down on the day of Apocalypse. Pyramus and Thisbe are a late Renaissance allegory for Jesus and the Church, and that the source of the names Peter (petros, Greek for a stone), and Quince (quoin, a term for a wedge shaped cornerstone) suggests his identity as St Peter. ( P.Parker 'Murals and Morals; A Midsummer Night's Dream' in (ed) Glenn W.Most, Aporemata;Kritische Studien zur Philologiegeschichte, 1998 pgs 190-218). The play-within-the play therefore appears to be a religious satire. The allegorical dimension was extended to the other characters and demonstrated in performance by the Dark Lady Players in a New York production in March 2007 (Ted Merwin ‘The Dark Lady as a Bright Literary Light’ The Jewish Week, 23 March 2007 pgs 56-7). St. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... According to tradition, Peter was crucified upside-down, as shown in this painting by Caravaggio. ...


Performance history

17th and 18th centuries

During the years of the Puritan Interregnum when the theatres were closed (1642-60), the comic subplot of Bottom and his compatriots was performed as a "droll." Drolls were comical playlets, often adapted from the subplots of Shakespearean and other plays, that could be attached to the acts of acrobats and jugglers and other allowed performances, thus circumventing the ban against drama. For the record label, see Puritan Records. ... The English Interregnum was the period of parliamentary and military rule in the land occupied by modern-day England and Wales after the English Civil War. ...


When the theatres re-opened in 1660, A Midsummer Night's Dream was acted in adapted form, like many other Shakespearean plays. Samuel Pepys saw it on Sept. 29, 1662, and thought it "the most insipid, ridiculous play that ever I saw...."[24] Samuel Pepys, FRS (23 February 1633 – 26 May 1703) was an English naval administrator and Member of Parliament, who is now most famous for his diary. ...


After the Jacobean/Caroline era, A Midsummer Night's Dream was never performed in its entirety until the 1840s. Instead, it was heavily adapted in forms like Henry Purcell's musical masque/play The Fairy Queen (1692), which was not revived after its initial performance at the Dorset Garden Theatre. Richard Leveridge turned the Pyramus and Thisbe scenes into an Italian opera burlesque, acted at Lincoln's Inn Fields in 1716. John Frederick Lampe elaborated upon Leveridge's version in 1745. Charles Johnson had used the Pyramus and Thisbe material in the finale of Love in a Forest, his 1723 adaptation of As You Like It. In 1755, David Garrick did the opposite of what had been done a century earlier: he extracted Bottom and his companions and acted the rest, in an adaptation called The Fairies. Frederic Reynolds produced an operatic version in 1816.[25] Henry Purcell Henry Purcell (IPA: ;[1] September 10 (?),[2], 1659–November 21, 1695), was an English Baroque composer. ... The Dorset Garden Theatre, on the Thames. ... Richard Leveridge was born in London on July 19, 1670 and died there on March 22, 1758. ... Lincolns Inn Fields is the largest public square in London. ... John Frederick Lampe (1703 - 1751) was a musician. ... Walter Deverell,The Mock Marriage of Orlando and Rosalind, 1853 William Shakespeares As You Like It is a pastoral comedy written in 1599 or early 1600. ... David Garrick by Thomas Gainsborough. ...


The Victorian stage

In 1840, Madame Vestris at Covent Garden returned the play to the stage with a relatively full text, but padded it out greatly with musical sequences and balletic dances. Vestris took the role of Oberon, and for the next seventy years, Oberon and Puck would always be played by women. After the success of Vestris' production, nineteenth century theatre continued to treat the Dream as an opportunity for huge spectacle, often with a cast numbering nearly one hundred. Huge, detailed sets were created for the palace and the forest, and the fairies tended to be envisaged as gossamer-winged ballerinas. The much-loved overture by Felix Mendelssohn was always used throughout this period, with the text often being cut to provide greater space for music and dance. Augustin Daly's production opened in 1895 in London and ran for 21 performances. The special effects were constructed by the famous Martinka Magic Company, which was later owned by Houdini. Herbert Beerbohm Tree staged a 1911 production with live rabbits. Lucia Elizabeth Vestris (January, 1797–August 8, 1856) was an English actress. ... Covent Garden is a district in London, located on the easternmost parts of the City of Westminster and the southwest corner of the London Borough of Camden. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Puck (mythology). ... Nineteenth century theater is theatre of the 19th century. ... Portrait of Mendelssohn by the English miniaturist James Warren Childe (1778-1862), 1839 Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, born and generally known as Felix Mendelssohn (February 3, 1809 – November 4, 1847) is a German composer, pianist and conductor of the early Romantic period. ... Augustin Daly (July 20, 1838 - June 7, 1899), American theatrical manager and playwright, was born in Plymouth, North Carolina. ... Martinka & Company is Americas oldest magic shop. ... Harry Houdini (March 24, 1874 – October 31, 1926), born Ehrich Weiss, was a Hungarian/American magician, escapologist, stunt performer, as well as an investigator of spiritualists, and amateur aviator. ... Sir Herbert Beerbohm Tree (December 17, 1853 - July 2, 1917) was an English actor-manager. ...


Twentieth Century

In the early twentieth century, a reaction against this huge spectacle emerged. Innovative director Harley Granville-Barker introduced in 1914 the modern way of staging the Dream: he removed the huge casts and Mendelssohn, using instead Elizabethan folk music. He replaced the huge sets with a simple system of patterned curtains. He used a completely original vision of the fairies, seeing them as golden robotic insectoid creatures based on Cambodian idols. This increased simplicity and emphasis on directorial imagination has dominated subsequent Dreams on the stage. Harley Granville-Barker (November 25, 1877 – August 31, 1946) was a British actor, director, producer, critic and playwright. ...


Max Reinhardt staged A Midsummer Night's Dream thirteen times between 1905 and 1934, introducing a revolving set. After he fled Germany he devised a more spectacular outdoor version at the Hollywood Bowl, in September 1934. The shell was removed and replaced by a "forest" planted in tons of dirt hauled in especially for the event, and a trestle was constructed from the hills to the stage. The wedding procession inserted between Acts IV and V crossed a trestle with torches down the hillside. The cast included John Davis Lodge, William Farnum, Sterling Holloway, Butterfly McQueen, Olivia de Havilland, and Mickey Rooney, with Erich Wolfgang Korngold's orchestrations of Mendelssohn. (The young Austrian composer would go on to make a Hollywood career.) On the strength of this production, Warner Brothers signed Reinhardt to direct a filmed version, Hollywood's first Shakespeare event since Douglas Fairbanks Sr. and Mary Pickford's Taming of the Shrew (1929). Rooney (Puck) and De Havilland (Hermia) were the only hold-overs from the cast. Max Reinhardt Max Reinhardt (born September 9, 1873 in Baden bei Wien; died October 31, 1943 in New York City) was an influential Austrian director and actor. ... Hollywood Bowl in 2005. ... John Davis Lodge (October 20, 1903 – October 29, 1985) was a Republican, was governor of Connecticut from 1951 to 1955. ... William Farnum (b. ... Sterling Price Holloway, Jr. ... Butterfly McQueen Butterfly McQueen (January 7, 1911 – December 22, 1995) was an American film and television actress. ... Olivia Mary de Havilland (born July 1, 1916) is a two-time Academy Award winning actress in American motion pictures and is the last surviving principal cast member from Gone with the Wind. ... Actor Mickey Rooney speaks at the Pentagon in 2000 during a ceremony honoring the USO. Mickey Rooney (born Joseph Yule, Jr. ... Korngold conducting the Warner Brothers studio orchestra (Rhino Records) Erich Wolfgang Korngold (May 29, 1897 – November 29, 1957) was a 20th century romantic composer. ... Warner Bros. ... Douglas Fairbanks (May 23, 1883–December 12, 1939) was an American actor, screenwriter, director, and producer. ... For the Katie Melua song, see Mary Pickford (Used to Eat Roses). ... The Taming of the Shrew is a comedy by William Shakespeare. ...


Another landmark production was that of Peter Brook in 1970. Brook staged the play in a blank white box, in which masculine fairies engaged in circus tricks such as trapeze artistry. Brook also introduced the subsequently popular idea of doubling Theseus/Oberon and Hippolyta/Titania, as if to suggest that the world of the fairies is a mirror version of the world of the mortals. For the British politician, see Peter Brooke. ... List of other wikis Circus open book in Spanish. ... Trapeze artists, in lithograph by Calvert Litho. ...


Since Brook's production, directors have felt free to use their imaginations freely to decide for themselves what the play's story means, and to represent that visually on stage. In particular, there has been an increased amount of sexuality on stage, as many directors see the 'palace' as a symbol of restraint and repression, while the 'wood' can be a symbol of wild, unrestrained sexuality, which is both liberating and terrifying. A number of noted British actors played various roles in Brook's acclaimed production, including Patrick Stewart, Ben Kingsley, as well as noted stage actors John Kane (Puck) and Jennie Stoller (Helena). This article is about the actor. ... Sir Ben Kingsley, CBE (born December 31, 1943) is a British actor. ...


A Midsummer Night's Dream has enjoyed myriad productions in New York, including several by the New York Shakespeare Festival at the Delacorte Theatre in Central Park, and a notable production by the Theatre for a New Audience, produced by Joseph Papp at the Public Theatre. In 1978, the Riverside Shakespeare Company produced a popular tour outdoor tour starring Eric Hoffmann as Puck, with Karen Hurley as Titania and Eric Conger as Oberon, directed by company founder, Gloria Skurski. New York Shakespeare Festival is the traditional name of a sequence of shows organized by the Public Theater in New York City, most often being held at the Delacorte Theater in Central Park. ... The Delacorte Theatre is an open-air theatre located in Manhattans Central Park. ... // The Riverside Shakespeare Company of New York City was founded in 1977 as an Equity theatre company on the Upper West Side of New York City, by W. Stuart McDowell and Gloria Skurski. ...


Adaptations and cultural references

Literary

Botho Strauß' play Der Park (1983) is based on characters and motifs from A Midsummer Night's Dream. St. John's Eve written in 1853 by Henrik Ibsen relies heavily on the Shakespearean play. The Thyme of the Season, written in 2006 by Duncan Pflaster is a sequel to Shakespeare's play, set on Halloween. Botho Strauss (born 1944 in Naumburg) is a German playwright, novelist and essayist. ... In literature, a motif is a recurring element or theme that has symbolic significance in the story. ... The evening of June 23, St. ... Ibsen redirects here. ... Duncan Pflaster is an American Off-Off-Broadway playwright, composer and actor. ... Shakespeare redirects here. ... This article is about the holiday. ...


For his series The Sandman, Neil Gaiman included a fantastical retelling of the play's origins in the graphic novel Dream Country. It won several awards, and is distinguished by being the only comic that has ever won a World Fantasy Award. In 2006–2007, comic-strip artist Brooke McEldowney, creator of 9 Chickweed Lane and the webcomic Pibgorn, adapted the story into a 20th century setting in Pibgorn, using characters from both his comic series in the "cast." A Midwinter Morning's Tale is comic of the Corto Maltese series by Hugo Pratt. Oberon, Puck, Morgan Le Fey and Merlin appear in the comic as a representation of the Gaelic and Celtic fantasy beings. They choose Corto Maltese as their knight to fight for their sake against a possible German invasion in the context of World War I. The Sandman was a comic book series written by Neil Gaiman and published by DC Comics for 75 issues from 1988 until 1996. ... Neil Richard Gaiman (IPA: ) (born November 10, 1960[2]) is an English author of science fiction and fantasy short stories and novels, graphic novels, comics, and films. ... Trade paperback of Will Eisners A Contract with God (1978), often mistakenly cited as the first graphic novel. ... Dream Country is the third graphic novel collection of the comic book series The Sandman, published by DC Comics. ... First awarded in 1975, the World Fantasy Awards are handed out annually at the World Fantasy Convention (WFC) to recognize outstanding achievement in the field of fantasy. ... Brooke McEldowney is the creator of two popular comic strips, Pibgorn and 9 Chickweed Lane. ... Edda goes wading. ... Webcomics, also known as online comics and internet comics, are comics that are available to read on the Internet. ... For other uses, see Pibgorn. ... Corto Maltese (Corto Maltese Venetsiassa is the title of the Finnish translation of Fable of Venice. ... Hugo Eugenio Pratt (June 15, 1927 – August 20, 1995) was an Italian comic book creator who combined his strong storytelling talent with extensive historical research on Corto Maltese and his other series. ... Oberon, also Auberon, King of the Fairies, is most well-known as a character in William Shakespeares play, A Midsummer Nights Dream, written in the mid-1590s. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Puck (mythology). ... Morgan le Fay, by Anthony Frederick Sandys (1829 - 1904), 1864 (Birmingham Art Gallery): A spell-brewing Morgaine distinctly of Tennysons generation In the mythology of King Arthur, Morgan le Fay, alternatively known as Morgaine, Morgain or Morgana and a slew of related name variants, is a powerful sorceress and... Merlin dictating his poems, as illustrated in a French book from the 13th century For other uses, see Merlin (disambiguation). ... “Gael” redirects here. ... The nature and functions of these ancient gods can be deduced from their names, the location of their inscriptions, their iconography, the Roman gods they are equated with, and similar figures from later bodies of Celtic mythology. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


Jean Betts of New Zealand also adapted the play to make a comedic feminist spoof, "Revenge of the Amazons"(1996). The gender-roles are reversed (play actors are feminist "thesbians"/ Oberon falls in love with a "bunny girl"). It is set in the 1970's with many social references and satire.


Magic Street (2005) by Orson Scott Card revisits the work as a continuation of the play under the premise that the story by Shakespeare was actually derived from true interactions with fairy folk. A Midsummer Night's Gene (1997) by Andrew Harman is a sci-fi parody of Shakespeare's play. Faerie Tale, the 1988 fantasy novel by Raymond E. Feist, contains many references to the mythical characters represented in Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream. Magic Street (ISBN 0345416899) is a novel by Orson Scott Card published in 2005. ... Orson Scott Card (born August 24, 1951)[1] is a bestselling American author, as well as being a critic, political writer, and speaker. ... This work should not be confused with A Midsummer Nights Dream by William Shakespeare A Midsummer Nights Gene is a sci-fi parody of Shakespeares play A Midsummer Nights Dream. ... Andrew Harman is a science fiction author, presumably from the UK. His novels bear titles that pun other famous works. ... Faerie Tale is a fantasy novel by Raymond E. Feist, first published in 1988. ... Raymond Elias Feist (born 1945, Los Angeles, California) is an American author, mostly specialising in fantasy fiction. ... Shakespeare redirects here. ...


Lords and Ladies, written by Terry Pratchett, adapts the general of use of fantasy characters (elves), the setting of a field, rustic thespians, and a royal wedding to his Discword cast of characters[26] . Lords and Ladies can be: Lords and ladies (arum maculatum), a flowering plant. ... Terence David John Pratchett, OBE (born 28 April 1948) is a British fantasy and science fiction author, best known for his Discworld series. ... The Discworld is a series of over 30 novels by Terry Pratchett set on the Discworld. ...


"The Sisters Grimm (novel series)", written by Micheal Buckly, features Puck, A.K.A: the Trickster King, as one of the main characters. In the fourth book of the series, "Once Upon a Crime", Titania, Oberon, and other Faerie Folk are introduced. The Sisters Grimm is a fantasy novel series written by Michael Buckley, and centers on Sabrina and Daphne Grimm, descendants of the Brothers Grimm. ...


Musical versions

Felix Mendelssohn composed an overture inspired by the play in 1826, intended for concert performance. In 1843, because of the fame of the overture, he was commissioned to write incidental music for a German stage production of the play. He added the Overture to it, and both were used in most stage versions through the nineteenth century. Among Mendelssohn's incidental pieces is his Wedding March, used most often today as a recessional in Western weddings. Between 1917 and 1939 Carl Orff also wrote incidental music for the play Ein Sommernachtstraum (performed in 1939). Since Mendelssohn was a Jew, his music had been banned by the Nazi regime, and the Nazi cultural officials put out a call for new music for the play: Orff was one of the musicians who responded. Portrait of Mendelssohn by the English miniaturist James Warren Childe (1778-1862), 1839 Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, born and generally known as Felix Mendelssohn (February 3, 1809 – November 4, 1847) is a German composer, pianist and conductor of the early Romantic period. ... Overture (French ouverture, meaning opening) in music is the instrumental introduction to a dramatic, choral or, occasionally, instrumental composition. ... Incidental music is music in a play, television program, radio program or some other form not primarily musical. ... Mendelssohns Wedding March is one of the best known of the pieces that he wrote for A Midsummer Nights Dream in 1842. ... Carl Orff Carl Orff (July 10, 1895) – March 29, 1982) was a 20th-century German composer, most famous for Carmina Burana (1937). ... Incidental music is music in a play, television program, radio program or some other form not primarily musical. ... The Orff are a fictional alien species in K. A. Applegates young adult book series, Animorphs. ...


The choreographer Marius Petipa (more famous for his collaborations with Tchaikovsky, Swan Lake and The Sleeping Beauty) made another ballet adaptation for the Imperial Ballet of St. Petersburg, Russia with additional music and adaptations to Mendelssohn's score by Léon Minkus. The revival premiered July 14, 1876. English choreographer Frederick Ashton also created a 40-minute ballet version of the play, retitled to The Dream. George Balanchine was another to create a ballet based on the play, using Mendelssohn's music. Maestro Marius Ivanovich Petipa, Maître de Ballet of the Imperial Theatres. ... Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (Russian Пётр Ильи́ч Чайко́вский, sometimes transliterated as Piotr, Anglicised as Peter Ilich), (May 7, 1840 – November 6, 1893 (N.S.); April 25, 1840 – October 25, 1893 (O.S.)) was a Russian composer of the Romantic era. ... The Valse des cygnes from Act II of the Ivanov/Petipa edition of Swan Lake. ... The Sleeping Beauty (Russian: , Spyashchaya Krasavitsa) is a ballet in a prologue and three acts, Opus 66, by Pyotr Tchaikovsky. ... For other uses, see Ballet (disambiguation). ... Carlotta Brianza and Paul Gerdt of the Imperial Ballet as Princess Aurora and Prince Desire in the 1890 premiere of the Sleeping Beauty. ... Saint Petersburg  listen (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of... Léon Minkus Léon Fedorovich Minkus (born Ludwig Aloisius Minkus March 23, 1826, Grossmeseritsch (Czech Velké Meziříčí), near Brünn (Czech Brno), Austria-Hungary - 1917, Vienna) was the most popular and performed Ballet Composer of the 19th century. ... Sir Frederick William Mallandaine Ashton (September 17, 1904 - October 18, 1988) began his career as a dancer but is largely remembered as a choreographer. ... George Balanchine (January 9 (O.S.) = January 22 (N.S.), 1904–April 30, 1983) was one of the 20th centurys foremost choreographers, and one of the founders of American ballet. ...


Over Hill, Over Dale, from Act 2, is the third of the Three Shakespeare Songs set to music by the British composer Ralph Vaughan Williams. He wrote the pieces for a cappella SATB choir in 1951 by for the British Federation of Music Festivals, and they remain a popular part of British choral repertoire today. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A statue of Ralph Vaughan Williams in Dorking. ...


Progressive Rock guitarrist Steve Hackett, best known with his work with Genesis, made a claasical adaptation pf the play in 1997. Steve Hackett (born Stephen Richard Hackett on February 12, 1950, in Pimlico, England) is a writer and guitarist. ... For other uses, see Genesis (disambiguation). ...


The play was adapted into an opera, with music by Benjamin Britten and libretto by Britten and Peter Pears. The opera was first performed on June 1, 1960, at Aldeburgh. The Fairy-Queen by Henry Purcell consists of a set of masques meant to go between acts of the play, as well as some minimal rewriting of the play to be current to 17th century audiences. Benjamin Brittens A Midsummer Nights Dream is an opera based on the play of the same name by Shakespeare. ... Britten redirects here. ... For the computer manufactured by Toshiba, see Libretto (notebook). ... Sir Peter Neville Luard Pears (June 22, 1910 – April 3, 1986) was an English tenor and life-long partner of the composer Benjamin Britten. ... For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Map sources for Aldeburgh at grid reference TM4656 Aldeburgh is a town in Suffolk, East Anglia, England; it is located on the Alde river at 52° North, 1° East 1. ... The Fairy-Queen (Z.629) is a masque or semi-opera by Henry Purcell. ... Henry Purcell Henry Purcell (IPA: ;[1] September 10 (?),[2], 1659–November 21, 1695), was an English Baroque composer. ... Costume for a Knight, by Inigo Jones: the plumed helmet, the heroic torso in armour and other conventions were still employed for opera seria in the 18th century. ...


Film references

Rehearsals for a performance of the play by American servicemen stationed in Kent during WW2 appear in the 1944 Powell and Pressburger film A Canterbury Tale. A Canterbury Tale (1944) is a British film by the film-making team of Powell & Pressburger. ...


Dead Poets Society: The tragic protagonist of the movie Dead Poets Society, Neil Perry (Robert Sean Leonard), was cast as Puck in a local production of A Midsummer Night's Dream. We only see a few frames of his performance, including the ending monologue which could be interpreted as a literary device used by the writer (Tom Schulman) to emphasize his unsuccessful plea to his father.


Disney's animated series Gargoyles featured many characters from Shakespeare's Midsummer Night's Dream, including Oberon, Titania, and, most prominently, Puck. In this series, Puck actually takes the form of Owen, loyal assistant to the main villain Xanatos. Later, Puck becomes the tutor for Xanatos' quarter-fae son, Alex. He is wily, sprightly, and willing to have fun at the expense of others.


Get Over It: The 2001 film stars Kirsten Dunst (Kelly Woods/Helena), Ben Foster (Berke Landers/Lysander), Melissa Sagemiller (Allison McAllister/Hermia) and Shane West (Bentley 'Striker' Scrumfeld/Demetrius) in a "teen adaptation" of Shakespeare's play. The characters are set in high school, and in addition to some similarities in plot, there is a sub-plot involving the main characters acting in a musical production of A Midsummer Night's Dream.


In the animated television series, Animaniacs, there is a piece where Yakko performs Puck's final soliloquy while Dot provides a humorous interpretation of the Elizabethan English including appropriate comedic references such as interpreting "And Robin shall restore honour" as "And the Boy Wonder will save us" and the Warner siblings getting a ride in the Batmobile (which is carrying Robin the Boy Wonder) to escape an angered fairy's wrath. A television program is the content of television broadcasting. ... This article is about the television series. ... Early Modern English is a name for the modern English language the way it was used between around 1485 and 1650. ... The Tumbler Batmobile as seen in Batman Begins. ... A classic image of Batman and Robin reinterpreted by painter Alex Ross. ...


Film adaptations

See also Shakespeare on screen (A Midsummer Night's Dream)

The Shakespeare play has inspired several movies. The following are the best known. It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ...

  • 1935 - directed by Max Reinhardt and William Dieterle, produced by Henry Blanke and adapted by Charles Kenyon and Mary C. McCall Jr.
    • The cast included James Cagney as Bottom, Mickey Rooney as Puck, Olivia de Havilland as Hermia, Joe E. Brown as Francis Flute, Dick Powell as Lysander and Victor Jory as Oberon. Many of the actors in this version had never performed Shakespeare, and never would do so again, notably Cagney and Brown, who were nevertheless highly acclaimed for their performances in the film. [27]
    • Much of Mendelssohn's music was used , but re-orchestrated by Erich Wolfgang Korngold. The ballet sequences featuring the fairies were choreographed by Bronislava Nijinska.
    • The film won two Academy Awards:
      • Best Cinematography - Hal Mohr
      • Best Film Editing - Ralph Dawson
    • It was nominated for:
      • Best Picture - Henry Blanke, producer
      • Best Assistant Director - Sherry Shourds
      • Notably, Hal Mohr was not nominated for his work on the movie; he won the Oscar thanks to a grass-roots write-in campaign. The next year the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences declared that it would not accept write-in votes for the awards.
      • The film was first released at 132 minutes, but was edited to 117 minutes for its general release run. The full 132 minute version was not seen again until it turned up on cable television in 1994. The film was then re-issued at its full length on VHS (its first video release was of the edited version). Later showings on Turner Classic Movies have restored the film's pre-credits Overture, and its Exit Music, neither of which had been heard since its 1935 road show presentations. A DVD version was released in 2007; it runs 143 minutes (ASIN: B000QGE8JC).

Anime: In 2005, xxxHolic -A Midsummer's Night Dream was released in theaters. It shared slight similarities with the play. Max Reinhardt Max Reinhardt (born September 9, 1873 in Baden bei Wien; died October 31, 1943 in New York City) was an influential Austrian director and actor. ... William Dieterle (July 15, 1893 – December 9, 1972) was an German born American actor and film director. ... Henry Blanke (b. ... James Francis Cagney, Jr. ... Nick Bottom is a character in Shakespeares A Midsummer Nights Dream who provides comic relief throughout the play, and is famously known for getting his head transformed into that of a donkey by the elusive Puck within the play. ... Actor Mickey Rooney speaks at the Pentagon in 2000 during a ceremony honoring the USO. Mickey Rooney (born Joseph Yule, Jr. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Puck (mythology). ... Olivia Mary de Havilland (born July 1, 1916) is a two-time Academy Award winning actress in American motion pictures and is the last surviving principal cast member from Gone with the Wind. ... Hermia is a fictional character from the Shakespeare play, A Midsummers Night Dream. ... Joe E. Brown in the late 1920s. ... Francis Flute is a character in the play A Midsummer Nights Dream. ... Richard Ewing Dick Powell (November 14, 1904 – January 2, 1963) was an American singer, actor, producer, and director. ... Lysander is one of the iconic lovers in William Shakespeares play: A Midsummer Nights Dream. ... Victor Jory (November 23, 1902 – February 12, 1982) was a Canadian actor. ... Oberon, also Auberon, King of the Fairies, is most well-known as a character in William Shakespeares play, A Midsummer Nights Dream, written in the mid-1590s. ... Korngold conducting the Warner Brothers studio orchestra (Rhino Records) Erich Wolfgang Korngold (May 29, 1897 – November 29, 1957) was a 20th century romantic composer. ... Bronislava Nijinska (January 8, 1891 - February 21, 1972) was a Russian dancer, choreographer, and teacher of Polish descent, also known as Bronislava Fominitshna Nizhinskaya; in Polish language: Bronisława Niżyńska. ... Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ... Hal Mohr (b. ... Henry Blanke (b. ... Fairbanks Center for Motion Picture Study building on La Cienega Boulevard in Beverly Hills, California Pickford Center for Motion Picture Study in the Hollywood, district. ... Cable TV redirects here. ... Bottom view of VHS cassette with magnetic tape exposed Top view of VHS cassette with front casing removed The Video Home System, better known by its abbreviation VHS, is a recording and playing standard. ... Turner Classic Movies (TCM) is a cable television channel featuring commercial-free classic movies, mostly from the Turner Entertainment and Warner Bros. ... Many of the most spectacular films ever made were shown as road show attractions. ... DVD (also known as Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc - see Etymology) is a popular optical disc storage media format. ... Sir Peter Reginald Frederick Hall CBE (born 22 November 1930) is an English theatre and film director. ... Paul Rogers is the name of: Paul Rogers (politician) (born 1921), American lawyer and politician Paul Rogers (actor), (born 1917), English actor Paul Rogers (basketball) (born 1973), Australian basketball player Paul Rogers (Green Anarchist), Green Anarchist editor and co-defendant in the GANDALF trial See also: Paul Rodgers Category: ... Sir Ian Holm Sir Ian Holm CBE (born 12 September 1931), born as Ian Holm Cuthbert, is an English actor. ... Dame Enid Diana Elizabeth Rigg DBE (born 20 July 1938) is an English actress. ... Dame Helen Mirren, DBE (born July 26, 1945), is an English stage, television and film actress. ... Ian William Richardson CBE (7 April 1934 – 9 February 2007) was a Scottish actor best known for playing the Machiavellian politician Francis Urquhart in the House of Cards trilogy for the BBC. // Born in Edinburgh, Richardson was educated at Balgreen Primary School and Tynecastle High School in the city,[1... Dame Judith Olivia Dench, CH, DBE, FRSA, (born 9 December 1934), usually known as Dame Judi Dench, is an Academy Award, Golden Globe, Tony, three-time BAFTA, and six-time Laurence Olivier Award-winning English actress. ... Sebastian Shaw (left) as the original version of Anakin Skywalker in Return of the Jedi. ... Royal Shakespeare Theatre in Stratford-upon-Avon The Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC) is a British theatre company. ... Sir Peter Reginald Frederick Hall CBE (born 22 November 1930) is an English theatre and film director. ... For the British politician, see Peter Brooke. ... Adrian Noble was the director of the Royal Shakespeare Company from 1990 to 2003. ... Desmond Barrit (born October 19, 1944 in Morriston) is a British actor who has starred in productions of the Royal Shakespeare Company. ... Barry J. Lynch (born Brooklyn, New York, USA) is an American actor. ... Alex Jennings (born 10 May 1957) is an award-winning English actor. ... | Lindsay Vere Duncan (born 7 November 1950) is a Tony Award-winning Scottish actress. ... Royal Shakespeare Theatre in Stratford-upon-Avon The Royal Shakespeare Company (RSC) is a British theatre company. ... Michael Hoffman is a movie director. ... Kevin Delaney Kline (born October 24, 1947) is an Academy Award- and Tony Award-winning American stage and film actor. ... Nick Bottom is a character in Shakespeares A Midsummer Nights Dream who provides comic relief throughout the play, and is famously known for getting his head transformed into that of a donkey by the elusive Puck within the play. ... -1... Oberon, also Auberon, King of the Fairies, is most well-known as a character in William Shakespeares play, A Midsummer Nights Dream, written in the mid-1590s. ... -1... The Quarrel of Oberon and Titania (1846), by Sir Joseph Paton Titania was the name of a character in William Shakespeares play A Midsummer Nights Dream. ... Sophie Marceau is a popular French actress who gained international recognition with her performances in Braveheart and The World is Not Enough. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Christian Charles Philip Bale (also known professionally as Christian Morgan Bale; born 30 January 1974) is a Screen Actors Guild Award-nominated, Saturn Award-winning Welsh actor[2][3] whose film credits include Empire of the Sun, American Psycho, Equilibrium, The Machinist, Batman Begins and the upcoming The Dark Knight. ... Look up Demetrius in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Dominic West (born October 15, 1969) is an English actor. ... Most important geographical sites, during the life of Lysander For other uses, see Lysander (disambiguation). ... Calista Kay Flockhart (born on November 11, 1964) is an Emmy Award-nominated and Golden Globe-winning American actress, primarily on soap operas and television. ... Look up Helena in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Tuscany (disambiguation). ... James Kerwin (born October 13, 1973 in St. ... Travis Schuldt (18 September 1974) is an American actor. ... Look up Demetrius in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A Midsummer Nights Rave is a modern rave take on Shakespeares A Midsummer Nights Dream released in 2002 Cast Corey Pearson - Damon Lauren German - Elena Andrew Keegan - Xander Chad Lindberg - Nick Sunny Mabrey - Mia External Links A Midsummer Nights Rave at IMDB.com Categories: | | | ... ShakespeaRe-Told is the umbrella title for a series of four adaptions of William Shakespeares plays broadcast on BBC One through November 2005. ... Johnny Vegas (b. ... Actor Dean Lennox Kelly is best known for his role as Kev in Channel 4’s Shameless. ... Bill Paterson is a Scottish actor who has appeared in many films, plays and television series. ... Imelda Mary Philomena Bernadette Staunton OBE (born on January 9, 1956) is an Academy Award-nominated English actress. ... Lennie James is a British actor. ... Sharon Small (born 1967) is a Scottish actress. ... Zoe Tapper is a British actress. ... Michelle Bonnard is a British actress. ... holic redirects here. ...


Disney shorts: A Midsummer Night's Dream was adaptated into a Disney short starring Mickey Mouse, Minnie Mouse, Donald Duck, and Daisy Duck as Lysander, Hermia, Demetrius, and Helena, respectively. In the end, the story is revealed to be a dream that Mickey has during a picnic. This short was featured in Disney's Mickey Mouse Works and House of Mouse Mickey Mouse is an Academy Award-winning comic animal cartoon character who has become an icon for The Walt Disney Company. ... Minnie redirects here. ... Donald Duck is an animated cartoon and comic-book character from Walt Disney Productions. ... Daisy Duck one of Walt Disneys cartoon and comic book characters. ... Mickey Mouse Works is a television show that features Mickey Mouse and his friends in a series of animated segments. ... The House of Mouse is a Disney cartoon show where Mickey Mouse and his friends run a nighclub called The House of Mouse, which shows Disney cartons as part of its floor show. ...


References

  1. ^ Shakespeare's Sources for A Midsummer Night's Dream
  2. ^ Shakespeare, William (1979). in Harold F. Brooks: The Arden Shakespeare "A Midsummer Nights Drean". Methuen & Co. Ltd., cxxv. ISBN 0415026997. 
  3. ^ (Bevington 24-35)
  4. ^ (Shakespeare 256-283)
  5. ^ (Croce 386-7)
  6. ^ (Bevington 32)
  7. ^ (Hunt 1)
  8. ^ (Hunt 1)
  9. ^ (Hunt 1)
  10. ^ (Kiernan 212)
  11. ^ (Kiernan 210)
  12. ^ (Marshall 562)
  13. ^ (Marshall 563)
  14. ^ (Marshall 562-64)
  15. ^ (Green 370)
  16. ^ (Green 375)
  17. ^ (Garner 129-130)
  18. ^ (Slights 261)
  19. ^ (Howard 414)
  20. ^ (Montrose 65)
  21. ^ (Montrose 61-69)
  22. ^ (Tennenhouse 73)
  23. ^ (Tennenhouse 74-76)
  24. ^ F. E. Halliday, A Shakespeare Companion 1564-1964, Baltimore, Penguin, 1964; pp. 142-3 and 316-17.
  25. ^ Halliday, pp. 255, 271, 278, 316-17, 410.
  26. ^ http://www.amazon.com/Lords-Ladies-Terry-Pratchett/dp/0061056928 Lords and Ladies
  27. ^ Eckert, Charles W., ed. Focus on Shakespearean Films, p. 48 Watts, Richard W. "Films of a Moonstruck World"

Bibliography

  • Bevington, David. “‘But We Are Spirits of Another Sort’: The Dark Side of Love and Magic in A Midsummer Night’s Dream”. A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Ed. Richard Dutton. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1996. 24-35.
  • Croce, Benedetto. “Comedy of Love.” A Midsummer Night’s Dream. Eds. Judith M. Kennedy and Richard F. Kennedy. London: Athlone Press, 1999. 386-8.
  • Garner, Shirley Nelson. “Jack Shall Have Jill;/ Nought Shall Go Ill”. A Midsummer Night's Dream Critical Essays. Ed.Dorothea Kehler. New York: Garland Publishing Inc., 1998.127-144.
  • Green, Douglas E. “Preposterous Pleasures: Queer Theories and A Midsummer Night’s Dream.” A Midsummer Night’s Dream Critical Essays. Ed. Dorothea Kehler. New York: Garland Publishing Inc., 1998. 369-400.
  • Howard, Jean E. "Feminist Criticism." Shakespare: An Oxford Guide. Eds. Stanley Wells and Lena Cowen Orlin, eds. New York: Oxford University Press, 2003. 411-423.
  • Hunt, Maurice. "Individuation in A Midsummer Night's Dream." South Central Review 3.2 (Summer 1986): 1-13.
  • Kiernan, Victor. Shakespeare Poet and Citizen. London: Verso, 1993.
  • Marshall, David. "Exchanging Visions: Reading A Midsummer Night's Dream." ELH 49.3 (Autumn 1983): 543-575.
  • Montrose, Louis. "The Imperial Votaress." A Shakespeare Reader: Sources and Criticism. Eds. Richard Danson Brown and David Johnson. London: Macmillan Press, Ltd, 2000. 60-71.
  • Shakespeare, William. A Midsummer Night's Dream. The Riverside Shakespeare. Ed. G. Blakemore Evans and J.J.M. Tobin. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1997. 256-283.
  • Slights, William W. E. “The Changeling in A Dream”. Studies in English Literature, 1500-1900. Rice University Press, 1998. 259-272.
  • Tennenhouse, Leonard. Power on Display: the Politics of Shakespeare's Genres. New York: Methuen, Inc., 1986. 73-76.

External links

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Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Oberon, also Auberon, King of Shadows and Fairies, is best known as a character in William Shakespeares play, A Midsummer Nights Dream, written in the mid-1590s. ... The Quarrel of Oberon and Titania (1846), by Sir Joseph Paton Titania was the name of a character in William Shakespeares play A Midsummer Nights Dream. ... Lysander is one of the iconic lovers in William Shakespeares play: A Midsummer Nights Dream. ... Hermia is a Technology Centre near Tampere University of Technology (TUT). ... Look up Demetrius in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Washington Allstons 1818 painting Hermia and Helena. ... Theseus (Greek ) was a legendary king of Athens, son of Aethra, and fathered by Aegeus and Poseidon, with whom Aethra lay in one night (By some accounts, this was presented as a rape). ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A Mechanical is any one of six characters in A Midsummer Nights Dream who perform the play within the play, Pyramus and Thisbe. ... Nick Bottom is a character in Shakespeares A Midsummer Nights Dream who provides comic relief throughout the play, and is famously known for getting his head transformed into that of a donkey by the elusive Puck within the play. ... In William Shakespeares A Midsummer Nights Dream, Peter Quince is a carpenter that works in Athens. ... Francis Flute is a character in the play A Midsummer Nights Dream. ... Robin Starveling is a character in William Shakespeares Midsummer Nights Dream. ... Tom Snout plays the Wall in William Shakespeares A Midsummer Nights Dream Category: Actor stubs ... Snug is a minor character from William Shakespeares play A Midsummer Nights Dream. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Puck (mythology). ... Egeus is a secondary character in Shakespeares play A Midsummer Nights Dream. Egeus is the defensive father of Hermia. ... Philostrate is the master of revels at Theseus court in William Shakespeares A Midsummer Nights Dream. ... For other uses, see A Midsummer Nights Dream (disambiguation). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... William Shakespeare (1564 – 1616)[1] was an English poet and playwright. ... William Shakespeare (National Portrait Gallery), in the famous Chandos portrait, artist and authenticity unconfirmed. ... Detail from statue of Shakespeare in Leicester Square, London. ... William Shakespeares influence extends from theatre to literature to the English language itself. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... William Shakespeare (National Portrait Gallery), in the famous Chandos portrait, artist and authenticity unconfirmed. ... The frontispiece of the First Folio (1623), the first collected edition of Shakespeares plays. ... Image File history File links Shakespeare2. ... Shakespeare wrote tragedies from the beginning of his career. ... Anthony and Cleopatra, by Lawrence Alma-Tadema. ... Venturia at the Feet of Coriolanus by Gaspare Landi Photo courtesy of The VRoma Project. ... Dame Ellen Terry as Imogen This article is about Shakespeares play. ... For other uses, see Hamlet (disambiguation). ... Facsimile of the first page of Julius Caesar from the First Folio, published in 1623 Julius Caesar is a tragedy by William Shakespeare, believed written in 1599. ... For other uses, see King Lear (disambiguation). ... This article is about Shakespeares play. ... For other uses, see Othello (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Romeo and Juliet (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Timon (disambiguation). ... Title page of the first quarto edition (1594) For the band of the same name, see Titus Andronicus (band). ... For the Chaucer poem, see Troilus and Criseyde. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... For other uses, see Alls Well That Ends Well (disambiguation). ... Walter Deverell,The Mock Marriage of Orlando and Rosalind, 1853 William Shakespeares As You Like It is a pastoral comedy written in 1599 or early 1600. ... Poster for a performance The Comedy of Errors is one of William Shakespeares early plays, written between 1592 and 1594. ... For the film, see Loves Labours Lost (2000 film). ... Claudio and Isabella (1850) by William Holman Hunt Measure for Measure is a play by William Shakespeare, written in 1603. ... Title page of the first quarto (1600) The Merchant of Venice is a play by William Shakespeare, believed to have been written sometime between 1596 and 1598. ... Title page of the 1602 quarto The Merry Wives of Windsor is a comedy by William Shakespeare featuring the fat knight Sir John Falstaff and is Shakespeares only play to deal exclusively with contemporary English life. ... Much Ado About Nothing is a comedy by William Shakespeare. ... Title page of the 1611 quarto edition of the play Pericles, Prince of Tyre is a play written (at least in part) by William Shakespeare and included in modern editions of his collected plays despite some questions over its authorship. ... Taming of the Shrew by Augustus Egg The Taming of the Shrew is a comedy by William Shakespeare. ... For other uses, see Tempest. ... Twelfth Night has at least three meanings: Twelfth Night (holiday), celebrated by some Christians Twelfth Night, or What You Will, a comedic play by William Shakespeare Twelfth Night (band), a progressive rock band This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the... The Two Gentlemen of Verona is a comedy by William Shakespeare from early in his career. ... The Two Noble Kinsmen is a play written in 1613 by John Fletcher and William Shakespeare in collaboration. ... Florizel and Perdita by Charles Robert Leslie. ... Traditionally, the plays of William Shakespeare have been grouped into three categories: tragedies, comedies, and histories. ... The Life and Death of King John is one of the Shakespearean histories, plays written by William Shakespeare and based on the history of England. ... Title page of Richard II, from the fifth quarto, published in 1615. ... Title page of the first quarto (1598) Henry IV, Part 1 is a history play by William Shakespeare. ... Henry IV part 2 is a history play by William Shakespeare, first published as part of Shakespeares First Folio. ... Title page of the first quarto (1600) Henry V, also known as The Cronicle History of Henry the fift, is a play by William Shakespeare based on the life of King Henry V of England. ... The First Part of King Henry the Sixth is one of Shakespeares history plays. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Henry VI Part III is the third of William Shakespeares plays set during the lifetime of King Henry VI of England, and prepares the ground for one of his best-known and most controversial plays: the tragedy of King Richard III (Richard III of England). ... Frontispage of the First Quarto Richard The Third. ... Dame Ellen Terry as Katherine of Aragon The Famous History of the Life of King Henry the Eighth was one of the last plays written by the English playwright William Shakespeare, based on the life of Henry VIII of England. ... -1... Title page of the first quarto (1593) Venus and Adonis is one of Shakespeares three longer poems. ... The Earl of Southampton, painted in 1594, aged 21, the year that Shakespeare dedicated The Rape of Lucrece to him The narrative poem The Rape of Lucrece is the graver work promised by English dramatist-poet William Shakespeare in his dedication to his patron, Henry Wriothesley, 3rd Earl of Southampton... The Passionate Pilgrim is a collection of poems, first published in 1599, attributed on the title-page to William Shakespeare. ... The Phoenix and the Turtle is a poem by William Shakespeare. ... A Lovers Complaint is a narrative poem usually attributed to William Shakespeare, although the poems authorship is a matter of critical debate. ... The Shakespeare Apocrypha is the name given to a group of plays that have sometimes been attributed to William Shakespeare, but whose attribution is questionable for various reasons. ... The Reign of King Edward III is a play attributed to William Shakespeare. ... Playtext from the 2005 Royal Shakespeare Company production. ... Publicity poster for the 2002 Los Angeles production of The Second Maidens Tragedy as The History of Cardenio is a lost play, known to have been performed by the Kings Men, a London theatre company, in 1613. ... Loves Labours Won, alternatively written Loves labours wonne, is the name of a play written by William Shakespeare before 1598. ... The Birth of Merlin, or, The Child Hath Found his Father is a Jacobean play, written in 1622. ... Locrine is an Elizabethan play depicting the legendary Trojan founders of the nation of England and of Troynovant (London). ... The London Prodigal is a city comedy set in London in which a prodigal son learns the error of his ways. ... Title page of the 1607 quarto The Puritan is a Jacobean comedy, published in 1607, generally considered to be written by Thomas Middleton. ... The Second Maidens Tragedy is a Jacobean play that survives only in manuscript. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Sir John Oldcastle is an Elizabethan play about John Oldcastle, a controversial 14th-15th century rebel and Lollard who was seen by some of Shakespeares contemporaries as a proto-Protestant martyr. ... Thomas Lord Cromwell is an Elizabethan play, published in 1602. ... A Yorkshire Tragedy is an early Jacobean era stage play, a domestic tragedy printed in 1608. ... Fair Em, the Millers Daughter of Manchester, is an Elizabethan comedy written ca. ... Mucedorus is a play at one time claimed to be one of Shakespeares. ... The Merry Devil of Edmonton is an Elizabethan comedy about a magician, Peter Fabel, nicknamed the Merry Devil. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Edmund Ironside is an anonymous Elizabethan play that depicts the life of Edmund II of England; however, at least two critics have suggested it is an early work by Shakespeare. ... Vortigern and Rowena, or Vortigern, an Historical Play is a play that was touted as a newly discovered work by William Shakespeare when it first appeared in 1796. ... Sir John Gilberts 1849 painting: The Plays of William Shakespeare, containing scenes and characters from several of William Shakespeares plays. ... Sir John Gilberts 1849 painting: The Plays of William Shakespeare, containing scenes and characters from several of William Shakespeares plays. ... The precise chronology of Shakespeares plays as they were first written and performed is impossible to determine, as there is no authoritative record and many of the plays were performed many years before they were published. ... The precise chronology of Shakespeares plays as they were first written is impossible to determine, as there is no authoritative record and many of the plays were performed many years before they were published. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles. ... The BBC Television Shakespeare was a set of television adaptations of the plays of Shakespeare, produced by the BBC between 1978 and 1985. ... The following is a partially complete list of titles of works based on Shakespearean phrases. ... In Shakespeare studies, the term problem plays normally refers to three comedies that William Shakespeare wrote between the late 1590s and the first years of the seventeenth century: Alls Well That Ends Well, Measure for Measure and The Merchant of Venice, although some critics would extend the term to... This list contains the biographies of historical figures who appear in the plays of William Shakespeare. ... In playwriting, a ghost character is a character that is mentioned as appearing on stage but neither says nor does anything but enter, and possibly exit. ...

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A Midsummer Night's Dream is a romantic comedy by William Shakespeare written sometime in the mid-1590s.
In the opening scene, Hermia refuses to comply with her father Egeus's wish for her to marry his chosen man, Demetrius; in response, Egeus quotes before Theseus an ancient Athenian law whereby a daughter must marry the suitor chosen by her father, or else face death or lifelong chastity worshipping Diana as a nun.
Finally, as night falls, Oberon and Titania bless the house, its occupants, and the future children of the newlyweds, and Puck delivers an epilogue to the audience asking for applause.
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