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Encyclopedia > 8888 Uprising
This article is part of
the History of Myanmar series

Early history of Burma
Pyu City-states (100 BC-840 AD)
Mon Kingdoms (9th-11th, 13th-16th, 18th c.)
Pagan Kingdom (849-1287) 1st empire
Ava (c. 1364-1555)
Pegu (to 1752)
Toungoo Dynasty (1486-1752) 2nd empire
Konbaung Dynasty (1753-1885) 3rd empire
War with Britain (1824-1852)
British Arakan (after 1824)
British Tenasserim (1824-1852)
British Lower Burma (1852-1886)
British Upper Burma (1885-1886)
British rule in Burma (1886-1948)
Nationalist Movement in Burma (after 1886)
Aung San
Japanese occupation of Burma (1942-1945)
Post-Independence Burma, 1947-1962
U Nu and U Thant
Military rule (1962-1989)
Ne Win
8888 Uprising (1988)
Aung San Suu Kyi
Second military rule (1989-present)
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8888 Uprising (Burmese: ၈၄လုံး or ရ္ဟစ္‌လေးလုံး‌; MLCTS: hrac le: lum:) was a national uprising demanding democracy that took place on 8 August 1988 in Burma (now Myanmar). The History of Burma (Myanmar) is long and complex. ... Image File history File links Burmapeacockforhistory. ... Humans lived in the region that is now Myanmar as early as 11,000 years ago, but the first identifiable civilisation is that of the Mon. ... Pyu (also written Pyuu, or Pyus) refers to an ancient kingdom (and its language) found in the central and northern regions of what is now Burma. ... Mon kingdoms ruled large sections of Burma from the 9th to the 11th, the 13th to the 16th, and again in the 18th centuries. ... To the north another group of people, the Burmese began infiltrating the area as well. ... AvA is a film in post-production directed by the rock group Angels and Airwaves. ... The 54-m Shwethalyaung Buddha, constructed in 994 A.D. by King Migadepa Bago, formerly Pegu, is a city and the capital of Bago Division in Myanmar. ... The Toungoo dynasty (1486-1752) was one of the most powerful post-Bagan Burmese kingdoms, over which seven kings reigned for a period of 155 years. ... The Konbaung Dynasty (Burmese: ; 1752-1885, sometimes called the Alaungpaya Dynasty) was the last in the history of the Burmese monarchy. ... There have been three Burmese Wars or Anglo-Burmese Wars: First Anglo-Burmese War (1823 to 1826) Second Anglo-Burmese War (1852 to 1853) Third Anglo-Burmese War (1885 to 1887) The expansion of Myanmar had consequences along its frontiers. ... Rakhine State (formerly Arakan) is a state of Myanmar. ... Tanintharyi Division, better known by the old name Tenasserim, is a division of Myanmar, covering the long narrow southern part of the country on the Kra Isthmus. ... Burma is divided into 7 states and 7 divisions: Categories: Myanmar | Subdivisions of Myanmar | States of Myanmar | Divisions of Myanmar ... Upper Burma was a term used by the British to refer to the central and northern area of what is now the country of Myanmar. ... British rule in Burma lasted from 1824 to 1948, from the Anglo-Burmese Wars through the creation of Burma Province as a colony of British India to the establisment of the Crown Colony of Burma and finally independence. ... Dobama Asiayone (We Burmans Association), led by Ba Sein, was an pro-independence and pro-Japanese Burmese organisation established in 1930 in Rangoon, after Indian dock workers and their families were murdered by Burman dock workers who believed that the Indians had taken jobs that rightfully belonged to them. ... General Aung San (Bogyoke Aung San in Burmese) (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ; IPA: ); February 13, 1915 – July 19, 1947) was a Burmese revolutionary, nationalist, general, and politician. ... The Japanese occupation of Burma refers to the period between 1942 and 1945 during World War II, when Burma was a part of the Empire of Japan. ... The first years of Burmese independence were marked by successive insurgencies by the Red Flag Communists led by Thakin Soe, the White Flag Communists led by Thakin Than Tun, the Yèbaw Hpyu (White-band PVO) led by Bo La Yaung, a member of the Thirty Comrades, army rebels calling... Prime Minister U Nu U Nu (otherwise known as Thakin Nu; May 25, 1907 - February 14, 1995) was a Burmese nationalist and political figure. ... U Thant (Burmese: ; 22 January 1909 – 25 November 1974) was a Burmese diplomat and the third Secretary-General of the United Nations, from 1961 to 1971. ... The Burmese Way to Socialism is the name of the ideology of Burmese ruler, Ne Win, who ruled the country from 1962 to 1988. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Aung San Suu Kyi (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ; IPA: ); born 19 June 1945 in Yangon (Rangoon), is a nonviolent pro-democracy activist and leader of the National League for Democracy in Myanmar (Burma), and a noted prisoner of conscience. ... The State Peace and Development Council (Burmese: ; IPA: ; abbreviated SPDC) is the official name of the military regime of Myanmar (formerly known as Burma). ... This article or section uses Burmese characters which may be rendered incorrectly. ... Uprising is another word for rebellion. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ...

The 8888 Uprising, the largest ever national Burmese uprising demanding democracy, erupted on 8 August 1988 in Rangoon (now Yangon), Burma, when university students started the initial demonstrations in Rangoon. The uprising ended on 18 September 1988, after a bloody military coup by the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC). Thousands, mostly monks and civilians (primarily students) were killed by the Tatmadaw (Burmese armed forces). Yangon (Burmese: , population 5,000,000 (nearly) (2007 census), formerly Rangoon, is the largest city and former capital of Myanmar (previously known as Burma, prior to 1989). ... Representation of a university class, 1350s. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... SLORC, or the State Law and Order Restoration Council was the name of the military government of Myanmar between September 1988 and November 1997. ... St. ... In times of armed conflict a civilian is any person who is not a combatant. ... The military of Myanmar, officially known as Tatmadaw (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ; IPA: ). is the primary military organisation responsible for the territorial security and defense of Union of Myanmar. ...



Before the uprising, Burma had been ruled by the repressive and isolated regime of General Ne Win since 1962. In November 1985, students gathered and boycotted the government's decision to withdraw Burmese local currency notes. In September 1987, General Ne Win announced the withdrawal of the newly replaced currency notes, 75,35 and 25 kyats. This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... This page is about boycott as a form of protest. ... The kyat (ISO 4217 code MMK) is the official currency of Myanmar. ...

Following that decision, Rangoon Institute of Technology (YTU, now Yangon Technological University) students, protested inside their Rangoon campus. In response, the military killed a student activist, Phone Maw, in front of the YTU's main building. This killing led to a large protest that paved the way towards the uprising, starting on the August 8, 1988.

The students were quickly later joined by Burmese citizens from all walks of life, including government workers, Buddhist monks, Armed Forces and Customs officers, teachers, and hospital staffs. These peaceful demonstrations with students in the Rangoon streets spread to other states' capitals. Ne Win ordered that, "Guns were not to shoot upwards", meaning that he was ordering the military to shoot directly at the demonstrators. Debating bhikkhu in Tibet A bhikkhu (male) or bhikkhuni (female) is a fully ordained Buddhist monk. ...

The student leaders promoted a set of ten demands for the restoration of a democratic government in Burma. The Ne Win government fell and the military imposed martial law giving absolute power to General Saw Maung, in order to quash the demonstrations. The military killed thousands of civilians, including students and the Buddhist monks. It is claimed that on the so-called Red Bridge the military fired upon a student protest while it was crossing the bridge until the bridge itself was red with the students' blood.[citation needed] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Saw Maung (1928 - 24 July 1997) was a political figure in Myanmar. ... A silhouette of a Buddha statue at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ...

During the crisis, activist Aung San Suu Kyi emerged as a national icon. Aung San Suu Kyi (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ; IPA: ); born 19 June 1945 in Yangon (Rangoon), is a nonviolent pro-democracy activist and leader of the National League for Democracy in Myanmar (Burma), and a noted prisoner of conscience. ...


After the 8888 Uprising, another series of demonstrations took place, which were all suppressed by military force.[specify]

Today, the uprising is remembered and honored by many Burmese expatriates and citizens alike. The 1995 motion picture, Beyond Rangoon, is based on a true story that took place during the uprising. Beyond Rangoon is a 1995 film about Laura Bowman, an American tourist who vacations in Burma (Myanmar) in 1988, the year in which the 8888 Uprising takes place. ...

See also

  • 2007 Burmese anti-government protests

A wave of anti-government protests started in Myanmar (Burma) on August 15, 2007, and has been ongoing since then. ...

External links

  • BBC News 'Protests mark Burma anniversary'
  • Soros 'Voices of '88'
  • Collection of Articles and Audio from 1988
  • Partial list of 8888 Uprising victims




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