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Encyclopedia > 9th century
Millennium: 1st millennium
Centuries: 8th century - 9th century - 10th century
Decades: 800s 810s 820s 830s 840s
850s 860s 870s 880s 890s
Categories: Births - Deaths
Establishments - Disestablishments

As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. A millennium (pl. ... In the Gregorian calendar, the 1st millennium is the period of one thousand years that commenced with the year 1 Anno Domini. ... These pages contain the trends of millennia and centuries. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... This is a list of decades which have articles with more information about them. ... Centuries: 8th century - 9th century - 10th century Decades: 750s 760s 770s 780s 790s - 800s - 810s 820s 830s 840s 850s Years: 800 801 802 803 804 805 806 807 808 809 Significant Events and Trends Swedish town of Birka founded as a centre of trade on the island of Björk... Centuries: 8th century - 9th century - 10th century Decades: 760s - 770s - 780s - 790s - 800s - 810s - 820s - 830s - 840s - 850s - 860s Years: 810 811 812 813 814 815 816 817 818 819 Trends and events: 814 - Charlemagne dies; transfer of united territory to Louis the Pious. ... Centuries: 8th century - 9th century - 10th century Decades: 770s - 780s - 790s - 800s - 810s - 820s - 830s - 840s - 850s - 860s - 870s Years: 820 821 822 823 824 825 826 827 828 829 Events: Egbert of Wessex rises to the position of Bretwalda. ... Centuries: 8th century - 9th century - 10th century Decades: 780s - 790s - 800s - 810s - 820s - 830s - 840s - 850s - 860s - 870s - 880s Years: 830 831 832 833 834 835 836 837 838 839 Events: The first Swedes arrive in Russia. ... Centuries: 8th century - 9th century - 10th century Decades: 790s - 800s - 810s - 820s - 830s - 840s - 850s - 860s - 870s - 880s - 890s Years: 840 841 842 843 844 845 846 847 848 849 After the death of Louis the Pious, his sons Charles the Bald, Louis the German and Lothair II of Lotharingia... Centuries: 8th century - 9th century - 10th century Decades: 800s - 810s - 820s - 830s - 840s - 850s - 860s - 870s - 880s - 890s - 900s 850 851 852 853 854 855 856 857 858 859 Events Samara the Sweet is born. ... Centuries: 8th century - 9th century - 10th century Decades: 810s - 820s - 830s - 840s - 850s - 860s - 870s - 880s - 890s - 900s - 910s Years: 860 861 862 863 864 865 866 867 868 869 Events Rurik establishes the state of Novgorod (later Kievan Rus) Basil I has first caesar Bardas (866), then emperor Michael... Centuries: 8th century - 9th century - 10th century Decades: 820s - 830s - 840s - 850s - 860s - 870s - 880s - 890s - 900s - 910s - 920s Years: 870 871 872 873 874 875 876 877 878 879 Events and trends The Danes invade England (870) and conquer East Anglia. ... Centuries: 8th century - 9th century - 10th century Decades: 830s - 840s - 850s - 860s - 870s - 880s - 890s - 900s - 910s - 920s - 930s Years: 880 881 882 883 884 885 886 887 888 889 Events and trends 885: Vikings lay siege for Paris 886: Alfred the Great of Wessex captures London Important people Charles... Centuries: 8th century - 9th century - 10th century Decades: 840s - 850s _ 860s - 870s - 880s - 890s - 900s - 910s - 920s - 930s - 940s Years: 890 891 892 893 894 895 896 897 898 899 900 Events Categories: 890s ... A pocket watch, a device used to tell time Look up time in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A century (From the Latin cent, one hundred) is one hundred consecutive years. ... Events December 28 - Louis the Vrome occupies Barcelona. ... Persian sfuckentist, Rhazes, distinguished smallpox from measles in the course of his writings. ...

This earthenware dish was made in 9th century Iraq. It is housed in the Freer Gallery of Art of the Smithsonian Institute in Washington, D.C.
This earthenware dish was made in 9th century Iraq. It is housed in the Freer Gallery of Art of the Smithsonian Institute in Washington, D.C.

Contents

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1079x1001, 1152 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1079x1001, 1152 KB) Please see the file description page for further information. ... Earthenware is a common ceramic material, which is used extensively for pottery tableware and decorative objects. ... The entrance to the Freer Gallery. ... The Smithsonian castle, as seen through the garden gate. ... Nickname: Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia Coordinates: , Country United States Federal District District of Columbia Government  - Mayor Adrian M. Fenty (D)  - City Council Chairperson: Vincent C. Gray (D) Ward 1: Jim Graham (D) Ward 2: Jack...

Western European

"Dark Ages" applied later to this period

Starting about 400 years after the period, influential figures in the early phases of the Renaissance would refer back to these times, and the 3 centuries previous, as the "Dark Ages." The reference based on the eclipse of the Western Roman Empire, after AD 476, and the general loss of classical art forms, reduction of urban centers, and diffusion of political power to a petty level. Regional enities never grew to the level of nationhood, let alone empire. Only the Roman Catholic Papacy had true international power, and this was somewhat limited due to poor communications between the regions of Europe. Classical civilization's former record was preserved by the efforts of Catholic monks hand copying manuscripts, but since only a tiny percentage of the populace could read and write, little information or knowledge was disseminated. Most western people were engaged in rural agriculture, and the Roman cities were largely in ruins. Still, certain arts, related to the Church and the ruling class, led to at least a small degree of support to artisans. There is a legacy of brass and gold objects preserved in the world's museums from Europe's "Dark Ages." The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... Petrarch, who conceived the idea of a European Dark Age. From Cycle of Famous Men and Women, Andrea di Bartolo di Bargillac, c. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ... Events August - The usurper Basiliscus is deposed and Zeno is restored as Eastern Roman Emperor. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church... Petrarch, who conceived the idea of a European Dark Age. From Cycle of Famous Men and Women, Andrea di Bartolo di Bargillac, c. ...


Art of the "Dark Ages"

First and foremost, art existed because the Church required it. The basic tools of the Roman Catholic mass, thousands of golden art objects were made. Sacred cups, vessels, reliqueries, crucifixes, rosaries, altar pieces, and statues of the Virgin and Child or Saints all kept the flame of art from dying out in the period. Architecture began to revive to some extent by the 9th century. It took the form of Church facilities of all kinds, and the first castle fortifications since Roman times began to take form in simple "moat and baily" castles, or simple "strong point" tower structures, with little refinement.


Worldwide Events

Brass Griffin beverage urn from 9th century
The Three Pagodas of Dali, Yunnan province, China, 9th and 10th centuries.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1021x1000, 564 KB)This image is a compatible 3D image. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1021x1000, 564 KB)This image is a compatible 3D image. ... Image File history File links 3d_glasses_red_cyan. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x728, 85 KB) Summary Author: Jian Qiu Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x728, 85 KB) Summary Author: Jian Qiu Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Three Pagodas is one of the famous places of interest in China. ... Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture Yunnans position in China Old City gate Night View of Dali Ancient Walled Downtown The Three Pagodas of Chong Sheng Temple South gate of the Ancient City of Dali Dali (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Bai: Darl•lit; Hani: Dafli) is a city in Yunnan province in the...   (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ; literally south of the clouds) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the far southwestern corner of the country. ... A junk is a Chinese sailing vessel. ... The Euphrates (the traditional Greek name for the river, which is in Old Persian Ufrat, Aramaic Prâth/Frot, in Arabic الفرات, in Turkish Fırat and in ancient Assyrian language Pu-rat-tu) is the westernmost of the two great rivers that define... The Maya civilization is a Mesoamerican civilization, noted for the only known fully developed written language of the pre-Columbian Americas, as well as its spectacular art, monumental architecture, and sophisticated mathematical and astronomical systems. ... Mesoamerican chronology The chronology of Pre-Columbian Mesoamerica is usually divided into the following eras: // Paleo-Indian Period c. ... The first page of Beowulf Beowulf is an Old English heroic epic poem composed in the later Early Middle Ages (in the 8th, 9th or 10th century). ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... A portrait of Charlemagne by Albrecht Dürer that was painted several centuries after Charlemagnes death. ... Sample of Carolingian minuscule, one of the products of the Carolingian Renaissance. ... The term Viking commonly denotes the ship-borne warriors and traders of Norsemen (literally, men from the north) who originated in Scandinavia and raided the coasts of Britain, Ireland and mainland Europe as far east as the Volga River in Russia from the late 8th–11th century. ... The Oseberg longship (Viking Ship Museum, Norway) vantage exactly from the front - one of the most stunning expressions of Norse art and craftsmenship The Oseberg ship was found in a large burial mound at the Oseberg farm near Tønsberg in Vestfold county, Norway, in 1904. ... Ship burial of Igor the Old in 945, depicted by Heinrich Semiradski (1845-1902). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Takrur was one of the minor Iron Age states of West Africa, which flourished roughly parallel to the Kingdom of Ghana. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Events Nicephorus I and Charlemagne settle their imperial boundaries. ... The Leshan Giant Buddha (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is the tallest stone Buddha statue in the world. ... China under the Tang Dynasty (yellow) and its sphere of influence Capital Changan (618–904) Luoyang (904-907) Language(s) Middle Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 618-626 Emperor Gaozu  - 684, 705-710 Emperor Zhongzong  - 684, 710-712 Emperor Ruizong  - 904-907 Emperor Ai History  - Li... Events June 22 - Byzantine Emperor Michael I is defeated in a war against the Bulgarians. ... Events Fatimid armies invaded Egypt. ... Events December 25, Rome, coronation of Charles the Great (Charlemagne) as emperor by Pope Leo III. Celtic monks begin work on the Book of Kells on the Island of Iona. ... Tiber River in Rome The Tiber (Italian Tevere, Latin Tiberis), the third-longest river in Italy at 406 km (252 miles) after the Po and the Adige, flows through Rome in its course from Mount Fumaiolo to the Tyrrhenian Sea, which it reaches in two branches that cross the suburbs... Events The Borobudur is completed. ... Events Boris I Michael succeeds the duumvirate of Malamir and Presian as monarch of Bulgaria. ... Tiber River in Rome The Tiber (Italian Tevere, Latin Tiberis), the third-longest river in Italy at 406 km (252 miles) after the Po and the Adige, flows through Rome in its course from Mount Fumaiolo to the Tyrrhenian Sea, which it reaches in two branches that cross the suburbs... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Separation barrier. ... Leo IV, pope from 847 to 855, was a Roman by birth, and was unanimously chosen to succeed Sergius II. His pontificate was chiefly distinguished by his efforts to repair the damage done by the Saracens during the reign of his predecessor to various churches of the city, especially those... The Leonine City is that part of the city of Rome around which Pope Leo IV commissioned the construction of a wall for military defense during the 9th century. ... Events Vikings plunder London Charles the Bald, Louis the German and Lothar meet in Meersen Oldest known mention of the Andaman Islands Garcia Iñiguez succeeds his father Iñigo Arista as king of Navarra Births Deaths March 7 - Nominoe, Duke of Brittany Categories: 851 ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Port. ... Guangzhou is the capital and the sub-provincial city of Guangdong Province in the southern part of the Peoples Republic of China. ... “Fine China” redirects here. ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... Granary at Thiruparaithurai, Kumbakonam (old temple town), built around 1600-1634 A granary is a storehouse for threshed grain or animal feed. ... A municipality or general-purpose district (compare with: special-purpose district) is an administrative local area generally composed of a clearly defined territory and commonly referring to a city, town, or village government. ... Events Constantine I succeeds as king of Scotland. ... Duan Chengshi (Chinese: ; Wade-Giles: Tuan Chengshih, d. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ambergris Ambergris (Ambra grisea, Ambre gris, ambergrease, or grey amber) is a solid, waxy, flammable substance of a dull grey or blackish color, with the shades being variegated like marble. ...  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  geographic, including above East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ... Events February 28 - End of the Fourth Council of Constantinople. ... Entrance to the Prague Castle at night The Prague Castle (Czech: Pražský hrad) is the castle in Prague where the Czech kings, Holy Roman Emperors and presidents of Czechoslovakia and the Czech Republic have had their offices. ... Events December 25, Rome, coronation of Charles the Great (Charlemagne) as emperor by Pope Leo III. Celtic monks begin work on the Book of Kells on the Island of Iona. ... This article is for the year 909. ... The Aghlabid dynasty of emirs ruled Ifriqiya (northern Africa), nominally on behalf of the Abbasid Caliph, for about a century, until overthrown by the new power of the Fatimids. ... Events April 20 - Guntherus becomes Bishop of Cologne. ... Events December 29 - Charles the Bald, king of west Danes capture Lindisfarne and arrive in Cambridge. ... The name Viking is a loan from the native Scandinavian term for the Norse seafaring warriors who raided the coasts of Scandinavia, Europe and the British Isles from the late 8th century to the 11th century, the period of European history referred to as the Viking Age. ... Events Constantine I succeeds as king of Scotland. ... Events Wilfred the Hairy, Count of Barcelona, founded the benedictine monastery at Ripoll. ... Events Khan Boris I of Bulgaria is baptized an Orthodox Christian. ... The Christianization of Bulgaria is the process of converting 9th-century medieval Bulgaria to Christianity. ... Boris I Michail or Boris I Michael (Bulgarian Борис I Михаил, known also as Bogoris)(died May 2, 907) was the khan from 852 to 889 and first Christian ruler of Bulgaria. ... Events December 29 - Charles the Bald, king of west Danes capture Lindisfarne and arrive in Cambridge. ... Events May 15 - Pope Marinus I dies. ... Huang Chao(Chinese:黃巢)(d. ... China under the Tang Dynasty (yellow) and its sphere of influence Capital Changan (618–904) Luoyang (904-907) Language(s) Middle Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 618-626 Emperor Gaozu  - 684, 705-710 Emperor Zhongzong  - 684, 710-712 Emperor Ruizong  - 904-907 Emperor Ai History  - Li... The Danube (ancient Danuvius, Iranian *dānu, meaning river or stream, ancient Greek Istros) is the longest river in the European Union and Europes second longest river. ... Epirus, spanning Greece and Albania. ... Approximate borders between Bosnia (marked light) and Herzegovina (marked dark) Historically and geographically, the region known as Bosnia (natively Bosna/Босна) comprises the northern part of the present-day country of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Forlì is a comune and city in Emilia-Romagna, Italy, famed as the birthplace of the great painter Melozzo da Forlì and of Fascist leader Benito Mussolini, at the nearby comune of Predappio. ... Events End of Strathclyde as a fully independent kingdom. ... Nubia is the region in the south of Egypt, along the Nile and in northern Sudan. ... Aerial view of the Nubian pyramids at Meroe in 2001 This article details the early history of the Sudan region, from prehistoric times up until the coming of Islam shortly after the Prophet Muhammads death in 632. ... Harald Fairhair or Harald Finehair (Old Norse:Haraldr hinn hárfagri, Icelandic:Haraldur hinn hárfagri, Norwegian:Harald HÃ¥rfagre) (c. ... The Battle of Hafrsfjord has been a very central event in the history of the unification of Norway. ... Chess is a recreational and competitive game for two players. ... Events Rurik gained control of Novgorod. ... The Rurik Dynasty was the ruling dynasty of Kievan Rus, Rus principalities, and early Russia from 862 to 1598. ... Events Vikings besiege Paris Stephen VI elected pope Oldest known mentioning of Baky Births Emperor Daigo of Japan Deaths Pope Adrian III April 6: Saint Methodius, bishop and Bible translator Categories: 885 ... Saint Cyril (Greek: Κύριλλος , Church Slavonic: Кирилъ) (827 - February 14, 869) was a Byzantine Greek monk, scholar, theologian, and linguist. ... Saint Methodius (Greek: Μεθόδιος; Church Slavonic Мефодии) (b. ... Saint Clement of Ohrid Saint Clement of Ohrid (Bulgarian: , IPA: ) (ca. ... Saint Naum Saint Naum of Preslav (Saint Naum of Ohrid) (c. ... The Cyrillic alphabet (pronounced also called azbuka, from the old name of the first two letters) is actually a family of alphabets, subsets of which are used by a wide variety of Slavic languages—Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Rusyn, Serbian, and Ukrainian—as well as many other languages of the... Events September - Basil I becomes sole ruler of the Byzantine Empire. ... Byzantine Empire at its greatest extent c. ... The Medieval Warm Period (MWP) or Medieval Climate Optimum theorizes that there was a time of unusually warm climate in the North Atlantic region, lasting from about the tenth century to about the fourteenth century. ...

Significant people

Saint Clement of Ohrid

Saint Climent of Ohrid This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Saint Climent of Ohrid This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Alfred (also Ælfred from the Old English: Ælfrēd //) (c. ... Later romantic portrait of Arnulf. ... A portrait of Charlemagne by Albrecht Dürer that was painted several centuries after Charlemagnes death. ... A portrait of Wang Kon. ... Saint Cyril (Greek: Κύριλλος , Church Slavonic: Кирилъ) (827 - February 14, 869) was a Byzantine Greek monk, scholar, theologian, and linguist. ... Saint Methodius (Greek: Μεθόδιος; Church Slavonic Мефодии) (b. ... Hán Yù (韓愈) (768 - 824), was a precursor of Neo-Confucianism as well as an essayist and poet. ... Saint Clement of Ohrid Saint Clement of Ohrid (Bulgarian: , IPA: ) (ca. ... Saint Naum Saint Naum of Preslav (Saint Naum of Ohrid) (c. ... Cináed mac Ailpín (after 800–13 February 858) (Anglicised Kenneth MacAlpin) was king of the Picts and, according to national myth, first king of Scots. ... Louis the Pious, contemporary depiction from 826 as a miles Christi (soldier of Christ), with a poem of Rabanus Maurus overlaid. ... Sri Adi Sankara Adi Shankaracharya or Adi Shankara (the first Shankara in his lineage), reverentially called Bhagavatpada Acharya (the teacher at the feet of Lord), Shankara (approximately 509- 477 BC (though some claim 788-820 CE)) was the most famous Advaita philosopher who had a profound influence on the growth... Huang Chao(Chinese:黃巢)(d. ... Harald Fairhair or Harald Finehair (Old Norse:Haraldr hinn hárfagri, Icelandic:Haraldur hinn hárfagri, Norwegian:Harald Hårfagre) (c. ... Rurik or Riurik (Russian: , Old East Norse Rørik, meaning famous ruler) (ca 830 – ca 879) was a Varangian who gained control of Ladoga in 862 and built the Holmgard settlement (Ryurikovo Gorodishche) in Novgorod. ... Boris I Michail or Boris I Michael (Bulgarian Борис I Михаил, known also as Bogoris)(died May 2, 907) was the khan from 852 to 889 and first Christian ruler of Bulgaria. ... Basil, his son Constantine, and his second wife, emperess Eudoxia Ingerina. ... Events July 26 - Battle of Pliska: Nicephorus I is defeated by the Bulgar khan Krum, and is succeeded by Stauracius as Byzantine emperor. ... Events The Glagolitic alphabet, devised by Cyril and Methodius, missionairies from Constantinople, is adopted in the Bulgarian Empire. ... Events September - Basil I becomes sole ruler of the Byzantine Empire. ... Events The Glagolitic alphabet, devised by Cyril and Methodius, missionairies from Constantinople, is adopted in the Bulgarian Empire. ... Al-Jahiz (in Arabic الجاحظ) (real name Abu Uthman Amr Ibn Bahr al-Kinani al-Fuqaimi al-Basri) (born in Basra, 776 - 869) was a famous Arab scholar probably of Abyssinian descent. ... The Papess, a Marseilles tarot card of the 18th century, which depicts a female Pope. ... Zhu Quanzhong 朱全忠, originally named Zhu Wen 朱温 (852-912), was a jiedushi (節度使, military governor) at the end of the Tang dynasty. ...

Inventions, discoveries, introductions

Vulgar Latin, as in this political graffito at Pompeii, was the speech of ordinary people of the Roman Empire — different from the classical Latin used by the Roman elite. ... The Romance languages (sometimes referred to as Romanic languages) are a branch of the Indo-European language family, comprising all the languages that descend from Latin, the language of the Roman Empire. ... The Utrecht Psalter The Utrecht Psalter is a ninth century illuminated psalter and an important product of Carolingian art. ... Events Treaty of Verdun divides the Carolingian empire between the 3 sons of Louis the Pious. ... Smokeless powder Gunpowder is an explosive mixture that burns rapidly, producing volumes of hot gas which can be used as a propellant in firearms. ... For other uses of the words tao and dao, see Dao (disambiguation). ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... The Chinese Diamond Sutra, the oldest known dated printed book in the world, printed in the 9th year of Xiantong Era of the Tang Dynasty, i. ... Yuan Dynasty woodblock edition of a Chinese play For the use of the technique in art, see Woodcut on the technique, and Old master print for the history in Europe and woodblock printing in Japan. ...

Decades and Years


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