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Three is the first odd prime number, and the second smallest prime. It is both the first Fermat prime (2 + 1) and the first Mersenne prime (2² - 1), as well as the first lucky prime. However, it's the second Sophie Germain prime, the second Mersenne prime exponent, the second factorial prime (2! + 1), the second Lucas prime, the second Stern prime. In mathematics, a prime number (or a prime) is a natural number greater than 1 which has exactly two distinct natural number divisors: 1 and itself. ... In mathematics, a Fermat number, named after Pierre de Fermat who first studied them, is a positive integer of the form where n is a nonnegative integer. ... In mathematics, a Mersenne number is a number that is one less than a power of two. ... Headline text A lucky prime is a number that is a prime number and a lucky number. ... A prime number p is called a Sophie Germain prime if 2p + 1 is also prime. ... A factorial prime is a number that is one less or one more than a factorial and is also a prime number. ... A Lucas prime is a Lucas number that is prime. ... A Stern prime is a prime number that is not the sum of a smaller prime and twice the square of a nonzero integer. ...

Three is the first unique prime due to the properties of its reciprocal. In mathematics, a unique prime is a certain kind of prime number. ...

Three is the third Heegner number. In number theory, a Heegner number is a (square-free) positive integer d such that the imaginary quadratic field has class number 1. ...

Three is the second triangular number and it is the only prime triangular number. Three is the only prime which is one less than a perfect square. Any other number which is n² - 1 for some integer n is not prime, since it is (n - 1)(n + 1). This is true for 3 as well, but in its case one of the factors is 1. A triangular number is the sum of the n natural numbers from 1 to n. ... The term perfect square is used in mathematics in two meanings: an integer which is the square of some other integer, i. ...

Three is the fourth Fibonacci number and the third that is unique. In the Perrin sequence, however, 3 is both the zeroth and third Perrin numbers. A tiling with squares whose sides are successive Fibonacci numbers in length In mathematics, the Fibonacci numbers are a sequence of numbers named after Leonardo of Pisa, known as Fibonacci. ... In mathematics, the Perrin numbers are defined by the recurrence relation P(0) = 3, P(1) = 0, P(2) = 2, and P(n) = P(n âˆ’ 2) + P(n âˆ’ 3) for n > 2. ... In mathematics, the Perrin numbers are defined by the recurrence relation P(0) = 3, P(1) = 0, P(2) = 2, and P(n) = P(n âˆ’ 2) + P(n âˆ’ 3) for n > 2. ...

Three is the fourth open meandric number. In mathematics, a meander or closed meander is a self-avoiding closed curve which intersects a line a number of times. ...

Vulgar fractions with 3 in the denominator have a single digit repeating sequences in their decimal expansions, (.000..., .333..., .666...) In arithmetic, a vulgar fraction (or common fraction) consists of one integer divided by a non-zero integer. ... A denominator is a name. ... In mathematics and computer science, a numerical digit is a symbol, e. ... For other uses, see Decimal (disambiguation). ...

A natural number is divisible by three if the sum of its digits in base 10 is divisible by 3. For example, the number 21 is divisible by three (3 times 7) and the sum of its digits is 2 + 1 = 3. Because of this, the reverse of any number that is divisible by three (or indeed, any permutation of its digits) is also divisible by three. For instance, 1368 and its reverse 8631 are both divisible by three (and so are 1386, 3168, 3186, 3618, etc..). See also Divisibility rule. In mathematics, a natural number can mean either an element of the set {1, 2, 3, ...} (i. ... Divisible is an Indie rock band from Los Angeles. ... Permutation is the rearrangement of objects or symbols into distinguishable sequences. ... A divisibility rule is a method that can be used to determine whether a number is evenly divisible by other numbers. ...

A triangle is the most durable shape possible, the only "perfect" figure which if all endpoints have hinges will never change its shape unless the sides themselves are bent. For other uses, see Triangle (disambiguation). ...

3 is the only integer between e and π. e is the unique number such that the value of the derivative of f (x) = ex (blue curve) at the point x = 0 is exactly 1. ... When a circles diameter is 1, its circumference is Ï€. Pi or Ï€ is the ratio of a circles circumference to its diameter in Euclidean geometry, approximately 3. ...

There are only three distinct 4×4 panmagic squares. A panmagic square is a magic square with the additional requirement that all broken diagonals sum to the magic constant. ...

Only three tetrahedral numbers are also perfect squares. A pyramid with side length 5 contains 35 spheres. ...

### In numeral systems

It is frequently noted by historians of numbers that early counting systems often relied on the three-patterned concept of "One- Two- Many" to describe counting limits. In other words, in their own language equivalent way, early peoples had a word to describe the quantities of one and two, but any quantity beyond this point was simply denoted as "Many". As an extension to this insight, it can also be noted that early counting systems appear to have had limits at the numerals 2, 3, and 4. References to counting limits beyond these three indices do not appear to prevail as consistently in the historical record.

Base Numeral system
2 binary 11
3 ternary 10

The radix (Latin for root), also called base, is the number of various unique symbols (or digits or numerals) a positional numeral system uses to represent numbers. ... This article is about different methods of expressing numbers with symbols. ... The binary numeral system, or base-2 number system, is a numeral system that represents numeric values using two symbols, usually 0 and 1. ... Ternary or trinary is the base-3 numeral system. ... For other uses, see Decimal (disambiguation). ... In mathematics and computer science, hexadecimal, base-16, or simply hex, is a numeral system with a radix, or base, of 16, usually written using the symbols 0â€“9 and Aâ€“F, or aâ€“f. ...

### List of basic calculations

Multiplication 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 50 100 1000
$3 times x$ 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 33 36 39 42 45 48 51 54 57 60 63 66 69 72 75 150 300 3000
Division 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15
$3 div x$ 3 1.5 1 0.75 0.6 0.5 $0.overline{4}2857overline{1}$ 0.375 $0.overline{3}$ 0.3 $0.overline{2}overline{7}$ 0.25 $0.overline{2}3076overline{9}$ $0.2overline{1}4285overline{7}$ 0.2
$x div 3$ $0.overline{3}$ $0.overline{6}$ 1 $1.overline{3}$ $1.overline{6}$ 2 $2.overline{3}$ $2.overline{6}$ 3 $3.overline{3}$ $3.overline{6}$ 4 $4.overline{3}$ $4.overline{6}$ 5
Exponentiation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
$3 ^ x,$ 3 9 27 81 243 729 2187 6561 19683 59049 177147 531441 1594323
$x ^ 3,$ 1 8 27 64 125 216 343 512 729 1000 1331 1728 2197

## Evolution of the glyph

Evolution of the numeral 3 from the Brahmin Indians to the Europeans I drew these characters by hand and scanned them. ...

Three is often the largest number written with as many lines as the number represents. The Romans tired of writing 4 as IIII, but to this day 3 is written as three lines in Roman and Chinese numerals. This was the way the Brahmin Indians wrote it, and the Gupta made the three lines more curved. The Nagari started rotating the lines clockwise and ending each line with a slight downward stroke on the right. Eventually they made these strokes connect with the lines below, and evolved it to a character that looks very much like a modern 3 with an extra stroke at the bottom. It was the Western Ghubar Arabs who finally eliminated the extra stroke and created our modern 3. (The "extra" stroke, however, was very important to the Eastern Arabs, and they made it much larger, while rotating the strokes above to lie along a horizontal axis, and to this day Eastern Arabs write a 3 that looks like a mirrored 7 with ridges on its top line): ٣[1] Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Chinese numerals are characters for writing numbers in Chinese. ... Note that the word Brahmin is also known as Brahman in English due to some translation issues between the Upanishads (Hindu Holy Texts) and modern English* Brahmin, in Hinduism, traditionally refers to the priestly caste or a member of this caste in the Hindu caste system. ... The Gupta Empire under Chandragupta II (ruled 375-415) The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in the world. ... For other uses, see Arab (disambiguation). ...

While the shape of the 3 character has an ascender in most modern typefaces, in typefaces with text figures the character usually has a descender, as, for example, in . In some French text-figure typefaces, though, it has an ascender instead of a descender. The ascenders are the parts of the characters that lie above the midline, highlighted in red. ... â€œFontâ€ redirects here. ... Hoefler Text, a contemporary font, uses hanging or old style text figures. ... The descenders are the parts of the characters that lie below the baseline. ... Image File history File links The numerals 0, 3 and 6 written in text figures. ...

A common variant of the digit 3 has a flat top, similar to the character Ʒ (ezh), sometimes used to prevent people from falsifying a 3 into an 8. Ezh (capital , lowercase ) is a character in the IPA. Also called the tailed z, it represents a voiced postalveolar fricative (SAMPA: [Z]), appearing in e. ...

## In science

 1. The observation of the phenomena and the recording of facts. 2. The formulation of physical laws from the generalization of the phenomena. 3. The development of a theory that is used to predict new phenomena.

### Anatomy

For other uses, see Ear (disambiguation). ... inner ear illustration showing semicircular canal, hair cells, ampulla, cupula, vestibular nerve, & fluid The semicircular canals are three half-circular, interconnected tubes located inside each ear that are the equivalent of three gyroscopes located in three planes perpendicular (at right angles) to each other. ... The middle ear is the portion of the ear internal to the eardrum, and external to the oval window of the cochlea. ... The ossicles (also called auditory ossicles) are the three smallest bones in the human body. ...

### Anthropology

3 distinct species of the genus Homo:

1. Homo habilis "capable man"
2. Homo erectus "upright man"
3. Homo sapiens "wise man"

3 distinct species of the genus Paranthropus:

1. Paranthropus robustus
2. Paranthropus boisei
3. Paranthropus aethiopicus

3 Proconsul species:

1. Proconsul africanus
2. Proconsul major
3. Proconsul nyanzae

3 Pan troglodyte sub-species:

1. Pan Troglodytes Schweinfurthii- (Eastern Common Chimpanzee)
2. Pan Troglodytes Troglodytes- (Central Common Chimp)
3. Pan Troglodytes Verus- (Western Common Chimp)

3 types of primates:

1. Prosimians
2. Monkeys (old & new world)
3. Apes (lesser & greater apes, as well as humans)

3 social group types of the Great Apes:

1. Orangutans (Solitary - little amount of both sexes)
2. Gorillas (Harems - great amount of one sex)
3. Common Chimps (Live in territories defended by related males - great amount of both sexes)

1. Hylobatidae- include the so-called lesser apes of Asia, the gibbons and siamangs.
2. Hominidae- include living humans and typically fossil apes that possess a suite of characteristics such as bipedalism, reduced canine size, and increasing brain size such as the australopithecines.
3. Pongidae- include the remaining African great apes including gorillas, chimpanzees, and the Asian orangutan.

Present day humans have been referred to as the 3rd chimpanzee.

### Astronomy

1. ellipticals,
2. spirals and
3. irregulars.
• Globular Cluster M3 (also known as Messier Object 3 or NGC 5272) is a globular cluster in the Canes Venatici constellation.
• The Roman numeral III stands for giant star in the Yerkes spectral classification scheme.
• The Roman numeral III (usually) stands for the third-discovered satellite of a planet or minor planet (e.g. Pluto III)
• In the constellation Orion, his belt is made up of 3 stars in a row.
• Earth is the third planet in its local Solar System.

For other uses, see Galaxy (disambiguation). ... Photo of Messier 3 taken with a 24 telescope in Boulder, Colorado. ... Giant star is a star that has stopped fusing hydrogen in its core. ... In astronomy, stellar classification is a classification of stars based initially on photospheric temperature and its associated spectral characteristics, and subsequently refined in terms of other characteristics. ... Hydra is a natural satellite of Pluto. ... For other uses, see Orion. ...

### Biology (specific and general)

• RNA has a triplet codon system.
• DNA has a triplet codon system.
• Proteins can have a single, double, or tertiary structure, with a composite of these called the quaternary.
• Human chromosomes can present trisomy.
• 3 basic life domains: Archaea- Bacteria- and Eucaryota
• 3 phyla of Archaebacteria that are found mainly in extreme habitats where little

else can survive: Methanogens~ Halophiles~ Thermoacidophiles. Figure 1: Chromosome. ... A trisomy means the presence of three (instead of the normal two) chromosomes of a particular numbered type in an organism. ...

• 3 mammalian Germ layers: Endoderm- Mesoderm- Ectoderm
• 3 principal stages of glucose respiration: Glycolysis~ Krebs cycle~ Electron transport chain.

### Chemistry

• Three is the atomic number of lithium (Lithium is also the 33rd most abundant element on Earth).
• Atoms consist of three constituents: protons, neutrons, and electrons.
• 3 types of molecular bond: Covalent~ Ionic~ Polar Covalent (Dative or Coordinate)
• 3 isomerism types: Structural (Ethyl alcohol) ~ Geometric (Maleic acid) ~ Optical (L-Lactic acid)
• 3 hydrocarbon chain types: Straight (Propane)~ Branched (Isobutane)~ Circular (Cyclopropane)
• 3 basic chemical reaction substances: Acids~ Bases~ Salts

See also: List of elements by atomic number In chemistry and physics, the atomic number (also known as the proton number) is the number of protons found in the nucleus of an atom. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Properties For alternative meanings see atom (disambiguation). ... For alternative meanings see proton (disambiguation). ... Properties In physics, the neutron is a subatomic particle with no net electric charge and a mass of 940 MeV/c² (1. ... Properties The electron (also called negatron, commonly represented as e−) is a subatomic particle. ...

### Computer Science

1. A robot may not injure a human being or, through inaction, allow a human being to come to harm.
2. A robot must obey orders given to it by human beings, except where such orders would conflict with the First Law.
3. A robot must protect its own existence as long as such protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law.

Isaac Asimov (January 2?, 1920?[1] â€“ April 6, 1992), pronounced , originally Ð˜ÑÐ°Ð°Ðº ÐžÐ·Ð¸Ð¼Ð¾Ð² but now transcribed into Russian as ÐÐ¹Ð·ÐµÐº ÐÐ·Ð¸Ð¼Ð¾Ð² [1], was a Russian-born American author and professor of biochemistry, a highly successful writer, best known for his works of science fiction and for his popular science books. ... This cover of I, Robot illustrates the story Runaround, the first to list all Three Laws of Robotics. ...

### Geology

• Three basic planes: Above- Surfaced- Beneath
• Three basic Earth divisions: Core- Mantle- Crust.
• Three basic rock formations: Igneous- Metamorphic- Sedimentary.
• In tectonic plate theory, the pacific plate's site can be said to be due to the "fusion" (engulfing) of 3 other plates: Izanagi plate~ Phoenix plate~ Kula plate.
• 3 types of earthquake waves: P (Primary) waves~ S (Secondary) waves~ L/R (Love & Rayleigh) waves.
• 3 types of volcanoes: Cinder cones~ Shield volcano~ Composite volcano.

### History

• Christian Jürgensen Thomsen proposed the three-age system to divide prehistory in the Stone, Bronze and Iron Ages.
• 3rd Reich of Germany: Adolf Hitler's Empire
• 3rd Rome: Old name for Russia
• 3rd Estate: French Revolution
• 3rd Way: Mussolini's social movement
• 3rd Wave: journalistic name given to Newt Gingrich's social movement (U.S.)
• Third Communist International was founded in 1919 by Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (He died after a 3rd stroke).
• Three most important events that led up to, and caused the American Revolution: Boston Massacre- Boston Tea Party~ Stamp Act.

Christian JÃ¼rgensen Thomsen (December 29, 1788â€“May 21, 1865) was a Danish archaeologist. ... The three-age system is a system of classifying human prehistory into three consecutive time periods, named for their respective predominant tool-making technologies: The Stone Age The Bronze Age The Iron Age The system is most apt in describing the progression of European society, although it has been used... Stone Age fishing hook. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ...

### Physics

• There are three generations of fundamental leptons (electron, muon, tauon and their neutrinos) and three groups of flavours of quarks (up-down, charmed-strange, top-bottom).
• A neutron consists of three quarks: two down quarks and one up quark.
• We perceive our universe to have three spatial dimensions.
• White light is composed of the mixture of the three additive primary hues: red, green, and blue.
• Three is the minimum and maximum, a singular optimum, just sufficient to geometrically realize a topologically three-shell-substructured toroidal superstring with three different spins (no vacuum!) and enable its specific spin functionality (three different spin functionalities with three different spin states each). The main aspect of this functionality is quintessence in the state of supersymmetry, breaking of supersymmetry (weak interaction, change of flavor) and breaking of color supersymmetry of quarks with angular spins -1 0 +1 (green, red, blue).
• Three is the smallest number that, in a physical realization, on breaking of symmetry allows the emergence of two additional functionalities different from the one of a central state. These either can be symmetric as in -3 (±0) +3 (electron, two supersymmetric superstrings (left/right-handed, no matter particles, dark), and the positron) or asymmetric as in -1 (-0) +2 (quarks) or -2 (+0) +1 (anti quarks). This means, breaking of a symmetry also can result in one of two different asymmetric states. In this case supersymmetry globally is conserved on the average by the properties of three quarks (enforced quark confinement). Multiplication of these angular spins by 1/3 gives the three particle charges, negative or positive are defined by the direction of angular spin.
• Changes of spin, appearing as changes of flavor, only can be by three multiples of a fundamental angular quantum of spin causing an 1/3 elementary charge e. The down quark only can change its spin from -1 to +2, the up-quark. A supersymmetric superstring can break supersymmetry from -0 to -3 (electron) or from +0 to +3 (positron). The electron anti-neutrino (+3) and electron neutrino (-3)represent three quanta of fermionic spin within the spacetime metric (no superstrings/particles), conserving supersymmetry globally.
• Nature defines the state of supersymmetry as ±0 (left- and right-handed). This allows additional variations with respect to the breaking of supersymmetry involving the number three. The whole spectrum of possibilities based on the number three thus is duplicated for matter and antimatter.
• Three is realized as 0 1 2 in the number of exponents defining the basic kinds of spin. These are ½*2^0 ħ (fermionic), ½*2^1 ħ (bosonic), ½*2^2 ħ (gravitational). The bosonic state is the symmetric state.
• Three non-gravitational forces actively are generated by three different superstring spin functionalities, while gravity is a passive reaction of spacetime due to the presence of superstrings with broken supersymmetry. It on principle is different.
• Three represents an optimum of economy in a physical geometrical realization and a maximum of functionality at the same time. This limits the otherwise nearly infinite number of degrees of freedom by a defined geometry with a specific functionality to exactly the ones needed to generate the fundamental basis for the expression of the 'Everything'.
• The number three is shown to be represented by different possible spin states in the regime from -3 to +3, that is by negative and positive integer numbers, including a -0 and +0, in contrast to mathematics where 0 is an integer number without sign. Due to geometrically defined quanta of spin the superstring shows a physical realization of integer numbers between -3 and +3. This answers Roger Penrose's question of the physical meaning of integer numbers (Road to Reality, p. 65) and their relevance in the physical world.
• Three different states of string tension exist. The whole geometry and functionality is the same with exception of the orthogonal magnetic flux component causing gravo-magnetic mass. Thus three generations of particles can exist solely according to energetic conditions. The basic relevance of the number three for the superstring in no way is touched.

For the former Greek currency unit, see Greek drachma. ... For other uses, see Electron (disambiguation). ... The muon (from the letter mu (Î¼)--used to represent it) is an elementary particle with negative electric charge and a spin of 1/2. ... The tauon, or tau lepton, is a negatively charged elementary particle with a lifetime of 3Ã—10âˆ’13 seconds and a high mass of 1777 MeV (compared to 939 MeV for protons and 0. ... For other uses, see Neutrino (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Quark (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ... Dimension (from Latin measured out) is, in essence, the number of degrees of freedom available for movement in a space. ... This article is about colors. ...

### Physiology

• 3 distinct Cytoskeleton components: Microtubules~ Intermediate Filament~ Actin Filaments
• 3 primary cellular energy molecules: AMP~ ADP~ ATP
• 3 main fatty acid categories: Saturated~ Monounsaturated~ Polyunsaturated
• 3 substances metabolized for energy needs: Carbohydrates~ Fats~ Proteins
• Triglycerides are the main storage forms of fatty acids.

### Plants and Animals

• Triceratops: Cretaceous period dinosaur with three horns on its head.
• Shamrock: refers to one of several trifoliate (three-leaved) plants of the Leguminosae family which includes the clover.
• 3-bodied general description of insects: Head~ Thorax~ Abdomen.
• Trilobite: hard-bodied invertebrate marine arthropod of the Paleozoic era with three lobes.
• Monocotyledon: A monocot's flower is often trimerous, with the flower parts in threes or in multiples of three (typically three, six, or nine petals.)

### Psychology

• In his later work, Freud proposed that the psyche was divided into three parts: Ego, super-ego, and id. Freud discussed this structural model of the mind in the 1920 essay Beyond the Pleasure Principle, and fully elaborated it in The Ego and The Id (1923), where he developed it as an alternative to his previous topographic schema (conscious, unconscious, preconscious).

Sigmund Freud His famous couch Sigmund Freud (May 6, 1856 - September 23, 1939) was an Austrian neurologist and the founder of the psychoanalytic school of psychology, a movement that popularized the theory that unconscious motives control much behavior. ... This article or section may be confusing or unclear for some readers, and should be edited to rectify this. ...

## In religion and mythology

Main article: triple deities
Further information: trifunctional hypothesis and triad (symbol)
• Georges Dumezil developed the idea of a Tripartite Ideology (Trifunctional Hypothesis) with respect to the Indo-European peoples consisting of three class divisions: Priestly~ Warrior~ Farmers/Craftsmen.
• 3 Indian Gods: Brahma, Vishnu, Maheshwara (Shiva)
• 3 Greek gods: Zeus~ Poseidon~ Hades (Air~ Water~ Earth)
• 3 Roman gods: Jupiter~ Neptune~ Pluto (Air~ Water~ Earth)
• 3 sons of Zeus & Europa: Minos~ Rhadamanthus~ Sarpedon
• 3 forms of Odin in Eddic Mythology: Har~ Jafnhar~ Thridi
• 3 mysterious figures amongst Norse gods: Hoenir~ Lodurr~ Mimir
• Ancient Egypt Theban Triad: Amun~ Mut~ and their son Khans
• 3 ancient Egypt central religious figures: Horus~ Isis~ Osiris
• 3 items of manufacturer commonly attributed to Vulcan, God of fire and volcanoes: Art~ Arms~ Armor for gods and heroes.
• The Maya believed 3 stars in the Orion Constellation (Alnitak~ Saiph~ Rigel) were arranged by the gods as a triangular hearth, enclosing the smoke of the fire creation - the nebula.
• 3 Greek Fates (Moirai, Moirés): Clotho~ Lachesis~ Atropos (sometimes referred to as the 3 spinners).
• 3 Roman Fates: Decima~ Nona (goddesses of birth)~ Morta (goddess of death)
• 3 Roman Graces- (in Greek mythology called the Charities and according to the Spartans, Cleta was the third): Aglaia~ Euphrosyne~ Thalia.
• 3 parts to a Chimera: Head of a lion~ Body of a goat~ Tail of a snake
• 3 monstrous offspring by Loki and Angroboda: Fenrir~ Hel~ Jormungund
• 3 hags possessing immense power in Norse Myth: Urdr~ Verdandi~ Skuld
• 3 Norns of Norse Mythology who sat beneath the World Tree Yggdrasil
• 3-faced goddess in Greek Mythology: Hecate
• 3 Gorgons-(snake-haired sisters in Greek mythology): Stheno, Euryale, Medusa are sometimes depicted as having wings of gold, brazen claws, and the tusks of boars. Medusa is the only one of the gorgons that is mortal.
• 3 different beings made up the different qualities of death according to ancient Greek belief: Thantos (male)~ Ker (female)~ Gorgo (female).
• 3 Roman Furies (female personifications of vengeance) that were called the Erinyes (the Angry Ones) or Eumenides by the Ancient Greeks (Orestes called them the Solemn Ones, or the Kindly Ones): Alecto ("unceasing")~ Megaera ("grudging")~ Tisiphone ("avenging murder").
• 3-headed dog that guarded the gate to Hades in Greek Mythology: Cerberus
• 3 ancient Greek Harpies: Aello, Ocypete, and Celaeno.

### In Buddhism

• The Triple Gem - Buddha, Dhamma (Buddha's teaching) and Sangha (the preachers of Dhamma)
• The Triple Bodhi (ways to understand the end of birth)- Budhu, Pasebudhu, Mahaarahath

### Abrahamic religions

The Shield of the Trinity is a diagram of the Christian doctrine of the Trinity

### Other religions

• The Wiccan Rule of Three.
• The Triple Goddess: Maiden, Mother, Crone; the three fates.
• In Taoism, the Three Pure Ones.
• The three Gunas underlie action, in the Vedic system of knowledge. There is also the concept of Trimurti in Hindu tradition. The Buddha has three bodies. The three Vedas are called trayi i.e triad. Lord Shiva is Trinetra-Three-eyed. The confluence of the Ganga, Yamuna and hidden Sarasvati is the famous Triveni-confluence of three rivers. Buddhism's three refuges are Trisharana- Buddhan sharanam gacchami, Dhammam sharanam gacchami, Sangham sharanam gacchami.
• In Greek mythology, the Three Graces or Charites. Also the number of heads of Cerberus, the monstrous dog that guards the gate to Hades
• Various Triple deities.

The Theosophical Society was the organization formed to advance the spiritual doctrines and altruistic living known as Theosophy. ... Theosophy is a word and a concept known anciently, commonly understood in the modern era to describe the studies of religious philosophy and metaphysics originating with Helena Petrovna Blavatsky from the 1870s. ... George Ivanovich Gurdjieff George Ivanovich Gurdjieff (January 13 / January 14, 1866? - October 29, 1949), the Greek-Armenian mystic and teacher of dancing born in Alexandropol, Armenia (then of the Russian Empire, now Gumri, Armenia), traveled to many parts of the world (i. ... The Three Centres are a teaching within some Gurdjieffian Fourth Way groups relating to his teaching of Three-brained beings, Law of Three, Law of Seven, etc. ... In his early lectures, as documented by P.D. Ouspensky, G.I. Gurdjieff described his approach to self-development as a Fourth Way [1][2], in contrast to teachings that emphasize the development of the body, mind, or the emotions separately, Gurdjieffs exercises worked on all three at the... Aleister Crowley, born Edward Alexander Crowley (pronounced ), (12 October 1875 â€“ 1 December 1947), was a British occultist, writer, mountaineer, poet, and yogi. ... This article refers to the magical system of Aleister Crowley and Thelema. ... Magick without tears ( ISBN 1561840181 ) is a book of letters by Aleister Crowley, to Cara Soror first published in 1973. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

### In fictional religion

• In The Legend of Zelda video game series, a divine relic called the Triforce is represented by 3 Golden triangles. The Triforce was fashioned by a trio of goddesses who represented power, wisdom, and courage, and the sections of the Triforce each represent one of the three.

Legend of Zelda may refer to: The Legend of Zelda, the 1987 Nintendo Entertainment System best seller, and the first game in a very popular, influential video game franchise. ... For the arcade system board, see Triforce (arcade system board). ...

## In philosophy

• Plato split the soul into three parts: the appetitive, the spirited, and the rational
• Hegel's dialectic of Thesis + Antithesis = Synthesis creates three-ness from two-ness.
• The three Doshas (weaknesses) and their antidotes are the basis of Ayurvedic medicine in India.
• Charles Sanders Peirce was a trichotomist and stipulated, among other things, a triadic relation of interpretant, representamen, and object to explain the phenomenon of semeiosis.
 St. Augustine's Philosophy: Memory~ Understanding~ Will Aquinas's 3 transcendentals of being: Unity~ Truth~ Goodness Aquinas's 3 requisites for the beautiful: Wholeness or perfection~ Harmony or due proportion~ Radiance Aquinas's 3 logical faculties (based in Aristotle) Conception~ Judgment~ Reasoning Aquinas's 3 causal principles (based in Aristotle) Agent~ Patient~ Act Comte's Philosophy: Great Being~ Great Medium~ Great Fetish Hegel's 3 Spirits: Subjective Spirit~ Objective Spirit~ Absolute Spirit Plotinu's Philosophy: One~ One Many~ One and Many Aristotle's 3 Unities: Unity of Action~ Unity of Time~ Unity of Place Sir F. Bacon's 3 Tables: Presence~ Absence~ Degree Thomas Hobbes's 3 Fields: Physics~ Moral Philosophy~ Civil Philosophy Immanuel Kant's 3 Critiques: Pure Reason~ Practical Reason~ Judgment Averroes's 3 Commentaries: Little~ Middle~ Great Karl Marx's 3 isms: Communism~ Socialism~ Capitalism Woodrow Wilson's 3 isms: Colonialism~ Racism~ Anti-Communism Hippocrates's Mind Disorders: Mania~ Melancholia~ Phrenitis Emile Durkeim's 3 Suicides: Egoistic~ Altruistic~ Anomic D. Liesman's 3 Social Characters: Tradition-directed~ Inner-directed~ Other-directed Erich Fromm's 3 Symbols: The Conventional~ The Accidental~ The Universal Pythagoras's "fusion" idea: Monarchy~ Oligarchy~ Democracy (into harmonic whole) M.L. King Jr.'s "Middle Road": Acquiescence~ Nonviolence~ Violence Kierkegaard's 3 Stages: Aesthetic~ Ethical~ Religious Husserl's 3 Reductions: Phenomenological~ Eidetic~ Religious St. Augustine's 3 Laws: Divine Law~ Natural Law~ Temporal, or positive Law Witness Stand truths: The Truth~ The whole Truth~ Nothing but the Truth Titus Carus's 3 Ages: Stone Age~ Bronze Age~ Iron Age Feuerbach's 3 Thoughts: God, 1st Thought~ Reason, 2nd~ Man, 3rd Magnus's 3 Universals: Ante Rem~ In Rem~ Post Rem Max Weber's 3 Authorities: Traditional~ Charismatic~ Legal-rational F.  de Sausure's 3 "Signs": Sign~ Signified~ Signifier Charles Peirce's 3 semiotic elements Sign~ Object~ Interpretant Charles Pierce's 3 categories: Quality of feeling~ Reaction/resistance~ Representation Charles Peirce's 3 universes of experience: Ideas~ Brute fact~ Habit (habit-taking) Charles Peirce's 3 normatives: The good (esthetic)~ The right (ethical)~ The true (logical) Charles Peirce's 3 grades of conceptual clearness By familiarity~ Of definition's parts~ Of conceivable practical consequences Charles Peirce's 3 modes of evolution: Fortuitous variation~ Mechanical necessity~ Creative love John Keynes's 3 Eras: Scarcity~ Abundance~ Stabilization George Mead's 3 Distinctions: Self~ I~ Me Thrasher's 3-group Gangs: Inner Circle~ Rank & File~ Fringers Abe Lincoln's 3-For-All: Of the People~ By the People~ For the People Jesus Christ's 3 Praises: In the name of the Father~ Son~ Holy Spirit Samuel Clemmons' (Mark Twain) 3 lies: Lies~ Damned Lies~ Statistics J.W.S. Pringle's 3 intellectual problems: Religious & Ethical~ Practical~ Scientific J. Bruner's 3 cognitive processing modes: Enactive~ Iconic~ Symbolic Wilhelm Wundt's 3 mind elements: Sensations~ Images~ Feelings Robert Sternberg's 3 love components: Passion~ Intimacy~ Commitment Sternberg's Triarchic Intelligence: Analytic~ Creative~ Practica Paul D. Maclean's Triune Brain: R-System (Reptilian)~ Limbic System~ Neocortex 3-monkey Philosophy: Hear no Evil~ See no Evil~ Speak no Evil J.A. Fodor's mind Taxonomy: Central Processes~ Input Processes~ Transducers Plato's Tripartite soul: Rational~ Libidinous~ Spirited (various animal qualities) Hjalmar Wennerberg's philosophy orders: Phenomenology~ Normative Science~ Metaphysics W.H. Sheldon's body types: Endomorph~ Mesomorph~ Ectomorph Ernst Kretschmer's body types: Pyknic~ Asthenic~ Athletic Aristotle's 3 in 1 idea: Mind~ Self-knowledge~ Self-love K.J.W. Craik's 3 reasoning processes: Translation~ Reasoning~ Retranslation Galton's 3 genius traits: Intellect~ Zeal~ Power of working Gregor Mendel "laws": Independent Unit Characters~ Segregation~ Dominance Darwinian essentials of Evolution: Variation~ Heredity~ Struggle for existence

For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel (August 27, 1770 - November 14, 1831) was a German philosopher born in Stuttgart, Württemberg, in present-day southwest Germany. ... In classical philosophy, dialectic (Greek: Î´Î¹Î±Î»ÎµÎºÏ„Î¹ÎºÎ®) is controversy, Viz. ... This article is about the thesis in academia. ... Look up Antithesis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Synthesis (from the ancient Greek ÏƒÏÎ½ (with) and Î¸ÎµÏƒÎ¹Ï‚ (placing), is commonly understood to be an integration of two or more pre-existing elements which results in a new creation. ... Ayurveda (à¤†à¤¯à¥à¤°à¥à¤µà¥‡à¤¦ Sanskrit: ayuâ€”life; vedaâ€”knowledge of) or ayurvedic medicine is a comprehensive system of medicine, more than 2,000 years old and based on a holistic approach rooted in Vedic culture. ... An antidote is a substance which can counteract a form of poisoning. ... Ayurveda (आयुर्वेद Sanskrit: ayu—life; veda—knowledge of) or ayurvedic medicine is a more than 2,000 year old comprehensive system of medicine based on a holistic approach rooted in Vedic culture. ... Charles Sanders Peirce Charles Sanders Peirce (September 10, 1839 – April 19, 1914) was an American logician, philosopher, scientist, and mathematician. ...

## In Education

• 3 R's: Reading~ 'Riting~ 'Rithmetic
• 3 divisions: Elementary (Grade) School~ Middle (Jr. High or Intermediate) School~ High (Sr. High) School
• 3 levels: Primary (~Elementary) Education~ Secondary (~Jr. + Sr. High) Education~ Tertiary (College, University, Polytechnical Institute, TAFE) Education
• 3 University degrees: Bachelor's~ Master's- Ph.D
• 3 University distinctions: Cum Laude~ Magna Cum Laude~ Suma Cum Laude
• 3 testing formats: True/False~ Multiple Choice~ Essay
• 3 levels to grade formulas: A+ (A plus)~ A (A neutral)~ A- (A minus)
• 3 good grade divisions: A~ B~ C
• 3 rings of the school bell return children to class after a fire drill.
• 3 ring notebooks are one standard of usage for holding looseleaf notebook paper (2 is another in lever-arch).
• 3-number combination locks are a standard usage for lockers.

## In politics

• Plato split his utopian city into three populations: laborers, guardians (warriors), and philosophers (rulers)
• Several polities have been ruled by three persons in a triumvirate or a troika.
• As well, medieval theory divided society in laboratores (peasants), bellatores (noble warriors) and oratores (clergy). An earlier division had only the potentes ("powerful", warriors) and the powerless.
Christ sorting people into prayers, protectors and workers.
• In the Ancient Regime, the estates of the realm (e.g. the French Estates General) were divided in a branch for aristocracy, another for the Catholic hierarchy and the Third Estate for rich peasants and bourgeoisie. The triumph of the Third Estate is the French Revolution.
• By analogy to the Third Estate, the Third World (poor countries or non-aligned countries) was defined as different from the First World (led by the United States) and the Second World (led by the Soviet Union).
• The "third way" is a political term applied to a variety of "third choice" options that some offer as an alternative to dichotomous situations which may otherwise appear polarized.
• After the fall of Constantinople, the Tsars considered Moscow as the Third Rome.
• Also Nazism considered Nazi Germany the Third Reich after the Holy Roman Empire and the Prussian Empire.
• There are three branches to the US government; executive, legislative, and judicial.
• Alvin Toffler's The Third Wave considers that the late twentieth century saw the beginning of a third wave of change in post-industrial civilization after the Neolithic and the Industrial Revolution.
• The Third International supported Leninism.
• Cenocracy is the word coined to represent what is believed by some to be the next and superior step to present day forms of Democratic rule. It is based on the notion that before a society can truly achieve a government Of-By-and For the people, the people themselves must play a direct part (and not be represented vicariously) in the law-making process. To this end, every man, woman, and worker must have access to such a role, thus constituting a true 3rd branch legislative body. For example, each State in the United States would adopt an ongoing list of self-elected candidates from which the 3 aforementioned persons would be randomly selected to fulfill one-year terms of office with at least the same pay, privileges and legislative power commensurate to all other congressional members.

## As a lucky or unlucky number

Counting to three is common in situations where a group of people wish to perform an action in synchrony: Now, on the count of three, everybody pull!  Assuming the counter is proceeding at a uniform rate, the first two counts are necessary to establish the rate, but then everyone can predict when "three" will come based on "one" and "two"; this is likely why three is used instead of some other number. Synchronization is a problem in timekeeping which requires the coordination of events to operate a system in unison. ...

In Vietnam, it is bad luck to take a photo with three people in it.

Some cultures in history have a place for people of third gender such as in Thailand. Anna P., who lived for many years as a man in Germany, was photographed for Magnus Hirschfelds book Sexual Intermediates in 1922. ...

It is often believed that people die in threes. This only includes people in your personal sphere (ie. directly impact on your day-to-day life).

There is a superstition that states it is unlucky to take a third light, that is, to be the third person to light a cigarette from the same match or lighter. This is commonly believed to date from the trenches of the First World War when a sniper might see the first light, take aim on the second and fire on the third.

3 strikes and you're out.

3rd time's a charm.

## In technology

• The resin identification code used in recycling to identify polyvinyl chloride.
• On computer keyboards, in the United Kingdom the "3" key may be used to type the pound sign when pressed in combination with the shift key.
• On most telephone keypads, the "3" key is also associated with the letters "D", "E", and "F".
• In ASCII, the code for "3" in hexadecimal is 33. This is the only character in ASCII such that a large file consisting of a single character has identical-looking hexadecimal and normal representation.
• The glyph "3" may be used as a substitute for yogh (Ȝ, ȝ) or ze (З, з) when those characters are not available.
• Three is the minimum odd number of voting components for simple easy redundancy checks by direct comparison.
• Three is approximately pi (actually closer to 3.14159) when doing rapid engineering wags or estimates. The same is true if one wants a rough-and-ready estimate of e, which is actually approximately 2.7183.
• Some computer users may use "3" as an alternate to the letter "E", often in jest or to prevent search engines from reading their messages. This form of code is an example of basic Leetspeak.
• "3" is the DVD region code for many East Asian countries, except for Japan (which is Region 2) and China (which is Region 6).

## In music

• Three is the number of performers in a trio.
• There are 3 notes in a triad, the most important and basic form of any chord.
• Any diatonic chord progression's key signature is made obvious with any 3 different triads, as opposed to potential key ambiguities with any 2 chords.
• The tritone, which divides the octave into 3 equally spaced notes (root, tritone, octave) is the rarest interval of any mode, only occurring semantically twice, and physically once. It is the only interval that, when inverted, remains unchanged functionally and harmonically.
• The 3/4 time signature of Western classical music tradition (Three beats to a measure, with the quarter note comprising the beat.) is said to represent the Holy Trinity of Christian doctrine, Father, Son and Holy Spirit. It is for this reason that it is often utilized in compositions which were written for use in ecclesiastical rites, or that are inspired by scriptural/spiritual themes and texts.
• In a standard jazz combo there are 3 necessary parts: bass, percussion, and chord maker.

For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... For mediant in mathematics, see Mediant (mathematics) In music, the mediant is the third degree of the diatonic scale. ... In music or music theory a scale degree is an individual note of a scale, both its pitch and its diatonic function. ... Typical fingering for a second inversion C major chord on a guitar. ... A diatonic function, in tonal music theory, is the specific, recognized roles of notes or chords in relation to the key. ... Trio is generally used in any of the following ways: Three musicians playing the same or different musical instrument. ... In music or music theory, a triad is a tonal or diatonic tertian trichord. ... Typical fingering for a second inversion C major chord on a guitar. ... In Music theory, the diatonic major scale (also known as the Guido scale), from the Greek diatonikos or to stretch out, is a fundamental building block of the European-influenced musical tradition. ... This key signature â€“ A major or F# minor â€“ consists of three sharps placed after the clef In musical notation, a key signature is a series of sharp symbols or flat symbols placed on the staff, designating notes that are to be consistently played one semitone higher or lower than the... For other uses, see Tritone (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Octave (disambiguation). ... In music theory, the term interval describes the difference in pitch between two notes. ... This article is about modes as used in music. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... The Magic Number is a 1990 single by De La Soul, originally recorded in 1988 and first released on their 1989 album, 3 Feet High and Rising. ...

## In Geography

Flag of Trinacria with a three-legged symbol.

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Tripoli (Arabic: Ø·Ø±Ø§Ø¨Ù„Ø³ TarÄbulus) is the capital city of Libya. ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,700 sq. ... The armoured triskelion on the flag of the Isle of Man Triskelion (or triskele, from Greek τρισκελης three-legged) is a symbol consisting of three bent human legs, or, more generally, three interlocked spirals, or any similar symbol with three protrusions exhibiting a symmetry of the cyclic group C3. ... Three Mile Island Nuclear Generating Station consists of two nuclear reactors, each with its own containment building and cooling towers. ...

## In filmography

• Three is a 1969 film starring Charlotte Rampling and Sam Waterston.
• Three is a 1965 Yugoslavian film directed by Aleksandar Petrović.
• Three is a 2002 Asian horror movie collaboration.
• Thr3e is a 2007 film adaptation of the novel of the same name by Ted Dekker.
• Three, also known as Survival Island is a 2006 film starring Billy Zane and Kelly Brook.
• There is a 1977 film titled 3 Women.
• In both the film The Craft and the fantasy television series Charmed, the "power of three" has been used as part of wiccan incantations.
• The Three Stooges, a comedy group made up of "Larry, Moe, and Curly" and later "Larry, Moe, and Shemp" in the early- to mid-20th century.

Three (Serbo-Croatian : Tri) is a 1965 Yugoslavian film directed by Aleksandar PetroviÄ‡. It was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film. ... The historical country of Yugoslavia had a notable cinema industry of its own. ... Aleksandar SaÅ¡a PetroviÄ‡ (1929â€“1994) was a well known Yugoslav film director who was one of the leading European directors in the 1960s. ... Three (Chinese title: ä¸‰æ›´) is a 2002 international Asian horror movie collaboration consisting of three segments by three directors from three countries. ... Thr3e is a 2007 film adaptation of the award-winning novel of the same name by Ted Dekker. ... Survival Island, also known as Three, is a 2006 film written and directed by Stewart Raffill. ... 3 Women is a 1977 film directed by Robert Altman, starring Shelley Duvall, Sissy Spacek, and Janice Rule. ... The Craft can refer to several things: The Craft is the ancient and traditional name of Freemasonry. ... For other uses, see Charm. ... For the book series Wicca see Sweep (book series) and Circle Of Three. ... The Three Stooges was an American comedy act in the 20th century. ...

## In sports

• In Bowling, 3 strikes in a row is called a turkey.
• In Cricket, 3 outs in a row is called a hat trick.
• In ice hockey, a game consists of 3 periods of twenty minutes each.
• In rugby union, 3 is the jersey number of the starting tighthead prop. It is also the number of points received for a successful drop goal or penalty kick.
• In baseball, 3 is the number of strikes before the batter is out and the number of outs per side per inning. It also represents the first baseman's position. The number 3 position in the batting order is generally occupied by the team's best hitter. In high school and college, 3 is the maximum "drop" (inches of length minus ounces of weight) for a legal bat. 3 is the retired number of Baseball Hall of Fame players Babe Ruth, Joe Medwick, Bill Terry, and Harmon Killebrew. Gary Sheffield and Ken Griffey Jr wear the number three.
• In basketball, a shot made from behind the three-point arc is worth 3 points. 3 is used to represent the small forward position.
• Is the number of the famous NASCAR stock car that Dale Earnhardt drove for nearly 20 years before his death in 2001. He won 6 out of his 7 championships while driving the #3 car. No one has driven the 3 car since his death. In IROC, Helio Castroneves had his car number changed from his standard 3 (which he drives in the Indy Racing League) to number 03.
• Traditional number for the Tyrrell Formula One team's first car along with number 4 for the second until the end of the 1995 Formula One Season.
• A hat-trick in sports is associated with succeeding at anything three times in three consecutive attempts.
• In both American and Canadian football, the number of points received for a successful field goal.
• In Canadian football, the last down before a team loses possession on downs. Usually, a team faced with a third down will punt (if far from the opponent's goal line) or attempt a field goal (if relatively close).
• An Ironman triathlon consists of three events, a 2.4 mile (3.86 kilometer) swim, a 112 mile (180.2 kilometer) bike ride, and a 26.2 mile (42.2 kilometer) marathon run.
• In football, number 3 is assigned in most cases to the left defender or fullback.
• On March 24, 2006 the number 3 became the second number retired by the New Jersey Devils in honor of defenseman Ken Daneyko.

## In literature

### Original scholarly articles/reviews about the three

• The Number Three in The American Culture. A selected chapter found in the book entitled "Every Man His Way" (1967- 68) by Alan Dundes.
• "People in Threes Going Up in Smoke and Other Triplicities in Russian Literature and Culture" (Fall 2005, Rocky Mountain Review) by Lee B. Croft.
• "Buckland's Third Revolution" (1997- 98) and "Three Wise Men" (1984 - 85) posters by Herb O. Buckland.

## In other fields

International maritime signal flag for 3 is known as a triband, a form of the tricolour.
Travelling in a troika (three-horse sled).

Three is: Image File history File links ICS_Three. ... Image File history File links ICS_Three. ... The system of international maritime signal flags is a way of representing individual letters of the alphabet on ships or in nautical situations. ... The flag of Austria - a simple horizontal triband The flag of France - a simple vertical triband, and also a tricolour The flag of Canada - a vertical triband with uneven bands and a defacement The triband is one of the most common designs of flag, and is the design of some... French tricolour flag A tricolour is a flag or banner having three colours, usually in approximately equal size (horizontally or vertically) and lacking additional symbols. ... Image File history File links Orlowski_podrozny. ... Image File history File links Orlowski_podrozny. ...

## References

1. ^ Georges Ifrah, The Universal History of Numbers: From Prehistory to the Invention of the Computer transl. David Bellos et al. London: The Harvill Press (1998): 393, Fig. 24.63
• Wells, D. The Penguin Dictionary of Curious and Interesting Numbers London: Penguin Group. (1987): 46 - 48

Results from FactBites:

 3 (number) - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia (318 words) Three shall be the number thou shalt count, and the number of the counting shall be three. 3 is a number, a letter (uppercase: #) and sometimes a verb. When applied to algebra the number 3 is always equal to x.
 What's Special About This Number? (7482 words) is the number of planar partitions of 10. is the number of planar partitions of 11. is the number of planar partitions of 12.
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