FACTOID # 12: It's not the government they hate: Washington DC has the highest number of hate crimes per capita in the US.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > 8 mm video format
A Video8 cassette
A Video8 cassette

The 8mm video format refers informally to three related videocassette formats for the NTSC and PAL/SECAM television systems. These are the original Video8 format and its improved successor Hi8 (both analog), as well as a more recent digital format known as Digital8. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1911x1497, 756 KB) A Sony Video 8 cassette. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1911x1497, 756 KB) A Sony Video 8 cassette. ... The video cassette recorder (or VCR, less popularly video tape recorder) is a type of video tape recorder that uses removable cassettes containing magnetic tape to record audio and video from a television broadcast so it can be played back later. ... NTSC is the analog television system in use in Korea, Japan, United States, Canada and certain other places, mostly in the Americas (see map). ... For other meanings of PAL see PAL (disambiguation). ... SÉCAM (Séquentiel couleur à mémoire, French for sequential colour with memory) is an analog color television system first used in France. ... An analog or analogue signal is any continuously variable signal. ... A digital system is one that uses numbers, especially binary numbers, for input, processing, transmission, storage, or display, rather than a continuous spectrum of values (an analog system) or non-numeric symbols such as letters or icons. ...


Their user-base consisted mainly of amateur camcorder users, although they also saw important use in the professional field. Before the camcorder. ...


In 1985, Sony of Japan introduced the Handycam, one of the first Video8 cameras. Much smaller than the competition's VHS and Betamax video cameras, Video8 became very popular in the consumer camcorder market. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Top view VHS cassette with U.S. Quarter for scale Bottom view of VHS cassette with magnetic tape exposed The Video Home System, first released in September 1976, better known by its abbreviation VHS, is a recording and playing standard for video cassette recorders (VCRs), developed by JVC (with some... Sonys Betamax is the 12. ... Before the camcorder. ...


The Video8 format later saw various improvements including higher resolution (renamed Hi8), digital stereo PCM sound (for some professional grade equipment) and finally the move to digital (renamed Digital8).

Contents


Technical overview

The three formats (Video8, Hi8 and Digital8) are physically very similar, featuring both the same tape-width and near-identical cassette-shells. This gives a measure of backward-compatibility in some cases. One difference between them is in the quality of the tape itself, but the main differences lie in the encoding of the video when it is recorded onto the tape.


Video8 was the earliest of the three formats, and is entirely analog. It was followed by a version with improved resolution, Hi8. Although this was still analog, some professional Hi8 equipment could store additional digital-stereo PCM sound on a special reserved track. Pulse-code modulation (PCM) is a digital representation of an analog signal where the magnitude of the signal is sampled regularly at uniform intervals, then quantized to a series of symbols in a digital (usually binary) code. ...


Digital8 is the most recent 8mm video format. It retains the same physical cassette shell as its predecessors, and can even record onto Hi8 cassettes. However, the manner in which video is encoded and stored on the tape itself is entirely digital (and thus very different from the analog Video8 and Hi8.) Some Digital8 camcorders support Video8 and Hi8 with analog sound (for playback only), but this is not required by the Digital8 specification.


In all three cases, a length of 8mm-wide magnetic tape is wound between two spools and held within a hard-shelled cassette. These cassettes share similar size and appearance with the audio cassette, but their mechanical operation is far closer to that of VHS or Betamax videocassettes. Standard recording time is up to 90 minutes for PAL and 120 minutes for NTSC. (The cassette holds the same length tape -- tape-consumption is different between PAL and NTSC recorders.) Typical audio 60-minute Compact Cassette. ... For other meanings of PAL see PAL (disambiguation). ... NTSC is the analog television system in use in Korea, Japan, United States, Canada and certain other places, mostly in the Americas (see map). ...


Like most other videocassette systems, Video8 uses a helical-scan head-drum to read/write video to the magnetic tape. The drum rotates at high-speed (1800 or 3600rpm) while the tape is pulled along the drum's path. Because the tape and drum are oriented at a slight angular offset, the recording tracks are laid down as parallel diagonal stripes on the tape. Helical scan or striping is a method of recording higher bandwidth signals onto magnetic tape than would otherwise be possible at the same tape speed with fixed heads. ...


Generations

An amateur grade Video8 Camcorder from the early 1990s.
An amateur grade Video8 Camcorder from the early 1990s.

This is a photo of an 8mm camcorder that I purchased in 1992. ... This is a photo of an 8mm camcorder that I purchased in 1992. ...

Video8

Video8 launched into a market dominated by the full-size VHS and Betamax formats.


In terms of video quality, Video8 and VHS offered similar performance; both were rated at 240 horizontal lines. The later addition of HQ circuitry to VHS did not noticeably improve this. Beta, meanwhile, offered slightly better picture quality (improved still further by SuperBeta in the mid-1980s), but was never to be a major player in the camcorder market.


In terms of audio, Video8 generally outperformed its older rivals. Standard VHS and Beta audio was recorded along a narrow linear track at the edge of the tape, where it was vulnerable to damage. Coupled with the slow horizontal tape speed, the sound was comparable with that of a low-quality audio cassette.


By contrast, all Video8 machines used "audio frequency modulation" (AFM) to record sound along the same helical tape-path as that of the video signal. This meant that Video8's standard audio was of a far higher quality than that of its rivals. Frequency modulation (FM) is a form of modulation which represents information as variations in the instantaneous frequency of a carrier wave. ...


Although a superior AFM audio system, "Hi-Fi Stereo" was already available on certain VHS and Beta VCRs when Video8 launched, it was extremely rare on camcorders, and eventually appeared only on the most expensive units. Video8 later included true stereo; the limitations of camcorder microphones at the time meant that there was little practical difference between the two AFM systems for camcorder usage. In general, Video8 comfortably outperformed non-HiFi VHS/Beta.


Attempts to implement stereo audio on the VHS/Beta linear audiotracks simply reduced further the already poor sound-quality. However, linear audio did have the advantage that (unlike either AFM system), it could be re-recorded without disturbing the underlying video.


In an effort to keep up with VHS and Betamax, which (at the time of Video8's launch) had already extended their recording times with half-speed 'LP' modes, Video8 later offered its own LP mode. In all cases, this was at the expense of some picture quality.


However, Video8 had one major advantage over the full-size competition. Thanks to their compact-form factor, Video8 camcorders were small enough to hold in the palm of the user's hand. Such a feat was impossible with Betamax and VHS camcorders, which operated best on sturdy tripods or strong shoulders. Although the full-sized recorders held the advantage in recording-time, Video8's 60-minute capacity served well for most users. Longer sessions generally required additional infrastructure (AC power or more batteries), and hence longer recording-times offered little advantage in a true travelling environment.


Video8/Hi8's main drawback was that tapes made with Video8 camcorders could not be played directly on VHS hardware. Although it was possible to transfer tapes (using the VCR re-record the source video as it was played back by the camcorder), this inevitably led to degradation of the analog signal.


The rival VHS-C format attempted to capitalize on this incompatibility by using the same 1/2" magnetic-tape as VHS, but stored within far smaller cassettes. As the recording format was also identical, VHS-C cassettes could be used in full-size VHS equipment via a mechanical adapter. However, the smaller cassettes limited VHS-C to 20 minutes of (SP) recording-time. As a result, all VHS-C camcorders offered LP and EP recording speeds, but this too led to a drop in quality.


Ultimately, Video8's main rival in the camcorder market turned out to be VHS-C, with neither dominating the market completely.


Hi8

To counter the introduction of the Super-VHS format, Sony introduced Video Hi8 (short for high-band Video8.) Like SVHS, Hi8 used improved recorder electronics and media-formulation to increase picture detail. In both systems, a higher-grade videotape and recording-heads allowed the placement of the luminance-carrier at a higher frequency, thereby increasing luminance bandwidth. Both Hi8 and SVHS were officially rated at a (luminance) resolution of "400 horizontal TV/lines," a vast improvement from their respective base-formats of 240 lines. Chroma resolution for both remained unchanged, well below 100 TV/lines. All Hi8 equipment supported recording and playback of both Hi8 and legacy Video8 recordings. Video8 equipment cannot play Hi8 recordings. Introduced in Japan in 1987, S-VHS (Super VHS) was an improved version of the VHS standard for consumer video cassette recorders. ...


By this stage, Betamax's share of both home and camcorder markets had declined seriously. As a result, the next-generation version known as ED-Beta ("Extended Definition") failed to take off despite its technical superiority.


The analog audio systems remained as before; HiFi Stereo outperformed Video8/Hi8 AFM in theory, if not practice, but remained restricted to high-end machines.


In the late 1980s, digital (PCM) audio was introduced into some higher grade models of Hi8 (and SVHS) equipment. Hi8 PCM-audio used 12-bit samples with a sampling-rate of roughly 32 kHz, which was far short of CD-quality. PCM-capable Hi8 and SVHS recorders could simultaneously record PCM-stereo in addition to the legacy (analog AFM) stereo audiotracks.


The final upgrade to the Video8 format came in 1998, when Sony introduced XR-capability (extended resolution.) Video8-XR and Hi8-XR offered a modest 10% improvement in luminance detail. XR-recordings were fully playable on older non-XR equipment, though without the benefits of XR.


Digital8

See also the complete article at Digital8

Introduced in the late 1990s, Digital8 is a digital-video (miniDV) codec using Hi8 media. In engineering terms, Digital8 and miniDV are indistinguishable at the logical-format level. Digital8 uses the same cassette-media as Video8, but otherwise bears no resemblance to the Video8 analog-video system. Some Digital8 equipment can play (not record) Hi8/Video8 recordings, but this is not a standard feature of Digital8 technology. To store the digital-encoded audio/video on a standard Video8 cassette, the tape must be pulled faster through the recorder. This means that where the same tape will record 120 minutes of analog Hi8 NTSC video or 90 minutes of analog Hi8 PAL video, it will only record 60 minutes of Digital8 PAL/NTSC video. More recent Digital8 units offer an 'LP' mode, which increases recording time to 90 minutes. Digital8 (or D8) is a consumer digital videotape format developed by Sony in the late 1990s. ... NTSC is the analog television system in use in Korea, Japan, United States, Canada and certain other places, mostly in the Americas (see map). ... For other meanings of PAL see PAL (disambiguation). ...


Digital8 uses Sony has licensed Digital8 technology to at least 1 other firm (Hitachi) who marketed a few models for a while, but presently, only Sony sells Digital8 consumer equipment.

Hitachi Digital8 Camcorder
Hitachi Digital8 Camcorder

Digital8's main rival is the consumer miniDV format, which uses smaller tape-media and a correspondingly smaller cassette shell. Since both technologies share the same logical audio/video format, Digital8 can theoretically equal miniDV in A/V performance. But as of 2005, Digital8 has been relegated to the entry-level camcorder market, where price and not performance is the driving factor. Meanwhile, miniDV is the de facto standard of the digital camcorder market. Image File history File links Hitachi_d8. ... Image File history File links Hitachi_d8. ...


Its marginalisation towards the lower end of the market has left Digital8 prone to competition from a new wave of camcorders using writable DVD-R as their storage medium. Although less than ideal for serious work, the DVD-R camcorder has the advantage of direct-compatibility with a large installed-base of DVD-players. This mirrors VHS-C's main advantage against Video8. As DVD-players continue to saturate consumer households, DVD-R camcorders will likely increase in popularity.


Video8 outside the camcorder market

The home market

Efforts were made to expand Video8 from the camcorder market into mainstream home-video. But as a replacement for full-size VCRs, Video8 failed. It lacked the long (5+ hour) recording-time of both VHS and Betamax, offered no clear audio/video improvement, and cost more than equivalent full-size VCRs. Quite simply, Video8 was not convincing in the home-VCR application. The rental-market for Video8 never materialized, though Sony maintained a line of Video8 home-VCRs well into the 1990s.

A professional grade EFP/ENG Hi8 camcorder
Enlarge
A professional grade EFP/ENG Hi8 camcorder

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (899x551, 91 KB) This is a professional grade ENG/EFP 3CCD Hi8 camcorder with digital PCM stereo sound, removable lens, viewfinder, microphone, and fully manual settings. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (899x551, 91 KB) This is a professional grade ENG/EFP 3CCD Hi8 camcorder with digital PCM stereo sound, removable lens, viewfinder, microphone, and fully manual settings. ... Electronic Field Production is a television industry term referring to a television production which takes place outside of a studio and is produced using a temporary, portable production setup. ... #REDIRECT Electronic news gathering ...

Videography

Among home and amateur videographers Video8/Hi8 was popular enough for Sony to make equipment for video-editing and production. The format also saw some use in the professional ENG/EFP field.


The future of the 8mm video formats

As of late 2005, the analog 8mm formats are nearing the end of the road. Standard Video8 is already virtually extinct in the new camcorder market. Hi8 (along with VHS-C) is still used for some entry-level camcorders aimed at consumers, but elsewhere has been almost entirely superceded by digital formats, such as its successor Digital8, and miniDV. 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A MiniDV tape Digital Video (DV) is a video format launched in 1996, and, in its smaller tape form factor MiniDV, has since become one of the standards for consumer and semiprofessional video production. ...


Some have questioned the future of Digital8, citing the fact that (as of late 2005) only Sony are supporting the format in the face of competition from miniDV, and only in their entry-level camcorders.


Miscellaneous technical issues

Dropouts

In Video8 and its successors, the smaller head-drum and tape left recorders more susceptible to the effects of 'tape-dropout', where magnetic-particles are eroded from the tape surface. As the audio/video signal is held in a smaller area on a Video8 tape, a single dropout has a more damaging effect. Hence, dropout compensation in Video8 systems tend to be more advanced to mitigate the format's vulnerability to dropouts. In this respect, VHS and Betamax's larger head-drums prove advantageous.


Lifespan of 8mm Tapes

8mm tapes should be stored vertically out of direct sunlight, in a dry, cool dust free environment. As with all videotapes, they will will eventually deteriorate and lose their recorded contents over time, resulting in a build up of image noise and drop-outs. Tapes older than 10 years may start to show signs of degradation. Amongst other problems, they can become sticky and jam playback units or become brittle and snap. Such problems will normally require professional attention.


However, the 8 mm format is no more prone to this than any other format. In fact, the metal particle technology used with the Video8 formats is more durable than the metal evaporated type used with MiniDV. Hi8 tapes can be either of Metal Particle (MP) or Metal Evaporated (ME) formulation.


Because 8mm tapes use a metal formulation, they are harder to erase than the oxide tapes used with VHS, SVHS and Betamax tapes. As such, carefully stored, they are less susceptible to magnetic fields than the older formats.


Transferring 8mm footage to a computer for editing

Because Video8 and Hi8 are analog video formats, transferring either to computer requires digitization. An analog or analogue signal is any continuously variable signal. ... A computer is a machine capable of undergoing complex calculations. ...


Some Digital8 cameras offer legacy playback of Video8 and Hi8. Those which also have a FireWire socket will produce a digitized signal for capture to computer. This approach will provide noticeably sharper results than the method described in the next paragraph. It also has the benefit of allowing you to work in the industry standard DV format on your computer. Digital8 (or D8) is a consumer digital videotape format developed by Sony in the late 1990s. ... A 6-Pin FireWire 400 connector FireWire (also known as i. ...


If you don't have access to a Digital8 deck with which to digitize your Video8 or Hi8 tapes, you'll need an analog capture card or converter. Once on the computer, the footage can be edited, processed and transferred to DVD, the Internet or back to tape. DVD-R writing/reading side DVD-R with purple dye, 4. ...


Some consumer miniDV and DVD cameras feature a built in analogue to digital converter that will convert an analog video source into digital form. This is usually called 'pass through' because as the (for example) connected to your computer. A digital system is one that uses numbers, especially binary numbers, for input, processing, transmission, storage, or display, rather than a continuous spectrum of values (an analog system) or non-numeric symbols such as letters or icons. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
8 mm video format - Education - Information - Educational Resources - Encyclopedia - Music (949 words)
However, cameras do come with audio video output cables which allow the video produced with the camera to either be shown on a television, or outputted to a VHS VCR and recorded onto a VHS tape.
The format is mainly used with video cameras, and today is one of the dominant formats for video cameras.
Video Hi8s are also a new re-released hi quality version of 8mm video.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m