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Encyclopedia > 35 mm film
35 mm film frames. At far left and far right, outside the perforations, is the SDDS soundtrack as an image of a digital signal. Between the perforations is the Dolby Digital soundtrack (note the tiny Dolby "Double D" logo in the center of each area between the perforations). Just inside the perforations, on the left side of the image, is the analog optical soundtrack, with two channels encoded using Dolby SR noise reduction that can be dematrixed into four channels using Dolby Pro Logic. The optical timecode used to synchronize a DTS soundtrack, which sits between the optical soundtrack and the image, is not pictured. Finally, the image here is an anamorphic image used to create a 2.39:1 aspect ratio when projected through an anamorphic lens. Note the thin frame lines of anamorphic prints.

35 mm film is the basic film gauge most commonly used for both still photography and motion pictures, and remains relatively unchanged since its introduction in 1892 by William Dickson and Thomas Edison, using film stock supplied by George Eastman. The photographic film is cut into strips 35 millimeters (about 1 3/8 inches) wide — hence the name.[1][2] The standard negative pulldown for movies ("single-frame" format) is four perforations per frame along both edges, which makes for exactly 16 frames per foot[3] (for stills, the standard frame is eight perforations). Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (630x673, 167 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (630x673, 167 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The SDDS logotype SDDS stands for Sony Dynamic Digital Sound, which is a cinema sound system developed by Sony. ... Dolby Digital logotype Dolby Digital is the marketing name for a series of lossy audio compression technologies by Dolby Laboratories. ... Dolby Analog SR or Dolby SR format (Spectral Recording), was developed by Dolby Laboratories and has been in common use since 1986. ... Dolby Pro Logic is a surround sound processing technology designed to decode soundtracks encoded with Dolby Surround. ... DTS (formerly known as Digital Theater Systems), owned by DTS, Inc. ... Anamorphic widescreen is a cinematography and photography technique for capturing a widescreen picture on standard 35mm film. ... Frame lines shown in red on a full-frame negative, and a 1:1,85 projection print, both on 35 mm film. ... Film gauge is a physical property of film stock which defines its size. ... Photography [fÓ™tÉ‘grÓ™fi:],[foÊŠtÉ‘grÓ™fi:] is the process of recording pictures by means of capturing light on a light-sensitive medium, such as a film or sensor. ... For other uses see film (disambiguation) Film refers to the celluliod media on which movies are printed Film — also called movies, the cinema, the silver screen, moving pictures, photoplays, picture shows, flicks, or motion pictures, — is a field that encompasses motion pictures as an art form or as... William Kennedy Laurie Dickson (August 3, 1860, Minihic-Sur-Rance, Brittany, France - September 28, 1935) was a Scottish inventor who is credited with the invention of the motion picture camera under the employ of Thomas Edison. ... Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847 – October 18, 1931) was an American inventor and businessman who developed many devices which greatly influenced life around the world, including the phonograph and a long lasting light bulb. ... Film stock is the term for photographic film on which films are recorded. ... A 1954 U.S. stamp featuring George Eastman. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter), symbol mm is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ... A comparison of 4 perf, 3 perf and 2 perf 35 mm film formats. ... Film perforations, also known as perfs, are the holes placed in the film stock during manufacturing and used for transporting (via sprockets and claws) and steadying (via pin registration) the film. ... It has been suggested that video frame be merged into this article or section. ...


A wide variety of largely proprietary gauges were used by the numerous camera and projection systems invented independently in the late 19th century and early 20th century, ranging from 13 mm to 75 mm (0.51–2.95 in).[4] 35 mm was eventually recognized as the international standard gauge in 1909,[5] and has remained by far the dominant film gauge for image origination and projection despite threats from smaller and larger gauges, and from novel formats, because its size allows for a relatively good tradeoff between the cost of the film stock and the quality of the images captured. The ubiquity of 35 mm movie projectors in commercial movie theaters makes it the only motion picture format, film or video, that can be played in almost any cinema in the world. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Film stock is the term for photographic film on which films are recorded. ... 35 mm Kinoton movie projector in operation. ... A typical multiplex (AMC Promenade 16 in Woodland Hills, Los Angeles, California). ...


The gauge is remarkably versatile in application. In the past one hundred years, it has been modified to include sound, redesigned to create a safer film base, formulated to capture color, has accommodated a bevy of widescreen formats, and has incorporated digital sound data into nearly all of its non-frame areas. Since the beginning of the 21st century, Eastman Kodak and Fujifilm have held a duopoly in the manufacture of 35 mm motion picture film. Film base is a transparent substrate which acts as a support medium for the photosensitive emulsion that lies atop it. ... Eastman Kodak Company (NYSE: EK) is an American multinational public company producing photographic materials and equipment. ... Fujifilm Holdings Corporation, or Fujifilm, is a Japanese company known for its photographic film and cameras. ... A true duopoly is a form of oligopoly where only two producers exist in a market. ...

Contents

Early history

Main article: Kinetoscope

In 1880, George Eastman began to manufacture gelatin dry photographic plates in Rochester, New York. Along with W. H. Walker, Eastman invented a holder for a roll of picture-carrying gelatin layer coated paper. Hannibal Goodwin's invention of nitrocellulose film base in 1887 was the first transparent, flexible film;[6] the following year, Emile Reynaud developed the first perforated film stock. Eastman was the first major company, however, to mass-produce these components, when in 1889 Eastman realized that the dry-gelatino-bromide emulsion could be coated onto this clear base, eliminating the paper.[7] Interior view of Kinetoscope with peephole viewer at top of cabinet. ... A 1954 U.S. stamp featuring George Eastman. ... Gelatin (also gelatine, from French gélatine) is a translucent brittle solid substance, colorless or slightly yellow, nearly tasteless and odorless. ... Nickname: Motto: Rochester: Made for Living Location of Rochester in New York State Country United States State New York County Monroe Government  - Mayor Robert Duffy Area  - City  37. ... NY redirects here. ... The Reverend Hannibal Goodwin (1822-1900), a Episcopal minister at the House of Prayer in Newark, New Jersey patented a method for making transparent, flexible film out of nitrocellulose. ... Skeletal formula of nitrocellulose Ball-and-stick model of a section of nitrocellulose Nitrocellulose (also: cellulose nitrate, flash paper) is a highly flammable compound formed by nitrating cellulose through, for example, exposure to nitric acid or another powerful nitrating agent. ... Film base is a transparent substrate which acts as a support medium for the photosensitive emulsion that lies atop it. ... Émile Reynaud (December 8, 1844 - January 9, 1918) was a french science teacher, responsible for the first animation films. ... Film perforations, also known as perfs, are the holes placed in the film stock during manufacturing and used for transporting (via sprockets and claws) and steadying (via pin registration) the film. ... A. Two immisicible liquids, not emulsified; B. An emulsion of Phase B dispersed in Phase A; C. The unstable emulsion progressively separates; D. The surfactant (purple outline) positions itself on the interfaces between Phase A and Phase B, stabilizing the emulsion An emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible (unblendable...


With the advent of flexible film, Thomas Alva Edison quickly set out on his invention, the Kinetoscope, which was first shown at the Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences on May 9, 1893.[8] The Kinetoscope was a film loop system intended for one-person viewing.[9] Edison, along with assistant W. K. L. Dickson, followed that up with the Kinetophone, which combined the Kinetoscope with Edison's cylinder phonograph. Beginning in March 1892, Eastman and then, from April 1893 into 1896, New York's Blair Camera Co. supplied Edison with 1 9/16–inch filmstock that would be trimmed and perforated at the Edison lab to create 35 mm gauge filmstrips (at some point in 1894 or 1895, Blair began sending stock to Edison that was cut exactly to specification).[10] Edison's aperture defined a single frame of film at 4 perforations high.[11] Edison claimed exclusive patent rights to his design of 35 mm motion picture film, with four sprocket holes per frame, forcing his only major filmmaking competitor, American Mutoscope & Biograph, to use a 68 mm film that used friction feed, not sprocket holes, to move the film through the camera. A court judgment in March 1902 invalidated Edison's claim, allowing any producer or distributor to use the Edison 35 mm film design without license. Filmmakers were already doing so in Britain and Europe, where Edison had failed to file patents.[12] A variation developed by the Lumière Brothers used a single circular perforation on each side of the frame towards the middle of the horizontal axis.[13] It was Edison's format, however, that became first the de facto standard and then, in 1909, the "official" standard of the newly formed Motion Picture Patents Company, a trust established by Edison. Scholar Paul C. Spehr describes the importance of these developments: Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847 - October 18, 1931) was an inventor and businessman who developed many important devices. ... Interior view of Kinetoscope with peephole viewer at top of cabinet. ... May 9 is the 129th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (130th in leap years). ... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Interior view of Kinetoscope with peephole viewer at top of cabinet. ... Edison cylinder phonograph ca. ... The American Mutoscope and Biograph Company, was a motion picture company founded in 1895 and active until 1928. ... Auguste (left) and Louis Lumière. ... The Motion Picture Patents Company (also known as the Edison Trust), founded in December 1908, was a trust of all the major film companies (Edison, Biograph, Vitagraph, Essanay, Selig, Lubin, Kalem, American Star, American Pathé), the leading distributor (George Kleine) and the biggest supplier of raw film, Eastman Kodak. ... A trust or business trust was a form of business entity used in the late 19th century with intent to create a monopoly. ...

The early acceptance of 35mm as a standard had momentous impact on the development and spread of cinema. The standard gauge made it possible for films to be shown in every country of the world.... It provided a uniform, reliable and predictable format for production, distribution and exhibition of movies, facilitating the rapid spread and acceptance of the movies as a world-wide device for entertainment and communication.[14]

The film format was introduced into still photography as early as 1913 (the Tourist Multiple) but first became popular with the launch of the Leica camera, created by Oskar Barnack in 1925.[15] Image:Leica-Logo. ... Oskar Barnack (November 1, 1879 – January 16, 1936) was a German precision mechanic. ...


Amateur interest

The petrochemical and silver compounds necessary for the creation of film stock meant from the start that 35 mm filmmaking was to be an expensive hobby with a high barrier to entry for the public at large. Furthermore, the nitrocellulose film base of all early film stock was dangerous and highly flammable, creating considerable risk for those not accustomed to the precautions necessary in its handling. Birt Acres was the first to attempt an amateur format, creating Birtac in 1898 by slitting the film into 17.5 mm widths. By the early 1920s, several formats had successfully split the amateur market away from 35 mm — namely 28 mm (1.1 in) (1912), 9.5 mm (0.37 in) (1922), 16 mm (0.63 in) (1923), and Pathe Rural, a safety 17.5 mm format (1926). Eastman Kodak's 16 mm format won the amateur market and is still widely in use today, mainly in the Super 16 variation which remains very popular with professional filmmakers. The 16 mm size was specifically chosen to prevent third-party slitting, as it was very easy to create 17.5 mm stock from slitting 35 mm stock in two. It also was the first major format only to be released with the non-flammable cellulose diacetate (and later cellulose triacetate) "safety film" base. This amateur market would be further diversified by the introduction of 8 mm film (0.31 in) in 1932, intended for amateur filmmaking and "home movies".[16] By law, both 16 mm and 8 mm gauge stock (as well as 35 mm films intended for non-theatrical use) had to be manufactured on safety stock. The effect of these gauges was to essentially make the 35 mm gauge almost the exclusive province of professional filmmakers, a divide which mostly remains to this day. Petrochemicals are chemical products made from raw materials of petroleum (hydrocarbon) origin. ... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Standard atomic weight 107. ... Barriers to entry is a term used in economics and especially the theory of competition to refer to obstacles placed in the path of a firm who wants to enter a given market. ... Skeletal formula of nitrocellulose Ball-and-stick model of a section of nitrocellulose Nitrocellulose (also: cellulose nitrate, flash paper) is a highly flammable compound formed by nitrating cellulose through, for example, exposure to nitric acid or another powerful nitrating agent. ... Film base is a transparent substrate which acts as a support medium for the photosensitive emulsion that lies atop it. ... Birt Acres (July 23, 1854–1918), born in Richmond, Virginia, USA of English parents was a photographer and film pioneer. ... 28mm diacetate film compared to 35mm nitrate film 28 mm film was introduction by the Pathé Film Company in 1912. ... Three frames of 9. ... (Redirected from 16 mm) 16mm film was initially created in the 1920s as an inexpensive amateur alternative to the conventional 35 mm film format. ... Cellulose triacetate, also known simply as triacetate, is manufactured from cellulose and acetate. ... 8mm film is a motion picture film format in which the filmstrip is eight millimeters wide. ...


How film works

Inside the photographic emulsion are millions of light-sensitive silver halide crystals. Each crystal is a compound of silver plus a halogen (such as bromine, iodine or chlorine) held together in a cubical arrangement by electrical attraction. When the crystal is struck with light, free-moving silver ions build up a small collection of uncharged atoms. These small bits of silver, too small to even be visible under a microscope, are the beginning of a latent image. Developing chemicals use the latent image specs to build up density, an accumulation of enough metallic silver to create a visible image.[17] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... 35 mm film frames from color film print (positive) with optical sound track (no digital sound tracks present). ... A photograph with an exposure time of 25 seconds A photograph of a night-time sky with an exposure time of 8 seconds. ... Film base is a transparent substrate which acts as a support medium for the photosensitive emulsion that lies atop it. ... A silver halide is one of the compounds formed between silver and one of the halogens, usually silver bromide (AgBr), silver chloride (AgCl) and silver iodide (AgI). ... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Standard atomic weight 107. ... The halogens or halogen elements are a series of nonmetal elements from Group 17 (old-style: VII or VIIA; Group 7 IUPAC Style) of the periodic table, comprising fluorine, F, chlorine, Cl, bromine, Br, iodine, I, and astatine, At. ... General Name, Symbol, Number bromine, Br, 35 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 4, p Appearance gas/liquid: red-brown solid: metallic luster Atomic mass 79. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iodine, I, 53 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 5, p Appearance violet-dark gray, lustrous Standard atomic weight 126. ... General Name, Symbol, Number chlorine, Cl, 17 Chemical series halogens Group, Period, Block 17, 3, p Appearance yellowish green Standard atomic weight 35. ... Latent Image can mean a few things: Latent image, a photographic term Latent image, a bondage magazine Latent Image, a fifth season episode of Star Trek: Voyager This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with photographic developer. ...

A short strip of undeveloped 35 mm film.
A short strip of undeveloped 35 mm film.

The emulsion is attached to the film base with a transparent adhesive called the subbing layer. Below the base is an undercoat called the antihalation backing, which usually contains absorber dyes or a thin layer of silver or carbon (called rem-jet on color negative stocks). Without this coating, bright points of light would penetrate the emulsion, reflect off the inner surface of the base, and reexpose the emulsion, creating a halo around these bright areas. The antihalation backing can also serve to reduce static buildup, which was a significant problem with old black and white films. The film, which runs through the camera at 18 inches per second, could build up enough static electricity to actually cause a spark bright enough to expose the film; antihalation backing solved this problem. Color films have three layers of silver halide emulsions to separately record the red, green, and blue information. For every silver halide grain there is a matching color coupler grain. The top layer contains blue-sensitive emulsion, followed by a yellow filter to cancel out blue light; after this comes a green sensitive layer followed by a red sensitive layer. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (488x740, 143 KB) Other versions Originally from en. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (488x740, 143 KB) Other versions Originally from en. ... Film base is a transparent substrate which acts as a support medium for the photosensitive emulsion that lies atop it. ...


Just as in black-and-white, the first step in color development converts exposed silver halide grains into metallic silver – except that an equal amount of color dye will be formed as well. The color couplers in the blue-sensitive layer will form yellow dye during processing, the green layer will form magenta dye and the red layer will form cyan dye. A bleach step will convert the metallic silver back into silver halide, which is then removed along with the unexposed silver halide in the fixer and wash steps, leaving only color dyes.[18] Black-and-white or black and white) can refer to a general term used in photography, film, and other media (see black-and-white). ...


In the 1980s Eastman Kodak invented the T-Grain, a synthetically manufactured silver halide grain that had a larger, flat surface area and allowed for greater light sensitivity in a smaller, thinner grain. Thus Kodak was able to break the problem of higher speed (greater light sensitivity — see film speed) means larger grain and more "grainy" images. With T-Grain technology, Kodak refined the grain structure of all their "EXR" line of motion picture film stocks[19] (which was eventually incorporated into their "MAX" still stocks). Fuji films followed suit with their own grain innovation, the tabular grain in their SUFG (Super Unified Fine Grain) SuperF negative stocks, which are made up of thin hexagonal tabular grains.[20] Tabular-grain film is a type of photographic film that includes T-max films from Kodak (with Kodaks T-grain emulsion), Delta films from Ilford Photo and the Fuji Neopan films. ... Film speed is the measure of a photographic films sensitivity to light. ... Film grain or granularity is the random optical texture of processed photographic film due to the presence of small grains of a metallic silver developed from silver halide that have received enough photons. ...


Other common types of photographic films

In addition to black & white and color negative films, there are black & white and color reversal films, which when developed create a positive ("natural") image that is projectable. There are also films sensitive to non-visible wavelengths of light, such as infrared. A single slide, showing a color transparency in a plastic frame In photography, a reversal film is a still, positive image created on a transparent base using photochemical means. ... Top: tree photographed in the near infrared range. ...


Attributes

Color

Originally, film was a strip of cellulose nitrate coated with black-and-white photographic emulsion.[9] Early film pioneers, like D. W. Griffith, color tinted or toned portions of their movies for dramatic impact, and by 1920, 80 to 90 percent of all films were tinted.[21] The first successful natural color process was Britain's Kinemacolor (1908-1914), a two-color additive process that used a rotating disk with red and green filters in front of the camera lens and the projector lens.[22][23] But any process that photographed and projected the colors sequentially was subject to color "fringing" around moving objects, and a general color flickering.[24] 35 mm film frames from color film print (positive) with optical sound track (no digital sound tracks present). ... A. Two immisicible liquids, not emulsified; B. An emulsion of Phase B dispersed in Phase A; C. The unstable emulsion progressively separates; D. The surfactant (purple outline) positions itself on the interfaces between Phase A and Phase B, stabilizing the emulsion An emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible (unblendable... D. W. Griffith David Llewelyn Wark Griffith, commonly known as D. W. Griffith (January 22, 1875 – July 23, 1948) was an American film director. ... An example of light amber tinting and blue toning. ... Kinemacolor was the first successful color motion picture process, used commercially from 1908 to 1916. ...


In 1916, William Van Doren Kelley produced the first commercially successful American color system using 35mm film called Prizma. Initially a system that used frame sequential photography and projectected through additive synthesis, Prizma was refined to bi-pack photography, with two strips of film (one sensitized for red and one for blue) threaded as one through the camera. The method of projection was also changed: each record was printed and processed on duplitized stock, creating a successful subtractive color process. This basic principle behind color photography set the standard for many later successful color formats, such as Multicolor, Brewster Color, and Cinecolor. The Prizma Color system was a technique of color motion picture photography, invented in 1913 by William Van Doren Kelley. ... Duplitized film stock was a type of film available through various companies used in color photography and special effects. ... Multicolor is a subtractive natural color process for motion pictures. ... Cinecolor is an early subtractive color-model two color film process, based upon the Multicolor system of the 1920s. ...


Although color was available for years prior, color in Hollywood feature films became popular with Technicolor, whose main advantage was quality prints in shorter time than its competitors. In its earliest conception, Technicolor was a two-color system, recording red and green. 1922's Toll of the Sea was the first film printed in their subtractive color system. Unlike Kinemacolor, which recorded color frame-sequentially, Technicolor's camera recorded red and green frames simultaneously through a beam splitting prism onto one strip of film. Two prints on half-width stock were processed from this negative, and one was toned red, and the other toned green. The two strips were then cemented together, forming a single strip similar to duplitized film. Logo celebrating Technicolors 90th Anniversary Technicolor is the trademark for a series of color film processes pioneered by Technicolor Motion Picture Corporation (a subsidiary of Technicolor, Inc. ... The Toll of the Sea was a motion picture produced by the Technicolor Motion Picture Corporation, and released by Metro Pictures in 1922. ...


In 1928, Technicolor introduced imbibition printing (similar to lithography) that streamlined the process. Using two matrices coated with hardened gelatin in a relief image, thicker where the image was darker, aniline color dyes were transferred onto a third, blank strip of film. Lithography stone and mirror-image print of a map of Munich. ...


In 1934, William T. Crispinel and Alan M. Gundelfinger revived the Multicolor process under the company name Cinecolor. Cinecolor enjoyed large success in animation and low-budget pictures, largely due to its inexpense and good image results. But while Cinecolor used the same duplitized stock method as Prizma and Multicolor, its main advange was inventing processing machines that could do larger quantities of film in a shorter time. Multicolor is a subtractive natural color process for motion pictures. ... Cinecolor is an early subtractive color-model two color film process, based upon the Multicolor system of the 1920s. ...


Technicolor re-emerged with a three-color process for cartoons in 1932, and live action in 1934. Using a beam-splitter prism behind the lens, this camera incorporated three individual strips of black and white film, each one behind a filter of one of the primary colors (red, green and blue), allowing the full color spectrum to be recorded.[25] A printing matrix with a hardened gelatin relief image was made from each negative, and the three matrices transferred color dye onto a blank film to create the print.[26] Primary Colors, a 1996 novel by Anonymous (later revealed by Donald Foster to be journalist Joe Klein), is a roman à clef about U.S. President Bill Clintons first presidential campaign in 1992. ...


In 1950 Kodak announced the first Eastman color 35 mm negative film (along with a complementary positive film) that could record all three primary colors on the same strip of film.[27] An improved version in 1952 was quickly adopted by Hollywood, making the use of tri-strip Technicolor cameras and bi-pack cameras (utilized in two-color systems such as Cinecolor) obsolete in color cinematography. This "monopack" structure is made up of three separate emulsion layers, one sensitive to red light, one to green and one to blue. Cinecolor is an early subtractive color-model two color film process, based upon the Multicolor system of the 1920s. ...


Safety film

Main article: Safety film

Although Eastman Kodak had first introduced acetate-based film, it was far too brittle and prone to shrinkage, so the very dangerous nitrate-based cellulose films, which had to be handled with extreme care or else they were prone to catching fire and exploding, were generally used for motion picture camera and print films. In 1949 Kodak began replacing all of the nitrate-based films with the safer, more robust cellulose triacetate-based "Safety" films. In 1950 the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences awarded Kodak with a Scientific and Technical Academy Award (Oscar) for the safer triacetate stock.[28] By 1952, all camera and projector films were triacetate-based.[16] Most if not all film prints today are made from synthetic polyester safety base (which started replacing Triacetate film for prints starting in the early 1990s). However, the downside of polyester film is that it is extremely strong, and in case of a fault, will stretch and not break (potentially causing damage to the projector and ruining a fairly large stretch of film: 2–3 ft or ~2 sec.); and the film will melt if exposed to the projector bulb for too long. Original camera negative is still generally made on a triacetate base. Photographic film called safety film is made with an acetate base, chemically either cellulose diacetate, cellulose acetate propiarate, cellulose acetate butyrate, or cellulose triacetate. ... Eastman Kodak Company (NYSE: EK) is an American multinational public company producing photographic materials and equipment. ... Acetate, or ethanoate, is the anion of a salt or ester of acetic acid. ... Skeletal formula of nitrocellulose Ball-and-stick model of a section of nitrocellulose Nitrocellulose (also: cellulose nitrate, flash paper) is a highly flammable compound formed by nitrating cellulose through, for example, exposure to nitric acid or another powerful nitrating agent. ... Cellulose triacetate, also known simply as triacetate, is manufactured from cellulose and acetate. ... Pickford Center for Motion Picture Study in Hollywood, California Founded on May 11, 1927 in California, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) is a professional honorary organization dedicated to the advancement of the arts and sciences of motion pictures. ... Although he never won an Oscar for any of his movie performances, the comedian Bob Hope received two honorary Oscars for his contributions to cinema. ... Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ... SEM picture of a bend in a high surface area polyester fiber with a seven-lobed cross section Polyester is a category of polymers, or, more specifically condensation polymers, which contain the ester functional group in their main chain. ... SEM picture of a bend in a high surface area polyester fiber with a seven-lobed cross section Polyester is a category of polymers, or, more specifically condensation polymers, which contain the ester functional group in their main chain. ... The original camera negative is the film in a motion picture camera that captures the original image. ...


Common formats

See list of film formats for a comprehensive table of known formats

This is a list of film formats known to have been developed for shooting or viewing motion pictures since the development of such photographic technology towards the end of the 19th century. ...

Academy format

Main article: Academy ratio

In the conventional motion picture format, frames are four perforations tall, with an aspect ratio of about 1.37:1, 22 mm by 16 mm (0.866 in x 0.630 in). This is a derivation of the aspect ratio and frame size designated by Thomas Edison (24.89 mm by 18.67 mm or 0.980 in by 0.735 in) at the dawn of motion pictures, which was an aspect ratio of 1.33:1.[29] The first sound features were released in 1926-1927, and while Warner Bros. was using synchronized phonograph discs, Fox placed the soundtrack in an optical record directly on the film, on a strip between the sprocket holes and the image frame.[30] "Sound-on-film" was soon adopted by the other Hollywood studios. This resulted in an almost square image ratio. To restore a more rectangular image ratio, in 1932 the picture was shrunk slightly vertically (with the line between frames thickened). Hence the frame became 22 mm by 16 mm (0.866 in by 0.630 in) with an aspect ratio of 1.37:1. This became known as the "Academy" ratio, named so after the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences.[31] Since the 1950s the aspect ratio of theatrically released motion picture films has been 1.85:1 (1.66:1 in Europe) or 2.35:1 (2.40:1 after 1970), so the "Academy" ratio was relegated to usage primarily for television. The image area for "TV transmission" is slightly smaller than the full "Academy" ratio at 21 mm by 16 mm (0.816 in by 0.612 in), an aspect ratio of 1.33:1. Hence the "Academy" ratio is often mistakenly referred to as having an aspect ratio of 1.33:1, referring to the TV transmitted area, instead of the actual 1.37:1 ratio of the full "Academy" area.[31] ... The aspect ratio of a two-dimensional shape is the ratio of its longer dimension to its shorter dimension. ... Warner Bros. ... The Fox Film Corporation was an American company which produced motion pictures, formed in 1915 when founder William Fox merged two companies he had established in 1913: Greater New York Film Rental, a distribution firm, which was part of the Independents; and Fox (or Box, depending on the source) Office... ... Pickford Center for Motion Picture Study in Hollywood, California Founded on May 11, 1927 in California, the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences (AMPAS) is a professional honorary organization dedicated to the advancement of the arts and sciences of motion pictures. ...


Widescreen

The commonly used anamorphic format uses a similar four-perf frame, but an anamorphic lens is used on both the camera and projector to produce a wider image, today with an aspect ratio of about 2.39 (more commonly referred to as 2.40:1. The ratio was 2.35:1 — and is still quite often mistakenly referred to as such — until a SMPTE revision of projection standards in 1970).[32] The image, as recorded on the negative and print, is horizontally compressed (squeezed) by a factor of 2.[33] Anamorphic widescreen is a cinematography and photography technique for capturing a widescreen picture on standard 35mm film. ... The aspect ratio of an image is its displayed width divided by its height (usually expressed as x:y or x×y, with the joining colon or multiplication symbol articulated as the preposition by or sometimes to). For instance, the aspect ratio of a traditional television screen is 4:3... The inner box (green) is the format used in most pre-1952 films and pre-widescreen television. ... Anamorphic widescreen is a cinematography and photography technique for capturing a widescreen picture on standard 35mm film. ... The Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers or SMPTE (pronounced simptee or sometimes sumptee) is a US professional association of engineers. ...

A film which has been "hard matted" to 1.85:1 in-camera. Most non-anamorphic widescreen films, however, are "soft matted" by a mask in the movie projector gate.

The unexpected success of the Cinerama widescreen process in 1952 led to a boom in film format innovations from both studios and individuals looking to capitalize on audience demand for higher quality, lower cost widescreen images. Before the end of the year, 20th Century Fox had narrowly "won" a race to obtain anamorphic optics, and began hyping the Cinemascope technology as early as the production phase.[34] Feeling the need to compete but having little time for research and development, the major studios hit upon an easier solution by May 1953: matte the top and bottom of the frame to create a wider aspect ratio. Paramount Studios began this trend with their aspect ratio of 1.66:1, first used in Shane, which was originally shot for Academy ratio.[35] Other studios followed suit with aspect ratios of 1.75:1, 1.85:1 and 2:1. For a time, these various ratios competed, but by 1956, the aspect ratio of 1.85:1 became the "standard" US format. These flat films are photographed with the full Academy frame, but are matted (most often with a mask in the theater projector, not in the camera) to obtain the "wide" aspect ratio. This standard, in some European nations, became 1.66:1 instead of 1.85:1. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (421x882, 153 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (421x882, 153 KB) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... 35 mm Kinoton movie projector in operation. ... Cinerama is the trademarked name for a widescreen process which works by simultaneously projecting images from three synchronized 35 mm projectors onto a huge, deeply-curved screen, subtending 146° of arc, and for the corporation which was formed to market it. ... // Movie film formats Amateur formats: 8 mm Single-8 Super 8 mm Polavision 9,5 mm film 17. ... Twentieth (20th) Century Fox Film Corporation (known from 1935 to 1985 as Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corporation) is one of the major American film studios. ... Anamorphic widescreen is a cinematography and photography technique for capturing a widescreen picture on standard 35mm film. ... A Fox logo used to promote the CinemaScope process. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... ... ...


By September 1953, 20th Century Fox debuted CinemaScope, the earliest mainstream anamorphic film process, to great success.[36] It became the basis for a host of "formats," usually suffixed with -scope, that were otherwise identical in specification, although often inferior in optical quality. (Some developments, such as SuperScope and Techniscope, however, were truly entirely different formats.) Panavision would eventually solve many of the Cinemascope lenses' technical limitations with their own lenses,[33] and Cinemascope became obsolete in 1967 in favor of Panavision and other third-party manufacturers.[37] Twentieth (20th) Century Fox Film Corporation (known from 1935 to 1985 as Twentieth Century-Fox Film Corporation) is one of the major American film studios. ... A Fox logo used to promote the CinemaScope process. ... A Techniscope camera frame. ... Panavision is a motion picture equipment company specializing in camera, lens, and grip equipment, along with related accessories. ...


The 1950s and 1960s saw many other novel processes such as VistaVision, SuperScope, Technirama, and Techniscope, most of which ultimately became obsolete. Vistavision, however, would be revived decades later by Lucasfilm for special effects work, while a SuperScope variant became the predecessor to the modern Super 35 format popular today. A VistaVision 35 mm horizontal camera film frame. ... Technirama is a screen process that was used by some film production houses as an alternative to CinemaScope. ... Lucasfilm Ltd. ... Super 35 is a motion picture film format that uses exactly the same 35 mm film stock as standard 35mm, but puts a larger image frame on that stock. ...


Super 35

Main article: Super 35 mm film

The concept behind Super 35 originated with the Tushinsky Brothers' SuperScope format, particularly the SuperScope 235 specification from 1956. In 1982, Joe Dunton revived the format for Dance Craze, and Technicolor soon marketed it under the name "Super Techniscope" before the industry settled on the name Super 35.[38] The central driving idea behind the process is to return to shooting in the original silent "Edison" 1.33:1 full 4-perf negative area (24.89 mm by 18.67 mm or 0.980 in by 0.735 in), and then crop the frame either from the bottom or the center (like 1.85:1) to create a 2.40:1 aspect ratio (matching that of anamorphic lenses) with an area of 24 mm by 10 mm (0.945 in by 0.394 in). Although this cropping may seem extreme, by expanding the negative area out perf-to-perf, Super 35 creates a 2.40:1 aspect ratio with an overall negative area of 240 square millimetres (9.45 sq in), only 9 mm² (0.35 sq in) less than the 1.85:1 crop of the Academy frame (248.81 mm² or 9.80 sq in).[39] The cropped frame is then converted at the intermediate stage to a 4-perf anamorphically squeezed print compatible with the anamorphic projection standard. This allows an "anamorphic" frame to be captured with non-anamorphic lenses, which are much more common, less expensive, faster, smaller, and optically superior to equivalent anamorphic lenses.[39] Up to 2000, once the film was photographed in Super 35, an optical printer was used to anamorphose (squeeze) the image. This optical step reduced the overall quality of the image and made Super 35 a controversial subject among cinematographers, many who preferred the higher image quality and frame negative area of anamorphic photography (especially with regard to granularity).[39] With the advent of Digital intermediates (DI) at the beginning of the 21st century, however, Super 35 photography has become even more popular, since the cropping and anamorphosing stages can be done digitally in-computer without creating an additional optical generation with increased grain. As DI becomes less expensive and more popular, it is likely to render Super 35 optical conversions completely obsolete in the near future. Comparing the film area of Super 35 to CinemaScope, standard widescreen and Techniscope. ... Fad dances are dances which are characterized by a short burst of popularity, while Novelty dances typically have a longer-lasting popularity based on their being characteristically humourous or humour-invoking, as well as the sense of uniqueness which they have. ... Logo celebrating Technicolors 90th Anniversary Technicolor is the trademark for a series of color film processes pioneered by Technicolor Motion Picture Corporation (a subsidiary of Technicolor, Inc. ... Film grain or granularity is the random optical texture of processed photographic film due to the presence of small grains of a metallic silver developed from silver halide that have received enough photons. ... Digital intermediate (often abbreviated as DI) describes the process of digitizing a motion picture and manipulating color and other image characteristics to change the look, and is usually the final creative adjustment to a movie before distribution in theaters. ...


3-Perf

Main article: Negative pulldown

Most motion pictures today are shot and projected using the 4-perforation format, but cropping the top and bottom of the frames for an aspect ratio of 1.85 or 1.66. In television production, where compatibility with an installed base of 35 mm film projectors is unnecessary, a 3-perf format is sometimes used, giving — if used with Super 35 — the 16:9 ratio used by HDTV and reducing film usage by 25 percent. Because of 3-perf's incompatibility with standard 4-perf equipment, it can utilize the whole negative area between the perforations (Super 35 mm film) without worrying about compatibility with existing equipment; the Super 35 image area includes what would be the soundtrack area in a standard print.[40] All 3-perf negatives require optical or digital conversion to standard 4-perf if a film print is desired, though 3-perf can easily be transferred to video with little to no difficulty by modern telecine or film scanners. With digital intermediate increasingly becoming a standard process for post-production, 3-perf has become more popular with productions which would otherwise be averse to an optical conversion stage.[41] A comparison of 4 perf, 3 perf and 2 perf 35 mm film formats. ... A comparison of 4 perf, 3 perf and 2 perf 35 mm film formats. ... 3-perf is a 35mm film camera system used only in the origination and post-production transfer process. ... Super 35 is a motion picture film format that uses exactly the same 35 mm film stock as standard 35mm, but puts a larger image frame on that stock. ... Projection screen in a home theater, displaying a high-definition television image. ... Comparing the film area of Super 35 to CinemaScope, standard widescreen and Techniscope. ... It has been suggested that multiple sections of 24p be merged into this article or section. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Digital intermediate (often abbreviated as DI) describes the process of digitizing a motion picture and manipulating color and other image characteristics to change the look, and is usually the final creative adjustment to a movie before distribution in theaters. ...


VistaVision

Main article: VistaVision
A diagram of the VistaVision format, affectionately dubbed "Lazy 8" because it is eight perforations long and runs horizontally (lying down).
A diagram of the VistaVision format, affectionately dubbed "Lazy 8" because it is eight perforations long and runs horizontally (lying down).

The VistaVision motion picture format was created in 1954 by Paramount Pictures in order to create a finer-grained negative and print for flat widescreen films.[42] Similar to still photography, the format uses a camera running 35 mm film horizontally instead of vertically through the camera, with frames that are eight perforations long, resulting in a wider aspect ratio of 1.5:1 and greater detail, as more of the negative area is used per frame.[39] This format is unprojectable in standard theaters and requires an optical step to squeeze the image into the standard 4-perf vertical 35 mm frame.[43] A VistaVision 35 mm horizontal camera film frame. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1251x951, 19 KB) Summary A VistaVision 8 perferation film frame. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1251x951, 19 KB) Summary A VistaVision 8 perferation film frame. ... A VistaVision 35 mm horizontal camera film frame. ... Film perforations, also known as perfs, are the holes placed in the film stock during manufacturing and used for transporting (via sprockets and claws) and steadying (via pin registration) the film. ... A VistaVision 35 mm horizontal camera film frame. ... Paramount Pictures Corporation is an American motion picture production and distribution company, based in Hollywood, California. ... Lens and mounting of a large format camera Photography is the technique of recording and generating permanent images, by the capturing and preservation of physical stimulus-patterns on a layer of photosensitive material. ...


While the format was dormant by the early 1960s, the camera system was somewhat revived for visual effects by John Dykstra at Industrial Light and Magic, starting with Star Wars, as a means of reducing granularity in the optical printer by having increased original camera negative area at the point of image origination.[44] Its usage has again declined since the dominance of computer-based visual effects, although it still sees very limited utilization.[45] John Charles Dykstra (born June 3, 1947 in Long Beach, California, United States) is a special effects supervisor and pioneer in the development of the use of computers in film making. ... Industrial Light & Magic original logo, designed by Drew Struzan Industrial Light & Magic (ILM) is a motion picture special visual effects company, founded in May 1975 by George Lucas and owned by Lucasfilm Ltd. ... Opening logo to the Star Wars films Star Wars is an epic science fantasy saga and fictional universe created by writer/producer/director George Lucas during the late 1970s. ... An optical printer with two projector heads, used in producing movie special effects. ... The original camera negative is the film in a motion picture camera that captures the original image. ...


Perforations

Main article: Film perforations
35 mm film sprockets.
35 mm film sprockets.

BH perfs: Film perforations were originally round holes cut into the side of the film, but as these perforations were more subject to wear and deformation, the shape was changed to that now called the Bell & Howell (BH) perforation, which has a straight top and bottom edge and outward curving sides. The BH perforation's dimensions are 0.110 inches (2.79 mm) from the middle of the side curve to opposite top corner by 0.073 inches (1.85 mm) in height.[46] The BH1866 perforation, or BH perforation with a pitch of 0.1866 inches, is the modern standard for negative and internegative films. Film perforations, also known as perfs, are the holes placed in the film stock during manufacturing and used for transporting (via sprockets and claws) and steadying (via pin registration) the film. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 299 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1488 × 2984 pixel, file size: 194 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): 35 mm film User:Megapixie/Diagrams... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 299 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1488 × 2984 pixel, file size: 194 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): 35 mm film User:Megapixie/Diagrams... Abraham Zapruders Bell & Howell Zoomatic movie camera, in the collection of the US National Archives Founded in 1907 and headquartered in Skokie, Illinois, the Bell & Howell Company merged with Böwe Systec Inc in 2003 to become Böwe Bell & Howell. ... Film perforations, also known as perfs, are the holes placed in the film stock during manufacturing and used for transporting (via sprockets and claws) and steadying (via pin registration) the film. ...


KS perfs: Because BH perfs have sharp corners, the repeated use of the film through intermittent movement projectors creates strain that can easily tear the perforations. Furthermore, they tended to shrink as the print slowly decayed. Therefore, larger perforations with a rectangular base and rounded corners were introduced by Kodak in 1924 to improve steadiness, registration, durability, and longevity. Known as "Kodak Standard" (KS), they are 0.0780 inches (1.981 mm) high by 0.1100 inches (2.794 mm) wide.[2] Their durability makes KS perfs the ideal choice for intermediate and release prints, as well as original camera negatives which require special use, such as high-speed filming, bluescreen, front projection, rear projection, and matte work. The increased height also means that the image registration was considerably less accurate than BH perfs, which remains the standard for negatives.[47] The KS1870 perforation, or KS perforation with a pitch of 0.1870 inches, is the modern standard for release prints. Eastman Kodak Company (NYSE: EK) is a large multinational public company producing photographic equipment. ... The original camera negative is the film in a motion picture camera that captures the original image. ... The bluescreen setup. ... Front Projection is an in-camera visual effects process for combining foreground performance with pre-filmed background footage. ... Rear projection was devised by Farciot Edouart in 1933 - at the time, he was working for Paramount Studios. ... Film perforations, also known as perfs, are the holes placed in the film stock during manufacturing and used for transporting (via sprockets and claws) and steadying (via pin registration) the film. ...


These two perforations have remained by far the most commonly-used ones. BH and KS are also are known as N (negative) and P (positive) perforations, respectively. The Bell & Howell perf remains the standard for camera negative films because of its perforation dimensions in comparison to most printers, thus having the ability to keep a steady image compared to other perforations.[48]


DH perfs: The Dubray Howell (DH) perforation was first suggested in 1931 to replace both the BH and KS perfs with a single standard perforation which was a hybrid of the two in shape and size, being like KS a rectangle with rounded corners and a width of 0.1100 inches (2.79 mm), but with BH's height of 0.073 inches (1.85 mm).[43] This gave it longer projection life but also improved registration. One of its primary applications was usage in Technicolor's dye imbibition printing (dye transfer).[48] The DH perf never caught on, and Kodak's introduction of monopack Eastmancolor film in the 1950s reduced the demand for dye transfer,[47] although the DH perf persists in certain special application intermediate films to this day.[49] Logo celebrating Technicolors 90th Anniversary Technicolor is the trademark for a series of color film processes pioneered by Technicolor Motion Picture Corporation (a subsidiary of Technicolor, Inc. ...


CS perfs: In 1953, the introduction of CinemaScope required the creation of a different shape of perforation which was nearly square and smaller to provide space for four magnetic sound stripes for stereophonic and surround sound.[9] These perfs are commonly referred to as CinemaScope (CS) or "fox hole" perfs. Their dimensions are 0.073" (1.85 mm) in width by 0.078 inches (1.98 mm) in height.[46] Due to the size difference, CS perfed film cannot be run through a projector with standard KS sprocket teeth, but KS prints can be run on sprockets with CS teeth. Shrunken film with KS prints that would normally be damaged in a projector with KS sprockets may sometimes be run far more gently through a projector with CS sprockets because of the smaller size of the teeth. Though CS perfs have not been widely used since the late 1950s, Kodak still retains CS perfs as a special-order option on at least one type of print stock.[50]


During continuous contact printing, the raw stock and the negative are placed next to one another around the sprocket wheel of the printer. The negative, which is the closer of the two to the sprocket wheel (thus creating a slightly shorter path), must have a marginally shorter pitch between perforations (0.1866 in pitch); the raw stock has a long pitch (0.1870 in). While cellulose nitrate and cellulose diacetate stocks used to shrink during processing slightly enough to have this difference naturally occur, modern safety stocks do not shrink at the same rate, and therefore negative (and some intermediate) stocks are perforated at a pitch of 0.2% shorter than print stock.[46]


New innovations in sound

35mm film audio tracks, from left to right: SDDS, Dolby Digital, analog optical, and DTS time code.
35mm film audio tracks, from left to right: SDDS, Dolby Digital, analog optical, and DTS time code.

New digital soundtracks introduced since the 1990s include Dolby Digital, which is stored between the perforations on the sound side; SDDS, stored in two redundant strips along the outside edges (beyond the perforations); and DTS, in which sound data is stored on separate compact discs synchronized by a timecode track stored on the film just to the right of the analog soundtrack and left of the frame.[51] Because these soundtrack systems appear on different parts of the film, one movie can contain all of them, allowing broad distribution without regard for the sound system installed at individual theatres. The optical track technology has also changed: distributors and theaters are changing to cyan dye optical soundtracks instead of black and white (silver) tracks, which are less environmentally friendly. This requires replacing the incandescent exciter lamp with a red LED or laser, which is backwards-compatible with older tracks.[52] (The cyan tracks cannot be read with older photo-sensors.) The film Anything Else (2003) was the first to be released with only cyan tracks.[52] The transition is expected to be complete in 2007 and has already happened in most multiplexes. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1914x1393, 459 KB) Summary Macro of 35mm film audio tracks, from left to right: Sony SDDS, Dolby Digital, analog Optical, and finally DTS time code. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1914x1393, 459 KB) Summary Macro of 35mm film audio tracks, from left to right: Sony SDDS, Dolby Digital, analog Optical, and finally DTS time code. ... The SDDS logotype SDDS stands for Sony Dynamic Digital Sound, which is a cinema sound system developed by Sony. ... Dolby Digital logotype Dolby Digital is the marketing name for a series of lossy audio compression technologies by Dolby Laboratories. ... DTS (formerly known as Digital Theater Systems), owned by DTS, Inc. ... Dolby Digital logotype Dolby Digital is the marketing name for a series of lossy audio compression technologies by Dolby Laboratories. ... The SDDS logotype SDDS stands for Sony Dynamic Digital Sound, which is a cinema sound system developed by Sony. ... In engineering, the duplication of critical components of a system with the intention of increasing reliability of the system, usually in the case of a backup or fail-safe, is called redundancy. ... DTS DTS (formerly known as Digital Theater Systems), owned by DTS Inc (NASDAQ: DTSI), is a multi-channel surround sound format used for both commercial/theatrical and consumer grade applications (with significant technical differences between home and commercial/theatrical variants: the latter being a traditional ADPCM compression system and the... A Compact Disc or CD is an optical disc used to store digital data, originally developed for storing digital audio. ... Timecode is also the title of a 2000 film directed by Mike Figgis which was shot in one continuous take. ... Anything Else is a 2003 motion picture that tells a story of a young writer who met a dysfunctional young woman in New York City. ...


Technical specifications

Areas on an Academy-width 35 mm spherical film print.

Technical specifications for 35 mm film are standardized by SMPTE. Image File history File links 35mmareas2. ... Image File history File links 35mmareas2. ... The Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers or SMPTE (pronounced simptee or sometimes sumptee) is an international professional association, based in the United States of America, of engineers working in the motion imaging industries. ...

  • 16 frames per foot (0.748 in (19 mm) per frame (long pitch))
  • 24 frames per second (fps); 90 feet per minute. 1,000 feet is about 11 minutes at 24 fps.
  • vertical pulldown
  • 4 perforations per frame (all projection and most origination excepting 3-perf)

35 mm spherical[39]

  • 1.37:1 aspect ratio on camera negative; 1.85:1 and 1.66:1 are hard or soft matted over this
  • camera aperture: 0.866 by 0.630 in (22 by 16 mm)
  • projector aperture (full 1.37:1): 0.825 by 0.602 in (21 by 15 mm)
  • projector aperture (1.66:1): 0.825 by 0.497 in (21 by 13 mm)
  • projector aperture (1.85:1): 0.825 by 0.446 in (21 by 11 mm)
  • TV station aperture: 0.816 by 0.612 in (21 by 16 mm)
  • TV transmission: 0.792 by 0.594 in (20 by 15 mm)
  • TV safe action: 0.713 by 0.535 in (18 by 14 mm); corner radii: 0.143 in (3.6 mm)
  • TV safe titles: 0.630 by 0.475 in (16 by 12 mm); corner radii: 0.125 in (3.2 mm)

Super 35 mm film[39]

  • 1.33:1 aspect ratio on camera negative
  • camera aperture: 0.980" by 0.735"
  • picture used (35 mm anamorphic): 0.945 in (24.00 mm) by 0.394 in (10.00 mm)
  • picture used (70 mm blowup): 0.945 in (24.00 mm) by 0.430 in (10.92 mm)
  • picture used (35 mm flat 1.85): 0.945 in (24.00 mm) by 0.511 in (12.97 mm)

35 mm anamorphic[39]

  • 2.39:1 aspect ratio, from a 1.19:1 frame with a 2x horizontal squeeze
  • camera aperture: 0.866 in (22.00 mm) by 0.732 in (18.59 mm)
  • projector aperture: 0.825 in (20.96 mm) by 0.690 in (17.53 mm)

See also

16 mm film was introduced by Eastman Kodak in 1923 as an inexpensive amateur alternative to the conventional 35 mm film format. ... 135 Film Size, Kodak Tri-X 400 speed 135 (ISO 1007) is a film format for still photography. ... 70 mm film (or 65 mm film) is a high-resolution film stock, of superior quality to standard 35 mm motion picture film format. ... 35 mm film frames from color film print (positive) with optical sound track (no digital sound tracks present). ... Film stock is the term for photographic film on which films are recorded. ... Motion pictures developed gradually from a carnival novelty to one of the most important tools of communication and entertainment, and mass media in the 20th century. ... The original camera negative is the film in a motion picture camera that captures the original image. ... Movie film formats Amateur formats: 8 mm Single-8 Super 8 mm 9,5 mm film 17. ...

Lists

This is a list of film formats known to have been developed for shooting or viewing motion pictures since the development of such photographic technology towards the end of the 19th century. ... This is a list of motion picture camera films. ...

References

  1. ^ 1.377 inches is the actual dimension specified by SMPTE, or 34.975 mm. The size was created by Dickson in collaboration with Eastman, and would have been in standard, not metric, units. An account of this is given in an article by Dickson in a 1933 SMPTE Journal. "Half Frame Cameras". Retrieved August 12, 2006. This size is also exactly half the width of the 2 3/4 inch-wide (69.85 mm) "A-type" rollfilm which was the standard Eastman size at the time. "Enhancing the Illusion: The Process and Origins of Photography", George Eastman House. Retrieved August 12, 2006.
  2. ^ a b ANSI/SMPTE 139-1996. SMPTE STANDARD for Motion-Picture Film (35mm) - Perforated KS. Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers. White Plains, NY.
  3. ^ Hummel, Rob (ed). American Cinematographer Manual, 8th edition. ASC Press: Hollywood, 2001.
  4. ^ Horak, Jan-Christopher. UCLA Film and Television Archive, "Introduction to Film Gauges". Retrieved August 11, 2006.
  5. ^ Alsobrook, Russ T. International Cinematographers Guild, "Machines That Made the Movies, Part 1". Retrieved August 11, 2006.
  6. ^ The Wizard of Photography: The Story of George Eastman and How He Transformed Photography Timeline PBS American Experience Online. Retrieved July 5, 2006.
  7. ^ Mees, C. E. Kenneth (1961). From Dry Plates to Ektachrome Film: A Story of Photographic Research. Ziff-Davis Publishing. pp. 15-16.
  8. ^ Robinson, David (1997). From Peepshow to Palace: The Birth of American Film. New York and Chichester, West Sussex: Columbia University Press; pp. 39–40. ISBN 0-231-10338-7
  9. ^ a b c Kodak Motion Picture Film (H1) (4th ed). Eastman Kodak Company. ISBN 0-87985-477-4
  10. ^ Spehr, Paul C. (2000). "Unaltered to Date: Developing 35mm Film," in Moving Images: From Edison to the Webcam, ed. John Fullerton and Astrid Söderbergh Widding. Sydney: John Libbey & Co; pp. 3–28 (pp. 11–14). ISBN 1-86462-054-4
  11. ^ Katz, Ephraim. (1994). The Film Encyclopedia (2nd ed.). HarperCollins Publishers. ISBN 0-06-273089-4.
  12. ^ Musser, Charles (1994). The Emergence of Cinema: The American Screen to 1907. Berkeley, Cal.: University of California Press, 303-313. ISBN 0-520-08533-7. 
  13. ^ Lobban, Grant. "Film Gauges and Soundtracks", BKSTS wall chart (sample frame provided). [Year unknown]
  14. ^ Spehr, Paul C. (2000). "Unaltered to Date: Developing 35mm Film," in Moving Images: From Edison to the Webcam, ed. John Fullerton and Astrid Söderbergh Widding; pp. 3–28 (p. 4). Sydney: John Libbey & Co. ISBN 1-86462-054-4
  15. ^ Scheerer, Theo M. (1960). The Leica and the Leica System (3rd ed). Umschau Verlag Frankfurt Am Main. pp. 7-8.
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  17. ^ Upton, Barbara London with Upton, John (1989). Photography (4th ed). BL Books, Inc./Scott, Foresman and Company. ISBN 0-673-39842-0.
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  19. ^ Probst, Christopher (May 2000). "Taking Stock" Part 2 of 2 American Cinematographer Magazine ASC Press. pp. 110-120
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  21. ^ Koszarski, Richard (1994). An Evening's Entertainment: The Age of the Silent Feature Picture, 1915-1928. University of California Press, 127. ISBN 0-520-08535-3. 
  22. ^ Robertson, Patrick (2001). Film Facts. New York: Billboard Books, 166. ISBN 0-8230-7943-0. 
  23. ^ Hart, Martin. (1998) "Kinemacolor: The First Successful Color System" Widescreen Museum. Retrieved July 8, 2006
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  25. ^ Hart, Martin (2003). "The History of Technicolor" Retrieved July 7, 2006
  26. ^ Sipley, Louis Walton. (1951). A Half Century of Color The Macmillan Company, New York.
  27. ^ Kodak | Motion Picture Imaging Chronology of Motion Picture Films Retrieved July 10, 2006.
  28. ^ Internet Movie Database, Academy Awards, USA: 1950.
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  31. ^ a b Hummel, Rob (ed.). American Cinematographer Manual, 8th edition. pp. 18-22. ASC Press: Hollywood, 2001.
  32. ^ Hart, Martin.(2000). Widescreen museum "Of Apertures and Aspect Ratios" Retrieved August 10, 2006.
  33. ^ a b Hora, John. "Anamorphic Cinematography". American Cinematographer Manual, 8th edition. ASC Press: Hollywood, 2001.
  34. ^ Hart, Martin. American Widescreen Museum, "Cinemascope Wing 1". Retrieved August 10, 2006.
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  40. ^ Aaton, "3 perf: The future of 35mm filmmaking". Retrieved August 10, 2006
  41. ^ Arri, "3 Perf Conversion Kit for the Arricam System", Arri Newsletter, March 2002. Retrieved August 10, 2006.
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  48. ^ a b Gray, Peter. "Sprocket Holes". Retrieved August 11, 2006.
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Binomial name Ucla xenogrammus Holleman, 1993 The largemouth triplefin, Ucla xenogrammus, is a fish of the family Tripterygiidae and only member of the genus Ucla, found in the Pacific Ocean from Viet Nam, the Philippines, Palau and the Caroline Islands to Papua New Guinea, Australia (including Christmas Island), and the... Aaton is a motion picture equipment manufacturer, based in Grenoble, France. ... The ARRI Group has been the largest world wide supplier of high quality motion picture film equipment since 1917. ... Portable Document Format (PDF) is a file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 for desktop publishing use. ...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Film (0 words)
This material is highly flammable, and extensive precautions were required in projection rooms to avoid film ignition because of the proximity of the projector arc lamp to the film.
It was not considered desirable to adopt it for professional 35-mm film, largely because it was inferior in strength and dimensional stability.
When extreme sensitivity to light is not required, finer grain film may be used, particularly when it is intended to enlarge a 16-mm negative for 35-mm release or a 35-mm negative for 70-mm release.
PEAK Loupe/Magnifier for 35 mm Film, 8X (236 words)
It is specially designed to cover the entire 24 x 36 mm area of a single frame of film from a 35 mm roll film camera and its greatest used is for the checking of negatives.
A high quality 24 x 37 mm angular objective lens is employed in the optical system to cover single 35 mm frames and a two-element achromatic lens is used in the eyepiece.
This magnifier is designed for use with the special "puncher and holder" for use with 35 mm film.
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