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Encyclopedia > 9 mm Luger Parabellum
9 mm Luger Parabellum

Ball and hollow point 9mm Parabellum rounds
Type Pistol
Place of origin Germany
Production history
Designer Georg Luger
Designed 1901
Produced 1902 to present
Specifications
Parent case 7.65mm Luger Parabellum
Case type Rimless, straight
Bullet diameter 9.02 mm (0.355 in)
Neck diameter 9.65 mm (0.38 in)
Base diameter 9.93 mm (0.391 in)
Rim diameter 9.96 mm (0.392 in)
Case length 19.15 mm (0.754 in)
Overall length 29.69 mm (1.169 in)
Primer type Small pistol
Ballistic performance
Bullet weight/type Velocity Energy
115 gr FMJ 1180 ft/s
(~360 m/s)
356 ft·lbf
(~484 J)
124 gr FMJ 1150 ft/s
(~351 m/s)
364 ft·lbf
(~495 J)
147 gr FMJ 1000 ft/s
(~305 m/s)
326 ft·lbf
(~443 J)
Test barrel length: 4 in
Source: Federal Cartridge Co. ballistics page

The 9mm Parabellum pistol cartridge (9x19mm Luger, 9x19mm NATO) was introduced in 1902 by the German weapons manufacturer Deutsche Waffen und Munitionsfabriken (DWM) for their Luger pistol.[1] It was a higher-power version of the earlier 7.65mm Luger Parabellum, itself developed from an earlier 7.65mm Borchardt cartridge. It is commonly known by the surname of the DWM engineer and firearms designer, Georg Luger, who was one of the primary men to work on the round and the pistol. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Georg Luger, 1906 Georg Johann Luger (born March 6, 1849 in Steinach am Brenner, Austria - died December 22, 1923) was an Austrian designer of the famous Luger pistol. ... A M4 Carbine just after firing, with an ejected case in mid-air The article titled casing is a disambiguation page. ... The 7. ... .357 Magnum cartridges, containing bullets A bullet is a solid projectile propelled by a firearm and is normally made from metal (usually lead). ... The percussion cap or primer was the crucial invention that enabled firearms to fire in any weather. ... A grain is a unit of mass equal to 0. ... An example of FMJ bullets in their usual shapes: pointed (spitzer) for the rifle and round for the pistol. ... Feet per second is a unit of speed; it expressses the number of feet traveled in one second. ... Metre per second (U.S. spelling: meter per second) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds. ... The foot-pound force (symbol: ft·lbf) is an English unit of work or energy. ... The joule (IPA pronunciation: or ) (symbol: J) is the SI unit of energy. ... A grain is a unit of mass equal to 0. ... Feet per second is a unit of speed; it expressses the number of feet traveled in one second. ... Metre per second (U.S. spelling: meter per second) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds. ... The foot-pound force (symbol: ft·lbf) is an English unit of work or energy. ... The joule (IPA pronunciation: or ) (symbol: J) is the SI unit of energy. ... A grain is a unit of mass equal to 0. ... Feet per second is a unit of speed; it expressses the number of feet traveled in one second. ... Metre per second (U.S. spelling: meter per second) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds. ... The foot-pound force (symbol: ft·lbf) is an English unit of work or energy. ... The joule (IPA pronunciation: or ) (symbol: J) is the SI unit of energy. ... A Browning 9 millimeter Hi-Power Ordnance pistol of the French Navy, 19th century, using a Percussion cap mechanism Derringers were small and easily hidden. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Deutsche Waffen und Munitions Fabriken (German Weapons and Munitions Works), known as DWM, was an arms company in Imperial Germany created when Ludwig Loewe & Company merged with several other companies. ... The Parabellum-Pistole (Pistol Parabellum), popularly known as the Luger pistol is a semi-automatic self-loading pistol patented by Georg Luger in 1898 and manufactured by Deutsche Waffen- und Munitionsfabriken (DWM) starting in 1900. ... The 7. ... The 7. ... An assortment of modern hand-held firearms using fixed ammunition, including military assault rifles, a sporting shotgun (fourth from bottom), a tactical shotgun (third from bottom), and a sporting rifle (top). ... Georg Luger, 1906 Georg Johann Luger (born March 6, 1849 in Steinach am Brenner, Austria - died December 22, 1923) was an Austrian designer of the famous Luger pistol. ...


It is the most widespread pistol cartridge in the world.[citation needed] It also is widely used in a variety of pistol-caliber carbines by civilians, and has been the dominant submachine gun cartridge since World War II.[citation needed] A carbine is a firearm similar to, but generally shorter and less powerful than, a rifle or musket of a given period. ...


The name Parabellum is derived from the Latin: Si vis pacem, para bellum ("If you seek peace, prepare for war"), which was DWM's motto. Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Si vis pacem para bellum is a Latin quote meaning, If you want peace, prepare for war! which was spoken by a Roman military strategist around the year 390. ...

Contents

Development

Georg Luger based the 9mm Luger cartridge on the earlier 7.65mm Parabellum pistol cartridge. In 1902 Luger presented the new round to the British Small Arms Committee as well as three prototype versions to the U.S. Army for testing at Springfield Arsenal in mid-1903. The German military showed interest in a 9mm version of the Parabellum in March 1904. The United States Army is the largest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... From 1794 to 1968 the Springfield Armory was a center for the manufacture of U.S. military small arms and the site of many important technological advances. ...


The initial cartridge was created by removing the bottleneck of the 7.65mm Luger cartridge resulting in a tapered rimless cartridge. The bullet shape was slightly redesigned in the 1910s for a better auto-loading. .357 Magnum cartridges, containing bullets A bullet is a solid projectile propelled by a firearm and is normally made from metal (usually lead). ...


Post-World War I 9mm pistols were adopted by a number of countries and acceptance of this caliber spread even more rapidly. “The Great War ” redirects here. ...


To conserve lead, during World War II in Germany, the lead core was replaced by an iron core encased with lead. A black bullet jacket identified this bullet and it was designated as the 08 mE (mit Eisenkern or "with iron core"). By 1944 the black identification of the 08 mE bullet was dropped and these bullets had normal copper color jackets. Another wartime variation, designated as the 08SE bullet and identified by its dark gray jacket, was created by compressing iron powder at high temperature into a solid material (Sintereisen or "sintered iron"). Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Sintering is a method for making objects from powder, increasing the adhesion between particles as they are heated. ...


A special load (identified either by an “X” on the headstamp or by a green lacquered steel case) with a 9.7g (150gr) Full metal jacket bullet with a subsonic muzzle velocity for use with suppressors was produced by the Germans during WWII. Other countries also developed subsonic loads for use with suppressed guns. BIC pen cap, about 1 gram. ... A grain is a unit of mass equal to 0. ... An example of FMJ bullets in their usual shapes: pointed (spitzer) for the rifle and round for the pistol. ... Several firearms with suppressors AR-15 with Gemtech baffle suppressor (ref) A suppressor (popularly but erroneously known as a silencer, because no suppressor silences a firearm completely), is a device attached to a firearm to reduce the amount of noise and flash generated by firing the weapon. ...


The 9mm Parabellum cartridge has been manufactured by, or for, more than 70 different countries and, today, has become the world’s standard pistol cartridge, being a standard pistol caliber for NATO and the militaries of many other countries of the world.


After WWII, the common weight of the 9mm was changed to 8.0g (124 gr) to increase the accuracy of the ammunition. Many police departments that use 9mm rounds in their handguns switched to this weight after the investigation of the FBI shootout in Miami in 1986, because the lighter 7.4g (114gr) loading used by the officers was found to be less effective than a heavier load like 124-grains. Bullets weighing up to 9.5g (147gr) are available. On April 11, 1986, a shootout occurred in Miami, Florida, between multiple FBI agents and two heavily armed suspects. ...


9mm cartridges are most commonly used in pistols due to their size. However, 9mm's were common in semi-automatic rifles produced in the 1950s through the 1980s. These are substantially weaker than other rifles, but still capable of producing severe harm like a handgun, and are generally used for hunting small animals such as squirrels, chipmunks, or rabbits.


The golden age for 9mm luger occurred during the period between the early 1980's and the mid 1990's along with the "autoloader revolution." As violence became more prevalent in American cities, Police increasingly began to look to the quick reloading and high capacities inherent to automatic handgun design.


At the time, most police departments were issuing .38 special revolvers with a six shot capacity. The .38 special was advantageous because it offered low recoil for inexperienced shooters, was small to accommodate shooters of different sizes, and was relatively inexpensive.


As departments began looking for an auto loader equivalent, the 9mm was the obvious equivalent to what they already knew and trusted. Possessing very similar ballistics to the .38 special, the 9mm is a much smaller round and exhibited less recoil, so capacities could be easily increased by as much as 250% and still fit in a frame able to be used by smaller officers and inexperienced shooters.


Soon after police started the switch to auto loading 9mm weapons, the U.S. military did the same with the M9, made by Beretta. With these two solid endorsements, private citizens followed suit in large numbers.


As trust and acceptance in the basic design of the auto loading pistol grew, so too did experience with this "new" class of handguns. Increasingly, it became apparent that there was a gap between the ammunition capacity of 9mm Luger handguns and the stopping power of the .45 ACP cartridge.


Attempts to bridge this gap came in the early 1990's with the wide spread availability of high pressure loadings of the 9mm cartridge. Such cartridges are labeled "+P" or in the case of very high pressure loadings "+P+". Ballistic performance of these rounds was markedly improved over the standard loadings, but the carrying of these rounds also introduced many legal liabilities associated with carrying "extra deadly bullets."


Around the same time, the .40 S&W round debuted at the 1990 S.H.O.T. show for the firearms industry. The .40 S&W sought to fill the gap between 9mm and 45 ACP as a compromise between the two. While increasing bullet diameter to roughly half the difference between 9mm and 45 ACP, the .40 S&W retained the same SAMI standard pressure load limits of the 9mm (35,000 PSI). This afforded only a 20% (typical) capacity loss when compared to the 9mm, but also afforded the ammunition the speed and controlled/ensured expansion of 9mm +P+ loads without the need for the legally dubious +P label.


Because of the many advantages of the .40 S&W chambering, along with a growing perception of 9mm being an under performer, 9mm's popularity declined dramatically in the US beginning in the mid 1990's. Currently, 9mm is relatively uncommon amongst American police forces although there are still some notable major metropolitan police departments that still stand by it. It also remains the US military's standard issue cartridge, although most units able to select their own weapons choose other chamberings.


Today, 9mm still enjoys tremendous professional popularity outside the US, where ammunition costs tend to be much more of a driving force than do ballistic performance issues.


Case material and design

  • Brass: Since 1902, the common construction material of 9mm cases has been brass. For appearance, durability, or identification cases have been nickel or copper plated or painted.
  • Aluminum: To conserve brass, aluminum cases have been produced since 1941 (Switzerland) and the development of that material in the use of the 9mm has continued and is in use today.
  • Steel: Various countries have experimented with the use of steel for the construction of 9mm cases since WWI. Lacquered steel cases were used almost exclusively by the Germans during World War 2 with considerable success. Steel case cartridges are still being produced and are available today from Russia.
  • Other materials: Plastics have been widely used in the production of 9mm blank ammunition by a number of countries. Plastic case ball ammunition has been produced in experimental lots.

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 496 KB) Authors own picture. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 496 KB) Authors own picture. ... For Pb as an abbreviation, see PB. General Name, Symbol, Number lead, Pb, 82 Chemical series poor metals Group, Period, Block 14, 6, p Appearance bluish gray Standard atomic weight 207. ... An example of FMJ bullets in their usual shapes: pointed (spitzer) for the rifle and round for the pistol. ... .357 Magnum rounds. ... For other uses, see Brass (disambiguation). ... Aluminum is a soft and lightweight metal with a dull silvery appearance, due to a thin layer of oxidation that forms quickly when it is exposed to air. ... The steel cable of a colliery winding tower. ...

Performance

An expanded 124 grain 9mm jacketed hollow point.

The 9mm cartridge combines a flat trajectory with moderate recoil. Its main advantages lie in its small size and low use of resources for manufacturing. Its main disadvantages are its tendency to overpenetrate and small wound cavity size when nonexpanding bullets are used. There are many anecdotal reports of soldiers being shot with 9mm full metal jacket (nonexpanding) bullets in the extremities and not even realizing it, or at least not being slowed down.[citation needed] Like many battle reports these are difficult to prove or disprove. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Ball and hollowpoint 9mm Luger rounds The 9 mm Luger pistol cartridge (9 x 19 mm Parabellum, 9 x 19 mm NATO) was designed by firearms designer Georg Luger. ... .357 Magnum rounds. ... Mathematically the term trajectory refers to the ordered set of states which are assumed by a dynamical system over time (see e. ... An early naval cannon design, allowing the gun to roll backwards a small distance when firing The recoil when firing a gun is the backward momentum of a gun, which is equal to the forward momentum of the bullet or shell, due to conservation of momentum. ...

From left to right: .50 Action Express, .44 Magnum, .357 Magnum, .45 ACP, .40 S&W, 9mm Parabellum, .22 Long Rifle.
From left to right: .50 Action Express, .44 Magnum, .357 Magnum, .45 ACP, .40 S&W, 9mm Parabellum, .22 Long Rifle.

Because it is inexpensive, easy to manufacture and effective enough for most uses, it has become the most used pistol cartridge in the world.[citation needed] In the U.S., 9mm remains a very popular civilian cartridge for self-defense and handgun target shooting, due to its low cost, modest recoil, and the large number of handguns available in this chambering. Image File history File links CartridgeComparison. ... Image File history File links CartridgeComparison. ... This article or section seems not to be written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ... .44 Magnum Colt Anaconda The . ... Marlin Model 1894C — a carbine in . ... .45 ACP cartridges .45 redirects here. ... The . ... The . ...


The 9mm cartridge was extremely popular for police use in the 1980s and early 1990s but fell out of favor — a result of marginal results in some shootings — likely due to the relatively primitive bullets available at the time[citation needed], and the introduction of the .40 S&W cartridge that offered superior ballistic performance while retaining much of the ammunition capacities associated with 9mm Luger ammunition. This article cites very few or no references or sources. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... The . ...


In practical use, 9mm Luger is most effective with increased-pressure +P and +P+ loads with expanding (hollow point) bullets which are intended to increase damage in soft tissue. It should be noted, however, that in the U.S. such loadings have introduced legal liabilities in otherwise justifiable incidents that have occurred in the past. .357 Magnum rounds. ...


Synonyms

Luger can refer to: The Luger pistol The 7. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ... for the French rock group see Parabellum (band) The term parabellum comes from the Latin for prepare for war. The term is often heard in relation to ammunition – for example, nine millimeter parabellum. Parabellum ammunition is designed to be legal under international law; usually this means that rounds are full...

See also

This article lists firearm cartridges which have a bullet in the 9 mm (.354 in) caliber range. ... Located below is an extended list of small arms, ranging from pistols to machine guns and even to large handheld devices such as grenade launchers and anti-tank rifles. ... Common handgun cartridges. ... From left to right: .50 BMG, 300 Win Mag, .308 Winchester, 7. ...

References

  1. ^ Hogg, Ian V.; Weeks, John S. Military Small Arms of the 20th Century (7th Edition), p.40. Krause Publications, 2000
United States infantry weapons of World War II and Korea
Side arms
Colt M1911/A1 | M1917 revolver | Smith & Wesson "Victory" revolver
Rifles & carbines
Springfield M1903 | M1 Garand | M1 Carbine | M1941 Johnson | Browning Automatic Rifle (BAR)
Submachine guns
Thompson ("Tommy Gun") M1928/M1/A1 | M3 "Grease Gun" | Reising M50/M55 | United Defense M42
Machine guns & other larger weapons
Browning M1917 | Browning M1919 | Johnson LMG | Browning M2 HMG | Bazooka | M2 flamethrower
Cartridges used during World War II and the Korean War
.45 ACP | .38 Special | .30-06 Springfield | .30 Carbine | 9 mm Luger | .50 BMG

Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Combatants United Nations:  Republic of Korea,  Australia,  Belgium,  Luxembourg,  Canada,  Colombia,  Ethiopia,  France,  Greece,  Luxembourg,  Netherlands,  New Zealand,  Philippines,  South Africa,  Thailand,  Turkey,  United Kingdom,  United States Medical staff:  Denmark,  Australia,  Italy,  Norway,  Sweden Communist states:  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,  Peoples Republic of China,  Soviet Union Commanders... A side arm is a small personal weapon that is typically worn on the body in a holster in such a way to permit immediate access and use. ... The M1911 is a single-action, semiautomatic handgun chambered for the . ... The M1917 revolver was a US six shot revolver of 45 ACP caliber. ... The Smith & Wesson Military & Police revolver is a . ... A rifle is a firearm with a barrel that has a helical groove or pattern of grooves (rifling) cut into the barrel walls. ... A carbine is a firearm similar to, but generally shorter and less powerful than, a rifle or musket of a given period. ... The Springfield M1903, formally the United States Rifle, Caliber . ... The M1 Garand (more formally the United States Rifle, Caliber . ... The M1 Carbine (formally the United States Carbine, Caliber . ... The M1941 Rifle was an American short-recoil operated semiautomatic rifle designed by Melvin Johnson prior to World War II. The M1941 competed unsuccessfully with the U.S. M1 Garand. ... The Browning Automatic Rifle (more formally the Browning Automatic Rifle, Caliber . ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A lance corporal of the East Surrey Regiment, British Army equipped with a Thompson M1928 submachine gun (drum magazine), 25 November 1940 The Thompson was a family of American submachine guns that became infamous during the Prohibition era. ... The M3 Grease Gun (more formally United States Submachine Gun, Cal. ... The Reising (sometimes called the Buck Rogers Gun) was an American submachine gun patented in 1940 and manufactured by Harrington & Richardson. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with UD 42. ... A machine gun is a fully-automatic firearm that is capable of firing bullets in rapid succession. ... The Browning Model 1917 Machine Gun is a heavy machine gun used by the United States armed forces in World War I, World War II, Korea, and to a limited amount in Vietnam and by other nations. ... The Browning M1919 was a . ... The M1941 Johnson Light Machine Gun was an American recoil-operated light machine gun designed in the late 1930s by Melvin Johnson. ... It has been suggested that K6 HMG be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Bazooka (disambiguation). ... A soldier from the U.S. 33rd Infantry Division uses an M2 flamethrower M2A1-7 is a flamethrower used by the American troops during World War II. It has four controls:- - Back of the rear grip: firing safety catch. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Combatants United Nations:  Republic of Korea,  Australia,  Belgium,  Luxembourg,  Canada,  Colombia,  Ethiopia,  France,  Greece,  Luxembourg,  Netherlands,  New Zealand,  Philippines,  South Africa,  Thailand,  Turkey,  United Kingdom,  United States Medical staff:  Denmark,  Australia,  Italy,  Norway,  Sweden Communist states:  Democratic People’s Republic of Korea,  Peoples Republic of China,  Soviet Union Commanders... .45 ACP cartridges .45 redirects here. ... Left to right: .38 Special, .17 HMR and . ... .30-06 Springfield cartridge specifications. ... The . ... .50 BMG rounds and 20MM Vulcan round, with a golf ball and a stick of RAM posed to provide scale. ...

External links

  1. 9mm videos

 
 

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