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The Motorola 680x0/0x0/m68k/68k/68K family of CISC microprocessor CPU chips were 32-bit from the start, and were the primary competition for the Intel x86 family of chips in personal computers of the 1980s and early 1990s. Although no modern desktop computers are based on the 68k, derivative processors are still widely used in embedded applications. Motorola (NYSE: MOT) is an American multinational communications company based in Schaumburg, Illinois, a Chicago suburb. ... A Complex Instruction Set Computer (CISC) is an instruction set architecture (ISA) in which each instruction can indicate several low-level operations, such as a load from memory, an arithmetic operation, and a memory store, all in a single instruction. ... A microprocessor is a programmable digital electronic component that incorporates the functions of a central processing unit (CPU) on a single semiconducting integrated circuit (IC). ... Die of an Intel 80486DX2 microprocessor (actual size: 12×6. ... 32-bit is a term applied to processors, and computer architectures which manipulate the address and data in 32-bit chunks. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... It has been suggested that Embedded System Design in an FPGA be merged into this article or section. ...

Contents

Family members

The Motorola 68000 is a 32-bit CISC microprocessor from Motorola. ... Motorola 68EC000 controller The 68EC000 is a microprocessor from Motorola. ... The Motorola MC68008 is a 8/16/32-bit microprocessor from the early 1980s. ... The Motorola MC68010 processor is a 16/32-bit microprocessor from Motorola, released in 1982 [1]. It is largely similar to the Motorola 68000 CPU with the exception of the addition of several instructions for breakpoint and register control (ccr instead of sr), as well as the ability to save... The Motorola MC68012 processor is a 16/32-bit microprocessor from the early 1980s. ... 32-bit is a term applied to processors, and computer architectures which manipulate the address and data in 32-bit chunks. ... Motorola 68020 The Motorola 68020 is a microprocessor from Motorola. ... The 68EC020 is a microprocessor from Motorola. ... Motorola 68030 Processor from a Macintosh IIsi The Motorola 68030 is a 32-bit microprocessor in Motorolas 68000 family. ... The 68EC030 is a microprocessor from Motorola. ... The Motorola 68040 is a microprocessor from Motorola. ... The 68EC040 is a version of the Motorola 68040 microprocessor intended for embedded controllers. ... The 68LC040 is a low cost version of the Motorola 68040 microprocessor with no FPU. This makes it less expensive and draw less power. ... Simple superscalar pipeline. ... The Motorola 68060 is a 32-bit microprocessor from Motorola, and is the successor to the Motorola 68040. ... The Freescale 683XX (formerly Motorola 683XX) is a family of compatible microcontrollers that use a Freescale 68000-based CPU core. ... QUICC stands for QUad Integrated Communications Controller. ... The Freescale ColdFire is a 68k architecture microprocessor manufactured for embedded systems development by Freescale Semiconductor (formerly the semiconductor sector of Motorola). ... Motorola DragonBall Microprocessor Motorola/Freescale Semiconductors DragonBall is microprocessor design based on the famous 68000 core, but implemented as an all-in-one low-power solution for handheld computer use. ...

Main uses

The 68k line of processors has been used in a variety of systems, from modern high-end Texas Instruments calculators (the TI-89, TI-92, and Voyage 200 lines) to older members of the palm pilot series, and even radiation hardened versions in the critical control systems of the Space Shuttle. However, they became most well-known as the processors powering desktop computers such as the Apple Macintosh, the Commodore Amiga, the Atari ST, and several others. The 68k was also the processor of choice in the 1980s for Unix workstations and servers from companies such as Sun Microsystems, NeXT and SGI. Texas Instruments (NYSE: TXN), better known in the electronics industry (and popularly) as TI, is an American company based in Dallas, Texas, USA, renowned for developing and commercializing semiconductor and computer technology. ... The TI-89 and the TI-89 Titanium are graphing calculators developed by Texas Instruments. ... The Texas Instruments TI-92 calculator, originally released in 1995, was a large calculator with a QWERTY keyboard. ... The Texas Instruments TI-92 calculator, originally released in 1995, was a large calculator with a QWERTY keyboard. ... An early model - the Pilot 5000 The Palm m130 was one of the first Palms with a colour screen Pilot was the name given to the first generation of personal digital assistants manufactured by Palm Computing in 1996 (then a division of U.S. Robotics and later 3Com). ... Microelectronics designed for environments with high levels of ionizing radiation have special design challenges. ... NASAs Space Shuttle, officially called Space Transportation System (STS), is the United States governments current manned launch vehicle. ... The term personal computer or PC has three meanings: IBMs range of PCs that led to the use of the term - see IBM PC. Any computer based on IBMs original specifications also known as IBM PC compatible. ... The first Macintosh computer, introduced in 1984, upgraded to a 512K Fat Mac. The Macintosh or Mac, is a line of personal computers designed, developed, manufactured, and marketed by Apple Computer. ... Amiga is the name of a range of home/personal computers using the Motorola 68000 processor family, whose development started in 1982. ... The Atari 520ST Atari 1040STF with SC1224 color monitor The Atari ST is a home/personal computer that was commercially popular from 1985 to the early 1990s. ... Filiation of Unix and Unix-like systems Unix (officially trademarked as UNIX®) is a computer operating system originally developed in the 1960s and 1970s by a group of AT&T employees at Bell Labs including Ken Thompson, Dennis Ritchie and Douglas McIlroy. ... Sun SPARCstation 1+, 25mhz RISC processor from early 1990s A workstation, such as a Unix workstation, RISC workstation or engineering workstation, is a high-end desktop or deskside microcomputer designed for technical applications. ... Look up server in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sun Microsystems, Inc. ... Look up Next in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... SGI is a TLA for at least three separate entities: Saskatchewan Government Insurance Scientific Games International Silicon Graphics, Incorporated Soka Gakkai International This page expands a three-character combination which might be any or all of: an abbreviation, an acronym, an initialism, a word in English, or a word in...


Today, these systems are either end-of-line (in the case of the Atari), or are using different processors (as is the case for Amiga, Macintosh, Sun, and SGI). Since these platforms are now more than a decade old, their original manufacturers are unlikely to support an operating system for this hardware or are even out of business. However, the Linux, NetBSD and OpenBSD operating systems still include support for 68k processors. Linux (IPA pronunciation: ) is a Unix-like computer operating system family. ... NetBSD is a freely redistributable, open source version of the Unix-like BSD computer operating system. ... OpenBSD is a freely available Unix-like computer operating system descended from Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD), a Unix derivative developed at the University of California, Berkeley. ...


The 68k processors were also used in the Sega Mega Drive/Sega Genesis and SNK Neo Geo consoles as the main CPU. Other consoles such as the Sega Saturn used the 68k for audio processing and other I/O tasks, while the Atari Jaguar included a 68000 which was intended for basic system control and input processing, but due to the Jaguar's unusual assortment of heterogenous processors was also frequently used for running game logic. The Sega Mega Drive was a 16-bit video game console released by Sega in Japan (1988), Europe (1990) and most of the rest of the world. ... SNK Playmore (formerly SNK) is a Japanese video game hardware and software company. ... Neo-Geo is the name of a cartridge-based arcade and home video game system released in 1990 by Japanese game company SNK. The system offered comparatively colorful 2D graphics and high-quality sound. ... The Sega Saturn ) is a 32-bit video game console, first released on November 22, 1994 in Japan, May 11, 1995 in North America and July 8, 1995 in Europe. ... The Atari Jaguar was a video game console introduced to the U.S. market in November 1993 against the Sega Genesis and the Super Nintendo Entertainment System as a powerful next generation platform. ...


Microcontrollers derived from the 68k family have been used in a huge variety of applications. For example, CPU32 and ColdFire microcontrollers have been manufactured in the millions as automotive engine controllers. The integrated circuit from an Intel 8742, an 8-bit microcontroller that includes a CPU running at 12 MHz, 128 bytes of RAM, 2048 bytes of EPROM, and I/O in the same chip. ...


Architecture

People who are familiar with the PDP-11 or VAX usually feel comfortable with the 68000. With the exception of the split of general purpose registers into specialized data and address registers, the 68000 architecture is in many ways a 32-bit PDP-11. The PDP-11 was a 16-bit minicomputer sold by Digital Equipment Corp. ... VAX is a 32-bit computing architecture that supports an orthogonal instruction set (machine language) and virtual addressing (i. ...


The 68k instruction set can be divided in the following broad categories: It has been suggested that some sections of this article be split into a new article entitled instruction set architecture. ...

Arithmetic tables for children, Lausanne, 1835 Arithmetic or arithmetics (from the Greek word αριθμός = number) is the oldest and most elementary branch of mathematics, used by almost everyone, for tasks ranging from simple daily counting to advanced science and business calculations. ... In computer programming, a bitwise operation operates on one or two bit patterns or binary numerals at the level of their individual bits. ... Boolean logic is a complete system for logical operations. ... In computer science a byte is a unit of measurement of information storage, most often consisting of eight bits. ... In computing, word is a term for the natural unit of data used by a particular computer design. ... A conditional branch is a basic logical structure. ... A branch (or jump on some computer architectures, such as the PDP-8 and Intel x86) is a point in a computer program where the flow of control is altered. ... In computer science, a subroutine (function, method, procedure, or subprogram) is a portion of code within a larger program, which performs a specific task and is relatively independent of the remaining code. ... In computer science, a call stack is a special stack which stores information about the active subroutines of a computer program. ... In computing, an interrupt is an asynchronous signal from hardware or software indicating the need for attention. ... Exception handling is a programming language construct or computer hardware mechanism designed to handle the occurrence of some condition that changes the normal flow of execution. ...

68050 and 68070

Note that there is no 68050; this is because the design that was destined to be the 68050 was eventually released as a version of the 68040. There is also no revision of the 68060, as Motorola was in the process of shifting away from the 68k and 88k processor lines into its new PowerPC business, so the 68070 was never developed. Had it been, it would have been a revised 68060. The Motorola 68040 is a microprocessor from Motorola. ... The Motorola 68060 is a 32-bit microprocessor from Motorola, and is the successor to the Motorola 68040. ... The 88000 (m88k for short) is a microprocessor design produced by Motorola. ... PowerPC is a RISC microprocessor architecture created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM. Originally intended for personal computers, PowerPC CPUs have since become popular embedded and high-performance processors as well. ...


Motorola mainly used even numbers for major revisions to the CPU core such as 68000, 68020, 68040 and 68060. The 68010 vas a revised version of the 68000 with minor modifications to the core, and likewise the 68030 was a revised 68020 with some more powerful features, none of them significant enough to classify as a major upgrade to the core.


There was a CPU with the 68070 designation, which was a microcontroller version of the 16/32-bit 68000. This 68070 was used as the main CPU in the Philips CD-i. This CPU was, however, produced by Philips and not officially part of Motorola's 680x0 lineup. There was no Motorola 68070. ... Philips HQ in Amsterdam Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. (Royal Philips Electronics N.V.), usually known as Philips, (Euronext: PHIA, NYSE: PHG) is one of the largest electronics companies in the world. ... CD-i or Compact Disc Interactive is the name of an interactive multimedia CD player developed and marketed by Royal Philips Electronics N.V. CD-i also refers to the multimedia Compact Disc standard utilized by the CD-i console, also known as Green Book, which was co-developed by... Philips HQ in Amsterdam Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V. (Royal Philips Electronics N.V.), usually known as Philips, (Euronext: PHIA, NYSE: PHG) is one of the largest electronics companies in the world. ...


Last generation

The 4th generation 68060 shared most of the features of the Intel P5 architecture. Had Motorola decided to continue the 680x0 series, the next processor (68080) would likely have resembled Intel's P6 architecture. The Motorola 68060 is a 32-bit microprocessor from Motorola, and is the successor to the Motorola 68040. ... The Pentium is a fifth-generation x86 architecture microprocessor from Intel. ... The P6 microarchitecture is the sixth generation x86 microprocessor architecture of Intel, released in 1995. ...


Other variants

After the mainline 68k processors' demise, the 68k family has been used to some extent in microcontroller/embedded microprocessor versions. These chips include the ones listed under "other" above, i.e. the CPU32 (aka 68330), the ColdFire, the QUICC and the DragonBall. The integrated circuit from an Intel 8742, an 8-bit microcontroller that includes a CPU running at 12 MHz, 128 bytes of RAM, 2048 bytes of EPROM, and I/O in the same chip. ... The Freescale 683XX (formerly Motorola 683XX) is a family of compatible microcontrollers that use a Freescale 68000-based CPU core. ... The Freescale ColdFire is a 68k architecture microprocessor manufactured for embedded systems development by Freescale Semiconductor (formerly the semiconductor sector of Motorola). ... QUICC stands for QUad Integrated Communications Controller. ... Motorola DragonBall Microprocessor Motorola/Freescale Semiconductors DragonBall is microprocessor design based on the famous 68000 core, but implemented as an all-in-one low-power solution for handheld computer use. ...


Competitors

Desktop

During the 80s and early 90s, when the 68k was widely used in desktop computers, it mainly competed against Intel's x86 architecture, which to this day remains the only architecture used in IBM Compatible PCs. Generation 1 68k CPUs primarily competed against the 16-bit 8086/8088 and 80286. Generation 2 competed against the 80386 (the first 32-bit x86 processor), and generation 3 against the 80486. The fourth generation competed with the original Pentium line, but it was not nearly as widely used as its predecessors, since much of the old 68k marketplace was either defunct or nearly-so (as was the case with Atari, Amiga and NeXT), or converting to newer architectures (PowerPC for the Macintosh, SPARC for Sun, and MIPS for SGI). Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... x86 or 80x86 is the generic name of a microprocessor architecture first developed and manufactured by Intel. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The intels 8086 was the first one launched in 1978. ... An Intel 8088 microprocessor The Intel 8088 is an Intel microprocessor based on the 8086, with 16-bit registers and an 8-bit external data bus. ... AMD 80286 at 12 MHz. ... The Intel 80386 is a microprocessor which was used as the central processing unit (CPU) of many personal computers from 1986 until 1994 and later. ... Intel i486 DX2- top view The Intel i486 (also called 486 or 80486) is a range of Intel CISC microprocessors which is part of the Intel x86 family of processors. ... The Pentium is a fifth-generation x86 architecture microprocessor from Intel. ... PowerPC is a RISC microprocessor architecture created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM. Originally intended for personal computers, PowerPC CPUs have since become popular embedded and high-performance processors as well. ... The Macintosh 128K, the first Macintosh computer, introduced in 1984, upgraded to a 512K Fat Mac The Macintosh, or Mac, is a line of personal computers designed, developed, manufactured, and marketed by Apple. ... Sun UltraSPARC II Microprocessor Sun UltraSPARC T1 (Niagara 8 Core) SPARC (Scalable Processor Architecture) is a RISC microprocessor instruction set architecture originally designed in 1985 by Sun Microsystems. ... Sun Microsystems, Inc. ... A MIPS R4400 microprocessor made by Toshiba. ... SGI is a TLA for at least three separate entities: Saskatchewan Government Insurance Scientific Games International Silicon Graphics, Incorporated Soka Gakkai International This page expands a three-character combination which might be any or all of: an abbreviation, an acronym, an initialism, a word in English, or a word in...


Embedded

There are literally dozens of processor architectures that are currently successful in embedded systems. Some are microcontrollers which are much simpler. smaller, and cheaper than the 68k, while others are relatively sophisticated and capable of running complex software. Embedded versions of the 68k often compete with processors derived from the PowerPC, ARM, MIPS, and SuperH architectures, among others. What is an Embedded System? Electronic devices that incorporate a computer(usually a microprocessor) within their implementation. ... PowerPC is a RISC microprocessor architecture created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM. Originally intended for personal computers, PowerPC CPUs have since become popular embedded and high-performance processors as well. ... The ARM architecture (previously, the Advanced RISC Machine, and prior to that Acorn RISC Machine) is a 32-bit RISC processor architecture that is widely used in a number of embedded designs. ... A MIPS R4400 microprocessor made by Toshiba. ... The SuperHichem (or SH) is brandname of a certain microcontroller and microprocessor architecture. ...


Trivia

  • A common claim (unverified) is that the 68000 was named for the number of transistors on the chip, a massive but plausible number for its 1976 introduction.
v  d  e
List of Motorola/Freescale microprocessors
The 6800 family : 6809 (see also: Hitachi 6309)
68000 family : 68000 | 68008 | 68010 | 68012 | 68020 | 68030 | 68040 | 68060 | ColdFire | DragonBall
Low-cost variants: 68EC000 | 68EC020 | 68EC030 | 68EC040 | 68LC040
Pre-PowerPC RISC : 88000
Floating-point coprocessors : 68881, 68882
PowerPC family  : PPC e200 | PPC 603e/e300 | PCC 75x | PPC e500 | PPC 74xx/e600 | PowerQUICC family

This article was originally based on material from the Free On-line Dictionary of Computing, which is licensed under the GFDL. The following is a partial list of Freescale Semiconductor products, including products formerly manufactured by Motorola until 2004. ... Motorola 6800 Microprocessor The 6800 is a microprocessor produced by Motorola and released shortly after the Intel 8080 in 1975. ... 1 MHz Motorola 6809E processor, manufactured in 1983. ... Hitachi 63C09E, a 3MHz external clock version of the 6309 The 6309 is Hitachis CMOS version of the Motorola 6809 microprocessor. ... The Motorola 68000 is a 32-bit CISC microprocessor from Motorola. ... The Motorola MC68008 is a 8/16/32-bit microprocessor from the early 1980s. ... The Motorola MC68010 processor is a 16/32-bit microprocessor from Motorola, released in 1982 [1]. It is largely similar to the Motorola 68000 CPU with the exception of the addition of several instructions for breakpoint and register control (ccr instead of sr), as well as the ability to save... The Motorola MC68012 processor is a 16/32-bit microprocessor from the early 1980s. ... Motorola 68020 The Motorola 68020 is a microprocessor from Motorola. ... Motorola 68030 Processor from a Macintosh IIsi The Motorola 68030 is a 32-bit microprocessor in Motorolas 68000 family. ... The Motorola 68040 is a microprocessor from Motorola. ... The Motorola 68060 is a 32-bit microprocessor from Motorola, and is the successor to the Motorola 68040. ... The Freescale ColdFire is a 68k architecture microprocessor manufactured for embedded systems development by Freescale Semiconductor (formerly the semiconductor sector of Motorola). ... Motorola DragonBall Microprocessor Motorola/Freescale Semiconductors DragonBall is microprocessor design based on the famous 68000 core, but implemented as an all-in-one low-power solution for handheld computer use. ... Motorola 68EC000 controller The 68EC000 is a microprocessor from Motorola. ... The 68EC020 is a microprocessor from Motorola. ... The 68EC030 is a microprocessor from Motorola. ... The 68EC040 is a version of the Freescale 68040 microprocessor intended for embedded controllers. ... The 68LC040 is a low cost version of the Freescale 68040 microprocessor with no FPU. This makes it less expensive and draw less power. ... Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC), is a microprocessor CPU design philosophy that favors a smaller and simpler set of instructions that all take about the same amount of time to execute. ... The 88000 (m88k for short) is a microprocessor design produced by Motorola. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Motorola 68881 was a floating-point coprocessor chip that was utilized in some computer systems that used the 68020 or 68030 CPU. The addition of the 68881 chip added substantial cost to the computer, but added a floating point unit that could rapidly perform floating point math calculations. ... PowerPC is a RISC microprocessor architecture created by the 1991 Apple–IBM–Motorola alliance, known as AIM. Originally intended for personal computers, PowerPC CPUs have since become popular embedded and high-performance processors as well. ... The PowerPC e200 is a family of 32-bit Power Architecture microprocessor cores developed by Freescale for primary use in automotive and industrial control systems. ... The PowerPC 601 prototype reached first silicon in October 1992 The PowerPC 600 family was the first family of PowerPC processors built. ... 300 MHz Motorola PowerPC 750 processor with off-die L2 cache on the CPU module of a PowerMac G3. ... The PowerPC e500 is a 32-bit Power Architecture based microprocessor core from Freescale. ... PowerPC G4 is a designation used by Apple Computer to describe a fourth generation of PowerPC microprocessors. ... PowerQUICC is the name for several Power Architecture based microcontrollers from Freescale Semiconductor. ... The Free On-line Dictionary of Computing (FOLDOC) is an online, searchable encyclopedic dictionary of computing subjects. ... Bold text // “GFDL” redirects here. ...


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