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Encyclopedia > 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake
2004 Indian Ocean earthquake
Tsunami strikes Ao Nang, Thailand.
Tsunami strikes Ao Nang, Thailand.
Date December 26, 2004
Magnitude 9.3 Mw
Depth: 30 km (19 mi)
Epicenter location: 3.316° N 95.854° ECoordinates: 3.316° N 95.854° E
Countries affected Indonesia (mainly in Aceh)
Sri Lanka
India (mostly in Tamil Nadu)
Thailand
Casualties: 229,866

The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake was an undersea (subduction) earthquake that occurred at 00:58:53 UTC December 26, 2004, with an epicentre off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. The earthquake triggered a series of devastating tsunamis along the coasts of most landmasses bordering the Indian Ocean, killing more than 225,000 people in eleven countries, and inundating coastal communities with waves up to 30 meters (100 feet). It was one of the deadliest natural disasters in history. Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, and Thailand were hardest hit. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1536x1114, 916 KB) A picture of the 2004 tsunami in Thailand. ... Sea view from Ao Nang hotel Ao Nang main street, early evening Ao Nang is a central point of the coastal province of Krabi, Thailand. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The moment magnitude scale was introduced in 1979 by Tom Hanks and Hiroo Kanamori as a successor to the Richter scale and is used by seismologists to compare the energy released by earthquakes. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Aceh (pronounced , generally Anglicized as IPA: ) is a special territory (daerah istimewa) of Indonesia, located on the northern tip of the island of Sumatra. ... Tamil Nadu (தமிழ் நாடு, Land of the Tamils) is a state at the southern tip of India. ... Geometry of a subduction zone - insets to show accretionary prism and partial melting of hydrated asthenosphere. ... This article is about the natural seismic phenomenon. ... UTC redirects here. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The epicenter or epicentre (ancient Greek: επίκεντρον) is the point on the Earths surface that is directly above or below the center of a localized explosive event or point of seismic energy release. ... For other uses, see Sumatra (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Tsunami (disambiguation). ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... For man-made disasters see: List of wars and disasters by death toll A death toll is the number of dead as a result of war, violence, accident, natural disaster, extreme weather, or disease. ...


With a magnitude of between 9.1 and 9.3, it is the second largest earthquake ever recorded on a seismograph. This earthquake had the longest duration of faulting ever observed, between 8.3 and 10 minutes. It caused the entire planet to vibrate as much as 1 cm (0.5 inches)[1] and triggered other earthquakes as far away as Alaska.[2] The moment magnitude scale was introduced in 1979 by Tom Hanks and Hiroo Kanamori as a successor to the Richter scale and is used by seismologists to compare the energy released by earthquakes. ... The following is a list of major earthquakes. ... Seismographs (in Greek seismos = earthquake and graphein = write) are used by seismologists to record seismic waves. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ...


The disaster is known by the scientific community as the Great Sumatra-Andaman earthquake,[3] and is also known as the Asian Tsunami and the Boxing Day Tsunami. The tsunami occurred exactly one year after the 2003 Bam earthquake and exactly two years before the 2006 Hengchun earthquake. Boxing Day is a public holiday observed in many Commonwealth countries on 26 December. ... Bam in 2002. ... The 2006 Hengchun earthquake occurred on December 26, 2006 at 12:25 UTC (20:25 local time), with an epicenter off the southwest coast of Taiwan, approximately 22. ...


The plight of the many affected people and countries prompted a widespread humanitarian response. In all, the worldwide community donated more than $7 billion (2004 U.S. dollars) in humanitarian aid. A village near the coast of Sumatra lies in ruins This article lists the countries affected by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and the resulting tsunami in alphabetical order – for detailed information about each country see their individual articles. ... The humanitarian response to the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake was prompted by one of the worst natural disasters of modern times. ... USD redirects here. ...

2004 Indian Ocean
earthquake

Events Subject: Animation of 2004 Indonesia tsunami Source: NOAA [1] Animation provided by Vasily V. Titov, Associate Director, Tsunami Inundation Mapping Efforts (TIME), NOAA/PMEL - UW/JISAO, USA. See a full-length animation at Image:2004 Indonesia Tsunami Complete. ...

Response Although, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) scientists at the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) in Hawaii eventually issued warnings of a possible tsunami from the huge earthquake off Sumatra, the waves outran notification systems at jet speeds of 500 mph (804 km/h) - catching hundreds of thousands of people... A village near the coast of Sumatra lies in ruins This article lists the countries affected by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and the resulting tsunami in alphabetical order – for detailed information about each country see their individual articles. ... A village near the coast of Sumatra lies in ruins This article lists the countries affected by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and the resulting tsunami in alphabetical order – for detailed information about each country see their individual articles. ...

See also The humanitarian response to the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake was prompted by one of the worst natural disasters of modern times. ...

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Contents

The Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System is a tsunami warning system set up to provide warning to inhabitants of nations bordering the Indian Ocean of approaching tsunamis. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The 2005 Sumatra earthquake, referred to as the Nias Earthquake by the scientific community, was a major earthquake on 28 March 2005, (a full moon) located off the west coast of northern Sumatra, Indonesia. ...

Earthquake characteristics

Epicentre of the earthquake, just north of Simeulue Island

The earthquake was initially reported as moment magnitude 9.0. In February 2005 scientists revised the estimate of the magnitude to 9.3.[4] Although the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center has accepted these new numbers, the United States Geological Survey has so far not changed its estimate of 9.1. The most recent studies in 2006 have obtained a magnitude of Mw 9.1 to 9.3. Dr. Hiroo Kanamori of the California Institute of Technology believes that Mw = 9.2 is a good representative value for the size of this great earthquake.[5] Image File history File links Earthquake_20041226_epicentre. ... Image File history File links Earthquake_20041226_epicentre. ... The epicenter or epicentre (ancient Greek: επίκεντρον) is the point on the Earths surface that is directly above or below the center of a localized explosive event or point of seismic energy release. ... Sumatra; Simeulue is near the left edge in the upper half Simeulue is an island in the Indian Ocean, 150 km off the west coast of Sumatra. ... The moment magnitude scale (a successor to the Richter Scale), was introduced in 1979 by Tom Hanks and Hiroo Kanamori and is used by seismologists to compare the energy released by earthquakes. ... Tsunameter and buoys used by DART system The Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC), operated by NOAA in Ewa Beach, Hawaii, USA, is one of two tsunami warning centers in the United States. ... InsertSLUTTY WHORES≤ non-formatted text here{| class=toccolours border=1 cellpadding=4 style=float: right; margin: 0 0 1em 1em; width: 20em; border-collapse: collapse; font-size: 95%; clear: right; |+ United States Geological Survey |- |style= align=center colspan=2| [[Image:USGS logo. ... Hiroo Kanamori (金森 博雄 Kanamori Hiroo; October 17, 1936—) is a seismologist who has made fundamental contributions to understanding the physics of earthquakes and the tectonic processes that cause them. ... The California Institute of Technology (commonly referred to as Caltech)[1] is a private, coeducational research university located in Pasadena, California, in the United States. ...


The hypocentre of the main earthquake was at 3.316° N 95.854° E, approximately 160 km (100 mi), in the Indian Ocean just north of Simeulue island, off the western coast of northern Sumatra, at a depth of 30 km (19 mi) below mean sea level (initially reported as 10 km). The earthquake itself (apart from the tsunami) was felt as far away as Bangladesh, India, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, Singapore and the Maldives. The hypocenter or hypocentre (literally: below the center from the Greek υπόκεντρον), also known as the focus, is the point inside the Earth where an earthquake originates. ... Sumatra; Simeulue is near the left edge in the upper half Simeulue is an island in the Indian Ocean, 150 km off the west coast of Sumatra. ... For considerations of sea level change, in particular rise associated with possible global warming, see sea level rise. ... Anthem Kaba Ma Kyei Capital Naypyidaw Largest city Yangon Official languages Burmese Demonym Burmese Government Military junta  -  Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Than Shwe  -  Prime Minister Soe Win  -  Acting Prime Minister Thein Sein Establishment  -  Bagan 849–1287   -  Taungoo Dynasty 1486–1752   -  Konbaung Dynasty 1752–1885   -  Colonial rule...


Indonesia lies between the Pacific Ring of Fire along the north-eastern islands adjacent to and including New Guinea and the Alpide belt along the south and west from Sumatra, Java, Bali, Flores, and Timor. “The Ring of Fire” redirects here. ... The Alpide belt extends from Java to Sumatra through the Himalayas, the Mediterranean, and out into the Atlantic. ... For other uses, see Sumatra (disambiguation). ... Java (Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ... This article is about the Indonesian island. ... Map of Flores Island Flores (Portuguese for flowers) is one of the Lesser Sunda Islands, an island arc with an estimated area of 14,300 km² extending east from the Java island of Indonesia. ... Timor is an island at the south end of the Malay Archipelago, divided between the independent state of East Timor, and West Timor, part of the Indonesian province of East Nusa Tenggara with the surface of 11,883 sq mi (30,777 km²). The name is a variant of timur...


Great earthquakes such as the Sumatra-Andaman event, which are invariably associated with megathrust events in subduction zones, have seismic moments that can account for a significant fraction of the global earthquake moment across century-scale time periods. The Sumatra-Andaman earthquake was the largest earthquake since 1964, and the second largest since the Kamchatka earthquake of October 16, 1737. A megathrust earthquake is an interplate earthquake where one tectonic plate slips beneath (subducts) another. ... Categories: Geology stubs | Plate tectonics ... Seismic moment is a quantity used by earthquake seismologists to measure the size of an earthquake. ... The Kamchatka earthquakes were a pair of megathrust earthquakes occurring off the coast of the Kamchatka Peninsula, in Russia on October 16, 1737, and on November 4, 1952, in the magnitude of ~9. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events 12 February — The San Carlo, the oldest working opera house in Europe, is inaugurated. ...

Of all the seismic moment released by earthquakes in the 100 years from 1906 through 2005, roughly one-eighth was due to the Sumatra-Andaman event. This quake, together with the Good Friday Earthquake (Alaska, 1964) and the Great Chilean Earthquake (1960), account for almost half of the total moment. The much smaller but still catastrophic 1906 San Francisco earthquake is included in the diagram at right for perspective. Mw denotes the magnitude of an earthquake on the moment magnitude scale. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1824x1378, 405 KB)Richard Aster (New Mexico Tech) created this figure using the resources of the IRIS Consortium and the USGS. Additional data was generously provided by Lynn Sykes of Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia Univerisity. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1824x1378, 405 KB)Richard Aster (New Mexico Tech) created this figure using the resources of the IRIS Consortium and the USGS. Additional data was generously provided by Lynn Sykes of Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia Univerisity. ... Seismic moment is a quantity used by earthquake seismologists to measure the size of an earthquake. ... Earthquake Damage, Anchorage The Good Friday Earthquake (also called the Great Alaska Earthquake) of Friday, March 27, 1964 (Good Friday, a Christian holy day associated with a historical earthquake[1]), 5:36 P.M. AST (03:36 3/27 UTC) had a magnitude of 9. ... For other uses, see Alaska (disambiguation). ... Map showing the areas affected by the tsunami The Great Chilean Earthquake or Valdivian Earthquake (Terremoto de Valdivia in Spanish) of 22 May 1960 is the most intense earthquake ever recorded, rating a 9. ... Sarah San Francisco Earthquake redirects here. ... The moment magnitude scale was introduced in 1979 by Tom Hanks and Hiroo Kanamori as a successor to the Richter scale and is used by seismologists to compare the energy released by earthquakes. ...


Since 1900 the only earthquakes recorded with a greater magnitude were the 1960 Great Chilean Earthquake (magnitude 9.5) and the 1964 Good Friday Earthquake in Prince William Sound (9.2). The only other recorded earthquake of magnitude 9.0 or greater was off Kamchatka, Russia, on November 4, 1952 (magnitude 9.0).[6] Each of these megathrust earthquakes also spawned tsunamis in the Pacific Ocean, but the death toll from these was significantly lower. The worst of these caused only a few thousand deaths, primarily because of the lower population density along the coasts near affected areas and the much greater distances to more populated coasts. Map showing the areas affected by the tsunami The Great Chilean Earthquake or Valdivian Earthquake (Terremoto de Valdivia in Spanish) of 22 May 1960 is the most intense earthquake ever recorded, rating a 9. ... Earthquake Damage, Anchorage The Good Friday Earthquake (also called the Great Alaska Earthquake) of Friday, March 27, 1964 (Good Friday, a Christian holy day associated with a historical earthquake[1]), 5:36 P.M. AST (03:36 3/27 UTC) had a magnitude of 9. ... Prince William Sound, on the south coast of Alaska. ... “Kamchatka” redirects here. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A megathrust earthquake is an interplate earthquake where one tectonic plate slips beneath (subducts) another. ...


Other very large megathrust earthquakes occurred in 1868 (Peru, Nazca Plate and South American Plate); 1827 (Colombia, Nazca Plate and South American Plate); 1812 (Venezuela, Caribbean Plate and South American Plate) and 1700 (Cascadia Earthquake, western U.S. and Canada, Juan de Fuca Plate and North American Plate). These are all believed to have been of greater than magnitude 9, but no accurate measurements were available at the time.  The Nacza plate, shown in light blue The Nazca Plate, named after the Nazca region of southern Peru, is an oceanic tectonic plate in the eastern Pacific Ocean basin off the west coast of South America. ...  The South American plate, shown in purple The South American Plate is a tectonic plate covering the continent of South America and extending eastward to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. ... Detail of tectonic plates from: Tectonic plates of the world. ... The 1700 Cascadia Earthquake was a magnitude 8. ... A map of the Juan de Fuca Plate The Juan de Fuca Plate, named after the explorer, is a tectonic plate arising from the Juan de Fuca Ridge, and subducting under the northerly portion of the western side of the North American Plate. ...  The North American plate, shown in brown The North American Plate is a tectonic plate covering most of North America, extending eastward to the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and westward to the Cherskiy Range in East Siberia. ...


Tectonic plates

The earthquake was unusually large in geographical extent. An estimated 1,600 km (994 mi) of faultline slipped about 15 m (50 ft) along the subduction zone where the India Plate slides under the Burma Plate. The slip did not happen instantaneously but took place in two phases over a period of several minutes. Seismographic and acoustic data indicate that the first phase involved a rupture about 400 km (250 mi) long and 100 km (60 mi) wide, located 30 km (19 mi) beneath the sea bed—the longest rupture ever known to have been caused by an earthquake. The rupture proceeded at a speed of about 2.8 km/s (1.7 mi/s) or 10,000 km/h (6,300 mph), beginning off the coast of Aceh and proceeding north-westerly over a period of about 100 seconds. A pause of about another 100 seconds took place before the rupture continued northwards towards the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. However, the northern rupture occurred more slowly than in the south, at about 2.1 km/s (1.3 mi/s) or 7,600 km/h (4,700 mph), continuing north for another five minutes to a plate boundary where the fault changes from subduction to strike-slip (the two plates push past one another in opposite directions). This reduced the speed of the water displacement and so reducing the size of the tsunami that hit the northern part of the Indian Ocean.[7] Geologic faults, fault lines or simply faults are planar rock fractures, which show evidence of relative movement. ... Categories: Geology stubs | Plate tectonics ...  The Indian plate, shown in red Due to continental drift, the India Plate split from Madagascar and collided with the Eurasian Plate resulting in the formation of the Himalayas. ... The Burma Plate, showing boundaries with the India Plate (the Sunda Trench) and the Sunda Plate (through the Andaman Sea) The Burma Plate is a small tectonic plate or microplate located in Southeast Asia, often considered a part of the larger Eurasian Plate. ... Miles per hour is a unit of speed, expressing the number of international miles covered per hour. ... Aceh (pronounced , generally Anglicized as IPA: ) is a special territory (daerah istimewa) of Indonesia, located on the northern tip of the island of Sumatra. ... Andaman Islands The Andaman Islands are a group of islands in the Bay of Bengal, and are part of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands Union Territory of India. ... Map of Nicobar Islands The Nicobar Islands are an island chain in the eastern Indian Ocean, and are part of the Union Territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. ... Miles per hour is a unit of speed, expressing the number of international miles covered per hour. ... Geologic faults, fault lines or simply faults are planar rock fractures, which show evidence of relative movement. ...


The India Plate is part of the great Indo-Australian Plate, which underlies the Indian Ocean and Bay of Bengal, and is drifting north-east at an average of 6 cm/year (2 inches per year). The India Plate meets the Burma Plate (which is considered a portion of the great Eurasian Plate) at the Sunda Trench. At this point the India Plate subducts beneath the Burma Plate, which carries the Nicobar Islands, the Andaman Islands and northern Sumatra. The India Plate slips deeper and deeper beneath the Burma Plate until the increasing temperature and pressure drive volatiles out of the subducting plate. These volatiles rise into the crust above and trigger melt which exits the earth's crust through volcanoes in the form of a volcanic arc. The volcanic activity that results as the Indo-Australian plate subducts the Eurasian plate has created the Sunda Arc.  The Indo-Australian plate, shown in dull orange The Indo-Australian Plate is an overarching name for two tectonic plates that include the continent of Australia and surrounding ocean extending northwest to include the Indian subcontinent and adjacent waters. ... Look up Bay of Bengal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Burma Plate, showing boundaries with the India Plate (the Sunda Trench) and the Sunda Plate (through the Andaman Sea) The Burma Plate is a small tectonic plate or microplate located in Southeast Asia, often considered a part of the larger Eurasian Plate. ...  The Eurasian plate, shown in green The Eurasian Plate is a tectonic plate covering Eurasia (a landmass consisting of the traditional continents of Europe and Asia) except that it does not cover the Indian subcontinent, the Arabian subcontinent, and the area east of the Verkhoyansk Range in East Siberia. ... Categories: Geology stubs | Plate tectonics ... Map of Nicobar Islands The Nicobar Islands are an island chain in the eastern Indian Ocean, and are part of the Union Territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. ... Andaman Islands The Andaman Islands are a group of islands in the Bay of Bengal, and are part of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands Union Territory of India. ... For other uses, see Sumatra (disambiguation). ... Mariana Islands, an oceanic island arc Cascade Volcanic Arc, a continental volcanic arc A volcanic arc is a chain of volcanic islands or mountains formed by plate tectonics as an oceanic tectonic plate subducts under another tectonic plate and produces magma. ... Categories: Geology stubs | Plate tectonics ...


As well as the sideways movement between the plates, the sea bed is estimated to have risen by several metres, displacing an estimated 30 km³ (7 cu mi) of water and triggering devastating tsunami waves. The waves did not originate from a point source, as was inaccurately depicted in some illustrations of their paths of travel, but rather radiated outwards along the entire 1,600 km (994 mi) length of the rupture (acting as a line source). This greatly increased the geographical area over which the waves were observed, reaching as far as Mexico, Chile and the Arctic. The raising of the sea bed significantly reduced the capacity of the Indian Ocean, producing a permanent rise in the global sea level by an estimated 0.1 mm.[8] For other uses, see Tsunami (disambiguation). ... Look up point source in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... North-South Expressway in Malaysia; a roadway can be considered as a line source of air and noise pollution and need not be a straight line. ... For the ships, see USS Arctic, SS Arctic, MV Arctic The red line indicates the 10°C isotherm in July, sometimes used to define the Arctic region border Artificially coloured topographical map of the Arctic region The Arctic is the region around the Earths North Pole, opposite the Antarctic...


Aftershocks and other earthquakes

Locations of initial earthquake and all aftershocks measuring greater than 4.0 from December 26, 2004January 10, 2005. The site of the original quake is marked by the large star in the lower right square of the grid. (Credit: USGS)

Numerous aftershocks were reported off the Andaman Islands, the Nicobar Islands and the region of the original epicentre in the hours and days that followed. The largest aftershock, which originated off the coast of the Sumatran island of Nias, registered a magnitude of 8.7,[9] prompting debate among seismologists as to whether it should be classified as an aftershock of the December 2004 quake or as a "triggered earthquake" (which typically differs from an aftershock in that it is not located along the same fault line and may be as large or larger than the earthquake which triggered it).[10] This earthquake was so large that it produced its own aftershocks (some registering a magnitude of as great as 6.1) and presently ranks as the 7th largest earthquake on record since 1900. Other aftershocks of up to magnitude 6.6 continued to shake the region daily for up to three or four months.[11][12] As well as continuing aftershocks, the energy released by the original earthquake continued to make its presence felt well after the event. A week after the earthquake, its reverberations could still be measured, providing valuable scientific data about the Earth's interior. Download high resolution version (612x792, 61 KB) Aftershocks of the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, with data up to January 10, 2005. ... Download high resolution version (612x792, 61 KB) Aftershocks of the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, with data up to January 10, 2005. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 10th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... InsertSLUTTY WHORES≤ non-formatted text here{| class=toccolours border=1 cellpadding=4 style=float: right; margin: 0 0 1em 1em; width: 20em; border-collapse: collapse; font-size: 95%; clear: right; |+ United States Geological Survey |- |style= align=center colspan=2| [[Image:USGS logo. ... Aftershocks are earthquakes in the same region of the mainshock (generally within a few rupture length) but of smaller magnitude and which occur with a pattern that follows Omoris law. ... Andaman Islands The Andaman Islands are a group of islands in the Bay of Bengal, and are part of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands Union Territory of India. ... Map of Nicobar Islands The Nicobar Islands are an island chain in the eastern Indian Ocean, and are part of the Union Territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. ... The 2005 Sumatra earthquake, referred to as the Nias Earthquake by the scientific community, was a major earthquake on 28 March 2005, (a full moon) located off the west coast of northern Sumatra, Indonesia. ... Nias (Indonesian: Pulau Nias, Nias language: Tanö Niha) is an island off the western coast of Sumatra, Indonesia. ...


The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake came just three days after a magnitude 8.1 earthquake in an uninhabited region west of New Zealand's sub-Antarctic Auckland Islands, and north of Australia's Macquarie Island. This is unusual, since earthquakes of magnitude 8 or more occur only about once per year on average.[13] Some seismologists have speculated about a connection between these two earthquakes, saying that the former one might have been a catalyst to the Indian Ocean earthquake, as the two earthquakes happened on opposite sides of the Indo-Australian Plate. However, the U.S. Geological Survey sees no evidence of a causal relationship in this incident. Coincidentally, the earthquake struck almost exactly one year (to the hour) after a 6.6 magnitude earthquake killed an estimated 30,000 people in the city of Bam in Iran on December 26, 2003.[14] The sub-antarctic islands are the islands in the Southern Ocean around Antarctica. ... Southern coast of the main island The Auckland Islands (Motu Maha) () form an archipelago of the New Zealand Sub-Antarctic Islands and include the following: Auckland Island, Adams Island, Enderby Island, Disappointment Island, Ewing Island, Dundas Island and Green Island. ... Macquarie Island lies in the southwest corner of the Pacific Ocean, about half-way between Australia and Antarctica. ...  The Indo-Australian plate, shown in dull orange The Indo-Australian Plate is an overarching name for two tectonic plates that include the continent of Australia and surrounding ocean extending northwest to include the Indian subcontinent and adjacent waters. ... InsertSLUTTY WHORES≤ non-formatted text here{| class=toccolours border=1 cellpadding=4 style=float: right; margin: 0 0 1em 1em; width: 20em; border-collapse: collapse; font-size: 95%; clear: right; |+ United States Geological Survey |- |style= align=center colspan=2| [[Image:USGS logo. ... Bam in 2002. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Some scientists confirm that the December earthquake had activated Leuser Mountain, a volcano in Aceh province along the same range of peaks as Mount Talang, while the 2005 Sumatran earthquake had sparked activity in Lake Toba, an ancient crater in Sumatra.[15] Geologists say that the eruption of Mount Talang in April 2005 is connected to the December earthquake.[16] Mount Leuser (3404m) is the tallest mountain in the Indonesian semi-autonomous region of Aceh. ... Three months after the tsunami struck, the people of Aceh, Indonesia, are struggling to put their lives together, according to the nations officials. ... Epicentre map from NOAA USGS image depicting earthquake zones for the Sunda Trench - Damage zones for 1833 and 1861, then 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, and 28 March 2005 Sumatran earthquake. ... Lake Toba (Indonesian: Danau Toba) is a lake, 100 km long and 30 km wide, and 505 m. ... Three months after the tsunami struck, the people of Aceh, Indonesia, are struggling to put their lives together, according to the nations officials. ...


Energy released by the earthquake

The energy released on the earth's surface only, MEwhich is the seismic potential for damage, by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami was estimated at 1.1×1017 joules[17] or 26.3 megatons of TNT. This energy is equivalent to over 1502 times that of the Hiroshima atomic bomb, but less than that of Tsar Bomba, the largest nuclear weapon ever detonated. However, this is but a tiny fraction of the total work done MW (and thus energy) by this quake, 4.0×1029 ergs (40 ZJ)[18], the vast majority underground. This equates to 4.0×1022 J, over 363 thousand times more than its ME. This is a truly enormous figure, equivalent to 9,560 gigatons of TNT equivalent (550 million times that of Hiroshima), or about 370 years of energy use in the United States at 2005 levels of 1.08×1020 J. The joule (IPA: or ) (symbol: J) is the SI unit of energy. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... Tsar Bomba (, literally King Bomb) is the Western name for the RDS-220 hydrogen bomb (codenamed Иван (Ivan) by its developers) — the largest, most powerful nuclear weapon ever detonated. ... In physics, mechanical work is the amount of energy transferred by a force. ... An erg is the unit of energy and mechanical work in the centimetre-gram-second (CGS) system of units, symbol erg. Its name is derived from the Greek word meaning work. The erg is a small unit, equal to a force of one dyne exerted for a distance of one... The joule (IPA: or ) (symbol: J) is the SI unit of energy. ... Unit of energy commonly used to quantify laerge amounts of energy. ... The United States is the worlds largest energy consumer in terms of total use, and ranks 7th on a per-capita basis. ...


The only earthquakes ever with a larger MW were the 1960 Chilean and 1964 Alaskan quakes, with 2.5×1030 ergs (250 ZJ) and 7.5×1029 ergs (75 ZJ) respectively.[19] Please see USGS:Measuring the size of earthquakes.


The earthquake generated seismic oscillation of the Earth's surface of up to 20–30 cm (8–12 in), equivalent to the effect of the tidal forces caused by the Sun and Moon. The shock waves of the earthquake were felt across the planet; as far away as the U.S. state of Oklahoma, where vertical movements of 3 mm (0.12 in) were recorded. This article is about tides in the ocean. ... For other uses, see Oklahoma (disambiguation). ...


Because of its enormous energy release and shallow rupture depth, the earthquake generated remarkable seismic ground motions around the globe, particularly due to huge Rayleigh (surface) elastic waves that exceeded 1 cm in vertical amplitude everywhere on Earth. The record section plot below displays vertical displacements of the Earth's surface recorded by seismometers from the IRIS/USGS Global Seismographic Network plotted with respect to time (since the earthquake initiation) on the horizontal axis, and vertical displacements of the Earth on the vertical axis (note the 1 cm scale bar at the bottom for scale). The seismograms are arranged vertically by distance from the epicenter in degrees. The earliest, lower amplitude, signal is that of the compressional (P) wave, which takes about 22 minutes to reach the other side of the planet (the antipode; in this case near Ecuador). The largest amplitude signals are seismic surface waves that reach the antipode after about 100 minutes. The surface waves can be clearly seen to reinforce near the antipode (with the closest seismic stations in Ecuador), and to subsequently encircle the planet to return to the epicentral region after about 200 minutes. A major aftershock (magnitude 7.1) can be seen at the closest stations starting just after the 200 minute mark. This aftershock would be considered a major earthquake under ordinary circumstances, but is dwarfed by the mainshock. Rayleigh waves, also known as the Rayleigh-Lamb Wave or ground roll, are a type of surface wave. ...

Vertical-component ground motions recorded by the IRIS/USGS Global Seismographic Network
Vertical-component ground motions recorded by the IRIS/USGS Global Seismographic Network

The shift of mass and the massive release of energy very slightly altered the Earth's rotation. The exact amount is not yet known, but theoretical models suggest the earthquake shortened the length of a day by 2.68 microseconds, due to a decrease in the oblateness of the Earth.[20] It also caused the Earth to minutely "wobble" on its axis by up to 2.5 cm (1 in) in the direction of 145° east longitude,[21] or perhaps by up to 5 or 6 cm (2.0 to 2.4 in).[22] However, because of tidal effects of the Moon, the length of a day increases at an average of 15 µs per year, so any rotational change due to the earthquake will be lost quickly. Similarly, the natural Chandler wobble of the Earth, which in some cases can be up to 15 m (50 ft), will eventually offset the minor wobble produced by the earthquake. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (500x611, 108 KB)Richard Aster (New Mexico Tech) created this figure for free distribution using the open resources of the IRIS/USGS Global Seismographic Network along with colleagues at the IRIS Consortium File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (500x611, 108 KB)Richard Aster (New Mexico Tech) created this figure for free distribution using the open resources of the IRIS/USGS Global Seismographic Network along with colleagues at the IRIS Consortium File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file... To help compare orders of magnitude of different times this page lists times between 10−6 seconds and 10−5 seconds (1. ... An oblate spheroid is ellipsoid having a shorter axis and two equal longer axes. ... Longitude is the east-west geographic coordinate measurement most commonly utilized in cartography and global navigation. ... This article is about Earths moon. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different times this page lists times between 10−6 seconds and 10−5 seconds (1. ... The Chandler wobble is a small variation in Earths axis of rotation, discovered by American astronomer Seth Carlo Chandler in 1891. ... This article is about the unit of length. ...


More spectacularly, there was 10 m (33 ft) movement laterally and 4–5 m (13–16 ft) vertically along the fault line. Early speculation was that some of the smaller islands south-west of Sumatra, which is on the Burma Plate (the southern regions are on the Sunda Plate), might have moved south-west by up to 36 m (118 ft), but more accurate data released more than a month after the earthquake found the movement to be about 20 cm (7.9 in).[23] Since movement was vertical as well as lateral, some coastal areas may have been moved to below sea level. The Andaman and Nicobar Islands appear to have shifted south-west by around 1.25 m (4.1 ft) and to have sunk by 1 m (3.28 ft).[24] The Burma Plate, showing boundaries with the India Plate (the Sunda Trench) and the Sunda Plate (through the Andaman Sea) The Burma Plate is a small tectonic plate or microplate located in Southeast Asia, often considered a part of the larger Eurasian Plate. ... Sunda Plate ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Andaman Islands. ...


In February 2005, the Royal Navy vessel HMS Scott surveyed the seabed around the earthquake zone, which varies in depth between 1,000 m and 5,000 m (3,300 ft and 16,500 ft). The survey, conducted using a high-resolution, multi-beam sonar system, revealed that the earthquake had made a huge impact on the topography of the seabed. 1,500-meter (5,000 ft) high thrust ridges created by previous geologic activity along the fault had collapsed, generating landslides several kilometers wide. One such landslide consisted of a single block of rock some 100 m high and 2 km long (300 ft by 1.25 mi). The momentum of the water displaced by tectonic uplift had also dragged massive slabs of rock, each weighing millions of tons, as far as 10 km (7 mi) across the seabed. An oceanic trench several kilometres wide was exposed in the earthquake zone.[25] This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... HMS Scott (H131) is an ocean-going survey vessel of the Royal Navy. ... This article is about underwater sound propagation. ... This entry refers to the geological term landslide. ... The oceanic trenches are hemispheric-scale long but narrow topographic depressions of the sea floor. ...


The TOPEX/Poseidon and Jason 1 satellites happened to pass over the tsunami as it was crossing the ocean.[26] These satellites carry radars that measure precisely the height of the water surface; anomalies of the order of 50 cm (20 in) were measured. Measurements from these satellites may prove invaluable for the understanding of the earthquake and tsunami.[27] Unlike data from tide gauges installed on shores, measurements obtained in the middle of the ocean can be used for computing the parameters of the source earthquake without having to compensate for the complex ways in which close proximity to the coast changes the size and shape of a wave. The TOPEX/Poseidon satellite altimeter is a science project to measure the ocean surface topography. ... This article contains material and/or images that originally came from a NASA website. ... For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ... This tidal gauge is ready to be installed underwater in a marina. ...


Tsunami characteristics

Animation of the tsunami caused by the earthquake showing how the tsunami radiated from the entire length of the 1,600 km (994 mi) rupture.
Animation of the tsunami caused by the earthquake showing how the tsunami radiated from the entire length of the 1,600 km (994 mi) rupture.

The sudden vertical rise of the seabed by several metres during the earthquake displaced massive volumes of water, resulting in a tsunami that struck the coasts of the Indian Ocean. A tsunami which causes damage far away from its source is sometimes called a "teletsunami", and is much more likely to be produced by vertical motion of the seabed than by horizontal motion.[28] Image File history File links 2004_Indonesia_Tsunami_Complete. ... “km” redirects here. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Tsunami (disambiguation). ...


The tsunami, like all others, behaved very differently in deep water than in shallow water. In deep ocean water, tsunami waves form only a small hump, barely noticeable and harmless, which generally travels at a very high speed of 500 to 1,000 km/h (310 to 620 mph); in shallow water near coastlines, a tsunami slows down to only tens of kilometres an hour but in doing so forms large destructive waves. Scientists investigating the damage in Aceh found evidence that the wave reached a height of 24 m when coming ashore along large stretches of the coastline, rising to 30 m (100 ft) in some areas when travelling inland.[29]


Radar satellites recorded the heights of tsunami waves in deep water: at two hours after the earthquake, the maximum height was 60 cm (2 ft). These are the first such observations ever made. However, these observations could not have been used to provide a warning, because the satellites were not intended for that purpose and the data took hours to analyse.[30][31] For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ...


According to Tad Murty, vice-president of the Tsunami Society, the total energy of the tsunami waves was equivalent to about five megatons of TNT (20 petajoules). This is more than twice the total explosive energy used during all of World War II (including the two atomic bombs), but still a couple of orders of magnitude less than the energy released in the earthquake itself. In many places the waves reached as far as 2 km (1.24 mi) inland.[32] Tad S. Murty is an Indian-Canadian oceanographer and expert on tsunamis. ... The Tsunami Society is a research organization that studies tsunamis and seeks to supply information about them to the public. ... A megaton or megatonne is a unit of mass equal to 1,000,000 metric tons, i. ... R-phrases S-phrases Related Compounds Related compounds picric acid hexanitrobenzene Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a chemical compound with the formula C6H2(NO2)3CH3. ... This article describes the SI prefix peta. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... An order of magnitude is the class of scale or magnitude of any amount, where each class contains values of a fixed ratio to the class preceding it. ... “km” redirects here. ... “Miles” redirects here. ...


Because the 1,600 km (994 mi) fault affected by the earthquake was in a nearly north-south orientation, the greatest strength of the tsunami waves was in an east-west direction. Bangladesh, which lies at the northern end of the Bay of Bengal, had very few casualties despite being a low-lying country relatively near the epicenter. It also benefited from the fact that the earthquake proceeded more slowly in the northern rupture zone, greatly reducing the energy of the water displacements in that region. “km” redirects here. ... “Miles” redirects here. ... Look up Bay of Bengal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Coasts that have a landmass between them and the tsunami's location of origin are usually safe; however, tsunami waves can sometimes diffract around such landmasses. Thus, the Indian state of Kerala was hit by the tsunami despite being on the western coast of India, and the western coast of Sri Lanka also suffered substantial impacts. Also distance alone is no guarantee of safety; Somalia was hit harder than Bangladesh despite being much farther away. The intensity pattern formed on a screen by diffraction from a square aperture Diffraction refers to various phenomena associated with wave propagation, such as the bending, spreading and interference of waves passing by an object or aperture that disrupts the wave. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ...


Because of the distances involved, the tsunami took anywhere from fifteen minutes to seven hours (for Somalia) to reach the various coastlines.[33][34] The northern regions of the Indonesian island of Sumatra were hit very quickly, while Sri Lanka and the east coast of India were hit roughly 90 minutes to two hours later. Thailand was also struck about two hours later despite being closer to the epicentre, because the tsunami travelled more slowly in the shallow Andaman Sea off its western coast. The Andaman Sea (Burmese: ; IPA: ) is a body of water to the southeast of the Bay of Bengal, south of Myanmar, west of Thailand and east of the Andaman Islands; it is part of the Indian Ocean. ...


The tsunami was noticed as far as Struisbaai in South Africa, some 8,500 km (5,300 mi) away, where a 1.5 m (5 ft) high tide surged on shore about 16 hours after the earthquake. It took a relatively long time to reach this spot at the southernmost point of Africa, probably because of the broad continental shelf off South Africa and because the tsunami would have followed the South African coast from east to west. The tsunami also reached Antarctica, where tidal gauges at Japan's Showa Base recorded oscillations of up to a metre, with disturbances lasting a couple of days.[35] Struisbaai is a coastal village boasting the longest continuous stretch of white sand coastline in the Southern Hemisphere, and is located at 34:48S and 20. ... Showa Station (昭和基地 Shōwa Kichi) is a Japanese research station located at in Antarctica. ...


Some of the tsunami's energy escaped into the Pacific Ocean, where it produced small but measurable tsunamis along the western coasts of North and South America, typically around 20 to 40 cm (7.9 to 15.7 in).[36] At Manzanillo, Mexico, a 2.6 m (8.5 ft) crest-to-trough tsunami was measured. As well, the tsunami was large enough to be detected in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada. This puzzled many scientists, as the tsunamis measured in some parts of South America were larger than those measured in some parts of the Indian Ocean. It has been theorised that the tsunamis were focused and directed at long ranges by the mid-ocean ridges which run along the margins of the continental plates.[37] Manzanillo is a city as well as its surrounding municipality in the Mexican state of Colima. ... For other uses, see Vancouver (disambiguation). ... Motto: Splendor sine occasu (Latin: Splendour without diminishment) Capital Victoria Largest city Vancouver Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor Steven Point Premier Gordon Campbell (BC Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 36 Senate seats 6 Confederation July 20, 1871 (6th province) Area  Ranked 5th Total 944... Oceanic Ridge Oceanic crust is formed at an oceanic ridge, while the lithosphere is subducted back into the asthenosphere at trenches. ...


Signs and warnings

Despite a lag of up to several hours between the earthquake and the impact of the tsunami, nearly all of the victims were taken completely by surprise. There were no tsunami warning systems in the Indian Ocean to detect tsunamis or to warn the general populace living around the ocean. Tsunami detection is not easy because while a tsunami is in deep water it has little height and a network of sensors is needed to detect it. Setting up the communications infrastructure to issue timely warnings is an even bigger problem, particularly in a relatively poor part of the world. It has been suggested that Low coasts mitigation be merged into this article or section. ...


Tsunamis are much more frequent in the Pacific Ocean because of earthquakes in the "Ring of Fire", and an effective tsunami warning system has long been in place there. Although the extreme western edge of the Ring of Fire extends into the Indian Ocean (the point where this earthquake struck), no warning system exists in that ocean. Tsunamis there are relatively rare despite earthquakes being relatively frequent in Indonesia. The last major tsunami was caused by the Krakatoa eruption of 1883. It should be noted that not every earthquake produces large tsunamis; on March 28, 2005, a magnitude 8.7 earthquake hit roughly the same area of the Indian Ocean but did not result in a major tsunami. “The Ring of Fire” redirects here. ... For the 1969 film about the Krakatoa eruption, see Krakatoa, East of Java. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In the aftermath of the disaster, there is now an awareness of the need for a tsunami warning system for the Indian Ocean. The United Nations started working on an Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System and by 2005 had the initial steps in place. Some have even proposed creating a unified global tsunami warning system, to include the Atlantic Ocean and Caribbean. UN redirects here. ... The Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System is a tsunami warning system set up to provide warning to inhabitants of nations bordering the Indian Ocean of approaching tsunamis. ... West Indies redirects here. ...

Maximum recession of tsunami waters at Kata Noi Beach, Thailand, before the third, and strongest, tsunami wave (sea visible in the right corner, the beach is at the extreme left), 10:25 a.m. local time.
Maximum recession of tsunami waters at Kata Noi Beach, Thailand, before the third, and strongest, tsunami wave (sea visible in the right corner, the beach is at the extreme left), 10:25 a.m. local time.

The first warning sign of a possible tsunami is the earthquake itself. However, tsunami can strike thousands of kilometres away where the earthquake is only felt weakly or not at all. Also, in the minutes preceding a tsunami strike, the sea often recedes temporarily from the coast. Around the Indian Ocean, this rare sight reportedly induced people, especially children, to visit the coast to investigate and collect stranded fish on as much as 2.5 km (1.6 mi) of exposed beach, with fatal results.[38] Receding tsunami waters at Kata Noi Beach. ... Receding tsunami waters at Kata Noi Beach. ... The beach and the bay at Kata Noi (December 2003). ...


One of the few coastal areas to evacuate ahead of the tsunami was on the Indonesian island of Simeulue, very close to the epicentre. Island folklore recounted an earthquake and tsunami in 1907, and the islanders fled to inland hills after the initial shaking yet before the tsunami struck.[39] On Maikhao beach in northern Phuket, Thailand, a 10-year-old British tourist named Tilly Smith had studied tsunami in geography class at school and recognised the warning signs of the receding ocean and frothing bubbles. She and her parents warned others on the beach, which was evacuated safely.[40] John Chroston, a biology teacher from Scotland, also recognised the signs at Kamala Bay north of Phuket, taking a busload of vacationers and locals to safety on higher ground. Sumatra; Simeulue is near the left edge in the upper half Simeulue is an island in the Indian Ocean, 150 km off the west coast of Sumatra. ... Phuket (Thai ภูเก็ต) is one of the southern provinces (changwat) of Thailand. ... Tilly Smith is a British girl who, at age 10, was credited with saving nearly a hundred foreign tourists at Maikhao Beach (Thailand) by raising the alarm minutes before the arrival of the tsunami caused by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. ... John Chroston, a biology teacher at Falkirk High School, Scotland, was one of the few tourists present during the Indian Ocean earthquake able to recognise tsunami warning signs and prompt a beach evacuation. ...


Anthropologists had initially expected the aboriginal population of the Andaman Islands to be badly affected by the tsunami and even feared the endangered Onge tribe could have been wiped out. Of the six native tribes only the Nicobarese, who had converted to Christianity and taken up agriculture in place of their previous hunter-gatherer lifestyle, and mainland settlers had suffered significant losses. Onge tribespeople explained that the sea and land always fought over boundaries. First the spirits became angry and shook the trees and then when they saw changes in the sea and clouds they knew “the sea would enter the jungle and mix with the land until they decided on a new boundary”. The aboriginal tribes evacuated and suffered few or no losses. See Anthropology. ... Comparative map showing the distributions of the various Andamanese peoples in the Andaman Islands- early 1800s versus present-day (2004). ... Andaman Islands The Andaman Islands are a group of islands in the Bay of Bengal, and are part of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands Union Territory of India. ... The Onge (also Önge) are one of the Andamanese indigenous peoples of the Andaman Islands, located in the Bay of Bengal. ... In anthropology, the hunter-gatherer way of life is that led by certain societies of the Neolithic Era based on the exploitation of wild plants and animals. ... The term indigenous peoples has no universal, standard or fixed definition, but can be used about any ethnic group who inhabit the geographic region with which they have the earliest historical connection. ...


Retreat and rise cycle

The tsunami was a succession of several waves, occurring in retreat and rise cycles with a period of over 30 minutes between each peak. The third wave was the most powerful and reached highest, occurring about an hour and a half after the first wave. Smaller tsunamis continued to occur for the rest of the day.

Damage and casualties

Chennai's Marina beach after the Tsunami
Chennai's Marina beach after the Tsunami

The U.S. Geological Survey initially recorded the toll as 283,100 killed, 14,100 missing, and 1,126,900 people displaced. However, more recent analysis compiled by the United Nations lists a total of 229,866 people lost, including 186,983 dead and 42,883 missing.[41] The figure excludes 400 to 600 people who are believed to have perished in Myanmar, which is more than that government's official figure of only 61 dead.[42] If the higher Myanmar figures are reliable, the death toll would include at least 230,000 people. Measured in lives lost, this is one of the ten worst earthquakes in recorded history, as well as the single worst tsunami in history. Image File history File linksMetadata Chennai_beach2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Chennai_beach2. ... Madras redirects here. ... The Marina Beach is a beach situated along a 12 km shoreline in the city of Chennai, India. ... The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is a scientific agency of the United States government. ... UN redirects here. ... Anthem Kaba Ma Kyei Capital Naypyidaw Largest city Yangon Official languages Burmese Demonym Burmese Government Military junta  -  Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Than Shwe  -  Prime Minister Soe Win  -  Acting Prime Minister Thein Sein Establishment  -  Bagan 849–1287   -  Taungoo Dynasty 1486–1752   -  Konbaung Dynasty 1752–1885   -  Colonial rule... The following is a list of major earthquakes. ...


The tsunami caused serious damage and deaths as far as the east coast of Africa, with the furthest recorded death due to the tsunami occurring at Rooi Els in South Africa, 8,000 km (4,971 mi) away from the epicentre. In total, eight people in South Africa died due to abnormally high sea levels and waves. A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... “km” redirects here. ... “Miles” redirects here. ...


Relief agencies report that one-third of the dead appear to be children. This is a result of the high proportion of children in the populations of many of the affected regions and because children were the least able to resist being overcome by the surging waters. Oxfam went on to report that as many as four times more women than men were killed in some regions because they were waiting on the beach for the fishermen to return and looking after their children in the houses.[43] Oxfam International logo Oxfam International is a confederation of 13 organizations working with over 3000 partners in more than 100 countries to find lasting solutions to poverty and injustice. ...


In addition to the large number of local residents, up to 9,000 foreign tourists (mostly Europeans) enjoying the peak holiday travel season were among the dead or missing, especially people from the Nordic countries. The European nation hardest hit may have been Sweden, whose death toll was 543.[44] Political map of the Nordic countries and associated territories. ...


States of emergency were declared in Sri Lanka, Indonesia, and the Maldives. The United Nations estimated at the outset that the relief operation (which is presently still underway) would be the costliest in human history. UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan has stated that reconstruction would probably take between five and ten years. Governments and non-governmental organisations fear the final death toll may double as a result of diseases, prompting a massive humanitarian response. For other uses, see State of emergency (disambiguation). ... UN redirects here. ... The United Nations Secretary-General is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal divisions of the United Nations. ... Kofi Atta Annan GCMG (born April 8, 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1, 1997 to January 1, 2007, serving two five-year terms. ... A non-governmental organization (NGO) is an organization which is not a part of a government. ... A death toll is the number of dead as a result of war, violence, accident, natural disaster, extreme weather, or disease. ... The humanitarian response to the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake was prompted by one of the worst natural disasters of modern times. ...


For purposes of establishing timelines of local events, the time zones of affected areas are: UTC+3: (Kenya, Madagascar, Somalia, Tanzania); UTC+4: (Mauritius, Réunion, Seychelles); UTC+5: (Maldives); UTC+5:30: (India); UTC+6: (Bangladesh, Sri Lanka); UTC+6:30: (Cocos Islands, Myanmar); UTC+7: (Indonesia (western), Thailand); UTC+8: (Malaysia, Singapore). Since the earthquake occurred at 00:58:53 UTC, add the above offsets to find the local time of the earthquake. Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... ...

Country where
deaths occurred
Deaths Injured Missing Displaced
Confirmed Estimated1
Indonesia 130,736 167,736 37,063 500,000+
Sri Lanka2 35,322 21,411 516,150
India 12,405 18,045 5,640 647,599
Thailand 5,3953 8,212 8,457 2,817 7,000
Somalia 78 289 5,000
Myanmar (Burma) 61 400–600 45 200 3,200
Maldives 82 108 26 15,000+
Malaysia 68 75 299 6
Tanzania 10 13
Seychelles 3 3 57 200
Bangladesh 2 2
South Africa 24 2
Yemen 2 2
Kenya 1 1 2
Madagascar 1,000+
Total ~184,168 ~230,210 ~125,000 ~45,752 ~1.69 million

Note: All figures are approximate and subject to change. The first column links to more details on specific countries.
1 Includes those reported under 'Confirmed'. If no separate estimates are available, the number in this column is the same as reported under 'Confirmed'.
2 Does not include approximately 19,000 missing people initially declared by Tamil Tiger authorities from regions under their control.
3 Data includes at least 2,464 foreigners.
4 Does not include South African citizens who died outside of South Africa (eg, tourists in Thailand). For more information on those deaths, see this Part of Banda Aceh shore before and after the tsunami, see also larger versions: before, after (Credit: DigitalGlobe). ... As of 16:35 GST 3 January 2005, Sri Lankan authorities report 30,196 confirmed deaths [1] after the island was hit by the tsunami resulting from the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake on December 26, 2004. ... For related articles, including charities accepting donations, see Category:2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. ... Map showing the provinces of Thailand affected The Thai government reports 5,246 [1] confirmed deaths, 8,457 [2] injuries and 4,499 [3] missing after the country was hit by a tsunami caused by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake on December 26, 2004. ... Map of Somalia with Puntland roughly highlighted in blue. ... Official reports from the government of Myanmar (Burma) cite a death toll of 56 due to the tsunami caused by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake on 26 December 2004. ... Malé, the capital island of Maldives was severely hit by the tsunami. ... The wave crashing into the road at Tanjung Tokong, Penang Malaysia was affected by the Indian Ocean earthquake on 26 December 2004. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... A village near the coast of Sumatra lies in ruins This article lists the countries affected by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and the resulting tsunami in alphabetical order – for detailed information about each country see their individual articles. ...


Countries affected

Countries most affected by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake.
Countries most affected by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake.

The earthquake and resulting tsunami affected many countries in Southeast Asia and beyond, including Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, Thailand, the Maldives, Somalia, Myanmar, Malaysia, Seychelles and others. Many other countries, especially Australia and those in Europe, had large numbers of citizens traveling in the region on holiday. Both Sweden and Germany lost over 500 citizens each in the disaster. Download high resolution version (800x655, 58 KB) Subject: Map showing countries directly affected by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. ... Download high resolution version (800x655, 58 KB) Subject: Map showing countries directly affected by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake. ... A village near the coast of Sumatra lies in ruins This article lists the countries affected by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and the resulting tsunami in alphabetical order – for detailed information about each country see their individual articles. ... Anthem Kaba Ma Kyei Capital Naypyidaw Largest city Yangon Official languages Burmese Demonym Burmese Government Military junta  -  Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Than Shwe  -  Prime Minister Soe Win  -  Acting Prime Minister Thein Sein Establishment  -  Bagan 849–1287   -  Taungoo Dynasty 1486–1752   -  Konbaung Dynasty 1752–1885   -  Colonial rule... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


Event in historical context

This earthquake was the fourth most powerful earthquake recorded since 1900, and the confirmed death toll is just under 200,000 due to the ensuing tsunami. The deadliest earthquakes since 1900 were the Tangshan, China earthquake of 1976, in which at least 255,000 were killed; the earthquake of 1927 in Xining, Qinghai, China (200,000); the Great Kanto earthquake which struck Tokyo in 1923 (143,000); and the Gansu, China, earthquake of 1920 (200,000). The deadliest known earthquake in history occurred in 1556 in Shaanxi, China, with an estimated death toll of 830,000, though figures from this time period may not be reliable.[45] This article is about the natural seismic phenomenon. ... A death toll is the number of dead as a result of war, violence, accident, natural disaster, extreme weather, or disease. ... The Tangshan earthquake (唐山大地震) of July 28, 1976 is one of the largest earthquakes in loss of life to hit the modern world. ... Location of Xining Xining (Simplified Chinese : 西宁, Traditional Chinese : 西寧, Tibetan : Ziling) is the capital of Qinghai Province, Peoples Republic of China. ... Qinghai (Chinese: 青海; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Ching-hai; Postal System Pinyin: Tsinghai; Tibetan: མཚོ་སྔོན་ mtsho-sngon; Mongolian: Köke Naγur; Manchu: Huhu Noor) is a province of the Peoples Republic of China, named after the enormous Qinghai Lake. ... The Great Kanto Earthquake (関東大震災 Kantō daishinsai) struck the Kanto plain on the Japanese main island of Honshu at 11:58 on the morning of September 1, 1923. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... Gansu (Simplified Chinese: 甘肃; Traditional Chinese: 甘肅; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Kan-su, Kansu, or Kan-suh) is a province located in the northwest of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Map of China showing Shaanxi province (red) and the other provinces affected by the earthquake (orange) The Shaanxi earthquake or Hua County Earthquake is the deadliest earthquake on record, killing approximately 830,000 people. ...

Deadliest earthquakes^
Rank Earthquake mag. Country Year Fatalities
1 "Shaanxi" 8 China 1556 830,000
2 "Indian Ocean" 9.1 nr. Indonesia 2004 283,100
3 "Tangshan" 7.8 China 1976 242,000
4 "Aleppo"  ? Syria 1138 230,000
5 "Gansu"  ? China 1920 c. 200,000

The 2004 tsunami is the deadliest in recorded history. Prior to 2004, the deadliest recorded tsunami in the Pacific Ocean was in 1782, when 40,000 people were killed by a tsunami in the South China Sea.[46] The tsunami created by the 1883 eruption of Krakatoa is thought to have resulted in 36,000 deaths. The most deadly tsunami between 1900 and 2004 occurred in 1908 in Messina, Italy, on the Mediterranean Sea, where the earthquake and tsunami killed 70,000. The most deadly tsunami in the Atlantic Ocean resulted from the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, which, combined with the toll from the actual earthquake and resulting fires, killed over 100,000. The following is a list of major earthquakes. ... Map of China showing Shaanxi province (red) and the other provinces affected by the earthquake (orange) The Shaanxi earthquake or Hua County Earthquake is the deadliest earthquake on record, killing approximately 830,000 people. ... The Tangshan earthquake (唐山大地震) of July 28, 1976 is one of the largest earthquakes in loss of life to hit the modern world. ... The 1138 Aleppo earthquake was an earthquake that was located near the town of Aleppo in northern Syria on in 11 October 1138. ... Filipino name Tagalog: Timog Dagat Tsina (Dagat Luzon for the portion within Philippine waters) Malay name Malay: Laut China Selatan Portuguese name Portuguese: Mar da China Meridional Vietnamese name Vietnamese: The South China Sea is a marginal sea south of China. ... For the 1969 film about the Krakatoa eruption, see Krakatoa, East of Java. ... Messina, Italy Strait of Messina, Italy. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... This 1755 copper engraving shows the ruins of Lisbon in flames and a tsunami overwhelming the ships in the harbor. ...


The 2004 earthquake and tsunami combined have been described as the deadliest natural disaster since either the 1976 Tangshan earthquake or the 1970 Bhola cyclone, or could conceivably exceed both of these. Because of uncertainty over death tolls, it might never be known for sure which of these natural disasters was the deadliest. Mount Pinatubo eruption, 1991 A natural disaster is according to or provided by nature. ... The Tangshan earthquake (唐山大地震) of July 28, 1976 is one of the largest earthquakes in loss of life to hit the modern world. ... Lowest pressure 966 hPa (mbar) Fatalities 300,000-500,000 (Deadliest tropical cyclone of all time) Damage $86. ...


See also: Library damage resulting from the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


Human component in magnitude of damage

A town near the coast of Sumatra lies in ruin on January 2, 2005. This picture was taken by a United States military helicopter crew from the USS Abraham Lincoln that was conducting humanitarian operations.
A town near the coast of Sumatra lies in ruin on January 2, 2005. This picture was taken by a United States military helicopter crew from the USS Abraham Lincoln that was conducting humanitarian operations.
Indonesians gather under an approaching helicopter to receive food and supplies.

The human destruction of coral reefs played a significant role in the destruction caused by the tsunami. Many countries across Asia, including Indonesia, Sri Lanka and Bangladesh, have put forth efforts to destroy the coral surrounding their beaches, and instead make way for shrimp farms and other economic choices. On the Surin Island chain of Thailand's coast, many people were saved as the tsunami rushed against the coral reefs protecting the islands. However, there were many fewer people on these islands, which helps explain the lower death toll. Many reefs areas around the Indian Ocean have been exploded with dynamite because they are considered impediments to shipping, an important part of the South Asian economy.[47] Similarly, the removal of coastal mangrove trees is believed to have intensified the effect of the tsunami in some locations. These trees, which lined the coast but were removed to make way for coastal residences, might have blocked the force of the tsunami. Another factor is the removal of coastal sand dunes.[47] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1400x1000, 299 KB)Caption: 050102-N-9593M-040 Indian Ocean (Jan. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1400x1000, 299 KB)Caption: 050102-N-9593M-040 Indian Ocean (Jan. ... For other uses, see Sumatra (disambiguation). ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Download high resolution version (1500x1071, 321 KB)Caption: 050101-N-1229B-199 Sumatra, Indonesia (Jan. ... Download high resolution version (1500x1071, 321 KB)Caption: 050101-N-1229B-199 Sumatra, Indonesia (Jan. ... Some of the biodiversity of a coral reef, in this case the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. ... Surin Island are five islands located 55 kilometres from Thai mainland named Koh Surin Nua, Koh Surin Tai, Koh Ri, Koh Kai and Koh Klang. ... Above and below water view at the edge of the mangal. ... This article is about sand formations. ...


Humanitarian, economic and environmental impact

A great deal of humanitarian aid was needed because of widespread damage of the infrastructure, shortages of food and water, and economic damage. Epidemics were of special concern due to the high population density and tropical climate of the affected areas. The main concern of humanitarian and government agencies was to provide sanitation facilities and fresh drinking water to contain the spread of diseases such as cholera, diphtheria, dysentery, typhoid and hepatitis A and B. The humanitarian response to the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake was prompted by one of the worst natural disasters of modern times. ... Humanitarian aid arriving by plane at Rinas Airport in Albania in the summer of 1999. ... In epidemiology, an epidemic (from [[Latin language] epi- upon + demos people) is a disease that appears as new cases in a given human population, during a given period, at a rate that substantially exceeds what is expected, based on recent experience (the number of new cases in the population during... Naples beach in Florida lined with coconut trees is an example of a tropical climate. ... Distribution of cholera Cholera, sometimes known as Asiatic cholera or epidemic cholera, is an infectious gastroenteritis caused by the bacterium Vibrio cholerae. ... Dysentery (formerly known as flux or the bloody flux) is frequent, small-volume, severe diarrhea that shows blood in the feces along with intestinal cramping and tenesmus (painful straining to pass stool). ... This is about the disease typhoid fever. ... Species Hepatitis A virus Hepatitis A (formerly known as infectious hepatitis) is an acute infectious disease of the liver caused by the hepatovirus hepatitis A virus. ... “HBV” redirects here. ...


There was also a great concern that the death toll could increase as disease and hunger spread. However, because of the initial quick response, this was minimized.[48]


In the days following the tsunami, significant effort was spent in burying bodies hurriedly for fear of disease. However, the public health risks may have been exaggerated, and therefore this may not have been the best way to allocate resources. The World Food Programme provided food aid to more than 1.3 million people affected by the tsunami.[49] This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Public health is the study and practice of addressing threats to the health of a community. ... WFP redirects here. ...

Further information: Health risks from dead bodies

Nations all over the world provided over US$7 billion in aid for damaged regions, with the governments of Australia pledging US$819.9 million (including a US$760.6-million aid package for Indonesia), Germany offering US$660 million, Japan offering US$500 million, Canada offering US$343 million, Norway and The Netherlands offering both US$183 million, the United States offering US$35 million initially (increased to US$350 million), and the World Bank offering US$250 million. Also Italy offered US$ 95 million, increased later to US$ 113 million of which US$ 42 million where donated by the population using the SMS system[50] According to USAID, the US has pledged additional funds in long-term U.S. support to help the tsunami victims rebuild their lives. On February 9, 2005, President Bush asked Congress to increase the U.S. commitment to a total of $950 million. Officials estimated that billions of dollars would be needed. Bush also asked his father, former President George H. W. Bush, and former President Bill Clinton to lead a U.S. effort to provide private aid to the tsunami victims.[51] // After disasters with extensive loss of life due to trauma, many resources are often expended on burying the dead quickly, and applying disinfectant to bodies, to prevent disease. ... The Federal Republic of Germany (in German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is a federal representative democracy. ... There is still dispute as to whether Japan is a constitutional monarchy or a republic. ... The functions of the King of Norway are mainly ceremonial, but he has influence as the symbol of national unity. ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain... The U.S. Constitution, adopted in 1789 by a constitutional convention, sets down the basic framework of American government in its seven articles. ... The World Bank logo The World Bank (the Bank) is a part of the World Bank Group (WBG), is a bank that makes loans to developing countries for development programs with the stated goal of reducing poverty. ... The United States Agency for International Development (or USAID) is the US government organization responsible for most non-military foreign aid. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... USD redirects here. ...


In mid-March the Asian Development Bank reported that over US$4 billion in aid promised by governments was behind schedule. Sri Lanka reported that it had received no foreign government aid, while foreign individuals had been generous.[52] Lots of charities were given considerable donations from the public. For example, in the UK the public donated roughly £330,000,000 sterling (nearly US$600,000,000). This considerably outweighed the donation by the government and came to an average of about £5.50 (US$10) donated by every citizen. The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is a regional development bank established in 1966 to promote economic and social development in Asian and Pacific countries through loans and technical assistance. ...


In August 2006, fifteen local aid staff working on post-tsunami rebuilding were found executed in northeast Sri Lanka after heavy fighting, the main umbrella body for aid agencies in the country said. There had been reports and rumors that the local aid workers had been killed.


Economic impact

The impact on coastal fishing communities and fisherfolk, some of the poorest people in the region, has been devastating with high losses of income earners as well as boats and fishing gear.[53] In Sri Lanka artisanal fishery, where the use of fish baskets, fishing traps, and spears are commonly used, is an important source of fish for local markets; industrial fishery is the major economic activity, providing direct employment to about 250,000 people. In recent years the fishery industry has emerged as a dynamic export-oriented sector, generating substantial foreign exchange earnings. Preliminary estimates indicate that 66% of the fishing fleet and industrial infrastructure in coastal regions have been destroyed by the wave surges, which will have adverse economic effects both at local and national levels.[54] A fishery (plural: fisheries) is an organized effort by humans to catch fish or other aquatic species, an activity known as fishing. ...


But some economists believe that damage to the affected national economies will be minor because losses in the tourism and fishing industries are a relatively small percentage of the GDP. However, others caution that damage to infrastructure is an overriding factor. In some areas drinking water supplies and farm fields may have been contaminated for years by salt water from the ocean.[55]


Both the earthquake and the tsunami may have affected shipping in the Malacca Straits by changing the depth of the seabed and by disturbing navigational buoys and old shipwrecks. Compiling new navigational charts may take months or years.[56] ...


Countries in the region appealed to tourists to return, pointing out that most tourist infrastructure is undamaged. However, tourists were reluctant to do so for psychological reasons. Even resorts on the Pacific coast of Thailand, which were completely untouched, were hit by cancellations.


Environmental impact

Tsunami inundation, Khao Lak, North of Phuket, Thailand ASTER Images and SRTM Elevation Model.
Tsunami inundation, Khao Lak, North of Phuket, Thailand ASTER Images and SRTM Elevation Model.

Beyond the heavy toll on human lives, the Indian Ocean earthquake has caused an enormous environmental impact that will affect the region for many years to come. It has been reported that severe damage has been inflicted on ecosystems such as mangroves, coral reefs, forests, coastal wetlands, vegetation, sand dunes and rock formations, animal and plant biodiversity and groundwater. In addition, the spread of solid and liquid waste and industrial chemicals, water pollution and the destruction of sewage collectors and treatment plants threaten the environment even further, in untold ways. The environmental impact will take a long time and significant resources to assess.[57] Download high resolution version (1987x1840, 720 KB)PIA06671: Tsunami Inundation, North of Phuket, Thailand ASTER Images and SRTM Elevation Model The Indian Ocean coastline near Phuket, Thailand is a major tourist destination that was in the path of the tsunami produced by a giant offshore earthquake on December 26, 2004. ... Download high resolution version (1987x1840, 720 KB)PIA06671: Tsunami Inundation, North of Phuket, Thailand ASTER Images and SRTM Elevation Model The Indian Ocean coastline near Phuket, Thailand is a major tourist destination that was in the path of the tsunami produced by a giant offshore earthquake on December 26, 2004. ... The beach at Khao Lak before the tsunami of 2004 Khao Lak is a resort beach in Thailand, located 100 km north of Phuket in Takua Pa district, Phang Nga province and popular as a departure point for liveaboard scuba diving trips. ... Phuket (Thai ภูเก็ต) is one of the southern provinces (changwat) of Thailand. ... This article is about the natural seismic phenomenon. ... For other uses, see Ecological Systems Theory. ... Above and below water view at the edge of the mangal. ... Some of the biodiversity of a coral reef, in this case the Great Barrier Reef, Australia. ... This article is about a community of trees. ... A subtropical wetland in Florida, USA, with an endangered American Crocodile. ... Vegetation is a general term for the plant life of a region; it refers to the ground cover provided by plants, and is, by far, the most abundant biotic element of the biosphere. ... This article is about the sand formations, for other meanings see Dune (disambiguation) Mesquite Flat Dunes in Death Valley National Park In physical geography, a dune is a hill of sand built by eolian (wind-related) processes. ... This article is about the geological substance. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... Groundwater is water located beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of lithologic formations. ... Raw sewage and industrial waste flows into the U.S. from Mexico as the New River passes from Mexicali, Baja California to Calexico, California Water pollution is a large set of adverse effects upon water bodies such as lakes, rivers, oceans, and groundwater caused by human activities. ... Sewage is the mainly liquid waste containing some solids produced by humans which typically consists of washing water, faeces, urine, laundry waste and other material which goes down drains and toilets from households and industry. ...


According to specialists, the main effect is being caused by poisoning of the freshwater supplies and the soil by saltwater infiltration and deposit of a salt layer over arable land. It has been reported that in the Maldives, 16 to 17 coral reef atolls that were overcome by sea waves are totally without fresh water and could be rendered uninhabitable for decades. Uncountable wells that served communities were invaded by sea, sand and earth; and aquifers were invaded through porous rock. Salted-over soil becomes sterile, and it is difficult and costly to restore for agriculture. It also causes the death of plants and important soil micro-organisms. Thousands of rice, mango and banana plantations in Sri Lanka were destroyed almost entirely and will take years to recover. The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is working with governments of the region in order to determine the severity of the ecological impact and how to address it.[58] UNEP has decided to earmark a US$1,000,000 emergency fund and to establish a Task Force to respond to requests for technical assistance from countries affected by the tsunami.[59] In response to a request from the Maldivian Government, the Australian Government sent ecological experts to help restore marine environments and coral reefs — the lifeblood of Maldivian tourism. Much of the ecological expertise has been rendered from work with the Great Barrier Reef, in Australia's northeastern waters. Fresh water redirects here. ... Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ... This article is about common table salt. ... An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, silt, or clay) from which groundwater can be usefully extracted using a water well. ... Klaus Töpfer, former UNEP Exec. ... The politics of the Maldives take place in the framework of a presidential republic, whereby the President is the head of government. ... The Great Barrier Reef is the worlds largest coral reef system,[1][2] composed of over 2,900 individual reefs[3] and 900 islands stretching for 2,600 kilometres (1,616 mi) over an area of approximately 344,400 square kilometres (132,974 sq mi). ...


Other effects

A note signed by former United States Presidents George H. W. Bush and Bill Clinton, First Lady Laura Bush, and President George W. Bush expressing their condolences during a visit to the embassy of Sri Lanka in Washington, D.C., Monday, January 3, 2005. The President wrote, “We pray for the victims and families of this epic disaster. And the American government and American people are dedicated to helping you recover.”
A note signed by former United States Presidents George H. W. Bush and Bill Clinton, First Lady Laura Bush, and President George W. Bush expressing their condolences during a visit to the embassy of Sri Lanka in Washington, D.C., Monday, January 3, 2005. The President wrote, “We pray for the victims and families of this epic disaster. And the American government and American people are dedicated to helping you recover.”

Many health professionals and aid workers have reported widespread psychological trauma associated with the tsunami. Traditional beliefs in many of the affected regions state that a relative of the family must bury the body of the dead, and in many cases, no body remained to be buried. George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Laura Lane Welch Bush (born November 4, 1946) is the wife of the forty-third and current President of the United States George W. Bush and is thereby the First Lady of the United States. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The hardest hit area, Aceh, is considered to be a religiously conservative Islamic society and has had no tourism nor any Western presence in recent years due to armed conflict between the Indonesian military and Acehnese separatists. Some believe that the tsunami was divine punishment for lay Muslims shirking their daily prayers and/or following a materialistic lifestyle. Others have said that Allah was angry that there were Muslims killing other Muslims in an ongoing conflict.[60] Women in Aceh required a special approach from foreign aid agencies, and continue to have unique needs. Aceh (pronounced , generally Anglicized as IPA: ) is a special territory (daerah istimewa) of Indonesia, located on the northern tip of the island of Sumatra. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Indonesias armed forces (Indonesian: Tentara Nasional Indonesia, or TNI, formerly ABRI) total about 250,000 members, including the army, navy, marines, and air force. ... ASNLF Flag The Free Aceh Movement (Indonesian: Gerakan Aceh Merdeka or simply GAM), also known as the Aceh Sumatra National Liberation Front (ASNLF), is an armed separatist group seeking independence for the Aceh region on Sumatra from Indonesia. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Allah is the Arabic language word for God. ...


In what may be the most significant positive result of the tsunami, the widespread devastation led the main rebel group GAM to declare a cease-fire on December 28, 2004, followed by the Indonesian government, and the two groups resumed long-stalled peace talks, which resulted in a peace agreement signed August 15, 2005. The agreement explicitly cites the tsunami as a justification.[61] ASNLF Flag The Free Aceh Movement (Indonesian: Gerakan Aceh Merdeka or simply GAM), also known as the Aceh Sumatra National Liberation Front (ASNLF), is an armed separatist group seeking independence for the Aceh region on Sumatra from Indonesia. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the day of the year. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The extensive international media coverage of the tsunami, and the role of mass media and journalists in reconstruction, were discussed by editors of newspapers and broadcast media in tsunami-affected areas, in special video-conferences set up by the Asia Pacific Journalism Centre.[62] The Asia Pacific Journalism Centre is an Australian non-government organisation which specialises in providing seminars, workshops, training and international exchanges for journalists, mainly but not exclusively in the Asia-Pacific region. ...


Another result of the tsunami, respective toward Indian culture, was the water that washed away centuries of sand from some of the ruins of a 1,200-year-old lost city at Mahabalipuram on the south coast of India. The site, containing such notable structures as a half-buried granite lion near a 7th century Mahablipuram temple and a relic depicting an elephant, is part of what archaeologists believe to be an ancient port city that was swallowed by the sea hundreds of years ago.[63][64] Shore Temple, rescued from the sea Mahabalipuram (Tamil:மகாபலிபுரம்) (also known as Mamallapuram) is a town in Kancheepuram district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. ...


See also

The humanitarian response to the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake was prompted by one of the worst natural disasters of modern times. ... Although, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) scientists at the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) in Hawaii eventually issued warnings of a possible tsunami from the huge earthquake off Sumatra, the waves outran notification systems at jet speeds of 500 mph (804 km/h) - catching hundreds of thousands of people... The Indian Ocean Tsunami Warning System is a tsunami warning system set up to provide warning to inhabitants of nations bordering the Indian Ocean of approaching tsunamis. ... // This is an incomplete list of more recent recorded major earthquakes that have occurred within the boundaries of Indonesia - as indicated by the geology of the region, and the volcanic activity - much large numbers of earthquakes of smaller magnitude occur very regularly due to the meeting of major tectonic plates... The following is a list of major earthquakes. ... The 2005 Sumatra earthquake, referred to as the Nias Earthquake by the scientific community, was a major earthquake on 28 March 2005, (a full moon) located off the west coast of northern Sumatra, Indonesia. ... Aftershocks are earthquakes in the same region of the mainshock (generally within a few rupture length) but of smaller magnitude and which occur with a pattern that follows Omoris law. ... The Tsunami Evaluation Coalition (TEC)[1] is a unique learning and accountability initiative in the relief and development sector. ... The May 2006 Java earthquake occurred at 05:54 local time on 27 May 2006 (22:54 GMT 26 May), in the Indian Ocean around 25 km (15 miles) south-southwest of the Indonesian city of Yogyakarta, near Galur, on the southern side of the island of Java (), 17. ... Map showing location of epicentre The July 2006 Java earthquake was a magnitude 7. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ Walton, Marsha. "Scientists: Sumatra quake longest ever recorded." CNN. May 20, 2005
  2. ^ West, Michael; Sanches, John J.; McNutt, Stephen R. "Periodically Triggered Seismicity at Mount Wrangell, Alaska, After the Sumatra Earthquake." Science. Vol. 308, No. 5725, 1144–1146. May 20, 2005.
  3. ^ Lay, T., Kanamori, H., Ammon, C., Nettles, M., Ward, S., Aster, R., Beck, S., Bilek, S., Brudzinski, M., Butler, R., DeShon, H., Ekström, G., Satake, K., Sipkin, S., The Great Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake of December 26, 2004, Science, 308, 1127–1133, doi:10.1126/science.1112250, 2005
  4. ^ McKee, Maggie. "Power of tsunami earthquake heavily underestimated." New Scientist. February 9, 2005.
  5. ^ EERI Publication 2006–06, page 14.
  6. ^ "Kamchatka Earthquake, November 4, 1952." United States Geological Survey.
  7. ^ Kostel, Ken; Tobin, Mary. "The Sound of a Distant Rumble: Researchers Track Underwater Noise Generated by December 26 Earthquake." Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory. July 20, 2005.
  8. ^ Bilham, Roger. "A Flying Start, Then a Slow Slip." Science. Vol. 308, No. 5725, 1126–1127. May 20, 2005.
  9. ^ MarketWatch. "8.7 quake jars Sumatra, at least 300 dead." Investors.com. March 28, 2005.
  10. ^ McKernon, Conor. Science and Engineering at The University of Edinburgh School of Geosciences. Retrieved on 2006-04-22.
  11. ^ Staff Writer. "Sumatra shaken by new earthquake." BBC News. April 10, 2005.
  12. ^ "Panic in Sumatra after new earthquake." WIKINEWS. April 10, 2005.
  13. ^ USGS Earthquake Hazards Program: FAQ.
  14. ^ Earthquake-Tsunami Event of Christmas/Boxing Day 2004: Frames of Alternative Analysis or Perception. Retrieved on 2006-04-22.
  15. ^ Rinaldo, Aditya. "Thousands flee as Indonesian volcano spews into life." Hindustan Times. April 12, 2005.
  16. ^ Johnston, Tim (April 13, 2005). Indonesian Volcanoes Erupt; Thousands Evacuated. VOA News. Retrieved on 2006-04-22.
  17. ^ USGS Energy and Broadband Solution
  18. ^ USGS, Harvard Moment Tensor Solution
  19. ^ USGS:Measuring the size of earthquakes
  20. ^ Cook-Anderson, Gretchen; Beasley, Dolores. "NASA Details Earthquake Effects on the Earth." National Aeronautics and Space Administration (press release). January 10, 2005.
  21. ^ Schechner, Sam. "Earthquakes vs. the Earth's Rotation." Slate. December 27, 2004.
  22. ^ Staff Writer. "Italian scientists say Asian quakes cause Earth's axis shifted." Xinhua. December 29, 2004.
  23. ^ Staff Writer. "Quake moved Sumatra by only 20 centimeters: Danish scientists", Agence France Presse, January 31, 2005. 
  24. ^ Bagla, Pallava. "After the Earth Moved", Science Now, January 28, 2005. 
  25. ^ Knight, Will. "Asian tsunami seabed pictured with sonar." New Scientist. February 10, 2005.
  26. ^ Staff Writer. "NASA/French Satellite Data Reveal New Details of Tsunami." Jet Propulsion Laboratory/National Aeronautics and Space Administration. January 11, 2005.
  27. ^ TOPEX/Poseidon Satellite Data on the December 26, 2004 tsunami in the Indian Ocean. Aviso.
  28. ^ Lorca, Emilio; Recabarren, Margot (1997). Earthquakes and Tsunamis. 
  29. ^ Paulson, Tom. "New findings super-size our tsunami threat." Seattlepi.com. February 7, 2005.
  30. ^ Leslie, John. "NOAA Scientists able to Measure Tsunami Height from Space." NOAA Magazine. January 10, 2005.
  31. ^ McKee, Maggie. "Radar satellites capture tsunami wave height." New Scientist. January 6, 2005.
  32. ^ Pearce, Fred; Holmes, Bob. "Tsunami: The impact will last for decades." New Scientist. January 15, 2005.
  33. ^ Time travel map: Tsunami Laboratory, Novosibirsk, Russia.
  34. ^ Time travel map: Active Fault Research Center: National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology, Japan.
  35. ^ "Indian Ocean Tsunami" at Syowa Station, Antarctica, Hydrographic and Oceanographic Dept. Japan Coast Guard.
  36. ^ Indian Ocean Tsunami of 26 December, 2004. West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (USGS). December 31, 2004.
  37. ^ Carey, Bjorn. "Tsunami Waves Channeled Around the Globe in 2004 Disaster." LiveScience. August 25, 2005.
  38. ^ Block, Melissa. "Sri Lankans Seek Lost Relatives After Tsunami." All Things Considered/NPR. December 27, 2004.
  39. ^ Campbell, Matthew; Loveard, Keith; et al. "Tsunami disaster: Focus: Nature's timebomb." Times Online. January 2, 2005.
  40. ^ Staff Writer. "Girl, 10, used geography lesson to save lives." news.telegraph. January 1, 2005.
  41. ^ UN Office of the Envoy for Tsunami Recovery. "The Human Toll".
  42. ^ "Myanmar is withholding true casualties figures, says Thai priest". A missioner in Ranong, a town on the border between Thailand and Myanmar, says locals talk about 600 victims. Burmese political dissidents say the same. AsiaNews.it. January 4, 2005. URL accessed 2006-05-07.
  43. ^ Staff Writer. "Most tsunami dead female - Oxfam." BBC News. March 26, 2005.
  44. ^ "[1]." BBC. November 1, 2007.
  45. ^ Most Destructive Known Earthquakes on Record in the World (Earthquakes with 50,000 or More Deaths). United States Geological Survey.
  46. ^ (Japanese)Not Awa, Japan 1703, alleged 100,000, which is probably a misreading of the 10,000 toll given in Watanabe, H., 1998, "Nihon higai tsunami so_ran, dai ni-han " (Comprehensive list of destructive tsunamis to hit the Japanese islands, 2ndedition): Tokyo, University of Tokyo Press, p. 238
  47. ^ a b Browne, Andrew. "Tsunami's Aftermath: On Asia's Coasts, Progress Destroys Natural Defenses", Wall Street Journal, December 31, 2004, p. A5. 
  48. ^ Staff Writer. "UN upbeat on tsunami hunger aid." BBC News. January 9, 2005.
  49. ^ United Nations: World Food Programme: Report on the Tsunami Crisis.
  50. ^ Staff Writer (01-27-2005). Tsunami aid: Who's giving what. Retrieved on 2006-04-22.
  51. ^ Staff Writer. "Clinton, Bush: Tsunami Aid Helping." The Early Show/CBS News. February 21, 2005.
  52. ^ Staff Writer. "Tsunami aid shortfall over $4bn." BBC News. March 18, 2005.
  53. ^ Staff Writer. "Indian Ocean Tsunamis Devastate Fisherfolk." UK Agricultural Biodiversity Coalition. December 26, 2004.
  54. ^ Staff Writer. "[Food Supply and Food Security Situation in Countries Affected by the Asia Tsunami]." Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. January 14, 2005.
  55. ^ Pearce, Fred. "Tsunami's salt water may leave islands uninhabitable." New Scientist. January 5, 2005.
  56. ^ Staff Writer. "Tsunami redrew ship channels, ocean floor." MSNBC/Associated Press. January 5, 2005.
  57. ^ Staff Writer. "Impact of Tsunamis on Ecosystems." UN Atlas of the Oceans. Accessed: March 10, 2005.
  58. ^ Falt, Eric. "Environmental Issues Emerging from Wreckage of Asian Tsunami." United Nations Environment Programme.
  59. ^ United Nations Environment Programme; Environment for Development. Retrieved on 2006-04-22.
  60. ^ Broadway, Bill. "Divining a Reason for Devastation." Washington Post. January 8, 2005.
  61. ^ Memorandum of Understanding between Indonesian government and the Free Aceh Movement, August 15, 2005.
  62. ^ Asia Pacific Journalism Centre - Home Page. Retrieved on 2007-10-24.
  63. ^ Staff Writer. "Tsunami waves exposed remnants of lost city." New Scientist. February 26, 2005.
  64. ^ Staff Writer. "India finds more 'tsunami gifts'." BBC News. February 27, 2005.

The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A science magazine is a periodical publication with news, opinions and reports about science for a non-expert audience. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... New Scientist is a weekly international science magazine covering recent developments in science and technology for a general English-speaking audience. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... InsertSLUTTY WHORES≤ non-formatted text here{| class=toccolours border=1 cellpadding=4 style=float: right; margin: 0 0 1em 1em; width: 20em; border-collapse: collapse; font-size: 95%; clear: right; |+ United States Geological Survey |- |style= align=center colspan=2| [[Image:USGS logo. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A science magazine is a periodical publication with news, opinions and reports about science for a non-expert audience. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article refers to the news department of the British Broadcasting Corporation, for the BBC News Channel see BBC News (TV channel). ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... New Scientist is a weekly international science magazine covering recent developments in science and technology for a general English-speaking audience. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the news website, see msnbc. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the day of the year. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 297th day of the year (298th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... New Scientist is a weekly international science magazine covering recent developments in science and technology for a general English-speaking audience. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article refers to the news department of the British Broadcasting Corporation, for the BBC News Channel see BBC News (TV channel). ... is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

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News collections

  • BBC News - In-Depth Report: Tsunami Disaster
  • Channel News Asia - One Year On, Memorial & Updates to the Asian Tsunami Disaster
  • Tsunami tragedy Report Index in The Hindu including the post Tsunami relief work
  • CNN - Tsunami, One Year After
  • Guardian Unlimited - Special Report: Indian Ocean Tsunami Disaster
  • New York Times
  • Sydney Morning Herald - Waves of Devastation
  • The Local - the Indian Ocean tsunami and its effect on Sweden
  • [2] Effects and relief work on the Nicobar Islands.
  • A Mission in Asia: A visit to tsunami-hit coastal areas Indian Ocean

Map of Nicobar Islands The Nicobar Islands are an island chain in the eastern Indian Ocean, and are part of the Union Territory of Andaman and Nicobar Islands, India. ...

Photos and video

  • Yahoo! Slideshows — Asian Tsunami Disaster
  • Satellite images of tsunami-affected areas (National University of Singapore)
  • Tsunamis.com - 2004 Asian Tsunami Pictures
  • "and Gaia Shuddered" a music video essay
  • "After the Tsunami" Danish writer and photographer Thorsten Overgaard's documentary on the relief work after the December 26, 2004 tsunami.

Scientific and educational

  • The December 26, 2004, Sumatra Earthquake and Indian Ocean Tsunami: Field Perspectives on the Impacts to the Peoples, Cultures, Politics, and Economies of One of the World's Most Vibrant Regions, Speaker: Tom Casadevall, September 26, 2006. Sponsored by Center for Global Studiesand Center for Advanced Study, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign.
  • Special Event Page, Amateur Seismic Centre, India
  • A series of films aimed at K12 age group explaining how earthquakes occur and how the tsunami was generated - Includes footage of school seismograph recording the earthquake
  • A Comprehensive Inquiry Based Classroom Exercise for High School Students using the actual seismograms
  • Seismograms for this earthquake via REV, the Rapid Earthquake Viewer
  • Sumatra-Andaman Islands Earthquake - IRIS Special Report
  • View the epicentre in Google Earth
  • Iwan, W.D., editor, 2006, Summary report of the Great Sumatra Earthquakes and Indian Ocean tsunamis of 26 December 2004 and 28 March 2005: Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, EERI Publication #2006-06, 11 chapters, 100 page summary, plus CD-ROM with complete text and supplementary photographs, EERI Report 2006-06. [www.eeri.org] ISBN 1-932884-19-X

Industry

  • Envirtech Tsunami Warning System, based on real time seafloor observatories measuring seismic waves and sea levels
  • Integrated Tsunami Watcher Service


  Results from FactBites:
 
2004 Indian Ocean earthquake (0 words)
The earthquake itself (apart from the tsunami) was felt as far away as Bangladesh, India, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, Singapore and the Maldives.
The sudden vertical rise of the seabed by several metres during the earthquake displaced massive volumes of water, resulting in a tsunami that struck the coasts of the Indian Ocean.
Thus, the Indian state of Kerala was hit by the tsunami despite being on the western coast of India, and the western coast of Sri Lanka also suffered substantial impacts.
2004 Indian Ocean earthquake - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6741 words)
The tsunami caused by the December 26, 2004 earthquake strikes Ao Nang, Thailand.
The 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake, known by the scientific community as the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake, was an undersea earthquake that occurred at 00:58:53 UTC (07:58:53 local time) December 26, 2004, with an epicentre off the west coast of Sumatra, Indonesia.
Humanitarian response to the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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