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Encyclopedia > 2nd Prince Chun
Zaifeng, the 2nd Prince Chun in Qing Imperial Robes
Zaifeng, the 2nd Prince Chun in Qing Imperial Robes

The 2nd Prince Chun (Chinese: 醇親王) (February 12, 1883 - February 3, 1951) was born Zaifeng (Chinese: 載灃; Wade-Giles: Tsai-feng), of the Manchu Aisin-Gioro clan (the Qing imperial family ruling over China). He was the leader of China between 1908 and 1911, serving as the regent for his young son Puyi, the Xuantong Emperor. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... February 12 is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1883 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... February 3 is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... Wade-Giles, sometimes abbreviated Wade, is a Romanization (phonetic notation and transliteration) system for the Chinese language based on Mandarin. ... The Manchu (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: 满族; Traditional Chinese: 滿族; pinyin: ) are an ethnic group who originated in the dong bei or North East region consisting of Liaoning, Jilin, and Heilongjiang provinces, collectively known in English as Manchuria. ... Aisin Gioro (Simplified Chinese: 爱新觉罗; Traditional Chinese: 愛新覺羅; pinyin: ) was the clan name of the Manchu emperors of the Qing dynasty (as well as the later short-lived regime in Manchukuo). ... The Qing Dynasty (Manchu: daicing gurun; Chinese: 清朝; pinyin: qīng cháo; Wade-Giles: ching chao), sometimes known as the Manchu Dynasty, was founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China expanded into China proper and the surrounding territories of Inner Asia, establishing the... 1908 (MCMVIII) is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ... // High public office A regent, from the Latin regens who reigns is anyone who acts of head of state, especially if not the Monarch (who has higher titles). ... Aisin-Gioro Puyi¹ (February 7, 1906 - October 17, 1967) was the Xuantong Emperor (宣統皇帝) of China between 1908 and 1924 (ruling emperor between 1908 and 1912, and non-ruling emperor between 1912 and 1924), the tenth (and last) emperor of the Manchu Qing Dynasty to rule over China. ...


His courtesy name (字) was Yiyun (亦雲). His pseudonym (號), chosen in his older days, was Shupi (書癖). Cha can also refer to a Latin American dance, also called the Cha-cha-cha. ... Cha can also refer to a Latin American dance, also called the Cha-cha-cha. ...

Contents


Family and Childhood

He was the second oldest surviving son of the 1st prince Chun (醇賢親王) (1840-1891). His mother was the second concubine of the 1st Prince Chun, the Lady Lingiya (1866-1925), a Han Chinese maid at the mansion of the 1st prince Chun whose original Chinese family name was Liu (劉) and was changed into the Manchu clan's name Lingyia when she was made a Manchu, which was required in order to become the concubine of a Manchu prince. 1st Prince Chun The 1st Prince Chun (Chinese: 醇賢親王, officially Prince of the First Rank Chun Xian) (October 16, 1840 - January 1, 1891), commonly known in his days as the Seventh Prince (七王爺) was born Yixuan (Chinese: 奕譞; Wade-Giles: I-hsüan), of the Manchu Aisin-Gioro clan (the Qing Dynasty imperial... the Lady Lingiya (born 1866 - died 1925), was second concubine of the 1st Prince Chun. ... Han Chinese (Simplified Chinese: 汉族; Traditional Chinese: 漢族; pinyin: ) is a term which refers to the majority ethnic group within China and the largest single human ethnic group in the world. ... Liu is a Chinese family name. ... The Manchu (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: 满族; Traditional Chinese: 滿族; pinyin: ) are an ethnic group who originated in the dong bei or North East region consisting of Liaoning, Jilin, and Heilongjiang provinces, collectively known in English as Manchuria. ... The Manchu (Manchu: Manju; Simplified Chinese: 满族; Traditional Chinese: 滿族; pinyin: ) are an ethnic group who originated in the dong bei or North East region consisting of Liaoning, Jilin, and Heilongjiang provinces, collectively known in English as Manchuria. ...


He was born in Beijing while his older half-brother reigned as the Guangxu Emperor, having been chosen by Empress Dowager Cixi in 1875 to succeed the Tongzhi Emperor. His branch of the imperial family had thus obtained the highest status, and was in a close relationship with Cixi. In January 1891, he was not even 8-year-old yet, his father the 1st prince Chun died, and he was immediately made the new Prince of the First Rank Chun. â–¶(?) (Chinese: 北京; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Pei-ching; Postal System Pinyin: Peking) is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... The Guangxu Emperor (August 14, 1871–November 14, 1908), born Zaitian(載湉), was the tenth emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the ninth Qing emperor to rule over China, his reign lasting from 1875 to 1908, but in practice ruling from 1890 to 1898. ... Empress Dowager Cixi (1835-1908) The Empress Dowager Cixi (Chinese: 慈禧太后; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Tzu-hsi) (November 29, 1835 –November 15, 1908), popularly known in China as the Western Empress Dowager (西太后), and officially known posthumously as Empress Xiaoqin Xian (孝欽顯皇后), was a powerful and charismatic figure who was the de facto... 1875 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The Tongzhi Emperor (April 27, 1856–January 12, 1875) was the ninth emperor of the Manchu Qing dynasty, and the eighth Qing emperor to rule over China, from 1861 to 1875. ... 1891 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


Life in Government

At the end of February or the beginning of March 1901, he was appointed Army Inspector by the imperial court which had taken refuge in Xi'an following the Boxer Rebellion and the intervention of foreign powers. Then, in June of that same year, at the insistence of the foreign powers which favored the brother of Guangxu over the other princes of the imperial family, the only 18-year-old prince Chun was appointed ambassador extraordinary by the imperial court, in charge of conveying to the emperor of Germany the regrets of the emperor of China for the murder of the German ambassador Baron von Ketteler at the beginning of the Boxer uprising. Prince Chun set out by sea in July, met the German Kaiser Wilhelm II in Berlin in September of that same year, then visited several European countries and returned to China. He was one of the first members of the imperial family ever to travel abroad. 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Nickname: Changan Motto: {{{motto}}} Official website: http://www. ... Boxer forces, 1900 photograph The Boxer Uprising (Traditional Chinese: 義和團起義; Simplified Chinese: 义和团起义; pinyin: ; The Righteous and Harmonious Fists) was an uprising against Western commercial and political influence in China during the final years of the 19th century, from November 1899 to September 7, 1901. ... Kaiser is a German title meaning emperor, derived from the Roman title of Caesar, as is the Slavic title of Tsar. ... Wilhelm II of Prussia and Germany, Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert von Hohenzollern (January 27, 1859 - June 4, 1941) was the last German Emperor (Kaiser) and the last King (König) of Prussia from 1888 - 1918. ... This article is about the city in Germany. ...


Cixi was quite pleased with the way he handled his mission in Germany (allegedly he refused to kneel in front of the Kaiser, a custom mandatory at the Chinese imperial court and which the Germans had insisted on him following in Berlin), and so he was appointed to several important posts in Beijing in the following years. At the same time, Cixi was anguished by the favor that Prince Chun enjoyed with the foreign powers. One of the reasons why Prince Chun was appointed to all these important posts after 1901 was the fact that he was a protégé of the foreign powers which Cixi was very careful not to displease. However, she was as intent as ever on thwarting any challenge to her power, and so Prince Chun clearly posed a problem for her. In 1900, when the foreign powers entered Beijing, the fiancée of Prince Chun had committed suicide to avoid the dishonor of rape. Cixi saw an opportunity there: in 1902, on his return from Germany, Prince Chun was ordered by Cixi to marry Youlan (幼蘭), the daughter of the Manchu general Ronglu (榮祿) (1836-1903), from the Guwalgiya clan, one of the leaders of the conservative faction at the court, and a staunch supporter of Cixi. Ronglu had played a leading role in the brutal ending of the Hundred Days' Reform in 1898 and the internment of the Guangxu Emperor that followed, and so Prince Chun greatly disliked him, and accepted to marry his daughter only because it was unthinkable to oppose Cixi. The marriage, however, was an unhappy one. With the 2nd prince Chun now firmly tied to her, Cixi saw no more danger, and when Puyi was born in 1906 from the marriage, the infant became a likely heir to the throne. â–¶(?) (Chinese: 北京; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Pei-ching; Postal System Pinyin: Peking) is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ... 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Youlan is a Manchu name, used for females. ... Hundred Days Reform (Chinese: 戊戌变法, wùxÅ« biànfÇŽ, or 百日維新, bÇŽirì wéixÄ«n) was a 103-day reform from 11 June to 21 September 1898. ... 1898 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ...

2nd Prince Chun with his eldest son Puyi on his left, and his second son Pujie on his lap. Photo taken in the end of 1907.
2nd Prince Chun with his eldest son Puyi on his left, and his second son Pujie on his lap. Photo taken in the end of 1907.

{PD}} File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Regency

On November 14, 1908, the Guangxu Emperor died. On the same day an edict from Empress Dowager Cixi proclaimed Prince Chun's eldest son, Puyi, the new emperor. Prince Chun was made regent. The next day, Cixi died, ending her 47 years of almost continuous absolute power. Prince Chun was the regent of the Chinese empire for the next three years. His first concern was to punish Yuan Shikai, the leader of the Beiyang Army who had betrayed his brother the late emperor Guangxu and supported Ronglu in the bloody ending of the Hundred Days' Reform in 1898. Prince Chun was prevented from carrying out his plan of having Yuan Shikai assassinated, but Yuan was dismissed from his posts and sent back to his village in Henan province under the pretense of "curing his foot disease". November 14 is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 47 days remaining. ... 1908 (MCMVIII) is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Puyi (Chinese:溥儀; Pronounced Poo-yee) (February 7, 1906 - October 17, 1967) of the Manchu Aisin-Gioro ruling family was the Xuantong Emperor (宣統皇帝) of China between 1908 and 1924 (ruling emperor between 1908 and 1912, and non-ruling emperor between 1912 and 1924... Yuan Shikai in military uniform Yuan Shikai (Courtesy Weiting 慰亭; Pseudonym: Rongan 容庵 Traditional: 袁世凱; Simplified: 袁世凯; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Yüan Shih-kai) (September 16, 1859 – June 6, 1916) was a Chinese military official and politician during the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China. ... The Beiyang Army (北洋軍 běiyáng-jūn) was a powerful and Western-appearing Chinese military force created by the Qing dynasty government in the late 19th century. ... Henan (Chinese: 河南; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ho-nan), is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, located in the central part of the country. ...


For the next three years, the regent carried out the economic and political reforms that had been initiated after the Boxer Rebellion ended in 1901, but he was torn apart between the conservative Manchu factions at the court and the progressive Han Chinese officials in the provinces. The period saw the revolutionaries attempting several revolutions to overthrow the dynasty, and there was even one attempt to assassinate the regent in February 1910. Prince Chun did not have the maneuvering talent nor the lust for power of the late Cixi, and he proved often indecisive, and probably unfit for this troubled period. Boxer forces, 1900 photograph The Boxer Uprising (Traditional Chinese: 義和團起義; Simplified Chinese: 义和团起义; pinyin: ; The Righteous and Harmonious Fists) was an uprising against Western commercial and political influence in China during the final years of the 19th century, from November 1899 to September 7, 1901. ... 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Han Chinese (Simplified Chinese: 汉族; Traditional Chinese: 漢族; pinyin: ) is a term which refers to the majority ethnic group within China and the largest single human ethnic group in the world. ... 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


Eventually, on October 10, 1911 the Wuchang Uprising started the Xinhai Revolution which was to overthrow the Qing dynasty. The court was forced to call Yuan Shikai back, despite the regent's deep aversion for him, as Yuan was the only one capable of defeating the revolutionaries. Yuan became prime minister on November 16. Prince Chun, now deprived of any real power, and with his worst enemy in power, stepped down on December 6, 1911, and was replaced by Empress Dowager Longyu (隆裕太后) (his sister-in-law) as regent. As he returned to his home that day, he was quoted telling his family: "Now I am back among the family, and I can finally care for the children". The three years of the regency were certainly the most painful years in his life; he never relished power the way Cixi or Yuan Shikai did, and witnesses say he was relieved when he left office. October 10 is the 283rd day of the year (284th in Leap years). ... 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar). ... The Wuchang Uprising (武昌起義, pinyin: WÇ”chāng Qǐyì) of October 10, 1911, started the Xinhai Revolution, which triggered the collapse of the Qing Dynasty and establishment of the Republic of China (ROC). ... The Xinhai Revolution (or Hsinhai Revolution, Chinese: 辛亥革命; pinyin: Xīnhài Gémìng), named for the Chinese year of Xinhai (1911), was the overthrow (October 10, 1911-February 12, 1912) of Chinas ruling Qing Dynasty, sometimes known as the Manchu Dynasty, and the establishment of the Republic of China. ... Yuan Shikai in military uniform Yuan Shikai (Courtesy Weiting 慰亭; Pseudonym: Rongan 容庵 Traditional: 袁世凱; Simplified: 袁世凯; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Yüan Shih-kai) (September 16, 1859 – June 6, 1916) was a Chinese military official and politician during the late Qing Dynasty and the early Republic of China. ... Empress Dowager Longyu Her Imperial Majesty Dowager Empress Xiaoding Jing Longyu Huangtaihou of China (private name:靜芬) of the Yehonala clan (隆裕太后) (1868 - 1913) was the Empress Consort and also a cousin of the Guangxu Emperor (r. ...


Life after the Qing Dynasty

After he returned to private life, the 2nd prince Chun remained a respected figure, both among the republicans and later the communists, who appreciated his peaceful stepping down from power and acceptance of the republic, in sharp contrast with Yuan Shikai or other warlords. Sun Yat-sen even paid him a visit in Beijing in September 1912, on which occasion he congratulated Prince Chun, and Prince Chun formally declared he accepted the new Republic of China. The Chinese Nationalist Party (Traditional: 中國國民黨; Simplified: 中国国民党; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung-kuo Kuo-min-tang; Tongyong Pinyin: Jhongguo Guomindang), commonly known as the Kuomintang (KMT), is a conservative political party currently active in the Republic of China (ROC) on Taiwan. ... Communist Party of China flag The Communist Party of China (Simplified Chinese: 中国共产党; Traditional Chinese: 中國共産黨; pinyin: ) is the ruling party of the Peoples Republic of China. ... National motto: None Official language Mandarin Chinese Capital and largest city Taipei President Chen Shui-bian Premier Frank Hsieh Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 138th 35,980 km² 2. ... Sun Yat-sen (November 12, 1866 – March 12, 1925) was a Chinese revolutionary leader who had a significant role in the overthrow of the Qing Dynasty. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday. ...


At the death of Empress Dowager Longyu in 1913, he was put in charge of the small imperial court that remained around the now non-ruling emperor Puyi, and he managed all the affairs regarding the court until 1924 when Puyi was expelled from the Forbidden City. In 1917, when Puyi was briefly restored on the throne by the warlord Zhang Xun (張勛), the 2nd prince Chun played no significant role, as the slogan of Zhang Xun was "Do not allow the relatives of the emperor to participate in the government" ("不准親貴參政"). Empress Dowager Longyu Her Imperial Majesty Dowager Empress Xiaoding Jing Longyu Huangtaihou of China (private name:靜芬) of the Yehonala clan (隆裕太后) (1868 - 1913) was the Empress Consort and also a cousin of the Guangxu Emperor (r. ... 1913 (MCMXIII) is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... 1924 (MCMXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Forbidden City or Forbidden Palace (Chinese: 紫禁城; pinyin: ; literally Purple Forbidden City), located at the exact center of the ancient city of Beijing, was the imperial palace during the mid-Ming and the Qing dynasties. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the Julian calendar. ... Zhang Xun (156 - 199) was born into a middle class family in Huainan. ...


He lived in his palace in Beijing, the Northern Residence (北府), until 1928. He spent his time away from politics, spending his days in the large library of his palace, avidly reading historical books and newly published magazines. Sometime after 1911, as unhappy with his wife as ever, he married a concubine, with whom he had several children. His principal wife, the mother of Puyi, committed suicide in 1921 by swallowing opium after being scolded at a public audience by Concubine Dowager Duankang (端康太妃) for the misconduct of the young emperor Puyi. Concubine Dowager Duankuang was the highest ranking woman in the Forbidden City since the death of Empress Dowager Longyu in 1913. 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Puyi (Chinese:溥儀; Pronounced Poo-yee) (February 7, 1906 - October 17, 1967) of the Manchu Aisin-Gioro ruling family was the Xuantong Emperor (宣統皇帝) of China between 1908 and 1924 (ruling emperor between 1908 and 1912, and non-ruling emperor between 1912 and 1924... 1921 (MCMXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Opium is a narcotic analgesic drug which is obtained from the unripe seed pods of the opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L. or the synonym paeoniflorum). ... The Forbidden City or Forbidden Palace (Chinese: 紫禁城; pinyin: ; literally Purple Forbidden City), located at the exact center of the ancient city of Beijing, was the imperial palace during the mid-Ming and the Qing dynasties. ... Empress Dowager Longyu Her Imperial Majesty Dowager Empress Xiaoding Jing Longyu Huangtaihou of China (private name:靜芬) of the Yehonala clan (隆裕太后) (1868 - 1913) was the Empress Consort and also a cousin of the Guangxu Emperor (r. ...


In 1928 he moved to Tianjin where he lived in the British and Japanese concessions. In August 1939, as Tianjin was devastated by flooding, he relocated to the Northern Residence in Beijing. He was not in favor of the idea of establishing a Manchukuo state under Japanese control, and warned his son Puyi against the project, but he was not listened to. After Puyi became emperor of Manchukuo, he paid his son three visits, but ostensibly refused to take part in Manchukuo affairs. Puyi wanted to have him live close by in Manchukuo, but he refused and used the excuse of an illness to return to Beijing. At the end of the Second World War, when the Kuomintang recovered Beijing from the Japanese, a letter of sympathy was dispatched to him by the municipality of Beijing in recognition of his attitude during the Japanese occupation. Tianjin (Chinese: 天津; pinyin: ; Postal System Pinyin: Tientsin) is one of the four municipalities of the Peoples Republic of China. ... // Events January-March January 2 - End of term for Frank Finley Merriam, 28th Governor of California. ... Manchukuo (1932 to 1945) (Simplified Chinese: 满洲国; Traditional Chinese: 滿洲國; pinyin: ) was a former country in Manchuria and eastern Inner Mongolia under the leadership of the Emperor Pu Yi, who had also been the last emperor of Qing Dynasty. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... The Chinese Nationalist Party (Traditional: 中國國民黨; Simplified: 中国国民党; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chung-kuo Kuo-min-tang; Tongyong Pinyin: Jhongguo Guomindang), commonly known as the Kuomintang (KMT), is a conservative political party currently active in the Republic of China (ROC) on Taiwan. ...


When the communists took control of mainland China in 1949, he was again honored and party members took care of him. He sold the Northern Residence to the government out of financial needs. Then, thankful for the good treatment he received from the new government, he donated his library and his art collection to Peking University. He also gave money for the relief of the victims of the terrible flooding of the Huai River (淮河) in 1950. At the start of the Korean War, he was prominent in the movement of subscription to the Chinese government Victory Bonds. He died shortly afterwards on February 3, 1951 in Beijing. The Chinese Civil War (Traditional Chinese: 國共内戰; Simplified Chinese: 国共内战; pinyin: ; literally Nationalist-Communist Civil War) was a conflict in China between the Kuomintang (Chinese Nationalist Party; KMT) and the Communist Party of China (CPC). ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) is a common year starting on Saturday. ... Peking University 博学审问慎思明辨 Peking University or Beijing University (Simplified Chinese: 北京大学; Traditional Chinese: 北京大學; pinyin: ), colloquially known as Beida (北大, BÄ›idà). Established in 1898, it is one of the oldest and most prestigious universities in China. ... Huai He The Huai River (Chinese: 淮河; pinyin: ) is about mid-way between the Yellow River (Huang He) and the Yangtze River. ... 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Korean War, from June 25, 1950 to cease-fire on July 27, 1953 (technically speaking, the war has not yet ended), was a conflict between North Korea and South Korea. ... February 3 is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... â–¶(?) (Chinese: 北京; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Pei-ching; Postal System Pinyin: Peking) is the capital of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ...


Many of his decendants are in residence in Beijing, including Jin Yuzhang and Jin Yulan. Many have changed their Manchu clan name Aisin-Gioro into the Chinese family name Jin (金, meaning "Gold", a direct translation of Manchu aisin). Jin Yuzhang (Chinese:金毓嶂, b. ... Jin may refer to: Jin Dynasty (265-420) Jin Dynasty (1115-1234) (Jinn) Jin, a state in China during the Spring and Autumn Period Later Jin Dynasty, founded in 1616 by Nurhaci Jin, a ruler of the Xia dynasty The Jin state of late Bronze Age Korea Jin, a character...


Opinion

Opinions vary on the second prince Chun and his regency. While some describe him as a conservative who tried to reassert Manchu grasp on power despite rapidly changing times, others insist on the reforms that he implemented while regent, reforms which might well have turned China into a liberal constitutional monarchy had the Xinhai Revolution not happened. His patriotic attitude in the later part of his life has greatly contributed to his image inside China. This article discusses liberalism as a major political ideology as it developed and stands currently, rather than specific ideologies contained to specific countries. ... A constitutional monarchy is a form of monarchical government established under a constitutional system which acknowledges a hereditary or elected monarch as head of state. ... The Xinhai Revolution (or Hsinhai Revolution, Chinese: 辛亥革命; pinyin: Xīnhài Gémìng), named for the Chinese year of Xinhai (1911), was the overthrow (October 10, 1911-February 12, 1912) of Chinas ruling Qing Dynasty, sometimes known as the Manchu Dynasty, and the establishment of the Republic of China. ...

Preceded by:
Yixuan
Prince Chun
(Qing Dynasty)

1891–1911
Succeeded by:
Title Abolished

  Results from FactBites:
 
Puyi at AllExperts (2072 words)
Puyi's paternal grandfather was the 1st Prince Chun (1840â€"1891) who was himself a son of the Daoguang Emperor and a younger half-brother of Xianfeng Emperor, but not the next in line after Xianfeng (the 1st Prince Chun had older half-brothers that were closer in age to Xianfeng).
Lady Lingiya was a maid at the mansion of the 1st Prince Chun whose original Chinese family name was Liu (劉); this was changed into the Manchu clan's name Lingyia when she was made a Manchu, a requirement before becoming the concubine of a Manchu prince.
The 2nd Prince Chun was, therefore, a younger half-brother of the Guangxu Emperor and the first brother in line after Guangxu.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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