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This article or section contains information about conceptual products.
The product(s) described in this page may or may not be launched and even if they are launched, they may be in a very different form than what has been mentioned here.
Mobile phone and data
standards
GSM/UMTS Family
2G
3G
4G
CDMAone/CDMA2000 Family
2G
3G
  • 1xEV-DO
4G
Other Technologies
0G
1G
2G
3G
  • TD-CDMA
  • TD-SCDMA
  • GAN
4G
Frequency bands

4G is an initialism of the term Fourth-Generation Communications System. A 4G system will provide an end-to-end IP solution where voice, data and streamed multimedia can be served to users on an "Anytime, Anywhere" basis at higher data rates than previous generations. No formal definition is set as to what 4G is, but the objectives that are predicted for 4G can be summarized as follows: Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Current_event_marker. ... Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... 4G has several uses including: 4G or 4GL is an abbreviation for fourth-generation programming language 4G fourth-generation wireless access technology 4G sometimes would mean 4 units of whatever money system used in some Role-playing games, the G usually meaning gold This page expands a two-character combination... Not to be confused with Get Some Mates The Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) is the most popular standard for mobile phones in the world. ... Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) is one of the third-generation (3G) mobile phone technologies. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Global System for Mobile communications (GSM: originally from Groupe Spécial Mobile) is the most popular standard for mobile phones in the world. ... General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is a mobile data service available to users of GSM and IS-136 mobile phones. ... High-Speed Circuit-Switched Data (HSCSD), is a development of Circuit Switched Data, the original data transmission mechanism of the GSM mobile phone system. ... 3G is the third generation of mobile phone standards and technology, after 2G. It is based on the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) family of standards under the International Mobile Telecommunications programme, IMT-2000. 3G technologies enable network operators to offer users a wider range of more advanced services while achieving... Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE) or Enhanced GPRS (EGPRS), is a digital mobile phone technology that allows it to increase data transmission rate and improve data transmission reliability. ... W-CDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) is a type of 3G cellular network. ... Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) is one of the third-generation (3G) mobile phone technologies. ... FOMA, officially short for Freedom of Mobile Multimedia Access, is the brand name for the 3G services being offered by Japanese mobile phone operator NTT DoCoMo. ... UMTS-TDD is a mobile data network standard built upon the UMTS 3G cellular mobile phone standard, using a TD-CDMA, TD-SCDMA, or other 3GPP-approved, air interface that uses Time Division Duplexing to duplex spectrum between the up-link and down-link. ... High-Speed Packet Access (HSPA) is a collection of mobile telephony protocols that extend and improve the performance of existing UMTS protocols. ... High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA, also known as High-Speed Downlink Protocol Access) is a 3G (third generation) mobile telephony communications protocol in the High-Speed Packet Access (HSPA) family, which allows networks based on Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) to have higher data transfer speeds and capacity. ... High-Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA) is a 3G mobile telephony protocol in the HSPA family with up-link speeds up to 5. ... HSPA+ (or HSPA Evolution) is a 3G mobile telephony protocol defined in 3GPP release 7 (expected in 2007). ... High Speed OFDM Packet Access (HSOPA) is a proposed part of 3GPPs Long Term Evolution (LTE) upgrade path for UMTS systems. ... 3GPP LTE (Long Term Evolution) is the name given to a project within the Third Generation Partnership Project to improve the UMTS mobile phone standard to cope with future requirements. ... Interim Standard 95 (IS-95), is the first CDMA-based digital cellular standard pioneered by Qualcomm. ... CDMA2000 is a hybrid 2. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Interim Standard 95 (IS-95), is the first CDMA-based digital cellular standard pioneered by Qualcomm. ... CDMA2000 is a hybrid 2. ... 3G is the third generation of mobile phone standards and technology, after 2G. It is based on the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) family of standards under the International Mobile Telecommunications programme, IMT-2000. 3G technologies enable network operators to offer users a wider range of more advanced services while achieving... Evolution-Data Optimized or Evolution-Data only, abbreviated as EV-DO or EVDO and often EV, is one telecommunications standard for the wireless transmission of data through radio signals, typically for broadband Internet access. ... Ultra Mobile Broadband is the brand name to describe the advanced technologies and services that will be supported by the CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Revision C (Rev. ... Mobile radio telephone systems preceded modern cellular mobile telephony technology. ... Push-to-Talk (PTT), also known as Press-to-Transmit, is a method of conversing on half-duplex communication lines, including two-way radio, using a momentary button to switch from voice reception mode to transmit mode. ... The Mobile Telephone System (MTS) was one of the earliest mobile telephone standards. ... The Improved Mobile Telephone Service (IMTS) is a pre-cellular VHF/UHF radio system that links to the PSTN. IMTS was the radiotelephone equivalent of land dial phone service. ... The Advanced Mobile Telephone System was a 0G method of radio communication, mainly used in Japanese portable radio systems. ... OLT (Norwegian for Offentlig Landmobil Telefoni, Public Land Mobile Telephony), was the first land mobile telephone network in Norway. ... MTD (Swedish abbreviation for Mobilelefonisystem D, or Mobile telephony system D) was a manual mobile phone system for the 450 MHz frequency band. ... Autotel (also called PALM, or Public Automated Land Mobile) is a radiotelephone service which was the missing link between earlier MTS/IMTS and later cellular telephone services. ... ARP (Autoradiopuhelin, Car Radio Phone in English) was the first commercially operated public mobile phone network in Finland. ... 1G (or 1-G) is short for first-generation wireless telephone technology, cellphones. ... For other meanings of the abbreviation, see: NMT. NMT (Nordisk MobilTelefoni or Nordiska MobilTelefoni-gruppen, Nordic Mobile Telephone in English) is a mobile phone system that was specified by the Nordic telecommunications administrations (PTTs) starting in 1970, and opened for service in 1981 as a response to the increasing congestion... Advanced Mobile Phone System (AMPS) is the analog mobile phone system standard developed by Bell Labs, and officially introduced in the Americas in 1983[1][2] It was the primary analog mobile phone system in North America (and other locales) through the 1980s and into the 2000s, and is still... hicap is a mobile techonology which has a consumer interface with a wide variety of industry references. ... Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD) uses unused bandwidth normally used by AMPS mobile phones between 800 and 900 MHz to transfer data. ... Cingular Interactive Truck at Ground Zero on 9/11/2001 Mobitex Network Design Mobitex is an OSI based open standard, national public access wireless data network first introduced in 1991 by carriers RAM Mobile Data and in Canada 1990 by Rogers Cantel. ... DataTac is a wireless data network technology originally developed by Motorola and deployed in the United States as the ARDIS network. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Iden is also a village in East sussex, England iDEN Base Radio at a Cell Site Integrated Digital Enhanced Network (iDEN) is a mobile telecommunications technology, it is known to eat little children, developed by Motorola, which provides its users the benefits of a trunked radio and a cellular telephone. ... IS-54 and IS-136 are second-generation (2G) mobile phone systems, known as Digital AMPS (D-AMPS). ... Personal Digital Cellular (PDC) is a 2G mobile phone standard developed and used exclusively in Japan. ... Circuit Switched Data, often known as CSD, is the original form of data transmission developed for the GSM mobile phone system. ... The Personal Handy-phone System (PHS), also marketed as the Personal Access System (PAS), is a mobile network system operating in the 1880-1930 MHz frequency band. ... Wideband Integrated Dispatch Enhanced Network, or WiDEN, is a software upgrade developed by Motorola for its iDEN enhanced specialized mobile radio (or ESMR) wireless telephony protocol. ... 3G is the third generation of mobile phone standards and technology, after 2G. It is based on the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) family of standards under the International Mobile Telecommunications programme, IMT-2000. 3G technologies enable network operators to offer users a wider range of more advanced services while achieving... UMTS-TDD is a mobile data network standard built upon the UMTS 3G cellular mobile phone standard, using a TD-CDMA, TD-SCDMA, or other 3GPP-approved, air interface that uses Time Division Duplexing to duplex spectrum between the up-link and down-link. ... TD-SCDMA (Time Division-Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access) is a 3G mobile telecommunications standard, being pursued in the Peoples Republic of China by the Chinese Academy of Telecommunications Technology (CATT), Datang and Siemens AG, in an attempt to develop home-grown technology and not be dependent on Western... The Generic Access Network (GAN) was formerly known as Unlicensed Mobile Access (UMA), until it was adopted by the 3GPP in April 2005. ... iBurst (or HC-SDMA, High Capacity Spatial Division Multiple Access) is a wireless broadband technology developed by ArrayComm. ... HIPERMAN stands for High Performance Radio Metropolitan Area Network and is a standard created by the European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) Broadband Radio Access Networks (BRAN) group to provide a wireless network communication in the 2 - 11 GHz bands across Europe and other countries which follow the ETSI standard. ... WiMAX, the Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access, is a telecommunications technology aimed at providing wireless data over long distances in a variety of ways, from point-to-point links to full mobile cellular type access. ... WiBro (Wireless Broadband, Korean: 와이브로) is a wireless broadband Internet technology being developed by the Korean telecoms industry. ... Cellular frequencies - the general term which unites radio frequencies utilized by cellular networks to provide service to their subscribers. ... The Specialized Mobile Radio system (SMR) is a conventional two-way radio system, or trunked radio system, operated by a service in the 800 or 900 Mhz bands. ... Cellular frequencies - the general term which unites radio frequencies utilized by cellular networks to provide service to their subscribers. ... Personal Communications Service or PCS is the name for the 1900-MHz radio band used for digital mobile phone services in Canada and the United States. ... Acronyms and initialisms are abbreviations formed from the initial letter or letters of words, such as NATO and XHTML, and are pronounced in a way that is distinct from the full pronunciation of what the letters stand for. ...


4G will be a fully IP-based integrated system of systems and network of networks achieved after the convergence of wired and wireless networks as well as computer, consumer electronics, communication technology, and several other convergences that will be capable of providing 100 Mbit/s and 1 Gbit/s, respectively, in outdoor and indoor environments with end-to-end quality of service and high security, offering any kind of services anytime, anywhere, at affordable cost and one billing.[1] In the fields of packet-switched networks and computer networking, the traffic engineering term Quality of Service (QoS) refers to control mechanisms that can provide different priority to different users or data flows, or guarantee a certain level of performance to a data flow in accordance with requests from the...

Contents

Objectives

4G is being developed to accommodate the quality of service (QoS) and rate requirements set by forthcoming applications like wireless broadband access, Multimedia Messaging Service, video chat, mobile TV, High definition TV content, DVB, minimal service like voice and data, and other streaming services for "anytime-anywhere". The 4G working group has defined the following as objectives of the 4G wireless communication standard: Multimedia Messaging Service (MMS) is a standard for telephony messaging systems that allows sending messages that include multimedia objects (images, audio, video, rich text) and not just text as in Short Message Service (SMS). ... A videoconference (also known as a videoteleconference) is a set of interactive telecommunication technologies which allow two or more locations to interact via two-way video and audio transmissions simultaneously. ... Mobile TV is a name used to describe a service to subscribers via mobile telecommunications networks, most probably the mobile phone carriers. ... High-definition television (HDTV) means broadcast of television signals with a higher resolution than traditional formats (NTSC, SECAM, PAL) allow. ... Official DVB logo, found on compliant devices DVB, short for Digital Video Broadcasting, is a suite of internationally accepted open standards for digital television. ...

  • A spectrally efficient system (in bits/s/Hz and bit/s/Hz/site)[2],
  • High network capacity: more simultaneous users per cell[3],
  • A nominal data rate of 100 Mbit/s while the client physically moves at high speeds relative to the station, and 1 Gbit/s while client and station are in relatively fixed positions as defined by the ITU-R[1],
  • A data rate of at least 100 Mbit/s between any two points in the world[1],
  • Smooth handoff across heterogeneous networks[4],
  • Seamless connectivity and global roaming across multiple networks[5],
  • High quality of service for next generation multimedia support (real time audio, high speed data, HDTV video content, mobile TV, etc)[5]
  • Interoperability with existing wireless standards[6], and
  • An all IP, packet switched network[5].

In summary, the 4G system should dynamically share and utilise network resources to meet the minimal requirements of all the 4G enabled users. Spectral efficiency or spectrum efficiency refers to the amount of information that can be transmitted over a given bandwidth in a specific digital communication system. ... The ITU Radiocommunication Sector (ITU-R) is a standards body subcommittee of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) relating to radio communication. ... In telecommunication, the term handoff refers to the process of transferring an ongoing call or data session from one channel connected to the core network to another. ... Roaming is a general term in wireless telecommunications that refers to the extending of connectivity service in a location that is different from the home location where the service was registered. ...


Wireless System Evolution

First generation: Almost all of the systems from this generation were analog systems where voice was considered to be the main traffic. These systems could often be listened to by third parties. some of the standards are NMT, AMPS, Hicap, CDPD, Mobitex, DataTac NMT may mean: Nordic Mobile Telephone New Mexico Tech non-metallic conduit boots with a non-metallic toe Northwest Marine Technology NMT Medical NMT Corporation Toronto New Media Trainers Alliance NMT International Shipping Network Management Technologies NMT Group National Mobile Television Nuremberg Military Tribunals National Meningitis Trust Not More Then... Advanced Mobile Phone System or AMPS is the analog mobile phone system standard, introduced in the Americas during the early 1980s. ... hicap is a mobile techonology which has a consumer interface with a wide variety of industry references. ... Cellular Digital Packet Data (CDPD) uses unused bandwidth normally used by AMPS mobile phones between 800 and 900 MHz to transfer data. ... Cingular Interactive Truck at Ground Zero on 9/11/2001 Mobitex Network Design Mobitex is an OSI based open standard, national public access wireless data network first introduced in 1991 by carriers RAM Mobile Data and in Canada 1990 by Rogers Cantel. ... DataTac is a wireless data network technology originally developed by Motorola and deployed in the United States as the ARDIS network. ...


Second generation: All the standards belonging to this generation are commercial centric and they are digital in form. Around 60% of the current market is dominated by European standards. The second generation standards are GSM, iDEN, D-AMPS, IS-95, PDC, CSD, PHS, GPRS, HSCSD, and WiDEN. Not to be confused with Get Some Mates The Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM) is the most popular standard for mobile phones in the world. ... The title of this article is incorrect because of technical limitations. ... IS-54 and IS-136 are second-generation (2G) mobile phone systems, known as Digital AMPS (D-AMPS). ... Interim Standard 95 (IS-95), is the first CDMA-based digital cellular standard pioneered by Qualcomm. ... Personal Digital Cellular (PDC) is a 2G mobile phone standard developed and used exclusively in Japan. ... CSD may mean: Central Securities Depository Chartered Society of Designers Christopher Street Day Circuit Switched Data (for mobile phones) Commission on Sustainable Development Control Structure Diagram Constant Speed Drive Serbian dinar, previous ISO 4217 code for the currency of Serbia Context sensitive design Communication Service for the Deaf a non... The Public Health Service Commissioned Corps is the uniformed division of the United States Public Health Service (PHS) and one of the seven Uniformed Services of the United States. ... General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is a mobile data service available to users of GSM mobile phones. ... High-Speed Circuit-Switched Data (HSCSD), is a development of Circuit Switched Data, the original data transmission mechanism of the GSM mobile phone system. ... Wideband Integrated Dispatch Enhanced Network, or WiDEN, is a software upgrade developed by Motorola for its iDEN enhanced specialized mobile radio (or ESMR) wireless telephony protocol. ...


Third generation: To meet the growing demands in the number of subscribers (increase in network capacity), rates required for high speed data transfer and multimedia applications, 3G standards started evolving. The systems in this standard are basically a linear enhancement of 2G systems. They are based on two parallel backbone infrastructures, one consisting of circuit switched nodes, and one of packet oriented nodes. The ITU defines a specific set of air interface technologies as third generation, as part of the IMT-2000 initiative. Currently, transition is happening from 2G to 3G systems. As a part of this transition, lot of technologies are being standardized. From 2G to 3G: 2.75G - EDGE and EGPRS, 3G - CDMA 2000,W-CDMA or UMTS (3GSM), FOMA, 1xEV-DO/IS-856, TD-SCDMA, GAN/UMA. Similarly from 3G to 4G: 3.5G - HSDPA, HSUPA, Super3G - HSOPA/LTE The International Telecommunication Union (ITU; French: Union internationale des télécommunications, Spanish: Unión Internacional de Telecomunicaciones) is an international organization established to standardize and regulate international radio and telecommunications. ... IMT-2000 (International Mobile Telecommunications-2000) is the global standard for third generation (3G) wireless communications as defined by the International Telecommunication Union. ... Look up Edge in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... EGPRS stands for Enhanced GPRS. Also commonly referred to as EDGE Categories: Telecommunications stubs ... IS-2000 is the second generation of CDMA digital cellular, an extension of IS-95. ... W-CDMA (Wideband Code Division Multiple Access) is a type of 3G cellular network. ... Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) is one of the third-generation (3G) mobile phone technologies. ... The word Foma has several meanings: Foma is a term in the fictional Bokononist religion in Kurt Vonneguts novel Cats Cradle. ... (Redirected from 1xEV-DO) Evolution Data Only,Evolution Data Optimized, often abbreviated as EVDO, EV-DO, EvDO, 1xEV-DO or 1xEvDO is a wireless radio broadband data protocol being adopted by many CDMA mobile phone providers in Japan, Korea, the United States and Canada, as part of the CDMA2000 standard. ... TD-SCDMA (Time Division-Synchronous Code Division Multiple Access) is a 3G mobile telecommunications standard, being pursued in the Peoples Republic of China by the Chinese Academy of Telecommunications Technology (CATT), Datang and Siemens AG, in an attempt to develop home-grown technology and not be dependent on Western... Gan can have several meanings: A Romanization of the Chinese character 甘 (Gān), an abbreviation for Gansu Province in the Peoples Republic of China A Romanization of the Chinese character 赣 (Gàn), an abbreviation for: The Gan River Jiangxi Province in the Peoples Republic of China, through which... High-Speed Downlink Packet Access or HSDPA is a mobile telephony protocol. ... HSUPA, High-Speed Uplink Packet Access, is a data access protocol for mobile phone networks with extremely high upload speeds up to 5. ... High Speed OFDM Packet Access (HSOPA) is a proposed part of 3GPPs Long Term Evolution (LTE) upgrade path for UMTS systems. ... 3GPP LTE (Long Term Evolution) is the name given to a project within the Third Generation Partnership Project to improve the UMTS mobile phone standard to cope with future requirements. ...


Fourth generation: According to the 4G working groups, the infrastructure and the terminals of 4G will have almost all the standards from 2G to 4G implemented. Even though the legacy systems are in place to be adopted in 4G for the existing legacy users, going forward the infrastructure will however only be packet based, all-IP. Also, some proposals suggests to have an open platform where the new innovations and evolutions can fit. The technologies which are being called as 4G though not officially are as follows: WiMax, WiBro, 3GPP Long Term Evolution and 3GPP2 Ultra Mobile Broadband. WiMAX, the Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access, is a telecommunications technology aimed at providing wireless data over long distances in a variety of ways, from point-to-point links to full mobile cellular type access. ... WiBro (Wireless Broadband, Korean: 와이브로) is a wireless broadband Internet technology being developed by the Korean telecoms industry. ... 3GPP LTE (Long Term Evolution) is the name given to a project within the Third Generation Partnership Programme to improve the UMTS mobile phone standard to cope with future requirements. ... Ultra Mobile Broadband is the brand name to describe the advanced technologies and services that will be supported by the CDMA2000 1xEV-DO Revision C (Rev. ...


Components

Access schemes

As the wireless standards evolved, the access techniques used also exhibited increase in efficiency, capacity and scalability. The first generation wireless standards used plain TDMA and FDMA. In the wireless channels, TDMA proved to be less efficient in handling the high data rate channels as it requires large guard periods to alleviate the multipath impact. Similarly, FDMA consumed more bandwidth for guard to avoid inter carrier interference. So in second generation systems, one set of standard used the combination of FDMA and TDMA and the other set introduced a new access scheme called CDMA. Usage of CDMA increased the system capacity and also placed a soft limit on it rather than the hard limit. Date rate is also increased as this access scheme is efficient enough to handle the multipath channel. This enabled the third generation systems to used CDMA as the access scheme IS-2000, UMTS, HSXPA, 1xEV-DO, TD-CDMA and TD-SCDMA. The only issue with the CDMA is that it suffers from poor spectrum flexibility and scalability. Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) is a technology for shared medium (usually radio) networks. ... FDMA, or frequency-division multiple access, is the oldest and most important of the three main ways for multiple radio transmitters to share the radio spectrum. ... Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) is a technology for shared medium (usually radio) networks. ... FDMA, or frequency-division multiple access, is the oldest and most important of the three main ways for multiple radio transmitters to share the radio spectrum. ... General Information Generically (as a multiplexing scheme), code division multiple access (CDMA) is any use of any form of spread spectrum by multiple transmitters to send to the same receiver on the same frequency channel at the same time without harmful interference. ...


Recently, new access schemes like OFDMA, Single Carrier FDMA, Interleaved FDMA and MC-CDMA are gaining more importance for the next generation systems. WiMax is using OFDMA in the downlink and in the uplink. For the next generation UMTS, OFDMA is considered in the downlink and IFDMA is considered for the uplink. This is because, OFDMA contributes more to the PAPR related issues and results in nonlinear operation of amplifiers. IFDMA provides less power fluctuation and thus avoids amplifier issues. Similarly, MC-CDMA is in the proposal for 802.20 standard. These access schemes offer the same efficiencies as older technologies like CDMA. Apart from that, scalability and higher data rates can be achieved. The other important advantage of the mentioned access techniques requires less complexity for equalization. This is an added advantage especially in the MIMO environments. Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) is a multi-user version of the popular OFDM digital modulation scheme. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Multi-Carrier Code Division Multiple Access (MC-CDMA) is a multiple access scheme used in OFDM-based telecommunication systems, allowing the system to support multiple users at the same time. ... WiMAX, the Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access, is a telecommunications technology aimed at providing wireless data over long distances in a variety of ways, from point-to-point links to full mobile cellular type access. ... 3GPP LTE (Long Term Evolution) is the name given to a project within the Third Generation Partnership Project to improve the UMTS mobile phone standard to cope with future requirements. ... IEEE 802. ...


In addition to improvements in these multiplexing systems, improved modulation techniques are being used. Whereas earlier standards largely used Phase-shift keying, more efficient systems such as 64QAM are being proposed for use with the 3GPP Long Term Evolution standards. In telecommunications, modulation is the process of varying a periodic waveform, i. ... Phase-shift keying (PSK) is a digital modulation scheme that conveys data by changing, or modulating, the phase of a reference signal (the carrier wave). ... QAM is a TLA that may stand for: Quadrature amplitude modulation Quality Assurance Management (qam. ... 3GPP LTE (Long Term Evolution) is the name given to a project within the Third Generation Partnership Project to improve the UMTS mobile phone standard to cope with future requirements. ...


IPv6

Unlike 3G, which is based on two parallel infrastructures consisting of circuit switched and packet switched network nodes respectively, 4G will be based on packet switching only. This will require low-latency data transmission. In telecommunication, the term circuit switching has the following meanings: 1. ... In computer networking and telecommunications, packet switching is a communications paradigm in which packets (messages or fragments of messages) are individually routed between nodes, with no previously established communication path. ...


It is generally believed that 4th generation wireless networks will support a greater number of wireless devices that are directly addressable and routable. Therefore, in the context of 4G, IPv6 is an important network layer technology and standard that can support a large number of wireless-enabled devices. By increasing the number of IP addresses, IPv6 removes the need for Network Address Translation (NAT), a method of sharing a limited number of addresses among a larger group of devices. It has been suggested that IPv6 internet be merged into this article or section. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... In Computer Networking, the process of Network Address Translation (NAT, also known as Network Masquerading, Native Address Translation or IP Masquerading) involves re-writing the source and/or destination addresses of IP packets as they pass through a Router or firewall. ...


In the context of 4G, IPv6 also enables a number of applications with better multi-cast, security, and route optimization capabilities. With the available address space and number of addressing bits in IPv6, many innovative coding schemes can be developed for 4G devices and applications that could aid deployment of 4G networks and services.


Advanced Antenna Systems

The performance of radio communications obviously depends on the advances of a antenna system. Recently, multiple antenna technologies are emerging to achieve the goal of 4G systems such as high rate, high reliability, and long range communications. In the early 90s, to cater the growing data rate needs of data communication, many transmission schemes were proposed. One technology, spatial multiplexing, gained importance for its bandwidth conservation and power efficiency. Spatial multiplexing involves deploying multiple antennas at the transmitter and at the receiver. Independent streams can then be transmitted simultaneously from all the antennas. This increases the data rate into multiple folds with the number equal to minimum of the number of transmit and receive antennas. This is called Multiple-input multiple-output communications (MIMO). Apart from this, the reliability in transmitting high speed data in the fading channel can be improved by using more antennas at the transmitter or at the receiver. This is called transmit or receive diversity. Both transmit/receive diversity and transmit spatial multiplexing are categorized into the space-time coding techniques, which does not necessary require the channel knowledge at the transmit. The other category is closed-loop multiple antenna technologies which use the channel knowledge at the transmitter. Spatial multiplexing is a transmission technique in MIMO wireless communication to transmit independent and separately encoded data signals, so called streams, from each of the multiple transmit antennas. ... Multiple-input multiple-output, or MIMO, refers to the use of multiple antennas both at the transmitter and receiver. ...


Software-Defined Radio (SDR)

SDR is one form of open wireless architecture (OWA). Since 4G is a collection of wireless standards, the final form of a 4G device will constitute various standards. This can be efficiently realized using SDR technology, which is categorized to the area of the radio convergence. A software-defined radio (SDR) system is a radio communication system which can tune to any frequency band and receive any modulation across a large frequency spectrum by means of a programmable hardware which is controlled by software. ...


Developments

The Japanese company NTT DoCoMo has been testing a 4G communication system prototype with 4x4 MIMO called VSF-OFCDM at 100 Mbit/s while moving, and 1 Gbit/s while stationary. NTT DoCoMo recently reached 5 Gbit/s with 12x12 MIMO while moving at 10 km/h,[7] and is planning on releasing the first commercial network in 2010. NTT DoCoMo, Inc. ... Multi-Carrier Code Division Multiple Access (MC-CDMA) is a multiple access scheme used in OFDM-based telecommunication systems, allowing the system to support multiple users at the same time. ... The megabit is a unit of information storage, abbreviated Mbit or sometimes Mb. ... A gigabit is a unit of information or computer storage, abbreviated Gbit or sometimes Gb. ...



An Irish fixed and wireless broadband company, Digiweb has announced that they have received a mobile communications license from the Irish Telecoms regulator, ComReg. This service will be issued the mobile code 088 in Ireland and will be used for the provision of 4G Mobile communications.[8] [9] Digiweb are a telecommunications provider offering various broadband, Internet service provider and telephony services in the Republic of Ireland, United Kingdom, France and Italy. ... The Commission for Communications Regulation (ComReg) is the general communications regulator for the Republic of Ireland, covering almost all possible types of communications. ...



Pervasive networks are an amorphous and presently entirely hypothetical concept where the user can be simultaneously connected to several wireless access technologies and can seamlessly move between them (See handover, IEEE 802.21). These access technologies can be Wi-Fi, UMTS, EDGE, or any other future access technology. Included in this concept is also smart-radio (also known as cognitive radio technology) to efficiently manage spectrum use and transmission power as well as the use of mesh routing protocols to create a pervasive network. An ubiquitous fabric of computing, information, entertainment, and telemetry capability all tied together by high‑speed wired and wireless networks ... In telecommunication, the term handoff refers to the process of transferring an ongoing call or data session from one channel connected to the core network to another. ... // 802. ... Official Wi-Fi logo Wi-Fi was originally a brand licensed by the Wi-Fi Alliance to describe the embedded technology of wireless local area networks (WLAN) based on the IEEE 802. ... Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) is one of the third-generation (3G) mobile phone technologies. ... Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE) or Enhanced GPRS (EGPRS), is a digital mobile phone technology that allows it to increase data transmission rate and improve data transmission reliability. ... Cognitive radio is a paradigm for wireless communication in which either a network or a wireless node changes its transmission or reception parameters to communicate efficiently without interfering with licensed users. ... Image showing mesh network layout Mesh networking is a way to route data, voice and instructions between nodes. ...


Sprint plans to launch 4G services in trial markets by the end of 2007 with plans to deploy a network that reaches as many as 100 million people in 2008.... Sprint Nextel Corporation (NYSE: S) is one of the largest telecommunications companies in the world. ...


The German WiMAX operator Deutsche Breitband Dienste (DBD) has launched WiMAX services in Magdeburg and Dessau. The subscribers are offered two tariff plans. The first costing $12.99 per month offering 1 Mbit/s connection speed and 1 GB monthly traffic. The second plan has unlimited traffic, the speed increased to 2 Mbit/s for a $25.99 monthly fee. The subscribers are also charged $90.99 for the equipment and installation.[10] DBD received additional national licenses for WiMAX in December 2006 and have already launched the services in Berlin, Leipzig and Dresden.


American WiMAX services provider Clearwire made its debut on Nasdaq in New York on March 8, 2007. The IPO was underwritten by Merrill Lynch, Morgan Stanley and JP Morgan. Clearwire sold 24 million shares at a price of $25 per share. This adds $600 million in cash to Clearwire, and gives the company a market valuation of just over $3.9 billion.[11] Clearwire is a wireless broadband Internet service provider (ISP) headquartered in Kirkland, Washington. ... NASDAQ in Times Square, New York City. ...


Applications

The killer application of 4G is not clear, though the improved bandwidths and data throughput offered by 4G networks should provide opportunities for previously impossible products and services to be released. Perhaps the "killer application" is simply to have mobile always on Internet, no walled garden and reasonable flat rate per month charge. Existing 2.5G/3G/3.5G phone operator based services are often expensive, and limited in application. A killer application (commonly shortened to killer app), in the jargon of computer programmers and video gamers, has come to mean any program, particularly a minor one, that is ingeniously coded or unexpectedly useful. ...



Already at rates of 15-30 Mbit/s, 4G should be able to provide users with streaming high-definition television. At rates of 100 Mbit/s, the content of a DVD, for example a movie, can be downloaded within about 5 minutes for offline access. Projection screen in a home theater, displaying a high-definition television image. ... Size comparison: A 12 cm Sony DVD+RW and a 19 cm Dixon Ticonderoga pencil. ...



Fixed WiMax and Mobile WiMax are different systems, as of July 2007, all the deployed WiMax is "Fixed Wireless" and is thus not 4G.


Market Position

According to a Visant Strategies study there will be multiple competitors in this space, and gave the following projections:[12]

WiMAX, the Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access, is a telecommunications technology aimed at providing wireless data over long distances in a variety of ways, from point-to-point links to full mobile cellular type access. ... A high-speed mobile broadband internet solution developed by Flarion Technologies. ... Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) is one of the third-generation (3G) mobile phone technologies. ... 3GPP LTE (Long Term Evolution) is the name given to a project within the Third Generation Partnership Project to improve the UMTS mobile phone standard to cope with future requirements. ... IEEE 802. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c Young Kyun, Kim; Prasad, Ramjee. 4G Roadmap and Emerging Communication Technologies. Artech House, pp 12-13. ISBN 1-58053-931-9. 
  2. ^ 4G - Beyond 2.5G and 3G Wireless Networks. MobileInfo.com. Retrieved on 2007-03-26.
  3. ^ Jawad Ibrahim (December 2002). 4G Features. Bechtel Telecommunications Technical Journal. Retrieved on 2007-03-26.
  4. ^ Mobility Management Challenges and Issues in 4G Heterogeneous Networks. ACM Proceedings of the first international conference on Integrated internet ad hoc and sensor networks (May 30 - 31, 2006). Retrieved on 2007-03-26.
  5. ^ a b c Werner Mohr (2002). Mobile Communications Beyond 3G in the Global Context. Siemens mobile. Retrieved on 2007-03-26.
  6. ^ Noah Schmitz (March 2005). The Path To 4G Will Take Many Turns. Wireless Systems Design. Retrieved on 2007-03-26.
  7. ^ DoCoMo Achieves 5 Gbit/s Data Speed. NTT DoCoMo Press (9 February 2007).
  8. ^ Press Release: Digiweb Mobile Takes 088
  9. ^ RTÉ News article: Ireland gets new mobile phone provider
  10. ^ Privatkunden Tarife (de). Deutsche Breitband Dienste. Retrieved on 2007-03-26.
  11. ^ WiMAX Day (March 8th, 2007). WiMAX rallies market as Clearwire IPO nets $600 million. WiMAX Spectrum Owners Alliance (WiSOA).
  12. ^ WiMAX Has Company. Wireless Week (1 February 2006). Retrieved on 2007-03-26.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Bechtel Corporation (Bechtel Group) is the largest engineering company in the United States, ranking as the 9th-largest privately owned company in the U.S. With headquarters in San Francisco, Bechtel had 40,000 employees as of 2006 working on projects in nearly 50 countries with $20. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Association for Computing Machinery, or ACM, was founded in 1947 as the worlds first scientific and educational computing society. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Siemens has the following uses: Siemens is a German family name carried by generations of the telecommunications industrialists, including Werner von Siemens, Sir William Siemens, Wilhelm von Siemens and Peter von Siemens Siemens AG is a German electrical and telecommunications company, founded as a telegraph equipment manufacturer by Werner von... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... NTT DoCoMo, Inc. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also

IEEE 802. ... // 802. ... Official Wi-Fi logo Wi-Fi was originally a brand licensed by the Wi-Fi Alliance to describe the embedded technology of wireless local area networks (WLAN) based on the IEEE 802. ... WiBro (Wireless Broadband, Korean: 와이브로) is a wireless broadband Internet technology being developed by the Korean telecoms industry. ... WiMAX, the Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access, is a telecommunications technology aimed at providing wireless data over long distances in a variety of ways, from point-to-point links to full mobile cellular type access. ... This is a list of deployed WiMAX networks and the bands they use. ... 3GPP LTE (Long Term Evolution) is the name given to a project within the Third Generation Partnership Project to improve the UMTS mobile phone standard to cope with future requirements. ... Image showing mesh network layout Mesh networking is a way to route data, voice and instructions between nodes. ... 3G is the third generation of mobile phone standards and technology, after 2G. It is based on the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) family of standards under the International Mobile Telecommunications programme, IMT-2000. 3G technologies enable network operators to offer users a wider range of more advanced services while achieving... The term 3. ... HSUPA, High-Speed Uplink Packet Access, is a data access protocol for mobile phone networks with extremely high upload speeds up to 5. ... Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) is one of the third-generation (3G) mobile phone technologies. ... High-Speed Downlink Packet Access or HSDPA is a mobile telephony protocol. ... HSUPA, High-Speed Uplink Packet Access, is a data access protocol for mobile phone networks with extremely high upload speeds up to 5. ... High Speed OFDM Packet Access (HSOPA) is a proposed part of 3GPPs Long Term Evolution (LTE) upgrade path for UMTS systems. ... (Redirected from 1xEV-DO) Evolution Data Only,Evolution Data Optimized, often abbreviated as EVDO, EV-DO, EvDO, 1xEV-DO or 1xEvDO is a wireless radio broadband data protocol being adopted by many CDMA mobile phone providers in Japan, Korea, the United States and Canada, as part of the CDMA2000 standard. ... In telecommunication, the term handoff refers to the process of transferring an ongoing call or data session from one channel connected to the core network to another. ... iBurst (or HC-SDMA, High Capacity Spatial Division Multiple Access) is a wireless broadband technology developed by ArrayComm. ... G4 or G-4 may refer to: G4 (TV channel), a male-oriented (formerly video game oriented) TV channel G4TechTV Canada, G4s Canadian counterpart AEG G.IV, a German World War I heavy bomber Allegiant Air (IATA code G4) Group 4 of the periodic table Gulfstream G400 and G450...

References


  Results from FactBites:
 
4G - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1405 words)
The official designation from the IEEE for 4G is Beyond 3G.
Thus, 4G would refer to whatever is deployed in the 2010–2015 period, assuming 3G deployment spans the 2000–2009 period.
The killer application of 4G is not clear, but video is one of the big differences between 4G and 3G.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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