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Encyclopedia > 99 Names of God in the Qur'an

The 99 Names of God, also known as The 99 Attributes of God (Arabic: أسماء الله الحسنى transliteration: Asma’ Allah al-Ḥusná), are the names of God revealed in the Qur'an and Sunnah;[1] even though the names (as adjectives, word constructs, or otherwise) exceed ninety-nine in the Qur'an and Sunnah. Muslims believe that there are an elite group of names, or the Best names, which number 99. The Arabic alphabet is the script used for writing languages such as Arabic, Persian, Urdu, and others. ... Due to the fact that the Arabic language has a number of phonemes that have no equivalent in English or other European languages, a number of different transliteration methods have been invented to represent certain Arabic characters, due to various conflicting goals. ... Holy name redirects here. ... The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Sunnah(t) () literally means “trodden path”, and therefore, the sunnah of the prophet means “the way of the prophet”. Terminologically, the word ‘Sunnah’ in Sunni Islam means those religious actions that were instituted by Muhammad(PBUH) during the 23 years of his ministry and which Muslims initially received through consensus...

Contents

Origin

In one Islamic tradition, the Islamic prophet Muhammad used to call God by all His names: Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ...

"Allahumma inni ad`uka bi asma'ika al-husna kulliha"
"اللهم اني ادعوك باسمائك الحسنى كلها"
"O God, I invoke You with all of Your beautiful names."
(Narrated by Ibn Majah, book of Du`a; and by Imam Malik in his Muwatta', Kitab al-Shi`r)

Muhammad is also reported to have said in a famous Hadith: This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

"Verily, there are ninety-nine names of God, one hundred minus one. He who enumerates [and believes in them and the one god behind] them would get into Paradise."
(Sahih Muslim, Vol. 4, no. 1410)

Of note is that this hadith does not say that there are only 99 names, but 99 names that are better than the others. This caused people to search them out in the Qur'an and Sunnah, and a list was compiled. Over time it became custom to recite the list in its entirety. While some Muslims believe that this list is mentioned by Muhammad himself, the specialist Muslim scholars argue strongly that the list was just compiled by a Muslim scholar as an addendum to the actual hadith, (Al Waleed ibn Muslim). If it was only an attempt of a scholar, they are not necessarily the names proper, and other attempts may still be made. A recent scholar, Dr. Mahmoud Abdel-Razek, made an attempt [2] of this kind and explained in detail why he differs in opinion with Al Waleed about enlisting some of the names. However, reciting the traditional names has developed into a ritual by some Muslims (a bit like a Catholic litany of Saints) as an attempt to enumerate them, while most other Muslims believe that the "enumeration" is not just the act of recitation, but applying the attributes that the names suggest. The Qur’ān [1] (Arabic: , literally the recitation; also sometimes transliterated as Quran, Koran, or Al-Quran) is the central religious text of Islam. ... Sunnah(t) () literally means “trodden path”, and therefore, the sunnah of the prophet means “the way of the prophet”. Terminologically, the word ‘Sunnah’ in Sunni Islam means those religious actions that were instituted by Muhammad(PBUH) during the 23 years of his ministry and which Muslims initially received through consensus... The Litany of the Saints or Litaniae Sanctorum is a sacred prayer of the Roman Catholic Church and its Eastern Rite. ...


Palm of the Hand

Some Muslims believe that what could be interpreted as the number 99 written in Hindu-Arabic numeral system is imprinted on human hands. If one looks at his or her palms, thumbs facing upward, the lines in the hands appear as "١٨ ٨١", which are the Hindu-Arabic numerals -commonly used in eastern Arab countries- of 81 and 18, which sum to 99. If you subtract the numbers 81 and 18 you are left with 63 which was the age of which Muhammad along with 3 of his four companions died.[2] // 99 (ninety-nine) is the natural number following 98 and preceding 100. ... I like cream cheese, it tastes good on toast. ... Numerals sans-serif Arabic numerals, known formally as Hindu-Arabic numerals, and also as Indian numerals, Hindu numerals, Western Arabic numerals, European numerals, or Western numerals, are the most common symbolic representation of numbers around the world. ...


It should be noted however that this has no Islamic or Qu'ranic basis supporting it and, from an Islamic perspective, is irrelevant to the concept of the names of God discussed in the previous section. This is very likely a novelty of unknown origin that has developed in some Muslim cultures, especially those that use numeral system mentioned above. It also happens to work with a combination of Chinese and Western numerals, appearing as "八1 1八" - "81 18". In general, many Muslims have diverging views however Orthodox Sunni Islam has no documentation of this.


List of Names

Below is a list of the 99 Names of God according to the tradition of Islam. It should be clearly noted that there is no fixed authentic list of 99 names anywhere; this is only one version which includes many common names and attributes of God. Scholars agree on the majority of the names, however there are a handful that are disputed. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...

# Transliteration Translation
1 Ar-Rahman (الرحمن) The All Beneficent
2 Ar-Rahim (الرحيم) The Most Merciful
3 Al-Malik (الملك) The King, The Sovereign
4 Al-Quddus (القدوس) The Most Holy
5 As-Salaam (السلام) The Peace and Blessing
6 Al-Mu'min (المؤمن) The Guarantor
7 Al-Muhaymin (المهيمن) The Guardian, The Preserver
8 Al-Aziz (العزيز) The Almighty, The Self Sufficient
9 Al-Jabbar (الجبار) The Powerful, The Irresistible
10 Al-Mutakabbir (المتكبر) The Tremendous
11 Al-Khaliq (الخالق) The Creator
12 Al-Bari' (البارئ) The Rightfull
13 Al-Musawwir (المصور) The Fashioner of Forms
14 Al-Ghaffar (الغفار) The Ever Forgiving
15 Al-Qahhar (القهار) The All Compelling Subduer
16 Al-Wahhab (الوهاب) The Bestower
17 Ar-Razzaq (الرزاق) The Ever Providing
18 Al-Fattah (الفتاح) The Opener, The Victory Giver
19 Al-`Alim (العليم) The All Knowing, The Omniscient
20 Al-Qabid (القابض) The Restrainer, The Straightener
21 Al-Basit (الباسط) The Expander, The Munificent
22 Al-Khafid (الخافض) The Abaser
23 Ar-Rafi‘e (الرافع) The Exalter
24 Al-Mu‘ezz (المعز) The Giver of Honour
25 Al-Mudhell (المذل) The Giver of Dishonour
26 As-Sami‘e (السميع) The All Hearing
27 Al-Basir (البصير) The All Seeing
28 Al-Hakam (الحكم) The Judge, The Arbitrator
29 Al-`Adl (العدل) The Utterly Just
30 Al-Latif (اللطيف) The Subtly Kind
31 Al-Khabir (الخبير) The All Aware
32 Al-Halim (الحليم) The Forbearing, The Indulgent
33 Al-Azeem (العظيم) The Magnificent, The Infinite
34 Al-Ghafur (الغفور) The All Forgiving
35 Ash-Shakur (الشكور) The Grateful
36 Al-Aliyy (العلي) The Sublimely Exalted
37 Al-Kabir (الكبير) The Great
38 Al-Hafiz (الحفيظ) The Preserver
39 Al-Muqit (المقيت) The Nourisher
40 Al-Hasib (الحسيب) The Reckoner
41 Al-Jalil (الجليل) The Majestic
42 Al-Karim (الكريم) The Bountiful, The Generous
43 Ar-Raqib (الرقيب) The Watchful
44 Al-Mujib (المجيب) The Responsive, The Answerer
45 Al-Wasse‘e (الواسع) The Vast, The All Encompassing
46 Al-Hakeem (الحكيم) The Wise
47 Al-Wadud (الودود) The Loving, The Kind One
48 Al-Majid (المجيد) The All Glorious
49 Al-Ba'ith (الباعث) The Raiser of The Dead
50 Ash-Shaheed (الشهيد) The Witness
51 Al-Haqq (الحق) The Truth, The Real
52 Al-Wakil (الوكيل) The Trustee, The Dependable
53 Al-Qawaie (القوى) The Strong
54 Al-Matin (المتين) The Firm, The Steadfast
55 Al-Walaie (الولى) The Protecting Friend, Patron and Helper
56 Al-Hamid (الحميد) The All Praiseworthy
57 Al-Muhsi (المحصى) The Accounter, The Numberer of All
58 Al-Mubdi' (المبدئ) The Producer, Originator, and Initiator of All
59 Al-Mu‘id (المعيد) The Reinstater Who Brings Back All
60 Al-Muhyi (المحيى) The Giver of Life
61 Al-Mumit (المميت) The Bringer of Death, The Destroyer
62 Al-Hayy (الحي) The Ever Living
63 Al-Qayyum (القيوم) The Self Subsisting Sustainer of All
64 Al-Wajid (الواجد) The Perceiver, The Finder, The Unfailing
65 Al-Majid (الماجد) The Illustrious, The Magnificent
66 Al-Wahid (الواحد) The One, The Unique, Manifestation of Unity

- Rahman is the transliteration of a Arabic given name رحمن that comes from the triconsonantal root R-Ḥ-M, meaning benevolent. In Islam, the name is considered one of the 99 Names of God. ... (ر Ø­ Ù…) is the triconsonantal root of many Arabic words, and many of those words are used as names. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Melik. ... Quddús was the name given to Mullá Muhammad Alí-i-Bárfurúsh by the Báb meaning The Most Holy. ... Look up Salaam in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Mumin is an Arabic Islamic term, frequently referenced in the Quran, meaning beliver and denotes a Muslim that has complete submission to the will of God (Allah), and has faith firmly established in his heart. ... Aziz, originally a Syriac word and name, is also an Arabic name, and spans other areas such as Russia. ... Ubaid-ullah-Aleem was the famous poet of Urdu. ... Adl is an Arabic term roughly meaning Justice. It is used in the everyday sense of the word: for example, wizeer al-adl translates to The Minister of Justice. ... Hafiz or Hafez (Arabic: حافظ), literally meaning guardian, is a term used by Muslims for people who have completely memorized the Quran. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... Mullah Jalil is a citizen of Afghanistan, held in extrajudicial detention in the United States Guantanamo Bay Naval Base, in Cuba. ... Hakim may refer to many things, including: al-Hakim one of names of Allah Hakim, a character on Sesamstraat This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Historically, a martyr is a person who dies for his or her religious faith. ... Haqq is the Arabic word for truth. ... Hamid (Arabic: حميد) is the transliteration of an Arabic given name that comes from the Arabic Triconsonantal root of H-M-D, meaning, meaning [The one] given praise. People named such include: Hamid Karzai Hamid etemad Hamid Beheshtian Hamid Rahnama Hamid Reza Ettefagh Hamid Shabkhiz Hamid Taqvaee Hamid Hassani Hamid Hussain...

 68 || As-Samad (الصمد)|| The Self Sufficient, The Impregnable, The Eternally Besought of All, The Everlasting 
69 Al-Qadir (القادر) The All Able
70 Al-Muqtadir (المقتدر) The All Determiner, The Dominant
71 Al-Muqaddim (المقدم) The Expediter, He Who Brings Forward
72 Al-Mu'akhir (المؤخر) The Delayer, He Who Puts Far Away
73 Al-Awwal (الأول) The First
74 Al-Akhir (الأخر) The Last
75 Az-Zahir (الظاهر) The Manifest, The All Victorious
76 Al-Batin (الباطن) The Hidden, The All Encompassing
77 Al-Wali (الوالي) The Patron
78 Al-Muta'ali (المتعالي) The Self Exalted
79 Al-Barr (البر) The Most Kind and Righteous
80 At-Tawwab (التواب) The Ever Returning, Ever Relenting
81 Al-Muntaqim (المنتقم) The Avenger
82 Al-‘Afuww (العفو) The Pardoner, The Effacer of Sins
83 Ar-Ra'uf (الرؤوف) The Compassionate, The All Pitying
84 Malik-al-Mulk (مالك الملك) The Owner of All Sovereignty
85 Dhu-al-Jalali wa-al-Ikram (ذو الجلال و الإكرام) The Lord of Majesty and Generosity
86 Al-Muqsit (المقسط) The Equitable, The Requiter
87 Al-Jami‘e (الجامع) The Gatherer, The Unifier
88 Al-Ghanaie (الغنى) The All Rich, The Independent
89 Al-Mughni (المغنى) The Enricher, The Emancipator
90 Al-Mani'e (المانع) The Withholder, The Shielder, the Defender
91 Ad-Darr (الضار) The Distressor, The Harmer (This attribute can only be found in hadith)
92 An-Nafi‘e (النافع) The Propitious, The Benefactor
93 An-Nur (النور) The Light
94 Al-Hadi (الهادي) The Guide
95 Al-Badi (البديع) The Incomparable, The Originator
96 Al-Baqi (الباقي) The Ever Enduring and Immutable
97 Al-Warith (الوارث) The Heir, The Inheritor of All
98 Ar-Rashid (الرشيد) The Guide, Infallible Teacher and Knower
99 As-Sabur (الصبور) The Patient, The Timeless.

Another epithet found in the Qur'an is Dhul Fadl al Azim (ذو الفضل العظيم) "The Lord of Infinite Grace" (2.105, 3.74, 8.29, 57.21, 57.29, 62.4), but it is not part of the traditional list of the 99 names of God. Al-Batin means the hidden, and is one of the 99 names of Allah according to the Muslim religion. ... Wali (Arabic ولي, plural Awliya أولياء, Persian/Turkish pronunciation Vali), is an Arabic word, meaning protector or guardian (most literally etymologically near one), also adopted in various other Islamic cultures. ... Mani may refer to: Mani Peninsula in Greece Maní, Yucatán, a small city in Yucatán, Mexico Mani, Evros, a town in the northeastern part of the Evros Prefecture in Greece Mani (prophet), a third-century Persian prophet, the founder of the dualistic Manichaean religion, which borrowed eclectically from... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Surat al-Baqarah (the Cow) is the second, and the longest, sura of the Quran, with 286 ayat. ... Surat āl-Imrān (The Family of Amram) is the 3rd sura of the Quran with 200 ayat. ... Surat al-Anfal (Arabic: سورة الأنفال ) (the Spoils of War)[1] is the eighth chapter of the Quran, with 85 verses. ... Surat Al-Hadid (Arabic: سورة الحديد ) (The Iron) is the 57th sura of the Quran with 29 ayat. ... Surat Al-Jumua (Arabic: سورة الجمعة ) (The Friday [Congregation]) is the 62nd sura of the Quran with 11 ayat. ...


Sufism

In Sufism, the idea of the 100th name is most prominent. It has become the elusive object of mystic devotion, the symbol of God's transcendent being[citation needed]. Sufism is a mystic tradition within Islam that encompasses a diverse range of beliefs and practices dedicated to divine love and the cultivation of the heart. ...


Sufis often describe their discipline as the quest to know the one-hundredth name of God and thus to merge their consciousness with the divine reality. [citation needed] [3]


Mahdi

Other such Hadiths, which vary according to different Shi'a sects of Islam, suggest that the 100th Name will be revealed by the Mahdi. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Shia Islam ( Arabic شيعى follower; English has traditionally used Shiite or Shiite) is the second largest Islamic denomination; some 20-25% of all Muslims are said to follow a Shia tradition. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Muhammad al-Mahdi. ...


Bahá'í

The Bahá'í Faith has claimed to fulfill the prophecy of the Mahdi, and the 100th name was revealed as "Bahá’" (an Arabic word بهاء meaning "glory, splendor" etc.), and is the root word for Bahá'u'lláh and Bahá'í.[3] The Báb wrote a noted pentagram tablet with 360 derivatives of the word "Bahá'" used in it.[3] While the Bahá'í Faith has roots in Islam and the monotheistic traditions, it is an independent religion, and its followers are not considered Muslims. This article is about the generally-recognized global religious community. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Muhammad al-Mahdi. ... The official symbol of the Baháí Faith is the five-pointed star, as mentioned by Shoghi Effendi: Strictly speaking the 5-pointed star is the symbol of our Faith, as used by the Báb and explained by Him. ... Shrine of Baháulláh Baháulláh (ba-haa-ol-laa Arabic: Glory of God) (November 12, 1817 - May 29, 1892), born Mírzá usayn-`Alí (Persian: ), was the founder of the Baháí Faith. ... Shrine of the Báb in Haifa, Israel. ... A tablet, in the religious context, is a term traditionally used for religious texts. ...


Personal Names

According to Islamic tradition, a Muslim may not be given any of the 99 names of God in the exact same form. For example, nobody may be named Al Malik (The King), but may be named Malik "King".


However the names/attributes of God can be combined with the word "‘Abd -" which means servant (of God) and are commonly used as personal names among Muslims. For example ‘Abd ar-Rahman ("servant of(or slave to) the Most Compassionate/the Beneficent"). The tughra (stylized signature) of Sultan Mahmud II of the Ottoman Empire. ...


Some Muslim people have names resembling those 99 (but without the article "The" which is only used to denote God) as the names could mean attributes people can have. Examples include

Ali ibn Abu Talib (Arabic: علي بن أبي طالب translit: ‘AlÄ« ibn Abu Ṭālib Persian: علی پسر ابو طالب) ‎ (599 – 661) is an early Islamic leader. ... Ra’ouf Musad (sometimes known as Raouf Moussad-Basta) is an Arab playwright, journalist and novelist who was born in Sudan to Egyptian parents, moved to Egypt as a teenager and has lived in various countries, both in the Arab world and in Europe, during the past 30... Dr. Salam Fayyad (Arabic: ; b. ...

Trivia

  • The 99, a comic series by Teshkeel Comics, focuses on a group of superheroes who gain powers related to the 99 Attributes of God.

The 99 is a team of superheroes, published by Teshkeel Comics and based on Islamic culture. ... Teshkeel Comics (Arabic: تشكيل كومكس taškeel komiks, or more formally تشكيل للقصص المصورة taškeel lilqṣaṣ al-moṣawara) is a Kuwaiti comic book publisher, and a division the Teshkeel Media Group, a company focused on creating, re-engineering and exploiting all forms of childrens media based on or infused with...

See also

Holy name redirects here. ... At the bottom of the hands, the two letters on each hand combine to form יהוה (YHVH), the name of God. ... The word Sahasra-nāma in Sanskrit means 1000 names. Sahasra-nāma-stotra stands for a poem or a succession of verses (shlokas,) which contain thousand names of God. ... The Nine Billion Names of God is the name of a famous short story by Arthur C. Clarke, and of a collection of his short stories in which it was published in New York by Harcourt, Brace & World in 1967. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Arthur C. Clarke Sir Arthur Charles Clarke, CBE (born 16 December 1917) is a British science-fiction author and inventor, most famous for his novel 2001: A Space Odyssey, and for collaborating with director Stanley Kubrick on the film of the same...

Notes

  1. ^ Fleming, Marrianne; Worden, David (2004). Religious Studies for AQA; Thinking About God and Morality. Oxford: Heinemann Educational Publishers. ISBN 0-435-30713-4. 
  2. ^ Miracles of Islam. "Amazing Marks on Your Hands". 2007. February 19, 2007. [1]
  3. ^ a b Lambden, Stephen (1993). "The Word Bahá': Quintessence of the Greatest Name". Bahá'í Studies Review 3 (1). 

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