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Fragment 5 from Cave 7 of the Qumran Community
Fragment 5 from Cave 7 of the Qumran Community

Among the Dead Sea scrolls, 7Q5 is the designation for a papyrus fragment discovered in Cave 7 of the Qumran community. The significance of this fragment is derived from an argument made by Joset O´Callaghan in his work ¿Papiros neotestamentarios en la cueva 7 de Qumrân? (New Testament Papyri in Cave 7 at Qumran?) in 1972, later reasserted and expanded by German scholar Carsten Peter Thiede in his work The Earliest Gospel Manuscript? in 1982. The assertion is that the previously unidentified 7Q5 is actually a fragment of the Gospel of Mark, chapter 6 verse 52-53. The illustration at right gives a clear picture of how much text is conserved on the fragment 7Q5. Download high resolution version (840x896, 81 KB)Fragment 5 from Cave 7 of the Qumran Community. ... Download high resolution version (840x896, 81 KB)Fragment 5 from Cave 7 of the Qumran Community. ... Fragments of the scrolls on display at the Archeological Museum, Amman The Dead Sea scrolls (Hebrew: מגילות ים המלח) comprise roughly 825-872 documents, including texts from the Hebrew Bible, discovered between 1947 and 1956 in eleven caves in and around the Wadi Qumran (near the ruins of the ancient settlement of Khirbet... Papyrus plant Cyperus papyrus at Kew Gardens, London Papyrus is an early form of paper produced from the pith of the papyrus plant, Cyperus papyrus, a wetland sedge that was once abundant in the Nile Delta of Egypt. ... Qumran (Hebrew:חירבת קומראן Khirbet Qumran) is located on a dry plateau about a mile inland from the northwestern shore of the Dead Sea in Israel. ... Dr. Joset O´Callaghan Martínez (October 7, 1922 - December 15, 2001) was a spanish scholar on papyrus and paleography, especially known for his identification of the 7Q5 papyrus of Qumran with a text of Mark 6, 52-53. ... 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Prof. ... 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Gospel of Mark (literally, according to Mark; Greek, Κατά Μαρκον, Kata Markon),(anonymous[1] but ascribed to Mark the Evangelist) is a Gospel of the New Testament. ...


Argument

The argument is weighted on two points. First, the spacing before the word και <kai> ("and") signifies a paragraph break, which is consistent with the normative layout of Mark in early copies. Secondly, the combination of letters ννησ <nnes> found in line 4 is highly characteristic and may point at the word Γεννησαρετ <Gennesaret>, found three times in the New Testament. Furthermore, a computer search "using the most elaborate Greek texts ... has failed to yield any text other than Mark 6:52-53 for the combination of letters identified by O’Callaghan et al. in 7Q5" (Thiede n. 31, pp. 40-41). Gennesaret (a garden of riches) was a town of Naphtali, called Chinnereth (Joshua 19:35), sometimes in the plural form Chinneroth (Joshua 11:2). ...


Several counterarguments exist.

  • The spacing before the word και <kai> ("and") might be a paragraph break. But spacings of this width can be found in papyri sometimes even within words (Pap. Bodmer XXIV, plate 26; in Qumran in fragment 4Q122). Other examples in the Qumran texts show that the word και <kai> ("and") in many cases was seperated with spacings - and this has in many cases nothing to do with the texts structure.
  • There is no consensus[citation needed] that the letters ννησ are the best reading of the papyrus, though three important transcriptions all agree in rendering νησ and two in reading ννησ. If these four letters are correct, then apart from Gennesaret, the word εγεννησεν <egennesen> ("begot") is cited as another word in the Greek lexicon containing those four letters. In fact, this conjecture was proposed by the authors of the first edition (editio princeps) published in 1962. In such case the fragment might be part of some genealogy.
  • In order to identify the fragment with Mark 6:52-53, one must account for the replacement of original δ <d> with τ <t> in line 3, which is unparalleled. The exchange of δ and τ can be found in papyri from Egypt. The reason for this interchange in papyri from egypt are so called ´bilingual interferences´ (a term used by the coptologist F. T. Gignac), because the writers in Egypt speak coptic dialects as their first language. There are no differences between the hard and the soft dentals in coptic languages. When those writers wrote greek they were in many cases not able to differ between hard and soft dentals. This is very significant when the writers are not professional writers. A good example can be seen in Papyrus Amh. 111. The non-professional writer writes 15 word (with 10 mistakes), the professional writer writes 200 words (with only 2 mistakes). There is no example for the interchange of δ and τ in ancient texts from Israel. The only example that is used to support the markan identification of 7Q5 is an epigraphic source, a warning-inscription from the temple in Jerusalem. There the word "dryphakton" (barrier) is written "tryphakton". But this is not a specific writing for Israel or the environment of Jerusalem. This writing can be found all over the eastern mediterraneum (Delos, Oropos, Mylasa). There were two different possibilities to write this word correct, with δ and with τ - a fact that was observed already by the grammarian Aelius Herodianus (ca. 180-250). So there is no example for the interchange of δ and τ near Qumran. Even Flavius Josephus (born in Jerusalem) writes "dryphakton".[citation needed].
  • As the lines of a column are always more or less of the same length, it must be assumed that the words επι την γην <epi ten gen> ("to the land") were omitted, a variant which is not attested elsewhere[citation needed].
  • The identification of the last letter in line 2 with nu has been strongly disputed because it does not fit into the pattern of this Greek letter as it is clearly written in line 4.
  • The computer search performed by Thiede assumed that all the disputed letter identifications made by O'Callaghan were correct. However, a similar search performed by scholar Daniel Wallace, but allowing other possible identifications for the disputed letters, found sixteen matches ([1]). If a computer search is performed with the undisputed letters of the fragment 7Q5 it will not find the text Mk 6,52-53, because the undisputed letter τ in line 3 does not fit to this text.

1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar). ... Genealogy is the study and tracing of family pedigrees. ... The island of Delos, Carl Anton Joseph Rottmann, 1847 The island of Delos (Greek: Δήλος, Dhilos), isolated in the centre of the roughly circular ring of islands called the Cyclades, near Mykonos, had a position as a holy sanctuary for a millennium before Olympian Greek mythology made it the birthplace of... Oropos, or Oropus is a Greek seaport, on the Euripus in Attica, opposite Eretria. ... Mylasa was a city in Asia Minor. ... Aelius Herodianus (c. ...

Significance

It is hard to overstate the significance that a positive identification of 7Q5 as Mark 6:52-53 would have on biblical literary criticism, which may explain both the motivation to see the Gospel of Mark in the fragment and the reticence of many to hang so much on such a small thread. The Qumran community was disbanded no later than 68 AD, which would make that the latest possible date for any documents stored there. This would make 7Q5 the earliest existing fragment of New Testament canonical text, predating P52 by almost 100 years. For other uses, see number 68. ... John 21:1 Jesus Appears to His Disciples--Alessandro Mantovani: the Vatican, Rome. ... Canonical is an adjective derived from canon. ... John Rylands Library Papyrus P52, recto The Rylands Library Papyrus P52, also known as the St Johns fragment, is a papyrus conserved at the John Rylands Library, Manchester, UK. The front (recto) contains lines from the Gospel of John 18:31-33, in Greek, and the back (verso) contains...


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  Results from FactBites:
 
7Q5 (402 words)
7Q5 is the designation for a parchment fragment discovered in Cave 7 of the Qumran community.
The assertion is that the previously unidentified 7Q5 is actually a fragment of the Gospel of Mark, chapter 6 verse 52-53.
It is hard to overstate the significance that a positive identification of 7Q5 as Mark 6:52-53 would have on biblical literary criticism, which may explain the reticence of many to hang so much on such a small thread.
7Q5 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (760 words)
Among the Dead Sea scrolls, 7Q5 is the designation for a papyrus fragment discovered in Cave 7 of the Qumran community.
It is hard to overstate the significance that a positive identification of 7Q5 as Mark 6:52-53 would have on biblical literary criticism, which may explain both the motivation to see the Gospel of Mark in the fragment and the reticence of many to hang so much on such a small thread.
Most significantly in theological terms, according to Christian apologists such an identification would make a strong argument for the assertion that the miraculous, divine, and messianic attributions to Jesus were very early traditions in the Christian church.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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