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Encyclopedia > 49th parallel north

The 49th parallel of north latitude forms part of the United States-Canadian Border from Manitoba to British Columbia on the Canadian side and from Minnesota to Washington on the U.S. side, or from the Lake of the Woods to the Strait of Georgia. Its use as the international border is a result of the Anglo-American Convention of 1818 and the Oregon Treaty of 1846. Forty-Ninth Parallel (1941) is the third collaboration by the British-based filmmakers Powell & Pressburger. ... Latitude,usually denoted symbolically by the Greek letter phi, , gives the location of a place on Earth north or south of the equator. ... Canada and the United States of America share the longest common border among any two countries that is not militarized or actively patrolled. ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) BC AB SK MB ON QC NB PE NS NL YT NT NU Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard - Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 14 - Senate seats 6 Confederation... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo - Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 36 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 4th - Total 944,735 km... Capital Saint Paul Largest city Minneapolis Area  Ranked 12th  - Total 87,014 sq mi (225,365 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 400 miles (645 km)  - % water 8. ... Official language(s) English Capital Olympia Largest city Seattle Area  Ranked 18th  - Total 71,342 sq mi (184,827 km²)  - Width 240 miles (385 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 6. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Lake of the Woods from space, May 1998 Lake of the Woods. ... Strait of Georgia at sunset The Strait of Georgia (also known as Georgia Strait and the Gulf of Georgia) is a 240 km (150 mi)-long strait between Vancouver Island (as well as its nearby Gulf Islands) and the mainland Pacific coast of British Columbia, Canada. ... Self-illuminating Border flower pot between Burghausen, Salzach(river) in Germany and Ach in Austria. ... The Convention of 1818 between the United States and Great Britian, also known as the London Convention, Anglo-American Convention of 1818, or simply the Treaty of 1818, was a treaty signed in United States and the United Kingdom. ... Map of the lands in dispute The Treaty with Great Britain, in Regard to Limits Westward of the Rocky Mountains, also known as the Oregon Treaty or Treaty of Washington, is a bilateral treaty between the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the United States that was signed... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...

49th parallel at Waterton Lake.
49th parallel at Waterton Lake.

Contents

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 398 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (684 × 1029 pixel, file size: 195 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 398 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (684 × 1029 pixel, file size: 195 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ...

History

Following the Louisiana Purchase by the United States in 1803, it was generally agreed that the boundary between the new territory and British Rupert's Land was along the watershed between the Missouri River and Mississippi River basins on one side and the Hudson Bay basin on the other. However, it is often difficult to precisely determine the location of a watershed in a region of level plains, such as in central North America. The British and American committees that met after the War of 1812 to resolve boundary disputes recognized there would be much animosity in surveying the watershed boundary, and agreed on a simpler border solution in 1818: the 49th parallel. Both sides gained and lost some territory by this convention, but the United States gained more than it lost, in particular securing title to the Red River Basin. This convention established the boundary only between the Lake of the Woods and the Rocky Mountains; west of the Rockies, the convention established joint occupation of the Oregon Country by both parties. A geographical oversight resulted in the creation of the Northwest Angle. For the musical, see Louisiana Purchase (musical) and Louisiana Purchase (film). ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Ruperts Land Ruperts Land was a territory in British North America, consisting of the Hudson Bay drainage basin, most of it now part of modern Canada. ... Main European water divides (red lines) separating catchments (gray regions). ... The Missouri River is a tributary of the Mississippi River in the United States. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... Hudson Bay, Canada. ... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ... This article is about the U.S. – U.K. war. ... 1818 (MDCCCXVIII) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar. ... See also Pembina Territory Red River Settlement External link RiverWatchOnline: Red River History Categories: Stub | U.S. historical regions and territories ... Lake of the Woods from space, May 1998 Lake of the Woods. ... For individual mountains named Rocky Mountain, see Rocky Mountain (disambiguation). ... Landscape in Oregon Country, by Charles Marion Russell Map of Oregon Country Oregon Country was a region of western North America that originally consisted of the land north of 42°N latitude, south of 54°40N latitude, and west of the Rocky Mountains to the Pacific Ocean. ... The Northwest Angle (the purple portion) in Minnesota, bordering Manitoba, Ontario, and Lake of the Woods The Northwest Angle viewed from space The Northwest Angle, known simply as the Angle by locals, and coterminous with Angle Township, is a small part of northern Lake of the Woods County, Minnesota that...


Although the Convention of 1818 settled the boundary from the point of view of the non-Aboriginal powers, neither the United Kingdom nor the United States was immediately sovereign over the territories on its side of the line: effective control still rested with the local nations, mainly the Métis, Assiniboine, Lakota and Blackfoot. Their sovereignty was gradually ceded by conquest and treaty during the several decades that followed. Among these nations, the 49th parallel was nicknamed the Medicine Line because of its seemingly magical ability to prevent U.S. soldiers from crossing it. The Métis (pronounced MAY tee, IPA: , in French or , in Michif ), also historically known as Bois Brule, mixed-bloods, Countryborn (or Anglo-Métis), are one of three recognized Aboriginal peoples in Canada. ... Assiniboine Family, Montana, 1890-1891. ... Eddie Plenty Holes, a Sioux Indian photographed about 1899. ... Sahpo Muxika, also known as Crowfoot, former Head Chief of the Blackfeet Nation The Piegan Blackfeet (Pikuni in Blackfoot) are a tribe of Native Americans based in Montana. ...


In the 1844 U.S. presidential election, the Democratic Party asserted that the northern border of the Oregon Territory should be 54°40′, later reflected in the 1846 slogan "Fifty-Four Forty or Fight!" However, the Oregon boundary dispute was settled diplomatically in the 1846 Oregon Treaty. This agreement divided the Oregon Country between British North America and the United States by extending the 49th parallel boundary to the west coast, ending in the Strait of Georgia; it then circumvents Vancouver Island through Haro Strait and the Strait of Juan de Fuca. This had the side-effect of isolating Point Roberts, Washington. Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The Democratic Party is one of two major political parties in the United States, the other being the Republican Party. ... The Oregon Territory is the name applied both to the unorganized Oregon Country claimed by both the United States and Britain, as well as to the organized U.S. territory formed from it that existed between 1848 and 1859. ... The Oregon Country/Columbia District Disputed Area is the main area of dispute, although the whole region was disputed The Oregon boundary dispute (often called the Oregon question) arose as a result of competing British and American claims to the Oregon Country, a region of northwestern North America known also... The Oregon Country/Columbia District Disputed Area is the main area of dispute, although the whole region was disputed The Oregon boundary dispute (often called the Oregon question) arose as a result of competing British and American claims to the Oregon Country, a region of northwestern North America known also... British North America was an informal term first used in 1783, but uncommon before the Report on the Affairs of British North America (1839), called the Durham Report. ... Strait of Georgia at sunset The Strait of Georgia (also known as Georgia Strait and the Gulf of Georgia) is a 240 km (150 mi)-long strait between Vancouver Island (as well as its nearby Gulf Islands) and the mainland Pacific coast of British Columbia, Canada. ... Vancouver Island is separated from mainland British Columbia by the Strait of Georgia and the Queen Charlotte Strait, and from Washington by the Juan De Fuca Strait. ... Haro Strait, often referred to as the Haro Straits because it is really a series of straits, is one of the main channels connecting the Strait of Georgia to the Strait of Juan de Fuca separating Vancouver Island and the Gulf Islands in British Columbia, Canada from the San Juan... The Strait of Juan de Fuca separates Vancouver Island of British Columbia from the Olympic Peninsula of Washington state. ... A geopolitical oddity, Point Roberts is a small unincorporated community in Whatcom County, Washington, United States. ...


As border

The boundary marker at the 49th parallel, dividing Blaine, Washington and Surrey, British Columbia.
The boundary marker at the 49th parallel, dividing Blaine, Washington and Surrey, British Columbia.

Although parts of Vancouver Island and much of Eastern Canada are located south of the 49th parallel, and parts of the United States (Alaska, Northwest Angle) are located north of it, the term 49th parallel is sometimes used as a nickname for the entire Canada-U.S. border. This can be misleading, since many of Canada's most populated regions are well south of the 49th parallel, including the two largest cities Toronto (44° north) and Montreal (46° north) and the capital Ottawa (45° north) — as are the three Maritime provinces. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1704 × 2272 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1704 × 2272 pixel, file size: 2. ... Nickname: The Peace Arch city Location in the state of Washington Coordinates: Country United States State Washington County Whatcom County Incorporated May 20, 1890 Area  - City  8. ... Location of Surrey Country Canada Province British Columbia Regional District Greater Vancouver Regional District Incorporation 1879 (municipality status)   1993 (city status) Government  - Mayor Dianne Watts  - Governing body  - MLAs List of MLAs Harry Bains (NDP) Jagrup Brar (NDP) Bruce Ralston (NDP) Kevin Falcon (LIB) Dave Hayer (LIB) Gordon Hogg (LIB) Sue... Official language(s) English[1] Spoken language(s) English 85. ... The Northwest Angle (the purple portion) in Minnesota, bordering Manitoba, Ontario, and Lake of the Woods The Northwest Angle viewed from space The Northwest Angle, known simply as the Angle by locals, and coterminous with Angle Township, is a small part of northern Lake of the Woods County, Minnesota that... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... This article is about the capital city of Canada. ... The Maritime provinces. ...


Parts of the 49th parallel were originally surveyed using astronomical techniques that did not take into account slight departures of the Earth's shape from a simple ellipsoid, and the surveys were subject to the limitations of early to mid 19th-century technology. As a result, in some places the surveyed 49th parallel is as much as several hundred feet from the actual geographical 49th parallel for the currently adopted datum, WGS84. The Digital Chart of the World (DCW), which uses the Clarke 1866 ellipsoid, reports the border on average at latitude 48° 59′ 51″ north, roughly 270 m (290 yd) south of the modern 49th parallel. It ranges between 48° 59′ 25″ and 49° 0′ 10″ north, respectively 810 m (885 yd) and 590 m (645 yd) on either side of the average. In any case, the Earth's North Pole moves around slightly, notionally moving the 49th and other parallels with it - see polar motion. 3D rendering of an ellipsoid In mathematics, an ellipsoid is a type of quadric that is a higher dimensional analogue of an ellipse. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Geodetic system. ... WGS 84 is the 1984 revision of the World Geodetic System. ... The Digital Chart of the World is a comprehensive 1:1,000,000 scale vector basemap of the world. ... This article needs to be wikified. ...


While the United States and Canada have not disputed the boundary from the original survey lines, the difference of the survey from the geographical 49th parallel was argued in front of the Washington Supreme Court in the case of State of Washington v. Norman, under the premise that Washington did not properly incorporate the portions of land north of the geographical 49th parallel, as laid out by detailed GPS surveying. The court decided against the premise, ruling that the internationally surveyed boundary also served as the state boundary, regardless of its actual position. The members of the Washington State Supreme Court are: Chief Justice Gerry Alexander, Justice Bobbe Bridge, Justice Tom Chambers, Justice Mary Fairhurst, Justice Charles Johnson, Justice James Johnson, Justice Barbara Madsen, Justice Susan Owens and Justice Richard Sanders. ... The Global Positioning System (GPS) is the only fully functional Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). ...


Monuments on the border

The Peace Arch border
The Peace Arch border

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 1911 KB) A picture taken by me. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2560x1920, 1911 KB) A picture taken by me. ... The Peace Arch border. ... The Peace Arch border. ... Location of Surrey Country Canada Province British Columbia Regional District Greater Vancouver Regional District Incorporation 1879 (municipality status)   1993 (city status) Government  - Mayor Dianne Watts  - Governing body  - MLAs List of MLAs Harry Bains (NDP) Jagrup Brar (NDP) Bruce Ralston (NDP) Kevin Falcon (LIB) Dave Hayer (LIB) Gordon Hogg (LIB) Sue... Motto: Splendor Sine Occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Iona Campagnolo - Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 36 - Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 4th - Total 944,735 km... Nickname: The Peace Arch city Location in the state of Washington Coordinates: Country United States State Washington County Whatcom County Incorporated May 20, 1890 Area  - City  8. ... Official language(s) English Capital Olympia Largest city Seattle Area  Ranked 18th  - Total 71,342 sq mi (184,827 km²)  - Width 240 miles (385 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 6. ... The Peace Arch monument. ... Peace Towers The International Peace Garden is a 3. ... Motto: Gloriosus et Liber (Latin: Glorious and free) BC AB SK MB ON QC NB PE NS NL YT NT NU Capital Winnipeg Largest city Winnipeg Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor John Harvard - Premier Gary Doer (NDP) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 14 - Senate seats 6 Confederation... Official language(s) English Capital Bismarck Largest city Fargo Area  Ranked 19th  - Total 70,762 sq mi (183,272 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 340 miles (545 km)  - % water 2. ... Boissevain is a town in Manitoba near the North Dakota border, population 1,495. ... Dunseith is a city located in Rolette County, North Dakota. ... The Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park is the name of the union of the Glacier National Park in the United States and the Waterton Lakes National Park in Canada. ...

Other countries

The 49th parallel north in Karlsruhe, (Germany)
The 49th parallel north in Karlsruhe, (Germany)

Around the world, the 49th parallel also passes through: Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1536x2048, 2605 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Karlsruhe Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1536x2048, 2605 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Karlsruhe Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to create... Karlsruhe (population 285,812 in 2006) is a city in the south west of Germany, in the Bundesland Baden-Württemberg, located near the French-German border. ...

See also

Boundary Lake is on the Canada-US border, in the Canadian province of Manitoba and the American state of North Dakota. ... ... The Northwest Angle (the purple portion) in Minnesota, bordering Manitoba, Ontario, and Lake of the Woods The Northwest Angle viewed from space The Northwest Angle, known simply as the Angle by locals, and coterminous with Angle Township, is a small part of northern Lake of the Woods County, Minnesota that... A geopolitical oddity, Point Roberts is a small unincorporated community in Whatcom County, Washington, United States. ... The Oregon Country/Columbia District Disputed Area is the main area of dispute, although the whole region was disputed The Oregon boundary dispute (often called the Oregon question) arose as a result of competing British and American claims to the Oregon Country, a region of northwestern North America known also... Combatants United States United Kingdom Strength 461 soldiers 2,140 soldiers Casualties None None The Pig War (also called the Pig Episode, the San Juan Boundary Dispute or the Northwestern Boundary Dispute) was a confrontation in 1859 between American and British authorities, resulting from a dispute over the boundary between... Hymns of the 49th Parallel is the ninth studio album by k. ... Kathryn Dawn Lang, OC (born November 2, 1961), best known by the stage name k. ... Forty-Ninth Parallel (1941) is the third collaboration by the British-based filmmakers Powell & Pressburger. ... The year 1941 in film involved some significant events. ...

External links

  • Washington v. Norman from FindLaw

  Results from FactBites:
 
49th parallel - Free Encyclopedia (311 words)
The 49th parallel of north latitude forms the border between Canada and the United States from Manitoba to British Columbia on the Canadian side and from Minnesota to Washington on the U.S. side.
After the United States acquired the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, it was generally agreed that the boundary between it and British Rupert's Land was along the watershed between the Missouri River and Mississippi River basins on one side and the Hudson Bay basin on the other.
In 1846 the Oregon Boundary Treaty divided the Oregon Country between British North America and the United States by extending the 49th parallel boundary to the west coast and then through Strait of Juan de Fuca.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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