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Encyclopedia > 4 (number)
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This article discusses the number Four. For the year 4 AD, see 4. For other uses of 4, see 4 (disambiguation)

4 (four) is a number, numeral, and glyph. It is the natural number following 3 and preceding 5. Four is the only number in the English language for which the number of letters in its name is equal to the number itself. This is also true in several other languages, such as German, Afrikaans, Dutch, and Flemish, as "vier".[citation needed] The binary numeral system, or base-2 number system, is a numeral system that represents numeric values using two symbols, usually 0 and 1. ... The octal numeral system, or oct for short, is the base-8 number system, and uses the digits 0 to 7. ... The duodecimal (also known as base-12 or dozenal) system is a numeral system using twelve as its base. ... In mathematics and computer science, hexadecimal, base-16, or simply hex, is a numeral system with a radix, or base, of 16, usually written using the symbols 0â€“9 and Aâ€“F, or aâ€“f. ... The vigesimal or base-20 numeral system is based on twenty (in the same way in which the ordinary decimal numeral system is based on ten). ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... For other uses, see 4 (disambiguation). ... Look up four in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Number (disambiguation). ... A numeral is a symbol or group of symbols that represents a number. ... variant glyphs representing the character a (allographs of a) in the Zapfino typeface. ... In mathematics, a natural number can mean either an element of the set {1, 2, 3, ...} (i. ... This article is about the number. ... Look up five in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... For other uses, see Letter (disambiguation). ... In mathematics, two mathematical objects are considered equal if they are precisely the same in every way. ...

## In mathematics

Four is the smallest composite number, its proper divisors being 1 and 2. Four is also a highly composite number. The next highly composite number is 6. A composite number is a positive integer which has a positive divisor other than one or itself. ... In mathematics, a divisor of an integer n, also called a factor of n, is an integer which evenly divides n without leaving a remainder. ... One redirects here. ... For other uses of 2, see 2 (disambiguation). ... A highly composite number is a positive integer which has more divisors than any positive integer below it. ... Look up six in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Four is the second square number, the second centered triangular number. In mathematics, a square number, sometimes also called a perfect square, is an integer that can be written as the square of some other integer; in other words, it is the product of some integer with itself. ... A centered triangular number is a centered figurate number that represents a triangle with a dot in the center and all other dots surrounding the center in successive triangular layers. ...

4 is the smallest squared prime (p2). It has an aliquot sum of 3 which is itself prime. The aliquot sequence of 4 has 4 members (4,3,1,0). Divisor function Ïƒ0(n) up to n=250 Sigma function Ïƒ1(n) up to n=250 Sum of the squares of divisors, Ïƒ2(n), up to n=250 Sum of cubes of divisors, Ïƒ3(n) up to n=250 In mathematics, and specifically in number theory, a divisor function is... For other uses, see 3 (disambiguation). ... In mathematics, an aliquot sequence is a recursive sequence which can be defined in the following way: if we write Ïƒ(n) = Ïƒ1(n) to be the divisor function normally, then, the aliquot sequence of k can be written: s0 = k sn = Ïƒ(snâˆ’1) âˆ’ snâˆ’1 For example, the aliquot sequence... This article is about the number. ...

The prime factorization of four is two times two.

Four is the smallest composite number that is equal to the sum of its prime factors. (As a consequence of this, it is the smallest Smith number). However, it is the largest (and only) composite number n for which $(n - 1)! equiv 0 ({rm mod} n)$ is false. A Smith number is a number which in a given base, the sum of its digits is equal to the sum of the digits in its factorization. ...

It is also a Motzkin number. In mathematics, a Motzkin number for a given number n is the number of different ways of drawing non-intersecting chords on a circle between n points. ...

In addition, $2 + 2 = 2 times 2 = 2^2 = 4$. Continuing the pattern in Knuth's up-arrow notation, $2 uparrowuparrow 2 = 2 uparrowuparrowuparrow 2 = 4$, and so on, for any number of up arrows. In mathematics, Knuths up-arrow notation is a notation for very large integers introduced by Donald Knuth in 1976. ...

A solid figure with four faces is a tetrahedron. The regular tetrahedron is the simplest Platonic solid. A tetrahedron, which can also be called a 3-simplex, has four triangular faces and four vertices. It is the only self-dual regular polyhedron. For the academic journal, see Tetrahedron (journal). ... In geometry, a Platonic solid is a convex regular polyhedron. ... For the academic journal, see Tetrahedron (journal). ... A 3-simplex or tetrahedron In geometry, a simplex (plural simplexes or simplices) or n-simplex is an n-dimensional analogue of a triangle. ... In mathematics, there are three related meanings of the term polyhedron: in the traditional meaning it is a 3-dimensional polytope, and in a newer meaning that exists alongside the older one it is a bounded or unbounded generalization of a polytope of any dimension. ...

Four-dimensional space has the largest number of dimensions used by more than three convex regular figures. There are infinitely many convex regular polygons (two-dimensional); five convex regular polyhedra (three-dimensional, the five Platonic Solids); six convex regular polychora (four-dimensional); and three regular convex polytopes occupying each higher-dimensional space. For other uses, see Fourth dimension (disambiguation). ... A regular pentagon A regular polygon is a simple polygon (a polygon which does not intersect itself anywhere) which is equiangular (all angles are equal) and equilateral (all sides have the same length). ... In mathematics, there are three related meanings of the term polyhedron: in the traditional meaning it is a 3-dimensional polytope, and in a newer meaning that exists alongside the older one it is a bounded or unbounded generalization of a polytope of any dimension. ... In geometry, a Platonic solid is a convex regular polyhedron. ... In mathematics, a convex regular 4-polytope (or polychoron) is 4-dimensional polytope which is both a regular and convex. ... In geometry polytope means, first, the generalization to any dimension of polygon in two dimensions, polyhedron in three dimensions, and polychoron in four dimensions. ...

The smallest non-cyclic group has four elements; it is the Klein four-group. Four is also the order of the smallest non-trivial groups that are not simple. In group theory, a cyclic group or monogenous group is a group that can be generated by a single element, in the sense that the group has an element g (called a generator of the group) such that, when written multiplicatively, every element of the group is a power of... This picture illustrates how the hours on a clock form a group under modular addition. ... This article is about the mathematical group. ... In mathematics, a simple group is a group which is not the trivial group and whose only normal subgroups are the trivial group and the group itself. ...

Four is the maximum number of dimensions of a real division algebra (the quaternions), by a theorem of Ferdinand Georg Frobenius. In the field of mathematics called abstract algebra, a division algebra is, roughly speaking, an algebra over a field in which division is possible. ... In mathematics, the quaternions are a non-commutative extension of the complex numbers. ... A picture of Frobenius Ferdinand Georg Frobenius (October 26, 1849 â€“ August 3, 1917) was a German mathematician, best-known for his contributions to the theory of differential equations and to group theory. ...

The four-color theorem states that a planar graph (or, equivalently, a flat map of two-dimensional regions such as countries) can be colored using four colors, so that adjacent vertices (or regions) are always different colors. Three colors are not, in general, sufficient to guarantee this. The largest planar complete graph has four vertices. Example of a four color map The four color theorem states that every possible geographical map can be colored with at most four colors in such a way that no two adjacent regions receive the same colour. ... In graph theory, a planar graph is a graph that can be drawn so that no edges intersect (or that can be embedded) in the plane. ... For other uses, see Map (disambiguation). ... In the mathematical field of graph theory, a complete graph is a simple graph where an edge connects every pair of distinct vertices. ...

Lagrange's four-square theorem states that every positive integer can be written as the sum of at most four square numbers. Three are not always sufficient; 7 for instance cannot be written as the sum of three squares. Lagranges four-square theorem, also known as Bachets conjecture, was proved in 1770 by Joseph Louis Lagrange. ... In mathematics, a square number, sometimes also called a perfect square, is an integer that can be written as the square of some other integer; in other words, it is the product of some integer with itself. ... 7 (seven) is the natural number following 6 and preceding 8. ...

Four is the first positive non-Fibonacci number. A tiling with squares whose sides are successive Fibonacci numbers in length In mathematics, the Fibonacci numbers are a sequence of numbers named after Leonardo of Pisa, known as Fibonacci. ...

Each natural number divisible by 4 is a difference of squares of two natural numbers, i.e. 4x = y2z2.

Four is an all-Harshad number and a semi-meandric number. A Harshad number, or Niven number, is an integer that is divisible by the sum of its digits in a given number base. ... In mathematics, a meander or closed meander is a self-avoiding closed curve which intersects a line a number of times. ...

### List of basic calculations

Multiplication 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 50 100 1000
$4 times x$ 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 100 200 400 4000
Division 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
$4 div x$ 4 2 $1.overline{3}$ 1 0.8 $0.overline{6}$ $0.overline{5}7142overline{8}$ 0.5 $0.overline{4}$ 0.4 $0.overline{3}overline{6}$ $0.overline{3}$ $0.overline{3}0769overline{2}$ $0.overline{2}8571overline{4}$ $0.2overline{6}$
$x div 4$ 0.25 0.5 0.75 1 1.25 1.5 1.75 2 2.25 2.5 2.75 3 3.25 3.5 3.75
Exponentiation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
$4 ^ x,$ 4 16 64 256 1024 4096 16384 65536 262144 1048576 4194304 16777216 67108864
$x ^ 4,$ 1 16 81 256 625 1296 2401 4096 6561 10000 14641 20736 28561

In mathematics, multiplication is an elementary arithmetic operation. ... Look up eight in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up twelve in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... 16 (sixteen) is the natural number following 15 and preceding 17. ... 20 (twenty) is the natural number following 19 and preceding 21. ... 24 (twenty-four) is the natural number following 23 and preceding 25. ... 28 (twenty-eight) is the natural number following 27 and preceding 29. ... 32 (thirty-two) is the natural number following 31 and preceding 33. ... 36 (thirty-six) is the natural number following 35 and preceding 37. ... 40 (forty) is the natural number following 39 and preceding 41. ... 44 (forty-four) is the natural number following 43 and preceding 45. ... 48 (forty-eight) is the natural number following 47 and preceding 49. ... 52 (fifty-two) is the natural number following 51 and preceding 53. ... 56 (fifty-six) is the natural number following 55 and preceding 57. ... 60 (sixty) is the natural number following 59 and preceding 61. ... 64 (sixty-four) is the natural number following 63 and preceding 65. ... 68 (sixty-eight) is the natural number following 67 and preceding 69 // Sixty-eight is a nontotient. ... 72 is the natural number following 71 and preceding 73. ... 76 is the natural number following 75 and preceding 77. ... 80 (eighty) is the natural number following 79 and preceding 81. ... 84 (eighty-four) is the natural number following 83 and preceding 85. ... 88 (eighty-eight) is the natural number following 87 and preceding 89. ... 92 (ninety-two) is the natural number following 91 and preceding 93. ... 96 is the natural number following 95 and preceding 97. ... 100 (one hundred) (the Roman numeral is C for centum) is the natural number following 99 and preceding 101. ... 200 is the natural number following 199 and preceding 201. ... Four hundred is the natural number following three hundred ninety-nine and preceding four hundred one. ... 4000 (four thousand) is the natural number following 3999 and preceding 4001. ... In mathematics, especially in elementary arithmetic, division is an arithmetic operation which is the inverse of multiplication. ... Zero redirects here. ... 25 (twenty-five) is the natural number following 24 and preceding 26. ... 75 (seventy-five) is the natural number following 74 and preceding 76. ... â€œExponentâ€ redirects here. ... 256 (two hundred [and] fifty-six, CCLVI) is the natural number following 255 and preceding 257. ... 81 is the natural number following 80 and preceding 82. ... Look up ten thousand in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

## Evolution of the glyph

Evolution of the numeral 4 from the Brahmin Indians to the Europeans I drew this characters by hand and scanned them. ...

Representing 1, 2 and 3 in as many lines as the number represents worked well enough, but writing four lines proved tiresome. The Brahmin Indians simplified 4 by joining its four lines into a cross that looks like our modern plus sign. The Sunga and other Indians would add a horizontal line on top of the numeral, and the Kshatrapa and Pallava evolved the numeral to a point where speed of writing was at best a secondary concern. The Arabs didn't have time for cursive fancy: their 4 still had the early concept of the cross, but for the sake of efficiency, was made in one stroke by connecting the "western" end to the "northern" end; the "eastern" end was finished off with a curve. The Europeans dropped off the finishing curve and gradually made the numeral less cursive, ending up with a glyph very close to the original Brahmin cross.[1] Note that the word Brahmin is also known as Brahman in English due to some translation issues between the Upanishads (Hindu Holy Texts) and modern English* Brahmin, in Hinduism, traditionally refers to the priestly caste or a member of this caste in the Hindu caste system. ... The Sunga Empire (or Shunga Empire) is a Magadha dynasty that controlled North-central and Eastern India from around 185 to 73 BCE. It was established after the fall of the Indian Mauryan empire. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ...

While the shape of the 4 character has an ascender in most modern typefaces, in typefaces with text figures the character usually has a descender, as, for example, in . The ascenders are the parts of the characters that lie above the midline, highlighted in red. ... â€œFontâ€ redirects here. ... Hoefler Text, a contemporary font, uses hanging or old style text figures. ... The descenders are the parts of the characters that lie below the baseline. ... Image File history File links The numerals 1, 4 and 8 written in text figures. ...

On the seven-segment displays of pocket calculators and digital watches, 4 is seen with an open top. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A seven-segment display (abbreviation: 7-seg(ment) display), less commonly known as a seven-segment indicator, is a form of display device that is an alternative to the more complex dot-matrix displays. ...

## In science

### In biology

Adenine Guanine Thymine Cytosine ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... For other uses, see RNA (disambiguation). ... For the programming language Adenine, see Adenine (programming language). ... Guanine is one of the five main nucleobases found in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA; the others being adenine, cytosine, thymine, and uracil. ... Cytosine is one of the 5 main nucleobases used in storing and transporting genetic information within a cell in the nucleic acids DNA and RNA. It is a pyrimidine derivative, with a heterocyclic aromatic ring and two substituents attached (an amine group at position 4 and a keto group at... For the similarly-spelled vitamin compound, see Thiamine Thymine, also known as 5-methyluracil, is a pyrimidine nucleobase. ... Uracil is a pyrimidine which is common and naturally occurring. ... For other uses, see RNA (disambiguation). ... Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Classes Synapsida Sauropsida Amphibia A tetrapod (Greek tetrapoda, four-legged) is a vertebrate animal having four feet, legs or leglike appendages. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass â€ Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass â€ Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ... The heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass â€ Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass â€ Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria For the folk-rock band see The Mammals. ... Families 17, See classification The diverse order Carnivora (IPA: or ; from Latin carÅ (stem carn-) flesh, + vorÄre to devour) includes over 260 species of placental mammals. ... Ungulates (meaning roughly hoofed or hoofed animal) make up several orders of mammals, of which six to eight survive: Artiodactyla: even-toed ungulates, cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, antelope, and many others Cetacea: whales and dolphins (which evolved from hoofed land animals) Perissodactyla: odd-toed ungulates such as horses and rhinos... Superfamilies and families Superfamily Hedyloidea: Hedylidae Superfamily Hesperioidea: Hesperiidae Superfamily Papilionoidea: Papilionidae Pieridae Nymphalidae Lycaenidae Riodinidae A butterfly is an insect of the order Lepidoptera. ... This article is about the insect. ... For other uses, see Wing (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Blood (disambiguation). ... In mammalian oral anatomy, the canine teeth, also called cuspids, dogteeth, fangs, or (in the case of those of the upper jaw) eye teeth, are relatively long, pointed teeth. ... Incisors (from Latin incidere, to cut) are the first kind of tooth in heterodont mammals. ... Wisdom teeth are the third molars that usually appear between the ages of 16 and 24. ... Teeth redirects here. ...

### In chemistry

• Valency of carbon (that is basis of life on the Earth) is four. Thanks to its tetrahedral crystal bond structure diamond (one of the natural allotropes of carbon) is the hardest known naturally occurring material. It is also the valence of silicon, whose compounds form the majority of the mass of the Earth's crust.
• The atomic number of beryllium
• There are four basic states of matter: solid, liquid, gas, and plasma.

## In logic and philosophy

• The symbolic meanings of the number four are linked to those of the cross and the square. 'almost from prehistoric times, the number four was employed to signify what was solid, what could be touched and felt. its relationship to the cross (four points) made it an outstanding symbol of wholeness and universality, a symbol which drew all to itself'. where lines of latitude and longitude intersect, they divide the earth into four proportions. throughout the world kings and chieftains have been called 'lord of the four suns'...'lord of the four quarters of the earth'... by which is understood to the extent of their powers both territorially and in terms of total control of their subjects' doings.
• The Square of Opposition, in both its Aristotelian version and its Boolean version, consists of four forms: A ("All S is R"), I ("Some S is R"), E ("No S is R"), and O ("Some S is not R").
• Aristotle held that there are basically four causes in nature: the efficient cause, the matter, the end, and the form.
• Immanuel Kant expounded a table of judgments involving four three-way alternatives, in regard to 1. Quantity, 2. Quality, 3. Relation, 4. Modality, and, based thereupon, a table of four categories, named by the terms just listed, and each with three subcategories.
• Arthur Schopenhauer's doctoral thesis was On the Fourfold Root of the Principle of Sufficient Reason.
• C.S. Peirce, usually a trichotomist, discussed four basic methods of seeking to settle questions and arrive at firm beliefs: the method of tenacity (sticking to that which one is inclined to think), the method of authority, the a priori method, and the method of science. (See "The Fixation of Belief," 1877, Eprint.)
• Jonathan Lowe (E.J. Lowe) argues in The Four-Category Ontology, 2006, for four categories: objects, attributes, kinds, and modes (by "modes" he means property-particulars, also known as "tropes"). (See Lowe's "Recent Advances in Metaphysics," 2001, Eprint)

The Square of Opposition is a term from the study of Aristotelian logic or Term Logic in which the logical relationship between various types of sentences is spelled out. ... The Square of Opposition is a term from the study of Aristotelian logic or Term Logic in which the logical relationship between various types of sentences is spelled out. ... The Square of Opposition is a term from the study of Aristotelian logic or Term Logic in which the logical relationship between various types of sentences is spelled out. ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Aristotle (disambiguation). ... The efficient cause is a philosophical concept proposed by Aristotle. ... The Material Cause, that out of which the statue is made, is the marble or bronze. ... Final cause is one of Aristotles four forms of causation (the others being material, formal, and efficient). ... Formal cause is a concept used by Aristotle, and originates from the idea of the form by Plato and Socrates. ... Kant redirects here. ... In Kants philosophy, a category is a pure concept of the understanding. ... In Kants philosophy, a category is a pure concept of the understanding. ... Arthur Schopenhauer (February 22, 1788 â€“ September 21, 1860) was a German philosopher best known for his work The World as Will and Representation. ... Originally published as a doctoral dissertation in 1813, Arthur Schopenhauer revised this important work and re-published it in 1847. ... Charles Sanders Peirce Charles Sanders Peirce (September 10, 1839 – April 19, 1914) was an American logician, philosopher, scientist, and mathematician. ... Jonathan Lowe (E.J. Lowe) (born 1950) is currently Professor of Philosophy and Chair of the Examination Board of the Department of Philosophy at the University of Durham, England. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...

## In technology

• Most furniture has four legs - tables, chairs, etc.
• Four horses (quadriga) is the maximal number of horses in one row for carriage.
• Wide use of rectangles (with four angles and four sides) because they have effective form and capability for close adjacency to each other (houses, rooms, tables, bricks, sheets of paper, screens, film frames).
• On most phones, the 4 key is associated with the letters G, H, and I, but on the BlackBerry it is the key for D and F.
• In internet slang, "4" can replace the word "for" (as "four" and "for" are pronounced similarly). For example, typing "4u" instead of "for you".
• In Leetspeak, "4" may be used to replace the letter "A".
• In Expressing love, "4" may be used to replace the word "Love" (143).

## In sports

In rugby union, the number of the lock forward, who usually jumps at number 2 in the line-out. For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... A normal rugby union team formation illustrating each of the positions and their respective numbers. ... A rugby lineout. ...

In rugby league, the number of one of the two centres. It is also the number of points awarded for a try. Rugby league football is a full-contact team sport played with a prolate spheroid-shaped ball by two teams of thirteen on a rectangular grass field. ... A typical rugby league team consists of thirteen players on the field plus four substitutes on the bench. ... This article refers to the use of the word Try in rugby football terminology. ...

In baseball, 4 represents the second baseman's position. It was also the jersey number of Lou Gehrig, Mel Ott, Joe Cronin, and Paul Molitor. It was the jersey number of Earl Weaver, long-time manager of the Baltimore Orioles. This article is about the sport. ... The position of the second baseman Second base redirects here. ... Henry Louis Lou Gehrig (June 19, 1903 â€“ June 2, 1941), born Ludwig Heinrich Gehrig[2], was an American baseball player in the 1920s and 1930s, who set several Major League records and was popularly called the The Iron Horse[2] for his durability. ... Melvin Thomas Mel Ott (March 2, 1909 â€“ November 21, 1958), nicknamed Master Melvin, was a Major League Baseball right fielder who played his entire career for the New York Giants (1926-1947). ... Joe Cronin Joseph Edward Cronin (October 12, 1906 â€“ September 7, 1984) was a Major League Baseball player from 1926 to 1945 and manager from 1933 to 1947. ... Reverse side of a Paul Molitor baseball card Paul Leo Molitor (born August 22, 1956 in St. ... Earl Sidney Weaver (born August 14, 1930 in St. ...

In ice hockey, 4 was the jersey number worn by Hall of Famers Jean Beliveau, Bobby Orr, Scott Stevens and Rob Blake. Ice hockey, known simply as hockey in areas where it is more common than field hockey, is a team sport played on ice. ... Jean Arthur Béliveau, born August 31, 1931 in Trois-Rivières, Quebec, Canada was a professional ice hockey player. ... Robert Gordon Bobby Orr, OC (born March 20, 1948 in Parry Sound, Ontario) is a retired Canadian ice hockey defenseman, and is considered to be one of the greatest hockey players of all time. ... For other persons named Scott Stevens, see Scott Stevens (disambiguation). ... Robert Bowlby Rob Blake (born December 10, 1969, in Simcoe, Ontario) is a professional ice hockey defenseman in the NHL, playing for the Los Angeles Kings. ...

In American football, 4 is today most commonly identified with the jersey number of former Green Bay Packers quarterback Brett Favre. United States simply as football, is a competitive team sport that is both fast-paced and strategic. ... Packers redirects here. ... Brett Hillbilly Favre (pronounced Farv, born on October 10, 1969 in Gulfport, Mississippi [1]) is an American football player, currently starting quarterback for the Green Bay Packers of the National Football League (NFL). ...

In rowing, a four refers to a boat for four rowers, with or without coxswain. In rowing nomenclature 4- reprsents a coxless four and 4+ represents a coxed four. A coxless pair which is a sweep-oar boat. ... For other uses, see Boat (disambiguation). ... The coxswain (pronounced cox-É™n; often called the cox) is the person in charge of a boat, particularly its navigation and steering. ...

In soccer football, number 4 is often assigned to a centre back.and a number of luck. Soccer redirects here. ... In the sport of Association football, each of the eleven players in a team are assigned to a particular named position on the field of play. ...

## In other fields

See also 4 (disambiguation). Image File history File links ICS_Four. ... Image File history File links ICS_Four. ... The system of international maritime signal flags is a way of representing individual letters of the alphabet on ships or in nautical situations. ... Look up four in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

• Four is the universal number for women, as symbolically suggested in literature throughout history[citation needed]
• Four can be used as an obscenity in some technologically adept circles, replacing the common word for fornication. This usage derives from the fact that when counting in binary on ones fingers, 4, whose binary representation is 001002 is represented by raising the middle finger of one hand, yielding a vulgar gesture. A stronger variation uses the number 132, whose binary representation 0010000100 replicates this gesture on both hands.
• A four-letter word is used to describe most swear words in the English language, as most such terms do indeed possess four letters.
• Four (四, formal writing: 肆, pinyin sì) is considered an unlucky number in Chinese, Korean, and Japanese cultures because it sounds like the word "death" (死, pinyin sǐ). Due to that, many numbered product lines skip the "four": e.g. Nokia cell phones (there is no series beginning with a 4), Palm PDAs, the Leisure Suit Larry games, etc. Some buildings skip floor 4 or replace the number with the letter "F", particularly in heavily Asian areas. See tetraphobia and Numbers in Chinese culture.
• In the NATO phonetic alphabet, the digit 4 is called "fower".
• The number of characters in a canonical four-character idiom.
• The number of strings on a violin, a viola, a cello, double bass, a cuatro and a ukulele, and the number of string pairs on a mandolin.
• The designation of Interstate 4, a freeway in Florida.
• The number of arms possessed by video game villain Goro.
• The number of fingers that people have in many animated cartoons.
• Four, an album by Blues Traveler
• 4, an album by Foreigner
• The number of completed, numbered symphonies by Johannes Brahms
• In Astrology, Cancer is the 4th astrological sign of the Zodiac.
• 4 is one of the "Lost Numbers" on the television show, Lost, along with 8, 15, 16, 23, and 42.
• Arthur Conan Doyle wrote a book titled "The Sign of Four"
• In Tetris, every shape in the game is formed of 4 blocks each. Also the game was named after "tetra" the Greek word for 4.
• 4 is a symbol for for in computer chats.
• some people think the number 4 is an unlucky number.

## In Music

In Western Music, common time is constructed of four beats. Western music is the genres of music originating in the Western world (Europe and its former colonies) including Western classical music, American Jazz, Country and Western, pop music and rock and roll. ... The time signature (also known as meter signature) is a notational device used in Western musical notation to specify how many beats are in each bar and which note value (minim, crotchet, eighth note and so on) constitutes one beat. ...

## References

1. ^ Georges Ifrah, The Universal History of Numbers: From Prehistory to the Invention of the Computer transl. David Bellos et al. London: The Harvill Press (1998): 394, Fig. 24.64
• Wells, D. The Penguin Dictionary of Curious and Interesting Numbers London: Penguin Group. (1987): 55 - 58

Results from FactBites:

 Probability (783 words) The chances of landing on blue are 1 in 4, or one fourth. The chances of landing on red are 1 in 4, or one fourth. A number from 1 to 11 is chosen at random.
 4 (number) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1736 words) As a consequence of this, it is the smallest Smith number. The Arabs didn't have time for cursive fancy: their 4 still had the early concept of the cross, but for the sake of efficiency, was made in one stroke by connecting the "western" end to the "northern" end; the "eastern" end was finished off with a curve. The number of strings on a violin, a viola, a cello, double bass, and a ukulele, and the number of string pairs on a mandolin.
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