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Encyclopedia > 2d computer graphics

2D computer graphics is the computer-based generation of digital images—mostly from two-dimensional models (such as 2D geometric models, text, and digital images) and by techniques specific to them. The word may stand for the branch of computer science that comprises such techniques, or for the models themselves. This article is about the machine. ... A digital image is a representation of a two-dimensional image as a finite set of digital values, called picture elements or pixels. ... A 2D geometric model is a geometric model of an object as two-dimensional figure, usually on the Euclidean or Cartesian plane. ... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ...

Raster graphic sprites (left) and masks (right)
Raster graphic sprites (left) and masks (right)

2D computer graphics are mainly used in applications that were originally developed upon traditional printing and drawing technologies, such as typography, cartography, technical drawing, advertising, etc.. In those applications, the two-dimensional image is not just a representation of a real-world object, but an independent artifact with added semantic value; two-dimensional models are therefore preferred, because they give more direct control of the image than 3D computer graphics (whose approach is more akin to photography than to typography). Image File history File links Blit_dot. ... Image File history File links Blit_dot. ... Imagine the smiley face in the top left corner as an RGB bitmap image. ... In computer graphics, a sprite (also known by other names; see Synonyms below) is a two-dimensional/three-dimensional image or animation that is integrated into a larger scene. ... For other uses, see Print. ... For scale drawings or plans, see Plans (drawings). ... A specimen of roman typefaces by William Caslon Typography is the art and techniques of type design, modifying type glyphs, and arranging type. ... Cartography or mapmaking (in Greek chartis = map and graphein = write) is the study and practice of making maps or globes. ... Technical drawing, also known as drafting, is the practice of creating accurate representations of objects for technical, architectural and engineering needs. ... // Advert redirects here. ... Look up image in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about process of creating 3D computer graphics. ... Photography [fәtɑgrәfi:],[foʊtɑgrәfi:] is the process of recording pictures by means of capturing light on a light-sensitive medium, such as a film or electronic sensor. ... A specimen of roman typefaces by William Caslon Typography is the art and techniques of type design, modifying type glyphs, and arranging type. ...


In many domains, such as desktop publishing, engineering, and business, a description of a document based on 2D computer graphics techniques can be much smaller than the corresponding digital image—often by a factor of 1/1000 or more. This representation is also more flexible since it can be rendered at different resolutions to suit different output devices. For these reasons, documents and illustrations are often stored or transmitted as 2D graphic files. Adobe InDesign CS2, one of many popular desktop publishing applications. ... Engineering is the discipline and profession of applying scientific knowledge and utilizing natural laws and physical resources in order to design and implement materials, structures, machines, devices, systems, and processes that realize a desired objective and meet specified criteria. ... In economics, a business is a legally-recognized organizational entity existing within an economically free country designed to sell goods and/or services to consumers, usually in an effort to generate profit. ... A digital image is a representation of a two-dimensional image as a finite set of digital values, called picture elements or pixels. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Image resolution describes the detail an image holds. ... An output device is any piece of computer hardware equipment used to communicate the results of data processing carried out by an information processing system (such as a computer) to the outside world. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Comparison of graphics file formats. ...


2D computer graphics started in the 1950s, based on vector graphics devices. These were largely supplanted by raster-based devices in the following decades. The PostScript language and the X Window System protocol were landmark developments in the field. The 1950s decade refers to the years 1950 to 1959 inclusive. ... Example showing effect of vector graphics versus raster graphics. ... Imagine the smiley face in the top left corner as an RGB bitmap image. ... For the literary term, see Postscript. ... “X11” redirects here. ...

Contents

2D graphics techniques

2D graphics models may combine geometric models (also called vector graphics), digital images (also called raster graphics), text to be typeset (defined by content, font style and size, color, position, and orientation), mathematical functions and equations, and more. These components can be modified and manipulated by two-dimensional geometric transformations such as translation, rotation, scaling. A 2D geometric model is a geometric model of an object as two-dimensional figure, usually on the Euclidean or Cartesian plane. ... Example showing effect of vector graphics versus raster graphics. ... A digital image is a representation of a two-dimensional image as a finite set of digital values, called picture elements or pixels. ... Imagine the smiley face in the top left corner as an RGB bitmap image. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... “Font” redirects here. ... This article is about functions in mathematics. ... An equation is a mathematical statement, in symbols, that two things are the same (or equivalent). ... In mathematics, a transformation in elementary terms is any of a variety of different functions from geometry, such as rotations, reflections and translations. ... In Euclidean geometry, translation is a transformation of Euclidean space which moves every point by a fixed distance in the same direction. ... This article is about rotation as a movement of a physical body. ... In Euclidean geometry, uniform scaling is a linear transformation that enlarges or diminishes objects; the scale factor is the same in all directions; it is also called a homothety. ...


In object-oriented graphics, the image is described indirectly by an object endowed with a self-rendering method—a procedure which assigns colors to the image pixels by an arbitrary algorithm. Complex models can be built by combining simpler objects, in the paradigms of object-oriented programming. In strictly mathematical branches of computer science the term object is used in a purely mathematical sense to refer to any thing. While this interpretation is useful in the discussion of abstract theory, it is not concrete enough to serve as a primitive datatype in the discussion of more concrete... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In object-oriented programming, the term method refers to a subroutine that is exclusively associated either with a class (called class methods, static methods, or factory methods) or with an object (called instance methods). ... This article is about the picture element. ... Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm that uses objects and their interactions to design applications and computer programs. ...


Direct painting

A convenient way to create a complex image is to start with a blank "canvas" raster map (an array of pixels, also known as a bitmap) filled with some uniform background color and then "draw", "paint" or "paste" simple patches of color onto it, in an appropriate order. In particular, the canvas may be the frame buffer for a computer display. Imagine the smiley face in the top left corner as an RGB bitmap image. ... This article is about the picture element. ... This article is about the storage organization of raster images. ... [[Media:Example[[[ == --213. ... The framebuffer is a part of RAM in a computer allocated to hold the graphics information for one frame or picture. ... A computer display monitor, usually called simply a monitor, is a piece of electrical equipment which displays viewable images generated by a computer without producing a permanent record. ...


Some programs will set the pixel colors directly, but most will rely on some 2D graphics library and/or the machine's graphics card, which usually implement the following operations: This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... A graphics/video/display card/board/adapter is a computer component designed to convert the logical representation of visual information into a signal that can be used as input for a display medium. ...

  • paste a given image at a specified offset onto the canvas;
  • write a string of characters with a specified font, at a given position and angle;
  • paint a simple geometric shape, such as a triangle defined by three corners, or a circle with given center and radius;
  • draw a line segment, arc, or simple curve with a virtual pen of given width.

A digital image is a representation of a two-dimensional image as a finite set of digital values, called picture elements or pixels. ... In geometry, two sets of points are of the same shape precisely if one can be transformed to another by dilating (i. ... A triangle. ... This article is about the shape and mathematical concept of circle. ... The geometric definition of a line segment In geometry, a line segment is a part of a line that is bounded by two end points, and contains every point on the line between its end points. ... ARC may refer to: // American Record Company, a United States record label American Reprographics Company, the largest reprographics company in the United States ARC International, a computer processor designer Airlines Reporting Corporation, a company which handles administrative functions for airlines Advanced Recon Commando, part of the elite special forces of...

Extended color models

Text, shapes and lines are rendered with a client-specified color. Many libraries and cards provide color gradients, which are handy for the generation of smoothly-varying backgrounds, shadow effects, etc.. (See also Gouraud shading). The pixel colors can also be taken from a texture, e.g. a digital image (thus emulating rub-on screentones and the fabled "checker paint" which used to be available only in cartoons). Gouraud shaded sphere - note the inaccuracies towards the edges of the polygons. ... A digital image is a representation of a two-dimensional image as a finite set of digital values, called picture elements or pixels. ... Screentone is a generic name for a technical drawing technique for applying various textures to surfaces from a specially preprinted sheet. ... For other uses, see Cartoon (disambiguation). ...


Painting a pixel with a given color usually replaces its previous color. However, many systems support painting with transparent and translucent colors, which only modify the previous pixel values. The two colors may also be combined in fancier ways, e.g. by computing their bitwise exclusive or. This technique is known as inverting color or color inversion, and is often used in graphical user interfaces for highlighting, rubber-band drawing, and other volatile painting—since re-painting the same shapes with the same color will restore the original pixel values. This article is about the picture element. ... Transparency is possible in a number of graphics file formats. ... In optics, transparency is the property of being transparent, or allowing light to pass. ... In computer programming, a bitwise operation operates on one or two bit patterns or binary numerals at the level of their individual bits. ... Exclusive disjunction (usual symbol xor) is a logical operator that results in true if one of the operands (not both) is true. ... GUI redirects here. ...


Layers

The models used in 2D computer graphics usually do not provide for three-dimensional shapes, or three-dimensional optical phenomena such as lighting, shadows, reflection, refraction, etc.. However, they usually can model multiple layers (conceptually of ink, paper, or film; opaque, translucent, or transparent—stacked in a specific order. The ordering is usually defined by a single number (the layer's depth, or distance from the viewer). Shadows on pavement A shadow is a region of darkness where light is blocked. ... The reflection of a bridge in Indianapolis, Indianas Central Canal. ... For the property of metals, see refraction (metallurgy). ... In optics, transparency is the property of being transparent, or allowing light to pass. ... Transparency is possible in a number of graphics file formats. ...


Layered models are sometimes called 2 1/2-D computer graphics. They make it possible to mimic traditional drafting and printing techniques based on film and paper, such as cutting and pasting; and allow the user to edit any layer without affecting the others. For these reasons, they are used in most graphics editors. Layered models also allow better anti-aliasing of complex drawings and provide a sound model for certain techniques such as mitered joints and the even-odd rule. In computer graphics, graphics software is a program or collection of programs that enable a person to manipulate visual images on a computer. ... In digital signal processing, anti-aliasing is the technique of minimizing the distortion artifacts known as aliasing when representing a high-resolution signal at a lower resolution. ... The Even-Odd-Rule is an algorithm implemented in the PostScript language which determines how a graphical shape with a closed outline will be filled. ...


Layered models are also used to allow the user to suppress unwanted information when viewing or printing a document, e.g. roads and/or railways from a map, certain process layers from an integrated circuit diagram, or hand annotations from a business letter. For other uses, see Map (disambiguation). ... Integrated circuit of Atmel Diopsis 740 System on Chip showing memory blocks, logic and input/output pads around the periphery Microchips with a transparent window, showing the integrated circuit inside. ...


In a layer-based model, the target image is produced by "painting" or "pasting" each layer, in order of decreasing depth, on the virtual canvas. Conceptually, each layer is first rendered on its own, yielding a digital image with the desired resolution which is then painted over the canvas, pixel by pixel. Fully transparent parts of a layer need not be rendered, of course. The rendering and painting may be done in parallel, i.e. each layer pixel may be painted on the canvas as soon as it is produced by the rendering procedure. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A digital image is a representation of a two-dimensional image as a finite set of digital values, called picture elements or pixels. ... Image resolution describes the detail an image holds. ...


Layers that consist of complex geometric objects (such as text or polylines) may be broken down into simpler elements (characters or line segments, respectively), which are then painted as separate layers, in some order. However, this solution may create undesirable aliasing artifacts wherever two elements overlap the same pixel. In computer programming and formal language theory, (and other branches of mathematics), a string is an ordered sequence of symbols. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ... The geometric definition of a line segment In geometry, a line segment is a part of a line that is bounded by two end points, and contains every point on the line between its end points. ... Properly sampled image of brick wall. ...


See also Portable Document Format#Layers. “PDF” redirects here. ...


2D graphics hardware

Modern computer graphics card displays almost overwhelmingly use raster techniques, dividing the screen into a rectangular grid of pixels, due to the relatively low cost of raster-based video hardware as compared with vector graphic hardware. Most graphic hardware has internal support for blitting operations and sprite drawing. A co-processor dedicated to blitting is known as a Blitter chip. A graphics/video/display card/board/adapter is a computer component designed to convert the logical representation of visual information into a signal that can be used as input for a display medium. ... This article is about the picture element. ... Bit blit (bitblt, blitting etc. ... In computer graphics, a sprite (also known by other names; see Synonyms below) is a two-dimensional/three-dimensional image or animation that is integrated into a larger scene. ... A co-processor is a secondary processor in a computer that handles tasks that the general-purpose CPU either cannot implement, or does not implement for efficiency reasons. ... Bit blit (bitblt, blitting etc. ... A Blitter (acronym for BLock Image TransferrER) is a chip that specialises in bitmap data-transfer using bit blit methods. ...


Classic 2D graphics chips of the late 1970s and early 80s, used in the 8-bit video game consoles and home computers, include: Early graphics chips were simple video adapters for generating text and computer graphics on a video computer display found in early computers and graphics cards. ... 8-bit refers to the number of bits used in the data bus of a computer. ... Game console redirects here. ... Children playing on a Amstrad CPC 464 in the 1980s. ...

This article is about the corporate brand. ... AntiC (or JLint) is a programming tool for finding programming errors in source code. ... GPU redirects here. ... The Television Interface Adapter (TIA) is the custom chip that is the heart of the Atari 2600 games console and was created by Jay Miner of Amiga fame. ... The Color Television Interface Adapter is the graphics chip used in some early Atari 400/800 home computers. ... Georges Television Interface Adapter (GTIA) is the successor to the CTIA chip used in the Atari 8-bit computers. ... Commodore, the commonly used name for Commodore International, was an American electronics company based in West Chester, Pennsylvania which was a vital player in the home/personal computer field in the 1980s. ... MOS Technology, Inc. ... The VIC (Video Interface Chip), specifically known as the MOS Technology 6560 (NTSC version) / 6561 (PAL version), is the integrated circuit chip responsible for generating video graphics and sound in the Commodore VIC-20 home computer. ... The VIC-II (Video Interface Chip II), specifically known as the MOS Technology 6567/8562/8564 (NTSC versions), 6569/8565/8566 (PAL), is the integrated circuit chip tasked with generating composite video graphics and DRAM refresh signals in the Commodore 64 and C128 home computers. ...

2D graphics software

Many graphical user interfaces (GUIs), including Mac OS, Microsoft Windows, or the X Window System, are primarily based on 2D graphical concepts. Such software provides a visual environment for interacting with the computer, and commonly includes some form of window manager to aid the user in conceptually distinguishing between different applications. The user interface within individual software applications is typically 2D in nature as well, due in part to the fact that most common input devices, such as the mouse, are constrained to two dimensions of movement. GUI redirects here. ... This article relates to both the original Classic Mac OS as well as Mac OS X, Apples more recent operating system. ... Windows redirects here. ... “X11” redirects here. ... A window manager is computer software that controls the placement and appearance of windows within a windowing system in a graphical user interface; they are typically associated with X Window (see X window manager), but alternative shells for Microsoft Windows have also emerged. ... An input device is a hardware mechanism that transforms information in the external world for consumption by a computer. ... Operating a mechanical 1: Pulling the mouse turns the ball. ...


2D graphics are very important in the control peripherals such as printers, plotters, sheet cutting machines, etc.. They were also used in most early video and computer games; and are still used for card and board games such as solitaire, chess, mahjongg, etc.. Computer and video games redirects here. ... A computer game is a game composed of a computer-controlled virtual universe that players interact with in order to achieve a defined goal or set of goals. ... This article is about the solitaire family of card games. ... This article is about the Western board game. ... This article discusses the four-player game of Chinese origin. ...


2D graphics editors or drawing programs are application-level software for the creation of images, diagrams and illustrations by direct manipulation (through the mouse, graphics tablet, or similar device) of 2D computer graphics primitives. These editors generally provide geometric primitives as well as digital images; and some even support procedural models. The illustration is usually represented internally as a layered model, often with a hierarchical structure to make editing more convenient. These editors generally output graphics files where the layers and primitives are separately preserved in their original form. MacDraw, introduced in 1984 with the Macintosh line of computers, was an early example of this class; recent examples are the commercial products Adobe Illustrator and CorelDRAW, and the free editors such as xfig or Inkscape. There are also many 2D graphics editors specialized for certain types of drawings such as electrical, electronic and VLSI diagrams, topographic maps, computer fonts, etc. A Wacom Graphire4 graphics tablet. ... A digital image is a representation of a two-dimensional image as a finite set of digital values, called picture elements or pixels. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Comparison of graphics file formats. ... MacDraw was a vector-based drawing program made by Apple Computer for the early Macintosh computers; the software was later sold to Claris. ... This article is about the year. ... The first Macintosh computer, introduced in 1984, upgraded to a 512K Fat Mac. The Macintosh or Mac, is a line of personal computers designed, developed, manufactured, and marketed by Apple Computer. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Screenshot of xfig with a drawing inside. ... Inkscape is a vector graphics editor application. ...


Image editors are specialized for the manipulation of digital images, mainly by means of free-hand drawing/painting and signal processing operations. They typically use a direct-painting paradigm, where the user controls virtual pens, brushes, and other free-hand artistic instruments to apply paint to a virtual canvas. Some image editors support a multiple-layer model; however, in order to support signal-processing operations like blurring each layer is normally represented as a digital image. Therefore, any geometric primitives that are provided by the editor are immediately converted to pixels and painted onto the canvas. The name raster graphics editor is sometimes used to contrast this approach to that of general editors which also handle vector graphics. One of the first popular image editors was Apple's MacPaint, companion to MacDraw. Modern examples are the free GIMP editor, and the commercial products Photoshop and Paint Shop Pro. This class too includes many specialized editors — for medicine, remote sensing, digital photography, etc. Digital image processing is the use of computer algorithms to perform image processing on digital images. ... A digital image is a representation of a two-dimensional image as a finite set of digital values, called picture elements or pixels. ... Signal processing is the processing, amplification and interpretation of signals, and deals with the analysis and manipulation of signals. ... Apple Inc. ... MacPaint is a bitmap-based image editing computer program that was produced by Apple Computer for bundling with their Macintosh personal computer. ... MacDraw was a vector-based drawing program made by Apple Computer for the early Macintosh computers; the software was later sold to Claris. ... For other uses, see Gimp (disambiguation). ... Adobe Photoshop is a bitmap graphics editor (with some text and vector graphics capabilities) published by Adobe Systems. ... Paint Shop Pro (PSP) is a bitmap graphics editor and vector graphics editor for computers running the Microsoft Windows operating system that was originally published by Minneapolis-based Jasc Software. ... 10 MP Nikon D200 and a Nikon film scanner The Canon EOS 350D The Canon PowerShot A95 Digital photography is a form of photography that utilizes digital technology to make digital images of subjects. ...


Developmental animation

With the resurgence of 2D animation and its booming popularity, software like Toonz Harlequin, CelAction, Anime Studio, ToonBoom Animation, Animaker and Adobe Flash have emerged as the new tools of choice for both amateur and professional animators. Anime Studio is a vector based 2D animation software for animators distributed by e frontier. ... Adobe Flash - previously called Shockwave Flash and Macromedia Flash - is a set of multimedia technologies developed and distributed by Adobe Systems and earlier by Macromedia. ...


However, the principal issue with 2D animation is labor requirements. With advanced software like Retas and Adobe After Effects, coloring and compositing can be easily done with significantly less time. Adobe After Effects is a digital motion graphics and compositing software published by Adobe Systems. ...


Additional software is being developed to aid and speed up the process of digital 2D animation, specifically in the area of automatic coloring and in-betweening. One such example is Cacani, developed by Singapore's NTU. This animated GIF demonstrates the effects of Adobe Flash shape, motion and color tweening. ... Cacani, abbreviation for Computer Assisted Cel Animation, is a 2D animation system that automatically generates in-between frames from key frames. ... NTU may stand for: National Taiwan University, a university in Taiwan National Taxpayers Union, a nonprofit organization in the United States National Television Company of Ukraine, a Ukrainian television broadcaster Nottingham Trent University, a university in the United Kingdom Nanyang Technological University, a university in Singapore Nephelometric Turbidity Unit, a...


See also

This article is about process of creating 3D computer graphics. ... Bit blit (bitblt, blitting etc. ... This article is about the scientific discipline of computer graphics. ... Computer artists have, since the invention of the personal computer, reinvented different forms of artistic expression. ... A screenshot of Karbon14 vector graphic software running on an AegeanLinux desktop. ... Graphic redirects here. ... In computer graphics, image scaling is the process of resizing a digital image. ... This is a list of home computers, sorted alphanumerically, which lists all relevant details of their Video Hardware. ... The Logo programming language is an adaptation by Wally Feurzeig and Seymour Papert of the Lisp programming language that is easier to read. ... For the literary term, see Postscript. ... Transparency is possible in a number of graphics file formats. ... SVG redirects here. ... A palette, in computer graphics, is a designated subset of the total range of colors supported by a computer graphics system. ... This monster (The Gunk) is an example of pixel art drawn using Microsoft Paint. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Computer graphics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (972 words)
Computer graphics (CG) is the field of visual computing, where one utilizes computers both to generate visual images synthetically and to integrate or alter visual and spatial information sampled from the real world.
The first major advance in computer graphics was the development of the Sketchpad in 1962 by Ivan Sutherland.
However, all the "computer graphic" effects in that film were hand-drawn animation, and the special effects sequences were produced entirely with conventional optical and model effects.
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