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Encyclopedia > 50000 Quaoar
50000 Quaoar
Sum of 16 Hubble exposures registered on Quaoar.
Discovery[1] and designation
Discovered by Chad Trujillo,
Michael E. Brown
Discovery date June 4, 2002
Designations
Alternative names[3] 2002 LM60 [2]
Minor planet
category
Kuiper belt
Epoch October 22, 2004 (JD 2453300.5)
Aphelion 6.716275 Tm (44.896 AU)
Perihelion 6.270316 Tm (41.914 AU)
Semi-major axis 6.493296 Tm (43.405 AU)
Eccentricity 0.034
Orbital period 104449.918 d (285.97 a)
Average orbital speed 4.52 km/s
Mean anomaly 273.737°
Inclination 7.983°
Longitude of ascending node 188.791°
Argument of perihelion 154.850°
Dimensions 1260 ± 190 km (direct)[5]
844+207−190 km (thermal)[6]
Mass 1.0-2.6×1021 kg
Mean density 2.0? g/cm³
Equatorial surface gravity 0.276-0.376 m/s²
Equatorial escape velocity 0.523-0.712 km/s
Geometric albedo 0.088 +0.021−0.012 [5]
0.1986 +0.13−0.07 [6]
Temperature ~43 K
Spectral type (moderately red) B-V=0.94, V-R=0.65
Absolute magnitude 2.6

50000 Quaoar (pronounced /ˈkwɑːwɑr/ or /ˈkwaʊɚ/ (kwaa'·waar or kwow'·ər), Tongva [qʷɑoɑr], [2]) is a Trans-Neptunian object orbiting the Sun in the Kuiper belt. It was discovered on June 4, 2002 by astronomers Chad Trujillo and Michael Brown at the California Institute of Technology from images acquired at the Samuel Oschin Telescope at Palomar Observatory. An artists depiction of Quaoar Quaoar is the name of a creation deity of the Native American Tongva people, native to the area around Los Angeles, California. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Chadwick A. Chad Trujillo (born November 22, 1973), is the co-discoverer of Eris, which he claims to be the Tenth Planet. ... Michael (Mike) E. Brown (born c. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Provisional designation of in astronomy is the naming convention applied to astronomical objects immediately following their discovery. ... The Kuiper belt, derived from data from the Minor Planet Center. ... Two bodies with a slight difference in mass orbiting around a common barycenter. ... In astronomy, an epoch is a moment in time for which celestial coordinates or orbital elements are specified. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... “JDN” redirects here. ... A diagram of Keplerian orbital elements. ... A diagram of Keplerian orbital elements. ... The semi-major axis of an ellipse In geometry, the term semi-major axis (also semimajor axis) is used to describe the dimensions of ellipses and hyperbolae. ... tera- (symbol: T) is a prefix in the SI system of units denoting 1012, or 1 000 000 000 000. ... This article is about the unit of length. ... The astronomical unit (AU or au or a. ... (This page refers to eccitricity in astrodynamics. ... The orbital period is the time it takes a planet (or another object) to make one full orbit. ... Look up day in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In astronomy, a Julian year is a unit of time defined as exactly 365. ... The orbital speed of a body, generally a planet, a natural satellite, an artificial satellite, or a multiple star, is the speed at which it orbits around the barycenter of a system, usually around a more massive body. ... This article is about the unit of time. ... In the study of orbital dynamics the mean anomaly is a measure of time, specific to the orbiting body p, which is a multiple of 2π radians at and only at periapsis. ... For the science fiction novella by William Shunn, see Inclination (novella). ... This article describes the unit of angle. ... The Longitude of the ascending node (☊, also noted Ω) is one of the orbital elements used to specify the orbit of an object in space. ... The argument of periapsis (ω) is the orbital element describing the angle between an orbiting bodys ascending node (the point where the body crosses the plane of reference from South to North) and its periapsis (the point of closest approach to the central body), measured in the orbital plane and... For the majority of numbered asteroids, almost nothing is known apart from a few physical parameters. ... For other uses, see Mass (disambiguation). ... Kg redirects here. ... For other uses, see Density (disambiguation). ... A cubic centimetre (cm3) is an SI derived unit of volume, equal to the volume of a cube with side length of 1 centi metre. ... For the majority of numbered asteroids, almost nothing is known apart from a few physical parameters. ... The geometric albedo of an astronomical body is the ratio of its total brightness at zero phase angle to that of an idealised fully reflecting, diffusively scattering (Lambertian) disk with the same cross-section. ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... Asteroids are assigned a type based on spectral shape, color, and sometimes albedo. ... In astronomy, absolute magnitude is the apparent magnitude, m, an object would have if it were at a standard luminosity distance away from us, in the absence of interstellar extinction. ... The Tongva language (also known as the Gabrielino language) is an Uto-Aztecan language spoken by the Tongva, a Native American people who live in and around Los Angeles, California. ... A trans-Neptunian object (TNO) is any object in the solar system that orbits the sun at a greater distance on average than Neptune. ... The Kuiper belt, derived from data from the Minor Planet Center. ... is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Chadwick A. Chad Trujillo (born November 22, 1973), is the co-discoverer of Eris, which he claims to be the Tenth Planet. ... Michael (Mike) E. Brown (born c. ... The California Institute of Technology (commonly referred to as Caltech)[1] is a private, coeducational research university located in Pasadena, California, in the United States. ... The Samuel Oschin telescope is a 48-inch (1. ... Palomar Observatory is a privately-owned observatory located in San Diego County, California, 90 miles (145 km) southeast of Mount Wilson Observatory, on Palomar Mountain. ...

Contents

Discovery

The discovery of Quaoar, a magnitude 18.5 object located in the constellation Ophiuchus, was announced on October 7, 2002, at a meeting of the American Astronomical Society. The earliest prediscovery image proved to be a May 25, 1954 plate from Palomar Observatory. It may qualify as a dwarf planet, given its size inferred from direct observation by the Hubble Space Telescope. The apparent magnitude (m) of a star, planet or other celestial body is a measure of its apparent brightness as seen by an observer on Earth. ... This article is about the star grouping. ... Ophiuchus (IPA: ), formerly referred to as Serpentarius (IPA: ), the former originating in the Greek language and the latter in the Latin language, both meaning serpent-holder, is one of the 88 constellations and was also one of the 48 listed by Ptolemy. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... The American Astronomical Society (AAS) is a US society of professional astronomers and other interested individuals, headquartered in Washington, DC. The main aim of the AAS is provide a political voice for its members and organise their lobbying. ... Precovery is a term used in astronomy that describes the process of finding the image of an object (usually a minor planet) in old archived images or photographic plates, for the purpose of calculating a more accurate orbit. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Artists impression of Pluto (background) and Charon (foreground). ... The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a telescope in orbit around the Earth, named after astronomer Edwin Hubble. ...


Name

The planetoid's name follows International Astronomical Union rules by naming trans-Neptunian objects after deities associated with creation myths (see planetary nomenclature). "Quaoar" is the name of a creation deity of the Native American Tongva people, native to the area around Los Angeles, where the discovery was made. The IAU approved the name Quaoar, making it the official name; it also has the provisional designation 2002 LM60. The "memorable" number 50000 is a witness to the exciting race to discover a Pluto-sized object; Quaoar’s discovery followed that of 20000 Varuna and was in turn followed by bigger discoveries (see below). The efforts were finally rewarded with the discovery of an object bigger than Pluto, namely Eris. IAU redirects here. ... A trans-Neptunian object (TNO) is any object in the solar system with all or most of its orbit beyond that of Neptune. ... This article is about the term Deity in the context of mysticism and theology. ... Creation beliefs and stories describe how the universe, the Earth, life, and/or humanity came into being. ... Planetary nomenclature, like terrestrial nomenclature, is used to uniquely identify a feature on the surface of a planet or natural satellite so that the feature can be easily located, described, and discussed. ... Quaoar is the name of a creation deity of the Native American Tongva people, native to the area around Los Angeles. ... This article is about the people indigenous to the United States. ... Gabrieleno Native American women Tongva may also refer to the Tongva language. ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ... The provisional designation of comets and asteroids are similar to each other: they both follow a pattern set in 1925 by the Minor Planet Center of the IAU. Historical designations At first, astronomers strove to assign symbols to the minor planets: 1 Ceres a stylized sickle 2 Pallas a lozenge... 20000 Varuna (VAR oo na) is a large classical Kuiper Belt object (KBO). ... Absolute magnitude: −1. ...


Size

The Earth Dysnomia (136199) Eris Charon (134340) Pluto (136472) 2005 FY9 (136108) 2003 EL61 (90377) Sedna (90482) Orcus (50000) Quaoar (20000) Varuna

Quaoar compared to Eris, Pluto, (136472) 2005 FY9, (136108) 2003 EL61, Sedna, Orcus, Varuna, and Earth.
Quaoar compared to Eris, Pluto, (136472) 2005 FY9, (136108) 2003 EL61, Sedna, Orcus, Varuna, and Earth.

Quaoar is estimated to have a diameter of 1260 ± 190 km[5], which at the time of discovery in 2002 made it the largest object found in the solar system since the discovery of Pluto. Quaoar was later supplanted by Eris, Sedna, 2003 EL61, and 2005 FY9. In addition, it is likely that the subsequently discovered plutino Orcus is also larger than Quaoar. Quaoar's volume is somewhat more than all of the asteroids put together. It is roughly one tenth the diameter of Earth, one third the diameter of the Moon or half the size of Pluto. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2750x1995, 1859 KB) Summary Comparison of the eight largest TNOs, based on the public domain NASA image: Image:2006-16-d-print. ... This article is about the Solar System. ... For other uses, see Pluto (disambiguation). ... Absolute magnitude: −1. ... you are abunch of bull | bgcolour=#FFFFC0 | name=90377 Sedna | image= | caption= Sedna is located in the center of the green circle | discovery=yes | discoverer=M. Brown, C. Trujillo, D. Rabinowitz | discovered=November 14, 2003 | mp_name=90377 Sedna | alt_names= | mp_category=Trans-Neptunian object | epoch=September 26, 1990 (JD 2448160. ... (also written (136108) 2003 EL61), nicknamed Easter Bunny, is a large Kuiper belt object, roughly one-third the mass of Pluto, discovered by J. L. Ortiz et al. ... (also written (136472) 2005 FY9) is a very large Kuiper belt object, and one of the two largest among the population in the classical KBO orbits. ... In astronomy, a plutino is a trans-Neptunian object that has a 3:2 orbital resonance with Neptune. ... 90482 Orcus (originally known by the provisional designation 2004 DW) is a Kuiper Belt object (KBO) that was discovered by Michael Brown of Caltech, Chad Trujillo of the Gemini Observatory, and David Rabinowitz of Yale University. ... For other uses, see Asteroid (disambiguation). ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... For other uses, see Pluto (disambiguation). ...


Quaoar was the first trans-Neptunian object to be measured directly from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images, using a new, sophisticated method (see Brown’s pages for a non-technical description and his paper[5] for details). Given its distance Quaoar is on the limit of the HST resolution (40 milliarcseconds) and its image is consequently "smeared" on a few adjacent pixels. By comparing carefully this image with the images of stars in the background and using a sophisticated model of HST optics (point spread function (PSF)), Brown and Trujillo were able to find the best fit disk size which would give a similar blurred image. This method was recently applied by the same authors to measure the size of Eris. A trans-Neptunian object (TNO) is any object in the solar system that orbits the sun at a greater distance on average than Neptune. ... The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a telescope in orbit around the Earth, named after astronomer Edwin Hubble. ... A milliarcsecond (m, mas) , or a thoundsanth of an arcsecond. ... Image formation in a confocal microscope: central longitudinal (XZ) slice. ... Absolute magnitude: −1. ...


However, these estimates only marginally agree with the recent (2007) infrared measurements by Spitzer Space Telescope suggesting a much larger albedo (0.19) and consequently a smaller diameter (844.4 +206.7−189.6 km)[6].
For other uses, see Infrared (disambiguation). ... The Spitzer Space Telescope (formerly the Space Infrared Telescope Facility [SIRTF]) is an infrared space observatory, the fourth and final of NASAs Great Observatories. ... For other uses, see Albedo (disambiguation). ...


Orbit

Orbits of Quaoar (blue) and Pluto (red) - polar view.
Orbits of Quaoar (blue) and Pluto (red) - polar view.

Quaoar orbits at about 6 billion kilometres (3.7 billion miles) from the Sun with an orbital period of 287 years. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... To help compare different distances this page lists lengths starting at 1012 m (1000 million km). ... Sol redirects here. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different times this page lists times between 109 seconds (a gigasecond) and 1010 seconds (32 years and 320 years). ...


The orbit is near-circular and moderately-inclined (~8°), typical for the population of small classical Kuiper Belt objects (KBO) but exceptional among the large KBO. Varuna, 2003 EL61 and 2005 FY9 are all on highly inclined, more eccentric orbits. Inclination is one of the six orbital parameters describing the shape and orientation of a celestial orbit and is the angular distance of the orbital plane from the plane of the reference (usually planets equator or the ecliptic), stated in degrees. ... A cubewano is any substantial Kuiper belt object, orbiting beyond about 41 AU and not controlled by resonances with the outer planets. ... The Kuiper belt (KYE per) is an area of the solar system extending from within the orbit of Neptune (at 30 AU) to 50 AU from the sun, at inclinations consistent with the ecliptic. ... 20000 Varuna (VAR oo na) is a large classical Kuiper Belt object (KBO). ... 2003 EL61 (also written 2003 EL61), nicknamed Santa (non-official designation), is a large and very unusual Kuiper belt object discovered by Mike Brown at Caltech in the United States. ... 2005 FY9 (also written 2005 FY9), codenamed Easterbunny by its discoverers, is a very large Kuiper belt object discovered on March 31, 2005 by the team led by Michael Brown. ... (This page refers to eccitricity in astrodynamics. ...


The polar view compares the near-circular Quaoar's orbit to highly eccentric (e=0.25) orbit of Pluto (Quaoar’s orbit in blue, Pluto’s in red, Neptune in grey). The spheres illustrate the current (April 2006) positions, relative sizes and colours. The perihelia (q), aphelia (Q) and the dates of passage are also marked.
For other uses, see Pluto (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Neptune (disambiguation). ... This article is about several astronomical terms (apogee & perigee, aphelion & perihelion, generic equivalents based on apsis, and related but rarer terms. ... This article is about several astronomical terms (apogee & perigee, aphelion & perihelion, generic equivalents based on apsis, and related but rarer terms. ...

Orbits of Quaoar and Pluto - ecliptic view.
Orbits of Quaoar and Pluto - ecliptic view.

At 43 AU and a near-circular orbit, Quaoar is not significantly perturbed by Neptune, unlike Pluto which is in 2:3 orbital resonance with Neptune. The ecliptic view illustrates the relative inclinations of the orbits of Quaoar and Pluto. Note that Pluto's aphelion is beyond (and below) Quaoar's orbit, so that Pluto is closer to the Sun than Quaoar at some times of its orbit, and farther at others. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... In celestial mechanics, an orbital resonance occurs when two orbiting bodies exert a regular, periodic gravitational influence on each other. ... Sol redirects here. ...


As of 2008, Quaoar is currently only 13.9 AU[7] from Pluto making it the closest large body to the Pluto-Charon system. By Kuiper Belt standards this is very close.


Physical characteristics

Quaoar is believed to be a mixture of rock and ice, like other Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs); however its very low albedo (estimated at 0.1, but still much higher than that of Varuna (0.04)) indicates that the ice has disappeared from Quaoar's outer layers. The surface is moderately red, meaning that the object is relatively more reflective in the red and near-infrared than in the blue. 20000 Varuna and 28978 Ixion are also moderately red in the spectral class. Larger KBOs are often much brighter because they are covered in more ice and have a higher albedo, and thus they present a neutral colour (see colour comparison). The Kuiper belt (KYE per) is an area of the solar system extending from within the orbit of Neptune (at 30 AU) to 50 AU from the sun, at inclinations consistent with the ecliptic. ... For other uses, see Albedo (disambiguation). ... 20000 Varuna (VAR oo na) is a large classical Kuiper Belt object (KBO). ... 20000 Varuna (VAR oo na) is a large classical Kuiper Belt object (KBO). ... 28978 Ixion (IPA pronunciation: , Wiktionary:Ixion) is a Kuiper belt object discovered on May 22, 2001. ... A trans-Neptunian object (TNO) is any object in the solar system that orbits the sun at a greater distance on average than Neptune. ...

Hubble photo used to measure size of Quaoar.
Hubble photo used to measure size of Quaoar.

In 2004, scientists were surprised to find signs of crystalline ice on Quaoar, indicating that the temperature rose to at least −160 °C (110 K or −260 °F) sometime in the last ten million years[8]. Speculation began as to what could have caused Quaoar to heat up from its natural temperature of −220 °C (55 K or −360 °F). Some have theorized that a barrage of mini-meteors may have raised the temperature, but the most discussed theory speculates that cryovolcanism may be occurring, spurred by the decay of radioactive elements within Quaoar's core[9]. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Crystal (disambiguation). ... This article is about water ice. ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Photo of a burst of meteors with extended exposure time A meteor is the visible path of a meteoroid that enters the Earths (or another bodys) atmosphere, commonly called a shooting star or falling star. ... Ganesa Macula, a dark feature on Saturns moon Titan, might be a cryovolcanic dome. ... Radioactive decay is the set of various processes by which unstable atomic nuclei (nuclides) emit subatomic particles. ...


Since then (2006), crystalline water ice was also found on 2003 EL61 but present in larger quantities and thought to be responsible for the very high albedo of that object (0.7)[10]. (also written (136108) 2003 EL61), nicknamed Easter Bunny, is a large Kuiper belt object, roughly one-third the mass of Pluto, discovered by J. L. Ortiz et al. ...


More precise (2007) observations of Quaoar's near infrared spectrum indicate the presence of small (5%) quantity of (solid) methane and ethane[11]. Given its boiling point (112 K), methane is a volatile ice at average Quaoar surface temperatures, unlike water ice or ethane (boiling point 185 K). Both models and observations suggest that only a few larger bodies (Pluto, Eris, 2005 FY9) can retain the volatile ices while the dominant population of small TNOs lost them. Quaoar with only small amounts of methane appears to be in an intermediary category[11]. Legend: γ = Gamma rays HX = Hard X-rays SX = Soft X-Rays EUV = Extreme ultraviolet NUV = Near ultraviolet Visible light NIR = Near infrared MIR = Moderate infrared FIR = Far infrared Radio waves: EHF = Extremely high frequency (Microwaves) SHF = Super high frequency (Microwaves) UHF = Ultrahigh frequency VHF = Very high frequency HF = High frequency... Methane is a chemical compound with the molecular formula . ... This article is about a chemical compound. ... Italic text This article is about the boiling point of liquids. ... For other uses, see Pluto (disambiguation). ... Eris typically refers to: Eris (dwarf planet), 136199 Eris , the largest known dwarf planet in the Solar System (provisional designation ) Eris (mythology), in Greek mythology the goddess of discord, and the Goddess of Discordianism It may also refer to: Eris (Billy and Mandy), a humorous representation of the Greek goddess... 2005 FY9 (also written 2005 FY9), codenamed Easterbunny by its discoverers, is a very large Kuiper belt object discovered on March 31, 2005 by the team led by Michael Brown. ... This article is about a Dutch science organization. ...


If the New Horizons mission visits several Kuiper Belt Objects after visiting Pluto in 2015, our knowledge of the surfaces of small KBOs should improve but encounters with large objects seem unlikely. New Horizons on the launchpad New Horizons is a robotic spacecraft mission conducted by NASA. It is expected to be the first spacecraft to fly by and study the dwarf planet Pluto and its moons, Charon, Nix and Hydra. ... For the video game developer, see 2015, Inc. ...


Satellite

The discovery of a satellite of Quaoar was reported in IAUC 8812 on 22 February 2007 [3]. The orbit of this satellite has yet to be determined. The satellite was found at 0.35 arcsec from Quaoar with magnitude difference of 5.6[12]. Assuming an albedo similar to that of the primary the magnitude suggests the diameter of 100 km. is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... A second of arc or arcsecond is a unit of angular measurement which comprises one-sixtieth of an arcminute, or 1/3600 of a degree of arc or 1/1296000 ≈ 7. ... In astronomy, absolute magnitude is the apparent magnitude, m, an object would have if it were at a standard luminosity distance away from us, in the absence of interstellar extinction. ... For other uses, see Albedo (disambiguation). ...


Definition

quaoar - a word derived from mr. carlos gabriel palanca. just ask him, where did the term came from. expect that he will answer in the wrong way.


References

  1. ^ http://cfa-www.harvard.edu/iau/lists/NumberedMPs.html
  2. ^ http://cfa-www.harvard.edu/iau/MPDes.html
  3. ^ [1]
  4. ^ http://asteroid.lowell.edu
  5. ^ a b c d Michael E. Brown and Chadwick A. Trujillo (2004). "Direct Measurement of the Size of the Large Kuiper Belt Object (50000) Quaoar". The Astronomical Journal 127 (7018): 2413–2417. Reprint on Brown's site (pdf)
  6. ^ a b c Stansberry J., Grundy W., Brown M, Cruikshank D., Spencer J., Trilling D., Margot J-L Physical Properties of Kuiper Belt and Centaur Objects: Constraints from Spitzer Space Telescope To Appear in: Kuiper Belt (M.A. Barucci et al., Eds.) U. Arizona Press, 2007 Preprint
  7. ^ 50000 Quaoar distance (AU) from Pluto. Retrieved on 2007-12-18.
  8. ^ Jewitt DC. and Luu J. (2004). "Crystalline water ice on the Kuiper belt object (50000) Quaoar". Nature 432 (7018): 731-3. PMID 15592406. Reprint on Jewitt's site (pdf)
  9. ^ Crystalline Ice on Kuiper Belt Object (50000) Quaoar - article about crystalline ice on Quaoar
  10. ^ C. A. Trujillo, Brown M.E., Barkume K., Shaller E., Rabinowitz D. The Surface of 2003 EL61 in the Near Infrared. The Astrophysical Journal, 655 (Feb. 2007), pp. 1172-1178 Preprint
  11. ^ a b E.L. Schaller, M.E. Brown Detection of Methane on Kuiper Belt Object (50000) Quaoar. To appear in ApJ Letters (2007) Preprint on arXiv.
  12. ^ Distant EKO The Kuiper Belt Electronic newsletter, March 2007

Michael (Mike) E. Brown (born c. ... Chadwick A. Trujillo (born November 22, 1973) is a postdoctoral scholar at Caltech researching the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt and the outer solar system. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... David C. Jewitt is a Professor of astronomy at the University of Hawaii Institute for Astronomy. ... Nature is a prominent scientific journal, first published on 4 November 1869. ... Chadwick A. Trujillo (born November 22, 1973) is a postdoctoral scholar at Caltech researching the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt and the outer solar system. ... What may be Americas most common name crossing all races. ... David L. Rabinowitz (born 1960) is a professor at Yale University researching the Kuiper belt and the outer solar system. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... Minor planets, or asteroids or planetoids, are minor celestial bodies of the Solar system orbiting the Sun (mostly Small solar system bodies) that are smaller than major planets, but larger than meteoroids (commonly defined as being 10 meters across or less[1]), and that are not comets. ... List of asteroids List of comets See also Trans-Neptunian object Categories: Solar System ... hi This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: If you disagree with its speedy deletion, please explain why on its talk page or at Wikipedia:Speedy deletions. ... A trans-Neptunian object (TNO) is any object in the solar system that orbits the sun at a greater distance on average than Neptune. ... Artists impression of Pluto (background) and Charon (foreground). ... The Kuiper belt, derived from data from the Minor Planet Center. ... 90482 Orcus (originally known by the provisional designation 2004 DW) is a Kuiper Belt object (KBO) that was discovered by Michael Brown of Caltech, Chad Trujillo of the Gemini Observatory, and David Rabinowitz of Yale University. ... For other uses, see Pluto (disambiguation). ... 28978 Ixion (IPA pronunciation: , Wiktionary:Ixion) is a Kuiper belt object discovered on May 22, 2001. ... The correct title of this article is (55637) 2002 UX25. ... 20000 Varuna (VAR oo na) is a large classical Kuiper Belt object (KBO). ... (55636) 2002 TX300 (Also written as (55636) 2002 TX300) is a large Trans-Neptunian object discovered in October 15, 2002 by the NEAT program. ... (also written (136108) 2003 EL61), nicknamed Easter Bunny, is a large Kuiper belt object, roughly one-third the mass of Pluto, discovered by J. L. Ortiz et al. ... (also written (136472) 2005 FY9) is a very large Kuiper belt object, and one of the two largest among the population in the classical KBO orbits. ... is a trans-Neptunian object (TNO). ... Eris, the largest known scattered disc object (center), and its moon Dysnomia (left of center). ... (84522) 2002TC302 is a large Scattered Disk Object (SDO), orbiting the sun at a distance of 39. ... Absolute magnitude: −1. ... 2004 XR190 (also written 2004 XR190) is a newly discovered trans-Neptunian object located in the scattered disc. ... you are abunch of bull | bgcolour=#FFFFC0 | name=90377 Sedna | image= | caption= Sedna is located in the center of the green circle | discovery=yes | discoverer=M. Brown, C. Trujillo, D. Rabinowitz | discovered=November 14, 2003 | mp_name=90377 Sedna | alt_names= | mp_category=Trans-Neptunian object | epoch=September 26, 1990 (JD 2448160. ... Triton (trye-tÉ™n, IPA: , Greek Τρίτων), or Neptune I, is the planet Neptunes largest moon. ... Astronomical objects are significant physical entities, associations or structures which current science has confirmed to exist in space. ... This article is about the Solar System. ... Below is a list of solar system objects with diameter >500km: The Sun, a spectral class G2 star Mercury Venus Earth Moon Mars Jupiter Io Europa Ganymede Callisto complete list of Jupiters natural satellites Saturn Tethys Dione Rhea Titan Iapetus complete list of Saturns natural satellites Uranus Ariel... It has been suggested that Planetary-size comparison be merged into this article or section. ... This is a list of solar system objects by mass, in decreasing order. ... Pronunciation of Centaurs, Kuiper Belt Objects, and other planetoids of the outer solar system Pronunciation key ... A Small Solar System Body (SSSB) is a term defined in 2006 by the International Astronomical Union to describe objects in the Solar System that are neither planets nor dwarf planets: [1] This encompasses: all minor planets apart from the dwarf planets, : the classical asteroids, (except for 1 Ceres, the... Vulcanoids are hypothetical asteroids that may orbit in a dynamically stable zone between 0. ... Computer model of the Apollo Asteroid 6489 Golevka Near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) are asteroids whose orbits are close to Earths orbit. ... For other uses, see Asteroid (disambiguation). ... Image of the Trojan asteroids in front of and behind Jupiter along its orbital path. ... The centaurs are a class of icy planetoids that orbit the Sun between Jupiter and Neptune, named after the mythical race of centaurs. ... Damocloids are asteroids such as 5335 Damocles and 1996 PW that have Halley family or long-period highly eccentric orbits typical of periodic comets such as Comet Halley, but without showing a cometary coma or tail. ... As of March 2007, there are five[1] known Neptune Trojans (named by analogy to the Trojan asteroids) which have the same orbital period as the planet. ... Comet Hale-Bopp Comet West For other uses, see Comet (disambiguation). ... A trans-Neptunian object (TNO) is any object in the solar system that orbits the sun at a greater distance on average than Neptune. ... The Kuiper belt, derived from data from the Minor Planet Center. ... A scattered disk object (or scattered disc object or SDO) is a trans-Neptunian object of the Kuiper belt with a very eccentric orbit. ... Artists rendering of the Oort cloud and the Kuiper Belt. ... 243 Ida and its moon Dactyl An asteroid moon is an asteroid that orbits another asteroid. ... “Meteor” redirects here. ... This article is about the Solar System. ... List of asteroids List of comets See also Trans-Neptunian object Categories: Solar System ... This page alphabetically lists the first thousand asteroids to be numbered, which are mostly in the main belt. ... This is a list of named asteroids, with links to the Wikipedia articles on the people, places, characters and concepts that they are named after. ... A trans-Neptunian object (TNO) is any object in the solar system that orbits the sun at a greater distance on average than Neptune. ... Pronunciation of Centaurs, Kuiper Belt Objects, and other planetoids of the outer solar system Pronunciation key ... In astronomy, a plutino is a trans-Neptunian object that has a 3:2 orbital resonance with Neptune. ... For other uses, see Pluto (disambiguation). ... (15788) 1993 SB is a trans-Neptunian object of the Plutino class. ... (15789) 1993 SC is a trans-Neptunian object of the Plutino class. ... (15810) 1994 JR1, also written as 1994 JR1, is a Plutino, with 2:3 resonance with Neptune, similar to Pluto. ... (15820) 1994 TB is a trans-Neptunian object residing in the Kuiper belt. ... (20108) 1995 QZ9, also written (20108) 1995 QZ9, is a trans-Neptunian object (TNO) that resides in the Kuiper belt. ... (19299) 1996 SZ4 (also written (19299) 1996 SZ4) is a trans-Neptunian object (TNO) that resides in the Kuiper belt. ... (15875) 1996 TP66, also written as (15875) 1996 TP66, is a trans-Neptunian object residing in the Kuiper belt. ... (118228) 1996 TQ66, also written (118228) 1996 TQ66, ia a trans-Neptunian object (TNO) that resides in the Kuiper belt. ... (24952) 1997 QJf, also written as 1997 QJ4 is as plutino, so it has a 2:3 resonance with Neptune, simalar to Pluto. ... (91133) 1998 HK151, also written as 1998 HK151 is a plutino, so it has a 2:3 resonance with Neptune, simalar to Pluto. ... (91205) 1998 US43, also written as a 1998 US43 is a plutino, so it has a 2:3 resonance with Neptune, simalar to Pluto. ... (33340) 1998 VG44 is a plutino, so it has a 2:3 resonance with Neptune, simalar to Pluto. ... (69986) 1998 WW24, also written as (69986) 1998 WW24, is a Trans-Neptunian object that resides in the Kuiper Belt. ... (69990) 1998 WU31, also written as (69990) 1998 WU31 is a TNO that resides in the Kuiper belt. ... 38083 Rhadamanthus (formerly known as (38083) 1999 HX11) is a trans-Neptunian object. ... (47171) 1999 TC36 (also written: (47171) 1999 TC36) is a trans-Neptunian object. ... 38628 Huya (original provisional designation: 2000 EB173) is a trans-Neptunian object. ... 28978 Ixion (IPA pronunciation: , Wiktionary:Ixion) is a Kuiper belt object discovered on May 22, 2001. ... (119951) 2002 KX14, also written as 2002 KX14, is a trans-Neptunian object (TNO) residing within the Kuiper belt. ... (also written (84719) 2002 VR128) is a trans-Neptunian object (TNO). ... is a trans-Neptunian object discovered by the Near Earth Asteroid Tracking program on November 14, 2003. ... 90482 Orcus (originally known by the provisional designation 2004 DW) is a Kuiper Belt object (KBO) that was discovered by Michael Brown of Caltech, Chad Trujillo of the Gemini Observatory, and David Rabinowitz of Yale University. ... 1993 RO is a trans-Neptunian object of the Plutino class. ... 1993 RP is a trans-Neptunian object of the Plutino class. ... , also written as 2003 AZ84, is a Trans-Neptunian object. ... 2001 QF298, also written as 2001 QF298, is a trans-Neptunian object that resides in the Kuiper belt. ... A cubewano is any substantial Kuiper belt object, orbiting beyond about 41 AU and not controlled by resonances with the outer planets. ... (15760) 1992 QB1 (also written (15760) 1992 QB1) was the first trans-Neptunian object to be discovered after Pluto and Charon. ... (15807) 1994 GV9 is a trans-Neptunian object of the cubewano class. ... (16684) 1994 JQ1, also written as (16684) 1994 JQ1, is a trans-Neptunian object that resides in the Kuiper belt. ... (19255) 1994 VK8, also written as (19255) 1994 VK8, is a trans-Neptunian object (TNO) that resides in the Kuiper belt beyond Pluto. ... 1995 GJ with an inclination of 22. ... (24835) 1995 SM55, also written (24835) 1995 SM55, is a trans-Neptunian object (TNO) that resides in the Kuiper belt. ... (also written (19308) 1996 TO66) is a trans-Neptunian object. ... 58534 Logos, formerly known as (58534) 1997 CQ29, is a Kuiper belt object, more specifically a cubewano. ... (79360) 1997 CS29, also written as 1997 CS29, is a cubewano. ... (33001) 1997 CU29, also written as (33001) 1997 CU29 is a cubewano. ... (24978) 1998 HJ151, also written as (24978) 1998 HJ151, is a cubewano. ... (85627) 1998 HP151, also written as (85627) 1998 HP151 is a cubewano. ... (52747) 1998 HM151, also written as (52747} 1998 HM151, is a cubewano. ... (85633) 1998 KR65, also written as (85633) 1998 KR65, is a cubewano. ... 19521 Chaos (1998 WH24) is a cubewano, a Kuiper belt object not in resonance with any planet. ... (69987) 1998 WA25, also written as (69987) 1998 WA25, is a cubewano. ... (79983) 1999 DF9, also written as (79983) 1999 DF9, is a cubewano. ... (118378) 1999 HT11, also written as (118378) 1999 HT11, is a cubewano. ... 53311 Deucalion (original provisional designation: 1999 HU11) is a trans-Neptunian object. ... 20000 Varuna (VAR oo na) is a large classical Kuiper Belt object (KBO). ... is a trans-Neptunian object (TNO). ... (55636) 2002 TX300 (Also written as (55636) 2002 TX300) is a large Trans-Neptunian object discovered in October 15, 2002 by the NEAT program. ... The correct title of this article is (55637) 2002 UX25. ... (also written (136108) 2003 EL61), nicknamed Easter Bunny, is a large Kuiper belt object, roughly one-third the mass of Pluto, discovered by J. L. Ortiz et al. ... (120178) 2003 OP32, also written as (120178) 2003 OP32,is a trans-Neptunian object (TNO) that resides in the Kuiper belt. ... (90568) 2004 GV9 (also written (90568) 2004 GV9) is a trans-Neptunian object. ... (also written (136472) 2005 FY9) is a very large Kuiper belt object, and one of the two largest among the population in the classical KBO orbits. ... (145452) 2005 RN43, also written as (145452) 2005 RN43, is a large trans-Neptunian object (TNO) orbiting beyond Pluto in the Kuiper belt. ... 88611 Teharonhiawako (de-ha-loon-hee-a-wa-go, Mohawk approximately IPA: ), provisionally , is a trans-Neptunian object and a member of the Kuiper belt. ... 1998 WW31 (also written 1998 WW31) is an object of the solar system located beyond the orbit of Neptune. ... is a Trans-Neptunian object (TNO). ... 2003 MW12, also written 2003 MW12, is a trans-Neptunian object that is in the Kuiper belt. ... 2003 QW90, also written as 2003 QW90, is a trans-Neptunian object (TNO) that resides in the Kuiper belt. ... While a Plutino completes 2 orbits around the Sun in the time it takes Neptune to complete 3 orbits, a Twotino makes 1 orbit around the Sun in the time it takes Neptune to complete 2 orbits. ... 1996 TR66, also written as 1996 TR66, is a Trans-Neptunian object orbiting beyond Pluto in the Kuiper belt. ... (26308) 1998 SM165, also written as (26308) 1998 SM165, is a trans-Neptunian object (TNO) that resides in the Kuiper belt. ... (137295) 1999 RB216, also written as 1999 RB216, is a trans-Neptunian object that resides in the Kuiper belt. ... (130391) 2000 JG81, also written as 2000 JG81, is a trans-Neptunian object that resides in the Kuiper belt. ... 2002 WC19, also written as 2002 WC19, is a Trans-Neptunian object orbiting beyond Pluto. ... 1997 SZ10, also written as 1997 SZ10, is a trans-Neptunian object that resides in the Kuiper belt. ... In astronomy, a resonant Trans-Neptunian Object is a Trans-Neptunian Object (TNO) in mean motion orbital resonance with Neptune. ... (15809) 1998 JS is a trans-Neptunian object that resides in the Kuiper belt beyond Pluto. ... (15836) 1995 DA2, also written as (15836) 1995 DA2, is a trans-Neptunian object. ... (69988) 1998 WA31, also written as (69988) 1998 WA31, is a Trans-Neptunian object that resides in the scattered disc region beyond the Kuiper belt. ... (79969) 1999 CP133, also written as (79969) 1999 CP133, is a trans-Neptunian object. ... (26375) 1999 DE9 (also written (26375) 1999 DE9) is an object of the solar system located beyond the orbit of Neptune. ... (38084) 1999 HB12, also written as (38084) 1999 HB12, is a trans-Neptunian object that resides in the scattered disc region of the Solar System. ... (119068) 2001 KC77, also written as (119068) 2001 KC77, is a trans-Neptunian object (TNO) that resides in the scattered disc region of the Solar System. ... (119070) 2001 KP77 (better known as 2001 KP77) is a 4:7 resonant Trans-Neptunian object (TNO) located in the kuiper belt. ... (84522) 2002TC302 is a large Scattered Disk Object (SDO), orbiting the sun at a distance of 39. ... (136120) 2003 LG7, also written as 2003 LG7, is a trans-Neptunian object that resides in the Kuiper belt. ... Eris, the largest known scattered disc object (center), and its moon Dysnomia (left of center). ... Absolute magnitude: −1. ... (48639) 1995 TL8 (also written (48639) 1995 TL8) is a trans-Neptunian object of the Scattered disk object subclass, and posesses a very large satellite. ... (26181) 1996 GQ21, also written as (26181) 1996 GQ21, is a trans-Neptunian object that resides in the scattered disc region of the Solar System. ... (15874) 1996 TL66 is a trans-Neptunian object that resides in the Kuyper belt. ... (79978) 1999 CC158, also written as (79978) 1999 CC158, is a trans-Neptunian object that resides in the scattered disc region of the Solar System. ... (60608) 2000 EE173, also written as (60608) 2000 EE173, is a Trans-Neptunian object discovered in 2000 by N. Wyn Evans, Jane X. Luu and Chadwick A. Trujillo. ... 2000 OO67 is a Trans Neptunian Object notable for its highly eccentric orbit. ... (118702) 2000 OM67, also written as (118702) 2000 OM67, is a trans-Neptunian object (TNO) that resides in the scattered disc region of the Solar System. ... (42301) 2001 UR163, also written as (42301) 2001 UR163, is a trans-Neptunian object (TNO) that resides in the extended Scattered disc. ... (119878) 2002 CY224, also written as (119878) 2002 CY224, is a trans-Neptunian object (TNO) that resides in the scattered disc region of the Solar System. ... (95625) 2002 GX32, also written as (95625) 2002 GX32, is a trans-Neptunian object that resides in the scattered disc region of the Solar System. ... (65407) 2002 RP120 holds the dubious distinction of being the most eccentric of the numbered asteroids (as of July 2004). ... you are abunch of bull | bgcolour=#FFFFC0 | name=90377 Sedna | image= | caption= Sedna is located in the center of the green circle | discovery=yes | discoverer=M. Brown, C. Trujillo, D. Rabinowitz | discovered=November 14, 2003 | mp_name=90377 Sedna | alt_names= | mp_category=Trans-Neptunian object | epoch=September 26, 1990 (JD 2448160. ... (145451) 2005 RM43, also written as (145451) 2005 RM43, is a trans-Neptunian object that resides in the scattered disc region beyond the Kuiper belt. ... , also written as (148209) 2000 CR105, is the fourth most distant known object in the solar system after Eris, and Sedna. ... 2004 XR190 (also written 2004 XR190) is a newly discovered trans-Neptunian object located in the scattered disc. ... 2005 TN74 (also written 2005 TN74) is a possible Trojan asteroid of Neptune which was discovered by Scott S. Sheppard and Chadwick A. Trujillo in 2005. ... 2006 QH181, also written as 2006 QH181, is a trans-Neptunian object. ... (15883) 1997 CR29, also written as (15883) 1997 CR29, is a trans-Neptunian object. ... (35671) 1998 SN165, also written as (35671) 1998 SN165, is a trans-Neptunian object. ... (59358) 1999 CL158, also written as (59358) 1999 CL158, is a trans-Neptunian object that resides in the Kuiper belt. ... (118379) 1999 HC12, also written as (118379) 1999 HC12, is a trans-Neptunian object. ... (40314) 1999 KR16, also written as (40314) 1999 KR16, is a trans-Neptunian object. ... (86047) 1999 OY3, also written as (86047) 1999 OY3, is a trans-Neptunian object that resides in the Kuiper belt beyond Pluto. ... (120132) 2003 FY128, also written as (120132) 2003 FY128, is a trans-Neptunian object. ... (120347) 2004 SB60, also written as (120347) 2004 SB60, is a trans-Neptunian object that resides in the Kuiper belt. ... (120348) 2004 TY364, also written as (120348) 2004 TY364, is a trans-Neptunian object that resides in the Kuiper belt. ... (145453) 2005 RR43, also written as (145453) 2005 RR43, is a trans-Neptunian object (TNO). ... A natural satellite is an object that orbits a planet or other body larger than itself and which is not man-made. ... Charon (shair-É™n or kair-É™n (key), IPA , Greek Χάρων), discovered in 1978, is, depending on the definition employed, either the largest moon of Pluto or one member of a double dwarf planet with Pluto being the other member. ... Hydra (formerly known as S/2005 P 1) is a natural satellite of Pluto. ... Nix (formerly known as S/2005 P 2), is a natural satellite of Pluto. ... Dysnomia (officially designated (136199) Eris I Dysnomia) is a moon of the dwarf planet Eris. ... 1998 WW31 (also written 1998 WW31) is an object of the solar system located beyond the orbit of Neptune. ... 2003 EL61 (also written 2003 EL61), is a large and very unusual Kuiper belt object discovered by Mike Brown at Caltech in the United States. ... 2003 EL61 (also written 2003 EL61), is a large and very unusual Kuiper belt object discovered by Mike Brown at Caltech in the United States. ... 58534 Logos, formerly known as (58534) 1997 CQ29, is a Kuiper belt object, more specifically a cubewano. ... (79360) 1997 CS29, also written as (79360) 1997 CS29, is a cubewano. ... (88611) Teharonhiawako I Sawiskera, or simply Sawiskera (za-wee-ske-la, Mohawk approximately IPA: ), is the moon of KBO 88611 Teharonhiawako, and about 2/3 the size of that body. ... Artists impression of Pluto (background) and Charon (foreground). ... Eris, the largest known scattered disc object (center), and its moon Dysnomia (left of center). ... Artists rendering of the Oort cloud and the Kuiper Belt. ...

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50000 Quaoar (920 words)
Quaoar was the first trans-Neptunian object to be measured directly from Hubble Space Telescope images, using a new sophisticated method (see Brown’s pages for a non-technical description and his paper cited in references for details).
Quaoar is believed to be a mixture of rock and ice, like other Kuiper Belt Objects; however its very low albedo (estimated at 0.1 but still much higher than that of 20000 Varuna: 0.04) indicates that the ice has disappeared from its outer layers.
In 2004, scientists were surprised to find signs of crystalline ice on Quaoar, indicating that the temperature rose to at least −160 °C (110 K or −260 °F) sometime in the last ten million years.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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