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Encyclopedia > 2004 Haiti rebellion
Map of Haiti
Map of Haiti

Date & Place of Origin
Map of Haiti. ... Map of Haiti. ...

Thursday, February 5, 2004
Gonaïves, Haiti February 5 is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Gonaïves is a city in northern Haiti, the capital of Artibonite department. ...

Date & Place of Conclusion

Sunday, February 29, 2004
Port-au-Prince, Haiti February 29 is the 60th day of a leap year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 306 days remaining. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Categories: Caribbean geography stubs | Capitals in North America | Haiti ...

Prelude

Political dispute between government and opposition; general social tension.

Aims

Overthrow of President Jean-Bertrand Aristide; reconstitution of Haitian army. Jean-Bertrand Aristide (born July 15, 1953) is a Haitian politician and former Roman Catholic priest who was President of Haiti in 1991, from 1994 to 1996, and again from 2001 to 2004. ...

Rebel leaders

Guy Philippe, Buteur Metayer Guy Philippe, leader of the 2004 Haiti Rebellion. ... Buteur M tayer (born c. ...

Targets

Capture of cities; neutralization of the Police Force.

Results

Ouster of Aristide.
International intervention led by the United States.
Beginning of diplomatic sessions in order to establish a transitional government.
Diplomatic crises over nature of Aristide's departure.

Opposing parties
Attackers Defenders
National Revolutionary Front for the Liberation of Haiti Republic of Haiti
Commands
Guy Philippe Jean-Bertrand Aristide
Strength
5,000 (estimated) 5,000 (approximation)
Casualties
Unknown 50 (estimated)
Politics - Politics portal

Haiti
The NATIONAL REVOLUTIONARY Front for the Liberation of Haiti is a rebel group in Haiti that presently controls most of the country. ... Guy Philippe, leader of the 2004 Haiti Rebellion. ... Jean-Bertrand Aristide (born July 15, 1953) is a Haitian politician and former Roman Catholic priest who was President of Haiti in 1991, from 1994 to 1996, and again from 2001 to 2004. ... Politics is a process by which collective decisions are made within groups. ...



This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Haiti
Haitis coat of arms This image depicts a seal, an emblem, a coat of arms or a crest. ... Haiti is officially a presidential republic, although it is often claimed to be authoritarian in practice. ...

This page lists presidents and other heads of state of Haiti. ... Boniface Alexandre Boniface Alexandre (b. ... Category: ... Gérard Latortue Gérard Latortue (born June 19, 1934 at Gonaives) is currently the Prime Minister of Haiti. ... Political parties in Haiti lists political parties in Haiti. ... Elections in Haiti gives information on election and election results in Haiti. ... The general elections of 2000 featured a presidential race, as well as elections for the chamber of deputies and the senate. ... The 2006 Elections in Haiti, to replace the interim government of Gerard Latortue put in place after the 2004 Haiti rebellion, were delayed four times after having been originally scheduled for October and November 2005. ... Haiti is one of the original members of the United Nations and several of its specialized and related agencies, as well as a member of the Organization of American States (OAS). ... Between 1999 and 2004, no new foreign aid to Haiti was sent because political instability made it unlikely that aid would be distributed properly. ...

The 2004 Haiti rebellion was a conflict fought for several weeks in Haiti during February 2004 that resulted in the premature end of President Jean-Bertrand Aristide's second term, and the installment of an interim government led by Gerard Latortue. Jean-Bertrand Aristide (born July 15, 1953) is a Haitian politician and former Roman Catholic priest who was President of Haiti in 1991, from 1994 to 1996, and again from 2001 to 2004. ... Categories: Stub | Haitian people | 1934 births ...

Contents


Timeline

Beginning in Gonaïves with the capture of that city's police station on February 5, the rebellion quickly spread to the nearby port city of Saint-Marc. 150 policemen unsuccessfully attempted to retake Gonaïves on February 8, losing between three and 14 officers in the battle. Saint-Marc was, however, recaptured by police and pro-Aristide militants by February 10, although sporadic fighting continued in the area. Apparently in cooperation with the rebels in these northern and central cities, the south-western city of Grand-Goave was taken by rebels at around the same time, but it too was recaptured by police shortly thereafter. February 5 is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Saint-Marc is a coastal town in western Haiti. ... February 8 is the 39th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... February 10 is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Grand Goâve is a city in southwestern Haiti. ...


In the following days, the rebels pursued a strategy of advancing toward the country's second-largest city, Cap-Haïtien, and the town of Dondon, just south of Cap-Haïtien, changed hands several times in the fighting. Furthermore, some of the rebels reached the Dominican border, blocking the main road between the two countries and enabling the aforementioned exiled former soldiers to cross into Haiti. By February 17, the rebel forces had captured the central town of Hinche, near the Dominican border. February 17 is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Hinche is a city in central Haiti, near the border with the Dominican Republic. ...


On February 19, rebel leader Buteur Metayer declared himself president of the areas under his control, with former Cap-Haïtien police chief Guy Philippe as commander of the rebel army. On February 22, the rebels captured Cap-Haïtien with surprisingly little bloodshed; the city's police had already made clear their reluctance to fight, and the well-armed and trained rebels had little difficulty sweeping aside the resistance of the city's pro-Aristide militants. On February 24, the rebels followed this success with the capture of the northwestern city of Port-de-Paix and with the capture of Tortue Island, off the northern coast, the next day. These gains effectively ended government control in northern Haiti. February 19 is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Buteur M tayer (born c. ... Guy Philippe, leader of the 2004 Haiti Rebellion. ... February 22 is the 53rd day of every year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... February 24 is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Port-de-Paix is the capital of the département of Nord-Ouest in Haiti on the Atlantic coast. ... Tortuga (Spanish for turtle or tortoise) or Isla Tortuga is an island in the Caribbean Sea. ...


On February 26, a new band of rebels captured the country's third-largest city, Les Cayes, in the southwest. More rebel successes followed, as they captured the strategic crossroads of Mirebalais, 30 miles from the country's capital, Port-au-Prince. Many foreigners were evacuated from Haiti in anticipation of an assault on Port-au-Prince, but an estimated 20,000 U.S. citizens remained in Haiti as of the end of February. February 26 is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Les Cayes, formerly Aux Cayes, is a town and seaport in southwestern Haiti with a population of approximately 45,904 people (1995 estimate). ... Categories: Caribbean geography stubs | Capitals in North America | Haiti ...


International mediators led by the United States proposed a peace plan on February 20 which would have allowed Aristide to serve out his term but with substantially reduced powers, a prime minister from the civilian opposition, and fresh legislative elections. It was virtually the same plan Aristide had agreed to weeks earlier with Caricom. In a news conference the next day, Aristide agreed to the plan. February 20 is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... The Caribbean Community and Common Market or CARICOM was established by the Treaty of Chaguaramas which came into effect on August 1, 1973. ...


The plan, however, was rejected by the opposition, which continued to demand the president's resignation. France blamed Aristide for the violence and suggested that he should leave office in favor of a transitional government; however, many governments in the region were more supportive of Aristide, alarmed at the precedent that would be set by the overthrow of a democratically elected leader by armed rebels.


The United States, which intervened in Haiti in 1994 to restore Aristide to power, publicly adopted an ambiguous stance on the issue. While condemning the rebellion and claiming that it did not support the violent overthrow of democratically elected leaders, it also pointedly blamed Aristide for contributing to the violence and has suggested that an end to the crisis might require Aristide's absence from the political scene. For its part, the Haitian government accused the U.S. of supporting the rebels and planning Aristide's ouster.


Some American politicians strongly criticized the Bush's administration's stance on Haiti, on the grounds that it was failing to take a moral stand in defense of Haitian democracy. On February 25, for instance, U.S. Congresswoman Corrine Brown called the Bush Administration's non-intervention in Haiti racist. February 25 is the 56th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Corrine Brown Corrine Brown (born November 11, 1946), American politician, has been a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives since 1993, representing the 3rd District of Florida, in the North-Central part of the state. ... An African-American man drinks out of the colored only water fountain at a racially segregated streetcar terminal in the United States in 1939. ...


President Bush refused to soften U.S. policy on Haitian refugees. During the week ending February 27, the U.S. Coast Guard repatriated 867 refugees. February 27 is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Coast Guard shield The United States Coast Guard is the coast guard of the United States. ...


Mainstream media reports suggested that under huge pressure from the rebels as well as from the governments of the United States and France, Aristide was removed from office on February 29 and taken out of the country to the Central African Republic. According to the same mainstream media sources Aristide first claimed he was kidnapped by U.S. Marines, then later claimed that a group of Haitians and civilian Americans forced him to resign and then flee into exile (a claim the United States vigorously denied). According to the Washington Times, an aircraft provided by the U.S. carried the displaced Aristide and his American wife, Mildred Trouillot Aristide, to the Central African Republic (CAR) [1]. News accounts at the scene in the CAR indicate Aristide was held against his will, and his subsequent release may have followed approval from the US. February 29 is the 60th day of a leap year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 306 days remaining. ... United States Marine Corps Emblem The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is the second smallest of the five branches of the United States armed forces, with 170,000 active and 40,000 reserve Marines as of 2002. ... The Washington Times is a daily newspaper published in Washington, D.C.. It was founded in 1982 as a conservative alternative to the Washington Post by members of the controversial Unification Church. ... Mildred Trouillot (born 1963) is a Haitian-American lawyer who married Jean-Bertrand Aristide, the former President of Haiti, in 1996. ...


Supreme Court Chief Justice Boniface Alexandre succeeded him as interim president and petitioned the United Nations Security Council for the intervention of an international peacekeeping force; the Security Council met within the day to authorize such a mission. As a vanguard of the official UN force, a force of about 1,000 United States Marines arrived in Haiti within the day, and Canadian and French troops arrived the next morning; the United Nations indicated it would send a team to assess the situation within days. Boniface Alexandre Boniface Alexandre (b. ... The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations (UN). ... United States Marine Corps Emblem The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is the second smallest of the five branches of the United States armed forces, with 170,000 active and 40,000 reserve Marines as of 2002. ...


Aftermath

U.S. Marines patrol the streets of Port-au-Prince on March 9, 2004.
U.S. Marines patrol the streets of Port-au-Prince on March 9, 2004.

Following the departure of Aristide, the rebels entered Port-au-Prince, declaring their intent to protect Alexandre and the people from pro-Aristide militants, popularly known in the government controlled media as "chimeres". In the days since, they have sent mixed messages about their intentions: rebel leader Guy Philippe first declared himself the "chief" of a new Haitian military and vowed to arrest the pro-Aristide prime minister, Yvon Neptune, but then promised to disarm his forces. On March 3, at least three people were killed in a battle between rebels and pro-Aristide militants. Supporters of Aristide have vowed to continue pressing their demands for his return, and on March 7, 6 people were reported killed at an anti-Aristide rally. U.S. Marines from the 3rd Battalion, 8th Marine Regiment, Camp Lejeune, N.C., patrol the streets of Port-au-Prince, Haiti, on March 9, 2004. ... U.S. Marines from the 3rd Battalion, 8th Marine Regiment, Camp Lejeune, N.C., patrol the streets of Port-au-Prince, Haiti, on March 9, 2004. ... Yvon Neptune Yvon Neptune (born November 8, 1946) was the Prime Minister of Haiti from 2002 until 2004. ... March 3 is the 62nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (63rd in leap years). ... March 7 is the 66th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (67th in Leap years). ...


The death toll from the conflict is believed to have been at least 300. Prime Minister Neptune has estimated that the cost of the rebellion from fighting and looting amounts to about U.S. $300 million. The United States dollar is the official currency of the United States. ...


CARICOM governments denounced the "removal" of Mr. Aristide from government. They also questioned the legality of subsequent American-backed maneouvers to install a new president. The Prime Minister of Jamaica, P.J. Patterson said that, the episode "sets a dangerous precedent for democratically elected governments anywhere and everywhere, as it promotes the removal of duly elected persons from office by the power of rebel forces."[2] The Caribbean Community and Common Market or CARICOM was established by the Treaty of Chaguaramas which came into effect on August 1, 1973. ... The Right Honourable Percival Noel James Patterson (born April 10, 1935) is the current Prime Minister of Jamaica (since 1992) and is the leader of the Jamaican Peoples National Party. ...


As reported by the BBC, on March 3, CARICOM called for an independent inquiry into the departure of former Haitian President Jean-Bertrand Aristide and says it will not send peacekeepers at this time.[3] The Jamaican Prime Minister Patterson said there had been no indication during discussions with the US and France that the plan which CARICOM had put forward prior to Aristide's departure was not acceptable. "In respect of our partners we can only say this, at no time in our discussions did they convey to us that the plan was unacceptable so long as president Aristide remained in office. Nor did they suggest to us anything of a nature pertaining to the conduct of President Aristide in office that would cause us to come to the judgement ourselves that he was unsuited to be the President of Haiti," Mr. Patterson said. The government of South Africa has also called for an investigation into the nature of Aristide's departure.


After two weeks in the Central African Republic, Aristide departed for Jamaica and arrived there on March 15. The visit was ostensibly for the purpose of enabling Aristide to see his young daughters, but the transitional Haitian government claimed that the visit could destabilize Haiti further by encouraging Aristide's supporters and announced it was breaking off diplomatic relations with Jamaica in protest. In response, Jamaica announced that it would not recognize the new Haitian government. March 15 is the 74th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (75th in Leap years). ...

Brazilian troops lead the United Nations peacekeeping effort
Brazilian troops lead the United Nations peacekeeping effort

As of April 2004, Brazilian forces lead the United Nations peacekeeping troops in Haiti composed of United States, France, Canada and Chile deployments. On October 15, 2005 Brazil has called for more troops to be sent due to the worsening situation in the country.[4] Image File history File links Brazil_Haiti_2005. ... Image File history File links Brazil_Haiti_2005. ... The United Nations (UN) is an international organization that describes itself as a global association of governments facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, and social equity. ... The United Nations (UN) is an international organization that describes itself as a global association of governments facilitating cooperation in international law, international security, economic development, and social equity. ... October 15 is the 288th day of the year (289th in Leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


There is increasing concern that the widespread violence after the forced removal of the elected president of Haiti will not allow for truly democratic elections to happen and that the country will not break from its cycle of violence and become a liberal democratic state.[5]


Claims of US-led Coup d'etat

Many of Aristide's supporters, as well as progressive and independent observers worldwide, denounced the rebellion as a foreign controlled coup d'etat orchestrated by Canada, France and the United States (Goodman, et al, 2004) to remove a publicly elected President.


The argument is that the governments of the United States, France and Canada were interested in the removal of Aristide from power because of his populist tendencies. For example, in 2003, Canada hosted a meeting of Haitian opposition leaders called the Ottawa Initiative which concluded that "Aristide must go". At the same time, the United States, France and Canada were funding the rebel groups, via opposition NGOs and the International Republican Institute, and provided the necessary military and logistic support for the rebellion. Rebel leader Guy Philippe has been trained by U.S. forces and had been on the CIA payroll. Other prominent rebel figures had also been previously trained by the U.S. despite their participation in previous rebellions and terrorist acts with some living in the U.S. The Ottawa Initiative on Haiti or simply the Ottawa Initiative, was a conference that took place in Montreal on 31 January and 1 February 2003, to decide the future of Haitis government, though no Haitian government officials were invited. ... NGO is an abbreviation or code for: Non-governmental organization Nagoya Airport (IATA code) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The International Republican Institute, or IRI, is a Washington, DC-based political organization in the United States. ... Guy Philippe, leader of the 2004 Haiti Rebellion. ...


According to the reporting of Amy Goodman, Aristide was pressured to resign from office by James B. Foley, U.S. Ambassador to Haiti, and kidnapped by U.S. agents on February 29 after resisting pressure. This pressure was initially diplomatic but once that failed, the delaying of the arrival of extra bodyguards and dismissal of the current agents would have meant a death sentence to the President. Aristide and his wife along with this former security team was taken to a U.S. aircraft and not informed of their destination until several hours later. They were then told that they would be harbored in the country to the Central African Republic. Aristide was kept under strict military surveillance and could not communicate freely for days. The United States government denies these allegations. A diplomatic mission composed of U.S. Congresswoman Corrine Brown and representatives of CARICOM to the Central African Republic was needed in order to bring Aristide back to the Caribbean. Amy Goodman on Democracy Now! Amy Goodman (born April 13, 1957) is an American broadcast journalist and author. ... February 29 is the 60th day of a leap year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 306 days remaining. ... Corrine Brown Corrine Brown (born November 11, 1946), American politician, has been a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives since 1993, representing the 3rd District of Florida, in the North-Central part of the state. ...


There is speculation that the United States move on Haiti on February 29 was rushed by reports that CARICOM nations had offered military help to Haiti but, most importantly, that Venezuela had also offered military support that could arrive the next day. February 29 is the 60th day of a leap year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 306 days remaining. ...


Other evidence of coup d'état

Other indications of United States, France and Canada influence in the coup d'etat are that at the same time that the diplomatic mission was trying to bring Aristide back to the Caribbean, U.S. officials including Condolezza Rice and at the time Secretary of State, Colin Powell, gave statements that indicated clearly that the U.S. did not welcome Aristide into the 'western hemisphere'. Not only the United States did not support the elected president of Haiti back into power but USAID and CIDA have been actively funding the interim government and helping it to prepare for elections in the fall of 2005/early 2006. The United States Agency for International Development (or USAID) is the US government organization responsible for most non-military foreign aid. ... The Canadian International Development Agency is a Canadian government agency which adminsters foreign aid programs in developing countries. ...


Lavalas

Lavalas supporters view the rebellion as an undemocratic attempt to control the Haitian economy. Since the rebellion, Lavalas supporters have engaged in large protests demanding Aristide's return.


Lavalas says it cannot field any candidates due to political violence. It has been suggested that the U.S., France and Canada are glad to see Lavalas excluded because they want the interim government to be perceived as legitimate, but do not want Lavalas to control the Haitian parliament — which many argue would be very likely in a free and fair election.


United Nations involvement

Supreme Court Chief Justice Boniface Alexandre succeeded Aristide as interim president and petitioned the United Nations Security Council for the intervention of an international peacekeeping force; the Security Council met within the day to authorize such a mission. As a vanguard of the official UN force, a force of about 1,000 United States Marines arrived in Haiti within the day, and Canadian and French troops arrived the next morning; the United Nations indicated it would send a team to assess the situation within days. Boniface Alexandre Boniface Alexandre (b. ... The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations (UN). ... United States Marine Corps Emblem The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is the second smallest of the five branches of the United States armed forces, with 170,000 active and 40,000 reserve Marines as of 2002. ...


World Bank Interim Cooperation Framework

Aristide has said in an interview with Naomi Klein that the main motivation for the foreign support of his overthrow was privatization. Specifically, Aristide has suggested that his refusal to sell state-owned enterprises, such as phones and electricity, resulted in a decision to have him removed. There is some evidence for this assertion, as the World Bank's Interim Cooperation Framework has stated: Naomi Klein Naomi Klein (born 1970) is a Jewish-Canadian journalist, author and activist. ... Privatization (sometimes privatisation, denationalization, or, especially in India, disinvestment) is the process of transferring property, from public ownership to private ownership and/or transferring the management of a service or activity from the government to the private sector. ... Logo of the World Bank The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD, in Romance languages: BIRD), better known as the World Bank, is an international organization whose original mission was to finance the reconstruction of nations devastated by WWII. Now, its mission has expanded to fight poverty by means...

"…in key sectors of the economy such as telecommunications, energy, potable water, ports and airports… management contracts will be prepared in those cases where private sector participation is deemed appropriate…"

It is particularly relevant to the coup d'etat that one of the first actions of Aristide's second term was the disbanding of Haitian military which ruled Haiti from 1991 to 1994 on behalf of the old elite of Haiti and was extremely corrupt and authoritarian. This measure received incredible popular support from a civilian population who had suffered under several military coups. Interestingly, this measure was immediately reverted by the interim government put in power by the coup, which seeks to put an end to Aristide's populist policies and rule. A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ...


Claims of rebels

The rebellion began with the capture of the country's fourth-largest city, Gonaïves, on February 5, 2004, by a rebel group calling itself the Revolutionary Artibonite Resistance Front. This group changed its name to the National Revolutionary Front for the Liberation of Haiti on February 19. Gonaïves is a city in northern Haiti, the capital of Artibonite department. ... February 5 is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Revolutionary Front for the Liberation of Haiti is a rebel group in Haiti that presently controls most of the country. ... The NATIONAL REVOLUTIONARY Front for the Liberation of Haiti is a rebel group in Haiti that presently controls most of the country. ... February 19 is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ...


The rebels and the civilian opposition demanded the resignation of President Aristide, but he emphasized his determination to remain in office until the expiration of his term on February 7, 2006, saying that Haiti not continue its history of moving from "coup d'état to coup d'état," but should instead move from "elected president to elected president." Aristide's opponents, while accepting in principle that Haiti should have an elected president and a constitutional process, disputed his legitimacy and accused him of ruling undemocratically. February 7 is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI in Roman) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A coup détat (pronounced ), or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government against the volonté générale formed by the majority of the citizen, usually done by a smaller supposedly weaker body that just replaces the top power figures. ...


According to the rebels and the civilian opposition, the rebellion is a natural consequence of what they consider Aristide's poor governance and the alleged rigging of the 2000 elections by his Lavalas Family party. Fanmi Lavalas is a political party in Haiti. ...


The rebellion was primarily led by former soldiers of the Haitian army, who were responsible for civilian massacres during the early 1990s. Even prior to the widespread violence that engulfed the country, a low-level rebellion was waged by some ex-soldiers in the central part of the country since at least 2003, resulting in several dozen deaths. Furthermore, on February 14, 2004, a number of former soldiers (including the notorious former militia leader Louis-Jodel Chamblain) returned from exile in the Dominican Republic and announced their intention to join the rebels based in Gonaïves. February 14 is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Louis-Jodel Chamblain (b. ...


According to supporters of Aristide's government, the rebellion is a coup attempt by former soldiers of the now-disbanded army (which ruled Haiti from 1991 to 1994) on behalf of the old elite of Haiti, which seeks to put an end to Aristide's populist policies and rule.


The rebels attributed much of their rapid success to Aristide's failure to disarm the army when he disbanded it in 1995; however, they insisted that the popular support they enjoyed was an equally important reason. Haiti's police force of 5,000 proved too small and poorly armed to be effective in resisting the rebel advance, and in some places, such as Cap-Haïtien, the police seemed not have mounted any substantial resistance at all. Cap-Haïtien (or Le Cap) (pronounced Cap-Hay-Shen) is a city of about 500,000 people on the north coast of Haiti. ...


Another component of the rebellion were the armed gangs which have frequently been a source of violence in Haiti in recent years. The most prominent of these gangs, the "Cannibal Army," long acted as Aristide's primary support base in the city of Gonaïves before turning against him in recent years. This gang, which went on to become one of the main elements of the National Revolutionary Front, claimed the weaponry it used to fight the government during the rebellion was given to it by Aristide at a time when it still supported him; allegedly, the main purpose of this was to intimidate the opposition during the 2000 elections. The government, however, said that the rebels possessed firepower far greater than that of the Haitian police, and that the weaponry must therefore have a foreign origin.


To a large extent, Haitian politics has been defined by such gangs for the last decade. While it was an anti-Aristide gang that initiated the rebellion in Gonaïves, pro-Aristide gangs fought back on behalf of the president. Gangs on both sides have been accused of grim atrocities, such as executing supporters of the other side and setting fire to their homes.


According to many supporters of Aristide, the country's civilian opposition acted as a fifth column in support of the rebels. The opposition denied this, but many of its members acknowledged their support for the rebel cause, and stated that they share with the rebels the common goal of Aristide's ouster: according to them, they disagreed with the rebels only on the question of employing violent rebellion to that end. A fifth column is a group of people who clandestinely undermines from within a larger group to which it is expected to be loyal, such as a nation. ...


Controversy over Aristide's Departure

In line with the assertions that the rebellion was a foreign controlled coup d'etat, Aristide has repeatedly claimed that he was kidnapped or heavily pressured to leave the country.

"They were telling me that if I don't leave they would start shooting, and be killing in a matter of time. They came at night… There were too many. I couldn't count them."

Some have come forward to support his claim saying they witnessed him being escorted out by American soldiers at gunpoint.[6][7] The U.S. has unequivocally denied this version of events.


Aristide has also denied that a letter he left behind constitutes an official resignation.

"There is a document that was signed to avoid a bloodbath, but there was no formal resignation," he said. "This political kidnapping was the price to pay to avoid a bloodbath."[8]

A translation of the letter from Creole by an Indiana University linguistic professor reads: The Indiana University system, technically founded in 1820, is an eight-campus university system in the state of Indiana. ...

"If tonight it is my resignation that will avoid a bloodbath, I accept to leave with the hope that there will be life and not death."[9]

Aristide insists that he remains legally president. On March 8, he issued the following statement at a press conference in the Central African Republic: "I am the democratically elected president and I remain so. I plead for the restoration of democracy. We appeal for a peaceful resistance." March 8 poster from Portugal March 8 is the 67th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (68th in Leap years). ...


Many prominent African-American political figures, including Congresswomen Maxine Waters and Barbara Lee, as well as Randall Robinson, and Jesse Jackson, have supported and publicized Aristide's claim that he was kidnapped by American-supported armed guards supporting an anti-democratic coup. An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black), is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Maxine Waters Maxine Waters (born August 15, 1938), United States politician, has been a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives since 1991, representing the 35th District of California (map). ... Barbara Lee Barbara Lee (born July 16, 1946), American politician, has been a Democratic member of the United States House of Representatives since 1998, representing the 9th District of California (map). ... Randall Robinson (born 6 July 1941, Richmond, Virginia) is an African-American lawyer, author and activist. ... The Rev. ...


Secretary of State Colin Powell and other U.S. officials strongly deny the claims, saying they acted at Aristide's request. However, the U.S. and France de facto blocked CARICOM's request for an investigation into the circumstances surrounding Aristide's removal. [10] Colin Luther Powell, KCB, (born April 5, 1937) was the 65th United States Secretary of State, serving from January 20, 2001 to January 23, 2005 under President George W. Bush. ... The Caribbean Community and Common Market or CARICOM was established by the Treaty of Chaguaramas which came into effect on August 1, 1973. ...


A spokesman for the Steele Foundation, the San Francisco-based organization which supplied Aristide's bodyguards, denied that Aristide had been kidnapped, and pointed out that his employees accompanied the former President to the Central African Republic. "If he was kidnapped, we were kidnapped, too," the spokesman said. This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ...


However, the Steele Foundation declined to comment on a report that they were forced by U.S. officials to delay the flight of a small group of extra bodyguards by one day. One day too late to help Aristide.[11]


Controversy over Aristide's election in 2000

Supporters of Aristide claim that his election to a second term on November 26, 2000 was "free and fair" and cite the verdicts of observers who judged it to have been so at the time. They also point to the 91.8% of the vote that he received as evidence of his overwhelming popularity. November 26 is the 330th day (331st on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year 2000. ...


Others disagree, arguing that Aristide's election was essentially unopposed because opposition candidates withdrew from the race and called for a general boycott. This boycott was claimed to have been in response to the lack of any real chance of a fair election.


However, Aristide supporters note that voter turout was over 50% of those registered.


This came in the wake of what was claimed to have been electoral fraud by government workers counting votes in the legislative elections earlier in the year. According to the Haitian constitution, a seat in the legislature must be won with a 50% majority, but in the 2000 elections, seven pro-Aristide Lavalas Family candidates and one independent were declared winners after obtaining only a plurality of the vote. According to Aristide's opponents, this was evidence of his blatant disregard for constitutional principles; however, Aristide's supporters note that the eight seats in question would not have affected the overall Lavalas majority even if the opposition had won them all, and make up eight of a total of 7000 elected positions in the country. Fanmi Lavalas is a political party in Haiti. ... A plurality (or relative majority) is the largest share of something, which may or may not be a majority. ...


The controversy, however, wore on, and in 2001, Aristide convinced the seven Lavalas senators who had won with only a plurality to resign so that by-elections could be held.


Later, U.S. Congressman Conyers wrote:

"Unfortunately, there were irregularities that occurred in the election and there is a post-election problem of the vote count that is threatening to undo the democratic work of the citizens of Haiti. Without doubt there were irregularities that occurred in the election which have been conceded by the CEP."[12]

The National Coalition for Haitian Rights (NCHR) says that there were delays in the distribution of voter identification cards.[13]


Aristide's supporters claim that an opposition boycott of the election was used as a ploy in order to discredit it and that they did not have anywhere near majority support.[14]


See also

The neutrality of this article is disputed. ... Before dawn 6 July 2005, more than 300 heavily-armed United Nations peacekeeping troops in Haiti carried out a major military operation in Cité Soleil, a densely populated residential neighborhood – one of the poorest comunities in Port-au-Prince and a stronghold of support for Lavalas and ousted President Jean...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Steve Miller and Joseph Curl (2004). Aristide accuses U.S. of forcing his ouster. Washington Times. URL accessed on December 26, 2005.
  2. ^  (May 4, 2004). After Aristide, what?. The Economist. URL accessed on December 26, 2005.
  3. ^  (March 3, 2004). Caricom delivers Haiti verdict. BBC Caribbean. URL accessed on December 26, 2005.
  4. ^  (October 15, 2004). Brazil seeks more Haiti UN troops. BBC News. URL accessed on December 26, 2005.
  5. ^  (September 27, 2004). Rice concern over Haiti election. BBC News. URL accessed on December 26, 2005.
  6. ^ Andrew Buncombe (March 03, 2004). Aristide's moment of decision: 'Live or die'. Independent Media TV. URL accessed on December 26, 2005.
  7. ^  (March 16th, 2004). Aristide and His Bodyguard Describe the U.S. Role In His Ouster. Democracy Now!. URL accessed on December 26, 2005.
  8. ^ Nicholas Kralev (2004). Aristide denies 'formal resignation,' plans return. Washington Times. URL accessed on December 26, 2005.
  9. ^ Ibid.
  10. ^ Juan O. Tamayo (March 01, 2004). U.S. allegedly blocked extra bodyguards. Miami Herald. URL accessed on December 26, 2005.
  11. ^ Congressmen John Conyers, Jr.. Major Issues — Haiti. Major Issues. House.gov. URL accessed on December 26, 2005.
  12. ^  As Haiti Stumbles Toward Elections, NCHR Urges Extension of Voter Registration Period. National Coalition for Haitian Rights. URL accessed on December 26, 2005.
  13. ^ Mary Turck (February 24, 2004). Background on Haiti: Some Questions and Answers. Americas.org. URL accessed on December 26, 2005.

December 26 is the 360th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, 361st in leap years. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 26 is the 360th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, 361st in leap years. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 26 is the 360th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, 361st in leap years. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 26 is the 360th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, 361st in leap years. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 26 is the 360th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, 361st in leap years. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 26 is the 360th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, 361st in leap years. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 26 is the 360th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, 361st in leap years. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 26 is the 360th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, 361st in leap years. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 26 is the 360th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, 361st in leap years. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 26 is the 360th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, 361st in leap years. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 26 is the 360th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, 361st in leap years. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 26 is the 360th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, 361st in leap years. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Goodman, A., Chomsky, N., & Farmer, P. (2004). Getting Haiti Right This Time: The U.S. and the Coup. Common Courage Press.
  • HAUTER, François, Haiti's Repressive Regime, Paris: 2003-11-18. Le Figaro.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
2004 Haiti rebellion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3572 words)
The 2004 Haiti rebellion was a conflict fought for several weeks in Haiti during February 2004 that resulted in the premature end of President Jean-Bertrand Aristide's second term, and the installment of an interim government led by Gerard Latortue.
The rebellion began with the capture of the country's fourth-largest city, Gonaïves, on February 5, 2004, by a rebel group calling itself the Revolutionary Artibonite Resistance Front.
According to the rebels and the civilian opposition, the rebellion is a natural consequence of what they consider Aristide's poor governance and the alleged rigging of the 2000 elections by his Lavalas Family party.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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