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Encyclopedia > 2003 invasion of Iraq
2003 invasion of Iraq

Black Hawk Helicopters from the 2nd Brigade, 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault) move into Iraq during the opening stages of the 2003 invasion
Date March 19, 2003May 1, 2003
Location Iraq
Result Coalition victory; Saddam Hussein and Baath Party toppled; establishment of new government; occupation; insurgency and sectarian violence.[1]
Belligerents
Coalition Forces:

Flag of the United States United States
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom
Flag of Australia Australia
Flag of Poland Poland
Flag of Denmark Denmark
Flag of the Philippines Philippines (medical support)
Kurdish flag Peshmerga
is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links 101st_Airborne_Division_helos_during_Operation_Iraqi_Freedom. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... Bath Party flag The Arab Socialist Baath Party (also spelled Baath or Baath; Arabic: حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي) was founded in Damascus in the 1940s as the original secular Arab nationalist movement, to combat Western colonial rule. ... Combatants New Iraqi Army Kurdish Army Coalition: United States United Kingdom Australia Poland Other Coalition forces Baath Party Loyalists Mahdi Army al-Qaeda in Iraq Other Insurgent groups Commanders Nouri al-Maliki Massoud Barzani George W. Bush Tommy Franks Ricardo Sanchez George Casey David Petraeus Tony Blair Gordon Brown Brian... The Iraqi insurgency denotes groups using armed resistance against the US-led Coalition occupation of Iraq. ... Following the Coalition-led invasion and war of Iraq, there has been an increased level of sectarian violence in Iraq. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Multi-National Force - Iraq (MNF-I), is a military command, led by the United States, that is fighting the Iraq War against the multitude of Iraqi insurgents. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Philippines. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kurdistan. ... Peshmerga, Peshmerga or peshmerge (Kurdish: pêşmerge) is the term used by Kurds to refer to armed Kurdish fighters. ...

Flag of Iraq Iraq
Baath Party
Commanders
Flag of the United States George W. Bush

Flag of the United States Tommy Franks Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq,_1991-2004. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Bath Party flag The Arab Socialist Baath Party (also spelled Baath or Baath; Arabic: حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي) was founded in Damascus in the 1940s as the original secular Arab nationalist movement, to combat Western colonial rule. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Tommy Ray Franks (born June 17, 1945 in Wynnewood, Oklahoma) is a retired General in the United States Army, previously serving as the Commander of the United States Central Command, overseeing United States Armed Forces operations in a 25-country region, including the Middle East. ...


Flag of the United Kingdom Mike Jackson(citation needed) Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... General Sir Michael Mike Jackson, GCB, CBE, DSO, ADC Gen (born 21 March 1944) is a British army officer, currently Chief of the General Staff. ...


Flag of Poland Aleksander Kwaśniewski Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Aleksander KwaÅ›niewski ( ; born November 15, 1954) is a Polish politician who served as the President of Poland from 1995 to 2005. ...


Kurdish flag Massoud Barzani

Flag of Iraq Ahmed Chalabi Image File history File links Flag_of_Kurdistan. ... Massoud Barzani Massoud Barzani (born August 16, 1946) is the head of the Autonomous Kurdish Government in Iraq and leader of the Kurdistan Democratic Party. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq,_1991-2004. ... Ahmed Abdel Hadi Chalabi1 (Arabic: أحمد الجلبي Ahmad al-Jalabī) (born October 30, 1944) was interim oil minister in Iraq[1] in April-May 2005 and December-January 2006 and deputy prime minister from May 2005 until May 2006. ...

Flag of Iraq Saddam Hussein

Flag of Iraq Qusay Hussein Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq,_1991-2004. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq,_1991-2004. ... Qusay Saddam Hussein al-Tikriti (Arabic: قصي صدام حسين ) (or Qusai) (May 17, 1966 – July 22, 2003) was the second son of former Iraqi president Saddam Hussein. ...


Flag of Iraq Uday Hussein Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq,_1991-2004. ... Uday Saddam Hussein al-Tikriti (June 18, 1964 Baghdad – July 22, 2003 Mosul), (Arabic: ) was the eldest son of Saddam Hussein and his first wife, Sajida Talfah. ...


Flag of Iraq Ali Hassan al-Majid Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq,_1991-2004. ... Ali Hassan al-Majid at an investigative hearing in 2004 Ali Hassan Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (Arabic: ‎ transliteration: , born 1941) is a former Baathist Iraqi Defense Minister and military commander. ...


Flag of Iraq Barzan Ibrahim Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq,_1991-2004. ... Barzan Ibrahim al-Tikriti Barzan Ibrahim El-Hasan al-Tikriti (born 17 February 1951 in Tikrit) (sometimes: Barazan Ibrahim al-Tikriti and Barasan Ibrahem Alhassen) (Arabic: برزان إبراهيم الحسن التكريتي) is one of three half-brothers of Saddam Hussein, and the former leader of the Iraqi secret service, Mukhabarat. ...


Flag of Iraq Izzat Ibrahim al-Douri Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq,_1991-2004. ... Izzat Ibrahim Al-Douri (born July 1, 1942) was an Iraqi military commander and was vice-president and deputy chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council until the 2003 U.S.-led invasion of Iraq. ...


Flag of Iraq Tariq Aziz Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq,_1991-2004. ... Mikhail Yuhanna, later and more popularly known as Tariq Aziz or Tareq Aziz, (Arabic: طارق عزيز, Syriac: ܜܪܩ ܥܙܝܙ) (born 1936 in Tel Keppe) was the Foreign Minister (1983 – 1991) and Deputy Prime Minister (1979 – 2003) of Iraq, and a close advisor of former President Saddam Hussein for decades. ...

Strength
263,000 375,000
Casualties and losses
190 KIA (140 US, 17 Kurds, 33 UK)[2]

542 WIA[3] Temporary grave of an American machine-gunner during the Battle of Normandy. ... WIA is a three letter abbreviation meaning Wounded in action. ...

Estimated Iraqi combatant fatalities:

30,000 (figure attributed to General Tommy Franks)[4] Casualties of the conflicts in Iraq since 2003 (beginning with the 2003 invasion of Iraq and continuing with the ensuing 2003 occupation of Iraq coalition presence as well as the activities of the various armed groups operating in the country) have come in many forms, and the accuracy of the...


7,600–10,800 (Project on Defense Alternatives study)[5]


13,500–45,000 (extrapolated from fatality rates in units serving around Baghdad)[6]

Estimated Iraqi civilian fatalities:

7,299 (Iraq Body Count)[7] Casualties of the conflicts in Iraq since 2003 (beginning with the 2003 invasion of Iraq and continuing with the ensuing 2003 occupation of Iraq coalition presence as well as the activities of the various armed groups operating in the country) have come in many forms, and the accuracy of the...


3,200–4,300 (Project on Defense Alternatives study)[5]

The 2003 invasion of Iraq, from March 19 to May 1, 2003, was led by the United States, backed by British forces and smaller contingents from Australia, Poland and Denmark. A number of other countries were involved in its aftermath. The invasion launched the Iraq War, which is ongoing. Belligerents Iran Patriotic Union of Kurdistan Iraq Peoples Mujahedin of Iran Soldiers and volunteers from different Arab countries. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Multi-National Force - Iraq (MNF-I), is a military command, led by the United States, that is fighting the Iraq War against the multitude of Iraqi insurgents. ... An invasion is a military action consisting of armed forces of one geopolitical entity entering territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of conquering territory, or altering the established government. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ...


According to U.S. President George W. Bush and then U.K. PM Tony Blair, the reasons for the invasion were "to disarm Iraq of weapons of mass destruction (WMD), to end Saddam Hussein's support for terrorism, and to free the Iraqi people."[8] Blair said the actual trigger was Iraq's failure to take a “final opportunity” to disarm itself of nuclear, chemical, and biological weapons that U.S. and coalition officials called an immediate and intolerable threat to world peace.[9] In a January 2003 CBS poll, 64% of Americans approved of military action against Iraq. 63% wanted President Bush to find a diplomatic solution rather than going to war with Iraq, and 62% believed the threat of terror would increase if war was waged with Iraq.[10] George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... For the Xzibit album, see Weapons of Mass Destruction (album). ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... Saddam Hussein and al-Qaeda were alleged by some U.S. Government officials to have established a highly secretive relationship between 1992 and 2003, specifically through a series of meetings reportedly involving the Iraqi Intelligence Service (IIS). ...

Contents

Overview

Since 2003, coalition forces have recovered approximately 500 weapons munitions which contain degraded mustard or sarin nerve agent. Despite many efforts to locate and destroy Iraq's pre-Gulf War chemical munitions, filled and unfilled pre-Gulf War chemical munitions are assessed to still exist although some misplaced or abandoned remnants of pre-1991 production were found, U.S. government spokespeople confirmed that these were not the weapons for which the U.S. went to war. [11] [12] For other uses, see Sarin (disambiguation). ... This article is about the chemical. ...


The invasion of Iraq was strongly opposed by some traditional U.S. allies, including France and Germany. Their leaders argued there was no evidence of WMD and that a war in Iraq was not justified in the context of UNMOVIC's February 12, 2003 report. On February 15, 2003, a month before the invasion, there were many worldwide protests against the Iraq war, including a rally of 3 million people in Rome, which is listed in the Guinness Book of Records as the largest ever anti-war rally.[13] According to the French academic Dominique Reynié, between January 3 and April 12, 2003, 36 million people across the globe took part in almost 3,000 protests against the Iraq war.[14] The United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC) was created through the adoption of Security Council resolution 1284 of 17 December 1999. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... There have been considerable protests against the Iraq War in the buildup to and following the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Suresh Joachim, minutes away from breaking the ironing world record at 55 hours and 5 minutes, at Shoppers World, Brampton. ... is the 3rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In preparation for the invasion, 100,000 U.S. troops were assembled in Kuwait by February 18.[15] The United States supplied the vast majority of the invading forces, but also received support from Kurdish troops in northern Iraq. is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Kurdistan Region (Kurdish: حكومه تى هه ريمى كوردستان, Hikûmetî Herêmî Kurdistan, Arabic: اقلیم کردستان) is an autonomous, federally recognized political entity located in northern Iraq. ...


Prelude to the invasion

Donald Rumsfeld, at the time Ronald Reagan's special envoy to the Middle East, meeting with Saddam Hussein during a visit to Baghdad, in December 1983, during the Iran-Iraq War. In later years, this image was downplayed by Rumsfeld and highlighted by his opponents, as relations with Hussein's regime deteriorated. (Video frame capture; see the complete video here.)
Donald Rumsfeld, at the time Ronald Reagan's special envoy to the Middle East, meeting with Saddam Hussein during a visit to Baghdad, in December 1983, during the Iran-Iraq War. In later years, this image was downplayed by Rumsfeld and highlighted by his opponents, as relations with Hussein's regime deteriorated. (Video frame capture; see the complete video here.)

After the invasion of the Gulf War of 1991, the U.S., and the international community maintained a policy of “containment” towards Iraq. This policy involved numerous and crushing economic sanctions, U.S. and UK patrols of Iraqi no-fly zones declared to protect Kurds in northern Iraq and Shias in the south, and ongoing inspections to prevent Iraqi development of chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons. Iraqi military helicopters and planes regularly contested the no-fly zones.[16][17] Still image of news archive (broadcast in several countries) of Donald Rumsfeld meeting Saddam Hussein, December 19-20, 1983, Baghdad. ... Still image of news archive (broadcast in several countries) of Donald Rumsfeld meeting Saddam Hussein, December 19-20, 1983, Baghdad. ... Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is a businessman, a U.S. Republican politician, the 13th Secretary of Defense under President Gerald Ford from 1975 to 1977, and the 21st Secretary of Defense under President George W. Bush from 2001 to 2006. ... Reagan redirects here. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Belligerents Iran Patriotic Union of Kurdistan Iraq Peoples Mujahedin of Iran Soldiers and volunteers from different Arab countries. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... This article is about foreign policy. ... United Nations sanctions against Iraq were imposed by the United Nations in 1990 following Iraqs invasion of Kuwait in 1990, and continued until the US-led invasion of Iraq in 2003. ... No-fly zone detail The Iraqi no-fly zones (NFZs) were proclaimed by the United States, United Kingdom and France after the Gulf War of 1991 to protect Kurds in the north and Shiite Muslims in the south. ...


In October 1998, U.S. policy began to shift away from containment and towards “regime change,” as the U.S. Congress passed and President Clinton signed the "Iraq Liberation Act." Signed in response to Iraq's termination of its cooperation with U.N. weapons inspectors the preceding August, the act provided $97 million for Iraqi "democratic opposition organizations" to "establish a program to support a transition to democracy in Iraq."[18] This legislation contrasted with the terms set out in United Nations Security Council Resolution 687,which focused on weapons and weapons programs and made no mention of regime change.[19] One month after the passage of the “Iraq Liberation Act,” the U.S. and UK launched a bombardment campaign of Iraq called Operation Desert Fox. The campaign’s express rationale was to hamper the Hussein government’s ability to produce chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons, but U.S. national security personnel also hoped it would help weaken Hussein’s grip on power.[20] William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... The Iraq Liberation Act of 1998 (Public Law 105-338) [1] (codified in a note to 22 USCS § 2151) is an United States Congressional statement of policy calling for regime change in Iraq. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 687 was adopted at the 2981st meeting on 3 April 1991, to declare a formal cease-fire at the end of the Gulf War and impose peace terms on Iraq. ... Combatants United States, UK Iraq Commanders General Tony Zinni Saddam Hussien Strength 30,500 unknown Casualties none 600-2,000 dead Operation Desert Fox was the military codename for a major four-day bombing campaign on Iraqi targets from December 16-December 19, 1998 by the United States and United...


With the election of George W. Bush as U.S. President in 2000, the U.S. moved towards a more active policy of “regime change” in Iraq. The Republican Party's campaign platform in the 2000 election called for "full implementation" of the Iraq Liberation Act and removal of Saddam Hussein, and key Bush advisors, including Vice President Dick Cheney, Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld, and Rumsfeld’s Deputy Paul Wolfowitz, were longstanding advocates of invading Iraq.[21]After leaving the administration, former Bush treasury secretary Paul O'Neill said that an attack on Iraq had been planned since the inauguration, and that the first National Security Council meeting involved discussion of an invasion. O'Neill later backtracked, saying that these discussions were part of a continuation of foreign policy first put into place by the Clinton Administration.[22] The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... The Iraq Liberation Act of 1998 (Public Law 105-338) [1] (codified in a note to 22 USCS § 2151) is an United States Congressional statement of policy calling for regime change in Iraq. ... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941), is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ... Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is a businessman, a U.S. Republican politician, the 13th Secretary of Defense under President Gerald Ford from 1975 to 1977, and the 21st Secretary of Defense under President George W. Bush from 2001 to 2006. ... Paul Dundes Wolfowitz (born December 22, 1943) is a visiting scholar at the American Enterprise Institute, working on issues of international economic development, Africa and public-private partnerships. ... Paul H. ONeill Paul Henry ONeill (born December 4, 1935) served as the 72nd United States Secretary of the Treasury for part of President George W. Bushs first Administration. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Despite the Bush Administration’s stated interest in invading Iraq, little formal movement towards an invasion occurred until the September 11, 2001 attacks. According to aides who were with Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld in the National Military Command Center on September 11, Rumsfeld asked for: "best info fast. Judge whether good enough hit Saddam Hussein at same time. Not only Osama bin Laden." The notes also quote him as saying, "Go massive", and "Sweep it all up. Things related and not."[23] The rationale for invading Iraq as a response to 9/11 has been widely questioned, as no direct cooperation between Iraq and al-Qaeda was known prior to 9/11 and subsequent intelligence has uncovered none.[24] A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is a businessman, a U.S. Republican politician, the 13th Secretary of Defense under President Gerald Ford from 1975 to 1977, and the 21st Secretary of Defense under President George W. Bush from 2001 to 2006. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... Osama bin Muhammad bin Awad bin Laden (Arabic: ‎; born March 10, 1957[1]), most often mentioned as Osama bin Laden or Usama bin Laden, is a Saudi Arabian militant Islamist and is widely believed to be one of the founders of the organization called al-Qaeda. ... Saddam Hussein and al-Qaeda were alleged by some U.S. Government officials to have established a highly secretive relationship between 1992 and 2003, specifically through a series of meetings reportedly involving the Iraqi Intelligence Service (IIS). ...


Shortly after September 11, 2001 (on September 20), President Bush addressed a joint session of Congress (which was simulcasted live to the world), and announced the new War on Terrorism. This announcement was accompanied by the widely criticized doctrine of 'pre-emptive' military action, later termed the Bush doctrine. Some Bush advisers favored an immediate invasion of Iraq, while others advocated building an international coalition and obtaining United Nations authorization. Bush eventually decided to seek U.N. authorization, while still holding out the possibility of invading unilaterally.[25] The War on Terrorism (also known as the War on Terror) is campaign begun by the Bush administration which includes various military, political, and legal actions taken to ostensibly curb the spread of terrorism following the September 11, 2001 attacks on the United States. ... President Bush makes remarks in 2006 during a press conference in the Rose Garden about Irans nuclear ambitions and discusses North Koreas nuclear test. ...


While there had been some earlier talk of action against Iraq, the Bush administration waited until September 2002 to call for action, with White House Chief of Staff Andrew Card saying, "From a marketing point of view, you don't introduce new products in August."[26] Bush began formally making his case to the international community for an invasion of Iraq in his September 12, 2002 address to the U.N. Security Council.[27] Key U.S. allies in the NATO allies, including France and Germany, were critical of plans to invade Iraq, arguing instead for continued diplomacy and weapons inspections. After considerable debate, the U.N. Security Council adopted a compromise resolution, 1441, which authorized the resumption of weapons inspections and promised "serious consequences" for noncompliance. Security Council members France and Russia made clear that they did not believe these consequences to include the use of force to overthrow the Iraqi government.[28] Both the U.S. ambassador to the UN, John Negroponte, and the UK ambassador Jeremy Greenstock publicly confirmed this reading of the resolution, assuring that Resolution 1441 provided no "automaticity" or "hidden triggers" for an invasion without further consultation of the Security Council.[29] Joshua B. Bolten, the current White House Chief of Staff. ... Andrew Hill Andy Card Jr. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... Actions associated with Resolution 1441 Following the passage of UN Security Council Resolution 1441, on November 18, 2002 UN Weapons inspectors returned to Iraq for the first time in four years. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 1441 is a resolution by the UN Security Council, passed unanimously on November 8, 2002, offering Iraq a final opportunity to comply with its disarmament obligations that had been set out in several previous resolutions (Resolution 660, Resolution 661, Resolution 678, Resolution 686, Resolution 687... John Dimitri Negroponte (born July 21, 1939 in the United Kingdom) (IPA ) is an American (of Greek origin) career diplomat. ... Sir Jeremy Greenstock (born 1944) was a British diplomat from 1969-2004, serving in Washington DC, Paris, Dubai and Saudi Arabia. ...


Paralleling its efforts in the U.N., the Bush Administration also sought domestic authorization for an invasion, which it was granted on October 2002 when the U.S. Congress passed a "Joint Resolution to Authorize the Use of United States Armed Forces Against Iraq". While the resolution authorized the President to "use any means necessary" against Iraq, Americans polled in January 2003 widely favored further diplomacy over an invasion. Later that year, however, Americans began to agree with Bush's plan. Americans overwhelmingly believed Hussein did have weapons of mass destruction: 85% said so, even though the inspectors hadn't uncovered those weapons yet. Of those who thought Iraq had weapons stashed somewhere, about half were pessimistic that they’d ever turn up. By February 2003, 74% of Americans supported taking military action to remove Saddam Hussein from power.[10] NOONE CARES Headline text The Joint Resolution to Authorize the Use of United States Armed Forces Against Iraq (H.J.Res. ...


In February 2003, U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell addressed the United Nations General Assembly, continuing U.S. efforts to gain U.N. authorization for an invasion. Powell presented evidence alleging that Iraq was actively producing chemical and biological weapons and had ties to al-Qaeda, claims that have since been widely discredited. As a follow-up to Powell’s presentation, the United States, United Kingdom, Poland, Italy, Australia, Denmark, Japan, and Spain proposed a UN Resolution authorizing the use of force in Iraq, but NATO members like Canada, France, and Germany, together with Russia, strongly urged continued diplomacy. Facing a losing vote as well as a likely veto from France and Russia, the U.S., UK, Spain, Poland, Denmark, Italy, Japan, and Australia eventually withdrew their resolution.[30][31] Saddam Hussein and al-Qaeda were alleged by some U.S. Government officials to have established a highly secretive relationship between 1992 and 2003, specifically through a series of meetings reportedly involving the Iraqi Intelligence Service (IIS). ...

U.S. President George Bush meets with his top advisors on March 19, 2003 just before the invasion begins.
U.S. President George Bush meets with his top advisors on March 19, 2003 just before the invasion begins.

With the failure of its resolution, the U.S. and their supporters abandoned the Security Council procedures and decided to pursue the invasion without U.N. authorization, a decision of questionable legality under international law.[32] This decision was widely unpopular worldwide, and opposition to the invasion coalesced on February 15 in a worldwide anti-war protest that attracted big between six and ten million people in more than 800 cities, the largest such protest in human history according to the Guinness Book of World Records.[33] Image File history File links Prewar-meeting. ... Image File history File links Prewar-meeting. ... February 15, 2003 was a global day of protests against the imminent invasion of Iraq. ... The Guinness Book of Records (or in recent editions Guinness World Records, and in previous US editions Guinness Book of World Records) is a book published annually, containing an internationally recognized collection of superlatives: both in terms of human achievement and the extrema of the natural world. ...


In March 2003, the United States, United Kingdom, Spain, Australia, Poland, Denmark, and Italy began preparing for the invasion of Iraq, with a host of public relations, and military moves. In his March 17, 2003 address to the nation, Bush demanded that Hussein and his two sons Uday and Qusay surrender and leave Iraq, giving them a 48-hour deadline.[34] But Bush actually began the bombing of Iraq on March 18, the day before his deadline expired. On March 18, 2003, the bombing of Iraq by the United States, the United Kingdom, Spain, Italy, Australia, and Denmark began, without UN support, unlike the first Gulf War or the invasion of Afghanistan. The 2003 invasion of Iraq began on March 20, 2003 UTC. On March 18, 2003, President George W. Bush of the United States of America had set a deadline for the ruler of Iraq, Saddam Hussein, and his two sons, Uday Hussein and Qusay Hussein to leave the country, or... The Rendon Group, a Washington, DC based public relations firm with close ties to the US government, and which has had a prominent role in promoting the Iraqi National Congress, was alleged by some journalists to be planning to support the 2003 invasion of Iraq by a careful public relations... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Uday Saddam Hussein al-Tikriti (June 18, 1964 Baghdad – July 22, 2003 Mosul), (Arabic: ) was the eldest son of Saddam Hussein and his first wife, Sajida Talfah. ... Qusay Saddam Hussein al-Tikriti (Arabic: قصي صدام حسين ) (or Qusai) (May 17, 1966 – July 22, 2003) was the second son of former Iraqi president Saddam Hussein. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses of War in Afghanistan, see War in Afghanistan. ...


Failed peace initiatives

In December 2002, a representative of the head of Iraqi Intelligence, Gen. Tahir Jalil Habbush al Takriti, contacted former CIA counterterrorism head Vincent Cannistraro, stating that Saddam "knew there was a campaign to link him to September 11 and prove he had weapons of mass destruction." Cannistrano further added that "the Iraqis were prepared to satisfy these concerns. I reported the conversation to senior levels of the state department and I was told to stand aside and they would handle it." Cannistrano stated that the offers made were all "killed" by the Bush administration because they allowed Saddam Hussein to remain in power - an outcome viewed as unacceptable. It has been suggested that Saddam Hussein was prepared to go into exile if allowed to keep $1 billion USD.[35] After the 2003 Invasion of Iraq, evidence began to emerge as to the failed attempts to bring the conflict to a peaceful resolution. ...


Shortly after, Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak's national security advisor, Osama al Baz, sent a message to the U.S. State Department that the Iraqis wanted to discuss the accusations that Saddam had weapons of mass destruction and ties with al-Qaeda. Iraq also attempted to reach the US through the Syrian, French, German, and Russian intelligence services. Nothing came of the attempts.


In January 2003, Lebanese-American Imad Hage met with Michael Maloof of the DoD's Office of Special Plans. Hage, a resident of Beirut, had been recruited by the department to assist in the War on Terrorism. He reported that Mohammed Nassif, a close aide to Syrian president Bashar al-Assad, had expressed frustrations about the difficulties of Syria contacting the United States, and had attempted to use him as an intermediary. Maloof arranged for Hage to meet with Richard Perle, head of the Defense Policy Board.


In February 2003, Hage met with the chief of Iraqi intelligence's foreign operations, Hassan al-Obeidi. Obeidi told Hage that Baghdad didn't understand why they were being targeted, and that they had no WMDs; he then made the offer for Washington to send in 2000 FBI agents to ascertain this. He additionally offered oil concessions, but stopped short of having Hussein give up power, instead suggesting that elections could be held in two years. Later, Obeidi suggested that Hage travel to Baghdad for talks; he accepted.


Later that month, Hage met with Gen. Habbush in addition to Iraqi Deputy Prime Minister Tariq Aziz. He was offered top priority to US firms in oil and mining rights, UN-supervised elections, US inspections (with up to 5,000 inspectors), to have al-Qaeda agent Abdul Rahman Yasin (in Iraqi custody since 1994) handed over as a sign of good faith, and to give "full support for any US plan" in the Arab-Israeli peace process. They also wished to meet with high-ranking US officials. On February 19, Hage faxed Maloof his report of the trip. Maloof reports having brought the proposal to Jamie Duran. The Pentagon denies that either Wolfowitz or Rumsfeld, Duran's bosses, were aware of the plan. [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On February 21st, Maloof informed Duran in an email that Perle wished to meet with Hage and the Iraqis if the Pentagon would clear it. Duran responded "Mike, working this. Keep this close hold.". On March 7, Perle met with Hage in Knightsbridge, and stated that he wanted to pursue the matter further with people in Washington (both have acknowledged the meeting). A few days later, he informed Hage that Washington refused to let him meet with Habbush to discuss the offer (Hage stated that Perle's response was "that the consensus in Washington was it was a no-go"). Perle told the Times, "The message was 'Tell them that we will see them in Baghdad." is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Casus belli and rationale

George Bush and Tony Blair were explicit that the decision to invade Iraq rested on what Bush called a "single question".[36] This was the allegation that Iraq possessed Weapons of Mass Destruction, including nuclear weapons[37] of which it had to disarm. George Bush, speaking in October 2002, said that “The stated policy of the United States is regime change… However, if Hussein were to meet all the conditions of the United Nations, the conditions that I have described very clearly in terms that everybody can understand, that in itself will signal the regime has changed”.[38] Similarly, in September 2002, Tony Blair stated, in an answer to a parliamentary question, that “Regime change in Iraq would be a wonderful thing. That is not the purpose of our action; our purpose is to disarm Iraq of weapons of mass destruction…”[39] In November of that year, Tony Blair further stated that “So far as our objective, it is disarmament, not régime change - that is our objective. Now I happen to believe the regime of Saddam is a very brutal and repressive regime, I think it does enormous damage to the Iraqi people... so I have got no doubt Saddam is very bad for Iraq, but on the other hand I have got no doubt either that the purpose of our challenge from the United Nations is disarmament of weapons of mass destruction, it is not regime change.”[40] At a press conference on January 31st 2003, George Bush again reiterated that the single trigger for the invasion would be Iraq’s failure to disarm: “Saddam Hussein must understand that if he does not disarm, for the sake of peace, we, along with others, will go disarm Saddam Hussein.”[41] As late as February 25th 2003, it was still the official line that the only cause of invasion would be a failure to disarm. As Tony Blair made clear in a statement to the House of Commons: “I detest his regime. But even now he can save it by complying with the UN's demand. Even now, we are prepared to go the extra step to achieve disarmament peacefully.”[42] Casus belli is a modern Latin language expression meaning the justification for acts of war. ... Colin Powell holding a model vial of anthrax while giving a presentation to the United Nations Security Council. ... For the Xzibit album, see Weapons of Mass Destruction (album). ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... Hussein (also spelled Husayn and Husain) is a common Middle Eastern name especially among Shiite Muslims, because of the popularity of Hussein bin Ali, the grandson of Muhammad and the Shiites third Imam. ...


Additional justifications used at various times included, Iraqi violation of UN resolutions, Saddam's repression of Iraqis and Iraqi violations of the 1991 cease-fire[8]


The main allegations were that Saddam Hussein was in possession of, or was attempting to produce, weapons of mass destruction and had ties to terrorists, specifically to al-Qaeda. Moreover, it has also been alleged by some commentators that, while never making an explicit connection between Iraq and the September 11th attacks, the Bush Administration did repeatedly insinuate a connection, thereby creating a false impression on the American public. For example, the Washington Post has noted that, Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... Discussion of Iraq and weapons of mass destruction concerns the Iraqi governments use, possession, and alleged intention of acquiring more types of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) during the presidency of Saddam Hussein. ... Saddam Hussein and al-Qaeda were alleged by some U.S. Government officials to have established a highly secretive relationship between 1992 and 2003, specifically through a series of meetings reportedly involving the Iraqi Intelligence Service (IIS). ... ...

While not explicitly declaring Iraqi culpability in the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, administration officials did, at various times, imply a link. In late 2001, Cheney said it was "pretty well confirmed" that attack mastermind Mohamed Atta had met with a senior Iraqi intelligence official. Later, Cheney called Iraq the "geographic base of the terrorists who had us under assault now for many years, but most especially on 9/11."[43]

Steven Kull, director of the Program on International Policy Attitudes (PIPA) at the University of Maryland, observed in March 2003 that "The administration has succeeded in creating a sense that there is some connection [between Sept. 11 and Saddam Hussein]". This was following a New York Times/CBS poll that showed 45% of Americans believing Saddam Hussein was "personally involved" in the September 11 atrocities. As the Christian Science Monitor observed at the time, while "Sources knowledgeable about US intelligence say there is no evidence that Hussein played a role in the Sept. 11 attacks, nor that he has been or is currently aiding Al Qaeda... the White House appears to be encouraging this false impression, as it seeks to maintain American support for a possible war against Iraq and demonstrate seriousness of purpose to Hussein's regime." The CSM went on to report that, while polling data collected "right after Sept. 11, 2001" showed that only 3 percent mentioned Iraq or Saddam Hussein, by January 2003 attitudes "had been transformed" with a Knight Ridder poll showing that 44% of Americans believed "most" or "some" of the September 11 hijackers were Iraqi citizens.[44] The University of Maryland, College Park (also known as UM, UMD, or UMCP) is a public university located in the city of College Park, in Prince Georges County, Maryland, just outside Washington, D.C., in the United States. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... This article is about the broadcast network. ... The Christian Science Monitor (CSM) is an international newspaper published daily, Monday through Friday. ...


The BBC has also noted that while President Bush "never directly accused the former Iraqi leader of having a hand in the attacks on New York and Washington..." he "repeatedly associated the two in keynote addresses delivered since 11 September", adding that "Senior members of his administration have similarly conflated the two." For instance, the BBC report quotes Colin Powell in February 2003, stating that "We've learned that Iraq has trained al-Qaeda members in bomb-making and poisons and deadly gases. And we know that after 11 September, Saddam Hussein's regime gleefully celebrated the terrorist attacks on America." The same BBC report, from September 2003, also noted the results of a recent opinion poll, which suggested that "70% of Americans believe the Iraqi leader was personally involved in the attacks."[45] Also in September 2003, the Boston Globe reported that "Vice President Dick Cheney, anxious to defend the White House foreign policy amid ongoing violence in Iraq, stunned intelligence analysts and even members of his own administration this week by failing to dismiss a widely discredited claim: that Saddam Hussein might have played a role in the Sept. 11 attacks."[46] A year later, Presidential candidate John Kerry alleged that Cheney was continuing "to intentionally mislead the American public by drawing a link between Saddam Hussein and 9/11 in an attempt to make the invasion of Iraq part of the global war on terror."[47] For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... General Colin Luther Powell, United States Army (Ret. ...


Throughout 2002, the Bush administration made clear that removing Saddam Hussein from power in order to restore international peace and security was a major goal. The principal stated justifications for this policy of "regime change" were that Iraq's continuing production of weapons of mass destruction and known ties to terrorist organizations, Iraq's continued violations of UN Security Council resolutions amounted to a threat to the U.S. and the world community. Discussion of Iraq and weapons of mass destruction concerns the Iraqi governments use, possession, and alleged intention of acquiring more types of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) during the presidency of Saddam Hussein. ... Saddam Hussein and al-Qaeda were alleged by some U.S. Government officials to have established a highly secretive relationship between 1992 and 2003, specifically through a series of meetings reportedly involving the Iraqi Intelligence Service (IIS). ...

Colin Powell holding a model vial of anthrax while giving presentation to the United Nations Security Council on February 5, 2003 (still photograph captured from video clip, The White House/CNN)
Colin Powell holding a model vial of anthrax while giving presentation to the United Nations Security Council on February 5, 2003 (still photograph captured from video clip, The White House/CNN)

The Bush administration's overall rationale for the invasion of Iraq was presented in detail by Secretary of State Colin Powell to the U.N. Security Council on February 5, 2003; in summary, he stated: Image File history File links Powell-anthrax-vial. ... Image File history File links Powell-anthrax-vial. ... General Colin Luther Powell, United States Army (Ret. ... In several countries, Secretary of State is a senior government position. ... General Colin Luther Powell, United States Army (Ret. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

We know that Saddam Hussein is determined to keep his weapons of mass destruction; he's determined to make more. Given Saddam Hussein's history of aggression...given what we know of his terrorist associations and given his determination to exact revenge on those who oppose him, should we take the risk that he will not some day use these weapons at a time and the place and in the manner of his choosing at a time when the world is in a much weaker position to respond? The United States will not and cannot run that risk to the American people. Leaving Saddam Hussein in possession of weapons of mass destruction for a few more months or years is not an option, not in a post-September 11 world.[48] is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Since the invasion, U.S. and British claims concerning Iraqi weapons programs and links to terrorist organizations have been discredited. While the debate of whether Iraq intended to develop chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons in the future remains open, no WMDs have been found in Iraq since the invasion despite comprehensive inspections lasting more than 18 months.[49] This accords with the statement made by Colin Powell in Cairo, on February 24 2001 that "He [Saddam Hussein] has not developed any significant capability with respect to weapons of mass destruction. He is unable to project conventional power against his neighbours."[50] Similarly, assertions of significant operational links[citation needed] between Iraq and al Qaeda have largely been discredited by the intelligence community, and Secretary Powell himself eventually admitted he had no incontrovertible proof.[51] Discussion of Iraq and weapons of mass destruction concerns the Iraqi governments use, possession, and alleged intention of acquiring more types of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) during the presidency of Saddam Hussein. ... Saddam Hussein and al-Qaeda were alleged by some U.S. Government officials to have established a highly secretive relationship between 1992 and 2003, specifically through a series of meetings reportedly involving the Iraqi Intelligence Service (IIS). ... Weapons of Mass Destruction is also the name of rapper Xzibits 2004 album. ...


In September 2002, the Bush administration said attempts by Iraq to acquire thousands of high-strength aluminum tubes pointed to a clandestine program to make enriched uranium for nuclear bombs. Indeed, Colin Powell, in his address to the U.N. Security Council just prior to the war, made reference to the aluminum tubes. But a report released by the Institute for Science and International Security in 2002 reported that it was highly unlikely that the tubes could be used to enrich uranium. Powell later admitted he had presented an inaccurate case to the United Nations on Iraqi weapons, based on sourcing that was wrong and in some cases "deliberately misleading."[52][53][54] However, Powell's admission is arguably disingenuous in light of the fact that the administration's position (as articulated by Rice and Powell) regarding Hussein just after taking office in the winter and spring of 2001 was that Hussein had no military, was essentially disarmed, and posed no threat to his neighbors[55] It is their assertions that are strong evidence that the Administration was not mistaken about Hussein's alleged wmd program but that the Administration intentionally articulated a rationale that was different from what it actually believed, as articulated by Powell and Rice. Aluminum tubes purchased by the nation of Iraq were intercepted in Jordan in 2001. ... General Colin Luther Powell, United States Army (Ret. ... The Institute for Science and International Security (ISIS) is led by former United Nations nuclear inspector David Albright. ...


Critics of the invasion have also alleged that the U.S. and British governments deliberately fabricated evidence concerning Iraqi weapons programs and links to terrorists. Most notably, opponents of the invasion have accused the Bush Administration of relying on knowingly fraudulent evidence in asserting that the Hussein government had sought to purchase yellowcake uranium from Niger.[56] On March 7, 2003, intelligence documents submitted as evidence to the IAEA were dismissed by the agency as forgeries, with the concurrence of outside experts. At the time, a U.S. official claimed that the evidence was submitted to the IAEA without knowledge of its provenance, and characterized any mistakes as "more likely due to incompetence not malice"; this explanation was deemed unsatisfactory by former CIA official and Iraq War critic Ray Close.[57] Those who oppose these critics of the invasion maintain the fraudulent documents were never central--or even relevant--in intelligence assessments regarding Iraq seeking uranium. Wikisource has original text related to this article: Niger documents The Niger uranium forgeries refers to falsified classified documents initially revealed by Italian intelligence. ... The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) seeks to promote the peaceful use of nuclear energy and to inhibit its use for military purposes. ...


Accusations that the invasion was fought on false pretenses were thought by some to be strengthened by the 2005 release of the so-called Downing Street Memo, a secret British document summarizing a 2002 meeting among British political, intelligence, and defense leaders. According to the memo, Chief of the British Secret Intelligence Service Sir Richard Dearlove claimed that "Bush wanted to remove Saddam, through military action, justified by the conjunction of terrorism and WMD. But the intelligence and facts were being fixed around the policy."[58] Some supporters of the war, however, claim the Memo simply reveals someone giving voice to an opinion, not proof of any facts. Wikisource has original text related to this article: Downing Street memo The Downing Street memo (occasionally DSM, or the Downing Street Minutes), sometimes described by critics of the Iraq War as the smoking gun memo, contains an overview of a secret 23 July 2002 meeting among United Kingdom Labour government... The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), more commonly known as MI6 (originally Military Intelligence Section 6), or the Secret Service, is the United Kingdom external security agency. ... Sir Richard Dearlove is a career intelligence officer and, until May 6, 2004, head of Britains Secret Intelligence Service (MI6). ...


Between September, 2002 and June, 2003, Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz created a Pentagon unit known as the Office of Special Plans (OSP), headed by Douglas Feith. It was created to supply senior Bush administration officials with raw intelligence pertaining to Iraq, unvetted by intelligence analysts, and circumventing traditional intelligence gathering operations by the CIA. One former CIA officer described the OSP as dangerous for U.S. national security and a threat to world peace, and that it lied and manipulated intelligence to further its agenda of removing Saddam Hussein. He described it as a group of ideologues with pre-determined notions of truth and reality, taking bits of intelligence to support their agenda and ignoring anything contrary.[59] Paul Dundes Wolfowitz (born December 22, 1943) is a visiting scholar at the American Enterprise Institute, working on issues of international economic development, Africa and public-private partnerships. ... The Office of Special Plans (OSP), which existed from September 2002 to June 2003, was a Pentagon unit created by Paul Wolfowitz and Douglas Feith, and headed by Feith, as charged by then-U.S. Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld, to supply senior Bush administration officials with raw intelligence (unvetted by... Douglas Feith. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ...


In October, 2002, a few days before the U.S. Senate vote on the Authorization for Use of Military Force Against Iraq Resolution, about 75 senators were told in closed session that Saddam Hussein had the means of delivering biological and chemical weapons of mass destruction by unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) drones that could be launched from ships off the Atlantic coast to attack U.S. eastern seaboard cities. Colin Powell suggested in his presentation to the United Nations that UAVs were transported out of Iraq and could be launched against the U.S. In fact, Iraq had no offensive UAV fleet or any capability of putting UAVs on ships.[60] Iraq's UAV fleet consisted of less than a handful of outdated Czech training drones.[61] At the time, there was a vigorous dispute within the intelligence community as to whether CIA had conclusions about Iraqi UAVs were accurate. The U.S. Air Force agency most familiar with UAVs denied outright that Iraq possessed any offensive UAV capability.[62] Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... The legality of the Iraq War has been widely debated since the United States, Great Britain, Italy and several other countries launched the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... A closed session (formally a session with closed doors) is a parliamentary procedure in the Standing Rules of the United States Senate for discussing matters requiring secrecy. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... Biological warfare, also known as germ warfare, is the use of any organism (bacteria, virus or other disease_causing organism) or toxin found in nature, as a weapon of war. ... Early detection of chemical agents Sociopolitical climate of chemical warfare While the study of chemicals and their military uses was widespread in China, the use of toxic materials has historically been viewed with mixed emotions and some disdain in the West (especially when the enemy were doing it). ... An RQ-2 Pioneer, a reconnaissance UAV used by the US military during the Gulf and Iraq Wars. ... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... General Colin Luther Powell, United States Army (Ret. ... Seal of the Air Force. ...


As evidence supporting U.S. and British claims about Iraqi WMDs and links to terrorism weakened, some claim supporters of the invasion have increasingly shifted their justification to the human rights violations of the Hussein government.[63] Leading human rights groups such as Human Rights Watch have argued, however, that they believe human rights concerns were never a central justification for the invasion, nor do they believe that military intervention was justifiable on humanitarian grounds, most significantly because "the killing in Iraq at the time was not of the exceptional nature that would justify such intervention."[64] Many supporters of the war, however, claim from the start human rights concerns were among the reasons given for the invasion, and that the threat of weapons of mass destruction was emphasized at the United Nations, since this dealt with Iraq flouting UN resolutions. They further claim human rights groups that oppose the war have no objective standard regarding when to invade a country. Iraq under Saddam Hussein was notorious for high levels of torture and mass murder. ... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ...


Notwithstanding the stated justifications for the invasion, critics of the Bush Administration have also argued that the true motives included ensuring U.S. access to Iraqi oil and long term U.S. dominance in the Middle East.[65] Bush Administration officials have vehemently denied these claims.[66] Jean-François Susbielle, a French author wrote a book in 2006 called book titled Chine-USA, la guerre programmée in which he claimed that the USA invaded Iraq in 2003 so as to have power over as many major oil fields as possible so as to control China’s access to oil. He believes that various neoconservatives view China as a strategic challenge that must be contained. Many supporters of the war counter that other nations made special deals with Iraq to buy its oil, and if the US were interested primarily in oil, it could have made a deal as well, a much easier route to what it desires than fighting a war; furthermore, they claim, oil was more instrumental in creating opposition to the war than support for it, since many nations, especially in Europe, wanted to maintain the oil supply they were receiving from Iraq. A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Jean-François Susbielle is a French author who wrote La morsure du dragon. ... Chine-USA, la guerre programmée (China-USA, the upcoming war) is a book authored by Jean-François Susbielle, published in 2006. ... Neoconservatism describes several distinct political ideologies which are considered new forms of conservatism. ...


The allegation that the Iraq was mainly about oil has since been supported by the remarks of Alan Greenspan, the recently retired head of the US Federal Reserve. In media coverage in advance of the publication of his memoirs, Greenspan is reported to have written that, Squalltoonix (born March 6, 1926 in New York City) is an American economist and was Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve of the United States from 1987 to 2006. ... The Federal Reserve System is headquartered in the Eccles Building on Constitution Avenue in Washington, DC. The Federal Reserve System (also the Federal Reserve; informally The Fed) is the central bank of the United States. ...


"I am saddened that it is politically inconvenient to acknowledge what everyone knows: the Iraq war is largely about oil."[67]


The media widely interpreted this as meaning that the casus belli was the appropriation of Iraqi oil. When asked to further elaborate, Greenspan said it was clear to him that Saddam Hussein had wanted to control the Straits of Hormuz and so control Middle East oil shipments through the vital route out of the Gulf. He said that had Saddam been able to do that it would have been "devastating to the west" as the former Iraqi president could have just shut off 5m barrels a day and brought "the industrial world to its knees."[68]


Legality of invasion

The legality of the invasion of Iraq has been unsuccessfully challenged since its inception on a number of fronts, and several prominent supporters of the invasion in all the invading nations have publicly and privately cast doubt on its legality. It is claimed that the invasion was fully legal because authorization was implied by the United Nations Security Council.[69][70] International legal experts, including the International Commission of Jurists, a group of 31 leading Canadian law professors, and the U.S.-based Lawyers Committee on Nuclear Policy have denounced both of these rationales.[71][72][73] The legality of the Iraq War has been widely debated since the United States, Great Britain, Italy and several other countries launched the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... “Security Council” redirects here. ... The International Commission of Jurists (ICJ) is an international human rights non-government organisation. ...


On Thursday November 20, 2003, an article published in the Guardian alleged that Richard Perle, a senior member of the administration's Defense Policy Board Advisory Committee, conceded that the invasion was illegal but still justified.[74][75] Richard N. Perle (born 16 September 1941 in New York City) is an American political advisor and lobbyist who worked for the Reagan administration as an assistant Secretary of Defense and worked on the Defense Policy Board Advisory Committee from 1987 to 2004. ... The Defense Policy Board Advisory Committee (DPBAC or DPB) is a federal advisory committee to the United States Department of Defense. ...


The United Nations Security Council has passed nearly 60 resolutions on Iraq and Kuwait since Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990. The most relevant to this issue is Resolution 678, passed on November 29, 1990. It authorizes "member states co-operating with the Government of Kuwait...to use all necessary means" to (1) implement Security Council Resolution 660 and other resolutions calling for the end of Iraq's occupation of Kuwait and withdrawal of Iraqi forces from Kuwaiti territory and (2) "restore international peace and security in the area." UN Security Council Resolution 678 is a UN security council resolution authorizing member states to use all necessary means to uphold and implement resolution 660 and all subsequent relevant resolutions and to restore international peace and security[1] to the Persian Gulf region, following the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in... United Nations Security Council Resolution 660 was adopted by the UN Security Council on 2 August 1990. ...


Resolution 678 has not been rescinded or nullified by succeeding resolutions. UN Security Council Resolution 678 is a UN security council resolution authorizing member states to use all necessary means to uphold and implement resolution 660 and all subsequent relevant resolutions and to restore international peace and security[1] to the Persian Gulf region, following the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in...


Resolution 1441 was most prominent during the run up to the war and formed the main backdrop for Secretary of State Colin Powell's address to the Security Council one month before the invasion.[76] At the same time, Bush Administration officials advanced a parallel legal argument using the earlier resolutions, which authorized force in response to Iraq's 1991 invasion of Kuwait. Under this reasoning, by failing to disarm and submit to weapons inspections, Iraq was in violation of U.N. Security Council Resolutions 660 and 678, and the U.S. could legally compel Iraq's compliance through military means. United Nations Security Council Resolution 1441 is a resolution by the UN Security Council, passed unanimously on November 8, 2002, offering Iraq a final opportunity to comply with its disarmament obligations that had been set out in several previous resolutions (resolution 660, resolution 661, resolution 678, resolution 686, resolution 687... General Colin Luther Powell, United States Army (Ret. ... Combatants Republic of Iraq State of Kuwait Commanders Ali Hassan al-Majid N/A Strength 100,000[1] 16,000[2] Casualties 37+ aircraft (est. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ...


Critics and proponents of the legal rationale based on the U.N. resolutions argue that the legal right to determine how to enforce its resolutions lies with the Security Council alone, not with individual nations.


In February 2006, Luis Moreno-Ocampo, the lead prosecutor for the International Criminal Court, reported that he had received 240 separate communications regarding the legality of the war, many of which concerned British participation in the invasion.[77] In a letter addressed to the complainants, Mr. Moreno-Ocampo explained that he could only consider issues related to conduct during the war and not to its underlying legality as a possible crime of aggression because no provision had yet been adopted which "defines the crime and sets out the conditions under which the Court may exercise jurisdiction with respect to it." In a March 2007 interview with the Sunday Telegraph, Moreno-Ocampo encouraged Iraq to sign up with the court so that it could bring cases related to alleged war crimes.[78] Luis Moreno-Ocampo also stated that his extensive investigation found no evidence for any war crime or any crime against humanity. Luis Moreno-Ocampo (born 1952, Buenos Aires) is the Chief Prosecutor of the International Criminal Court (ICC). ... The official logo of the ICC The International Criminal Court (ICC or ICCt)[1] was established in 2002 as a permanent tribunal to prosecute individuals for genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, and the crime of aggression, although it cannot currently exercise jurisdiction over the crime of aggression. ... The Sunday Telegraph is a British broadsheet newspaper, founded in 1961. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... In international law, a crime against humanity consists of acts of persecution or any large scale atrocities against a body of people, as being the criminal offence above all others. ...


United States Ohio Congressman Dennis Kucinich held a press conference on the evening of April 24, 2007, revealing US House Resolution 333 and the three articles of impeachment against Vice President Dick Cheney. He charges Cheney with manipulating the evidence of Iraq's weapons program, deceiving the nation about Iraq's connection to al-Qaeda, and threatening aggression against Iran in violation of the United Nations Charter. Dennis John Kucinich (IPA: ) (born October 8, 1946) is an American politician of the Democratic party and a candidate for the Democratic nomination for President of the United States in both 2004 and 2008. ... is the 114th day of the year (115th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... House Resolution 333 is a resolution submitted to the House of Representatives by Representative Dennis Kucinich (D-Ohio) during the 110th United States Congress that impeaches Vice President Dick Cheney on three charges. ... Richard Bruce Dick Cheney (born January 30, 1941), is the 46th and current Vice President of the United States, serving under President George W. Bush. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...

See also: Legitimacy of the 2003 invasion of Iraq, Failed Iraqi peace initiatives, Views on the 2003 invasion of Iraq, and Opposition to the 2003 Iraq War

Image:AntiWarProtestLondon. ... After the 2003 Invasion of Iraq, evidence began to emerge as to the failed attempts to bring the conflict to a peaceful resolution. ... This page contains links to several topics relating to views on the 2003 invasion of Iraq and the subsequent occupation of Iraq. ... This article is about the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ...

Military aspects

United States military operations were conducted under the codename Operation Iraqi Liberation.[79] The codename was later changed to Operation Iraqi Freedom The United Kingdom military operation was named Operation Telic. Operation (or Op) TELIC is the codename under which all British operations of the 2003 Invasion of Iraq and after are being conducted. ...


Multilateral support

In November 2002, U.S. President George W. Bush, visiting Europe for a NATO summit, declared that "should Iraqi President Saddam Hussein choose not to disarm, the United States will lead a coalition of the willing to disarm him."[80] For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article is about the military alliance. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with multinational force in Iraq. ...


Thereafter, the Bush administration briefly used the term Coalition of the Willing to refer to the countries who supported, militarily or verbally, the military action in Iraq and subsequent military presence in post-invasion Iraq since 2003. The original list prepared in March 2003 included 49 members.[81] Of those 49, only six besides the U.S. contributed troops to the invasion force (the United Kingdom, Spain, Italy, Australia, Poland, and Denmark), 33 provided some number of troops to support the occupation after the invasion was complete. Six members have no military. The post-invasion period in Iraq followed the 2003 invasion of Iraq by a multinational coalition led by the United States, which overthrew the Baath Party government of Saddam Hussein. ...


Invasion force

Approximately 248,000 Soldiers and Marines from the United States, 45,000 British soldiers, 2,000 Australian soldiers, 1,300 Spanish soldiers, 500 Danish soldiers and 194 Polish soldiers were sent to Kuwait for the invasion.[citation needed] Of those troops, all but the special forces were kept close to bases and required to avoid hostile engagements. The invasion force was also supported by Iraqi Kurdish militia troops, estimated to number upwards of 50,000.[citation needed] Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... For other uses, see Special forces (disambiguation). ... Kurds are one of the Iranian peoples and speak Kurdish, a north-Western Iranian language related to Persian. ...

Two Honkers in Iraq who are participating in Operation Iraqi Freedom
Two Honkers in Iraq who are participating in Operation Iraqi Freedom
Another polish Honker(an all-armoured heavier version Honker Skorpion was created specifically for the Polish Army) during the CIMIC patrol
Another polish Honker(an all-armoured heavier version Honker Skorpion was created specifically for the Polish Army) during the CIMIC patrol

Plans for opening a second front in the north were severely hampered when Turkey refused the use of its territory for such purposes.[82] In response to Turkey's decision, the United States dropped several thousand paratroopers from the 173rd Airborne Brigade into northern Iraq, a number significantly less than the 15,000 strong 4th Mechanized Infantry Division that the U.S. originally planned to use for opening the northern front.[83] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 530 pixelsFull resolution (2464 × 1632 pixel, file size: 662 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description Date 3 Apr 2005 Source http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 530 pixelsFull resolution (2464 × 1632 pixel, file size: 662 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description Date 3 Apr 2005 Source http://www. ... The 2003 Invasion of Iraq was the first military act of the Iraq War, and was launched by the United States and the United Kingdom on March 20, 2003, with support from some other governments, making up what was described as the coalition of the willing. After about three weeks... The Civil-Military Co-operation (CIMIC) unit of the Canadian contingent of ISAF in Kabul, Afghanistan is responsible for infrastructure and reconstruction projects in the region. ...


Defending force

The number of personnel in the Iraqi military prior to the war was uncertain, but it was believed to have been poorly-equipped.[84][85][86] The International Institute for Strategic Studies estimated the Iraqi armed forces to number 389,000 (army 350,000, navy 2,000, air force 20,000 and air defense 17,000), the paramilitary Fedayeen Saddam 44,000, and reserves 650,000.[87] Another estimate numbers the army and Republican Guard at between 280,000 to 350,000 and 50,000 to 80,000, respectively,[88] and the paramilitary between 20,000 and 40,000.[89] There were an estimated thirteen infantry divisions, ten mechanized and armored divisions, as well as some special forces units. The Iraqi Air Force and Iraqi Navy played a negligible role in the conflict. In 2005, the CIA released a report saying that no weapons of mass destruction had been found in Iraq. [11] Iraqi soldiers from the 2nd Iraqi Army Brigade, train on cordon and search procedures at Diyala Regional Training Facility in August 2005. ... Paramilitary designates forces whose function and organization are similar to those of a professional military force, but which are not regarded as having the same status. ... Fedayeen Saddam (فدائيي صدام) was a paramilitary organization loyal to the former Baathist regime of Saddam Hussein. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I Infantry or footmen are very highly disciplined and trained soldiers who fight primarily with small arms(rifles), but are trained to use everything from their bare hands to missle systems in order to neutralize... Mechanized infantry are infantry equipped with armored personnel carriers (APCs), or infantry fighting vehicles (IFVs) for transport and combat (see also mechanized force). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Armoured warfare. ... For other uses, see Special forces (disambiguation). ... The Iraqi Air Force (IQAF) is the military branch in Iraq responsible for aerial warfare. ... Iraqi patrol craft in 2004 The Iraqi Navy is one of the components of the military of Iraq currently being reconstructed by UK-US Coalition forces in Iraq. ... CIA redirects here. ...


Invasion

Routes and major battles fought by invasion force and afterwards.
Routes and major battles fought by invasion force and afterwards.

Since the 1991 Persian Gulf War, the U.S. and UK had been engaged in a low-level attacks on what remained of Iraqi air defenses, while enforcing Iraqi no-fly zones.[16][17] These zones, and the attacks to enforce them, were described as illegal by the former UN Secretary General, Boutros Boutros-Ghali and the then French foreign minister, Hubert Vedrine. Other countries, notably Russia and China, also condemned the zones as a violation of Iraqi sovereignty.[90] In mid-2002, the U.S. began more carefully selecting targets in the southern part of the country to disrupt the military command structure in Iraq and "pressure" the Iraqi Government into providing a pretext for war. A change in enforcement tactics was acknowledged at the time, but it was not made public that this was part of a plan known as Operation Southern Focus. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 578 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1250 × 1297 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 578 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1250 × 1297 pixel, file size: 1. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... No-fly zone detail The Iraqi no-fly zones (NFZs) were proclaimed by the United States, United Kingdom and France after the Gulf War of 1991 to protect Kurds in the north and Shiite Muslims in the south. ... USS Abraham Lincoln rides out a storm in the Arabian Sea while supporting Operation Southern Watch and Operation Enduring Freedom. ...


The amount of ordnance dropped on Iraqi positions by Coalition aircraft during 2001 and 2002 was actually less than during 1999 and 2000 during the Clinton administration. [12] This information has been used to attempt to refute the theory that the Bush administration had already decided to go to war against Iraq before coming to office and that the bombing done during 2001 and 2002 was unusual and laying the ground work for the eventual invasion in 2003. However, information obtained by the UK Liberal Democrats showed that the U.S. and UK dropped twice as many bombs on Iraq in the second half of 2002 as they did during the whole of 2001. The tonnage of U.S. bombs dropped increased from 0 in March 2002 and 0.3 in April 2002 to between 7 and 14 tons per month in May-August, reaching a pre-war peak of 54.6 tons in September - prior to Congress' 11 October authorization of the invasion. The September attacks included a 5 September 100-aircraft attack on the main air defense site in western Iraq. According to an editorial in New Statesman this was "Located at the furthest extreme of the southern no-fly zone, far away from the areas that needed to be patrolled to prevent attacks on the Shias, it was destroyed not because it was a threat to the patrols, but to allow allied special forces operating from Jordan to enter Iraq undetected."[91] Tommy Franks, who commanded the invasion of Iraq, has since admitted that the bombing was designed to “degrade” Iraqi air defences in the same way as the air attacks that began the 1991 Gulf war. These "spikes of activity" were, in the words of then British Defence Secretary, Geoff Hoon, designed to 'put pressure on the Iraqi regime' or, as The Times reported, to "provoke Saddam Hussein into giving the allies an excuse for war". In this respect, as provocations designed to start a war, leaked British Foreign Office legal advice concluded that such attacks were illegal under international law.[92] The Liberal Democrats, often shortened to Lib Dems, is a liberal political party in the United Kingdom formed in 1988 by the merger of the Liberal Party and the Social Democratic Party; the two parties had already been in an alliance for seven years prior to this, since not long... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... NOONE CARES Headline text The Joint Resolution to Authorize the Use of United States Armed Forces Against Iraq (H.J.Res. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New Statesman is a left-of-centre political weekly published in London. ... Geoffrey William Hoon (born December 6, 1953) is a British politician. ... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom (and the Kingdom of Great Britain before the United Kingdom existed) since 1788 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. ...


Another attempt at provoking the war was mentioned in a leaked memo from a meeting between George W. Bush and Tony Blair on January 31, 2003 at which Bush allegedly told Blair that "The US was thinking of flying U2 reconnaissance aircraft with fighter cover over Iraq, painted in UN colours. If Saddam fired on them, he would be in breach."[93] George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Opening salvo: The Dora Farms strike

The early morning of March 19, 2003, U.S. forces abandoned the plan for initial, non-nuclear decapitation strikes against fifty-five top Iraqi officials, in light of reports that Saddam Hussein was visiting his daughters and sons, Uday and Qusay at Dora Farms, within the al-Dora farming community on the outskirts of Baghdad.[94] At approximately 05:30 UTC four enhanced, satellite-guided 2,000-pound Bunker Busters GBU-27 and 40 Tomahawk cruise missiles were dropped on the compound.[95] One missed the compound entirely and the other three missed their target landing on the other side of the wall of the palace compound., [96] Saddam Hussein was not present nor were any members of the Iraqi leadership or Hussein family.[94] The attack resulted in the deaths of fifteen civilians, including nine women and one child.[97], [98] Later investigation revealed that Saddam Hussein had not visited the farm since 1995.[95] is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the theory of nuclear warfare, a decapitation strike is an attack that aims to remove the command and control mechanisms of the opponent, in the hope that it will severely degrade or destroy its capacity for nuclear retaliation. ... Dora (also Al Dura) is a neighborhood in Rasheed administrative district, southern Baghdad, Iraq. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... ... A bunker buster is a bomb designed to penetrate hardened targets or targets buried deep underground. ... Laser-guided bomb. ... A Tomahawk cruise missile The Tomahawk Land Attack Missile (TLAM) is a long-range, all-weather, subsonic cruise missile with stubby wings. ...


Opening attack

On March 20, 2003 at approximately 02:30 UTC or about 90 minutes after the lapse of the 48-hour deadline, at 05:33 local time, explosions were heard in Baghdad. There is now evidence that various special forces troops (including British SAS, the Australian SASR and 4RAR, the U.S. Army's Delta Force, United States Navy SEALs, United States Army's Green Berets and U.S. Air Force Combat Controllers) crossed the border into Iraq well before the air war commenced to guide strike aircraft in air attacks. At 03:15 UTC, or 10:15 p.m. EST, George W. Bush announced that he had ordered an "attack of opportunity" against targets in Iraq. As soon as this word was given the troops on standby crossed the border into Iraq. These troops were led by the 4th bomb disposal unit which at the time had three RAF Regiment airmen from 15 squadron on a tour. is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... ... SAS in their armed jeeps, during the North African campaign The Special Air Service Regiment (SAS) is a special forces unit of the British Army. ... The Special Air Service Regiment (SASR) is a Special Forces regiment modelled on the original British SAS and also drawing on the traditions of the Australian World War II Z Special Force commando unit, as well as the Independent Companies which were active in the South Pacific during the same... The 4th Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment, is the elite infantry battalion of the Royal Australian Regiment and is one of three combat capable groups within the Australian Special Operations Command (the other two being the SASR and 1st Commando Regiment). ... The 1st Special Forces Operational Detachment-Delta (1st SFOD-D) — commonly known as Delta in the U.S. Army, Delta Force by civilians, and Combat Applications Group by the Department of Defense — is a Special Operations Force (SOF) and an integral element of the Joint Special Operations Command (JSOC). ... Seal or SEAL can refer to: Seal, a device used to produce an official stamp as a symbol of authority. ... Blue Light redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Before the invasion, many observers had expected a lengthy campaign of aerial bombing in advance of any ground action, taking as examples the 1991 Persian Gulf War or the 2001 invasion of Afghanistan. In practice, U.S. plans envisioned simultaneous air and ground assaults to decapitate the Iraqi forces as fast as possible (see Shock and Awe), attempting to bypass Iraqi military units and cities in most cases. The assumption was that superior mobility and co-ordination of Coalition forces would allow them to attack the heart of the Iraqi command structure and destroy it in a short time, and that this would minimize civilian deaths and damage to infrastructure. It was expected that the elimination of the leadership would lead to the collapse of the Iraqi Forces and the government, and that much of the population would support the invaders once the government had been weakened. Occupation of cities and attacks on peripheral military units were viewed as undesirable distractions. For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... For other uses of War in Afghanistan, see War in Afghanistan. ... Shock and awe, technically known as rapid dominance, is a military doctrine based on the use of overwhelming decisive force, dominant battlefield awareness, dominant maneuvers, and spectacular displays of power to paralyze an adversarys perception of the battlefield and destroy its will to fight. ...


Following Turkey's decision to deny any official use of its territory, the Coalition was forced to abandon a planned simultaneous attack from north and south, so the primary bases for the invasion were in Kuwait and other Persian Gulf nations. One result of this was that one of the divisions intended for the invasion was forced to relocate and was unable to take part in the invasion until well into the war. Many observers felt that the Coalition devoted sufficient numbers of troops to the invasion, but too many were withdrawn after it ended, and that the failure to occupy cities put them at a major disadvantage in achieving security and order throughout the country when local support failed to meet expectations. Map of the Persian Gulf. ...

NASA Landsat 7 image of Baghdad, April 2, 2003. The dark streaks are smoke from oil well fires set in an attempt to hinder attacking air forces.
NASA Landsat 7 image of Baghdad, April 2, 2003. The dark streaks are smoke from oil well fires set in an attempt to hinder attacking air forces.

The invasion was swift, with the collapse of the Iraq government and the military of Iraq in about three weeks. The oil infrastructure of Iraq was rapidly secured with limited damage in that time. Securing the oil infrastructure was considered of great importance to funding the rebuilding of Iraq after the invasion ended. In the Persian Gulf War, while retreating from Kuwait, the Iraqi army had set many oil wells on fire, in an attempt to disguise troop movements and to distract Coalition forces. Prior to the 2003 invasion, Iraqi forces had mined some 400 oil wells around Basra and the Al-Faw peninsula with explosives. Coalition troops launched an air and amphibious assault on the Al-Faw peninsula during the closing hours of 20 March to secure the oil fields there; the amphibious assault was supported by warships of the Royal Navy, Polish Navy, and Royal Australian Navy. The United States Marine Corps' 15th Marine Expeditionary Unit, attached to 3 Commando Brigade and the Polish Special Forces unit GROM attacked the port of Umm Qasr. The British Army's 16 Air Assault Brigade also secured the oilfields in southern Iraq in places like Rumaila while the Polish commandos captured offshore oil platforms near the port, preventing their destruction. Despite the rapid advance of the invasion forces, some 44 oil wells were destroyed and set ablaze by Iraqi explosives or by incidental fire. However, the wells were quickly capped and the fires put out, preventing the ecological damage and loss of oil production capacity that had occurred at the end of the Persian Gulf War. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (889x1200, 458 KB) Beskrivning This image shows the city of Baghdad, the capital of Iraq. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (889x1200, 458 KB) Beskrivning This image shows the city of Baghdad, the capital of Iraq. ... For other uses, see NASA (disambiguation). ... Landsat 7 is the latest satellite of the Landsat program. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Iraqi soldiers from the 2nd Iraqi Army Brigade, train on cordon and search procedures at Diyala Regional Training Facility in August 2005. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city of Basra. ... Al-Faw peninsula, Iraq This article is about the Iraqi peninsula. ... Amphibious Assault began when 17-year-old, former Kittie guitarist, Fallon Bowman was on a plane from Ontario to New Jersey, skimming through a Tom Clancy novel when she came upon the term amphibious assault. ... Al-Faw peninsula, Iraq This article is about the Iraqi peninsula. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... Flag of the Polish Navy Polish Navy Ensign The Polish Navy (Marynarka Wojenna RP, MW RP) is the branch of Polands armed forces responsible for naval operations. ... The Royal Australian Navy (RAN) is the naval branch of the Australian Defence Force. ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States armed forces responsible for providing force projection from the sea,[1] using the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces and is one of seven uniformed services. ... The 15th Marine Expeditionary Unit (15th MEU) is one of seven Marine Expeditionary Units currently in existence in the United States Marine Corps. ... Official force name Other names GROM Grupa Reagowania Operacyjno-Manewrowego Polish Army GROM Force Branch Polish Army Chain of Command Directly subordinate to Polish Ministry of Defence Description Special Operations Force, rapidly deployable light infantry force. ... Cranes at Umm Qasr await cargo. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... The 16 Air Assault Brigade (16 AAB) is a unit of the British Army It was formed as part of the defence reforms implemented by the Strategic Defence Review on 1 September 1999 by the merging of 24th Airmobile Brigade and elements of 5th Airborne Brigade. ... The Rumaila Field is an oil field in southern Iraq that also spills over into Kuwait, possession of this field led to disputes between Iraq and Kuwait and was one of reasons for Iraqs invasion of Kuwait in 1990. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ...


In keeping with the rapid advance plan, the U.S. 3rd Infantry Division moved westward and then northward through the western desert toward Baghdad, while the 1st Marine Expeditionary Force moved along Highway 1 through the center of the country, and 1 (UK) Armoured Division moved northward through the eastern marshland. Spanish units moved south to the Saudi-Iraqi border, then drove north to join U.S. forces. Polish troops moved with U.S. Marines, and Danish soldiers fought with the British and Australians in southern Iraq. Shoulder sleeve patch of the United States Army 3d Infantry Division (Mechanized). ... The 1st Marine Expeditionary Force is a Marine Air Ground Task Force (MAGTF) of the United States Marine Corps primarily composed of the 1st Marine Division, 3rd Marine Aircraft Wing, and 1st Marine Logistics Group. ... History The 1st Armoured Division was a regular division in the British Army at the outbreak of World War II. It had formerly been designated The Mobile Division. ...


Initially, the U.S. 1st Marine Division and 3rd Marine Division and three Polish infantry, two mechanized, and one armoured divisions fought through the Rumaila oil fields, and moved north to Nasariyah--a moderate-sized, Shi'ite dominated city with important strategic significance as a major road junction and its proximity to nearby Talil Airfield. The United States Army 3rd Infantry Division, U.S. 7th Infantry Division, and U.S. 5th Armoured Division defeated Iraqi forces entrenched in and around the airfield and bypassed the city to the west. On 23 March, U.S Marines and Polish units pressed the attack in and around Nasiriyah. Polish soldiers moved in the city while Marines surrounded it. During the battle an Air Force A-10 was involved in a case of friendly fire that resulted in the death of six Marines.[99] Because of Nasiriyah's strategic position as a road junction, significant gridlock occurred as U.S. and Polish forces moving north converged on the city's surrounding highways. With Nasiriyah and Tallil Airfield secured, Coalition forces gained an important logistical center in southern Iraq, establishing FOB/EAF Jalibah, some 10 miles (16 km) outside of Nasiriyah through which additional troops and supplies were brought. Italian and Spanish soldiers were now arriving to advance south of the U.S. Army's advance. The 101st Airborne Division continued their attack north behind the 3rd Infantry Division, and the 82nd Airborne Division began to consolidate in and around Tallil airfield for further operations. Spanish, Polish, British, and Australian paratroopers also moved to Tallil. By 27-28 March, a severe sand storm slowed the Coalition advance as the 3rd and 7th Infantry Divisions and the 5th Armoured Divisions fought on the outskirts of Najaf and Kufa, with particularly heavy fighting in and around the bridge adjacent to the town of Kifl before moving north toward Karbala. The storm also stopped the Italian and Spanish advance south of the U.S. Army advance. is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The A-10 Thunderbolt II is an American single-seat, twin-engine jet aircraft developed by Fairchild-Republic for the United States Air Force to provide close air support (CAS) of ground forces by attacking tanks, armored vehicles, and other ground targets, also providing a limited air interdiction role. ... For other uses, see Friendly Fire (disambiguation). ... The 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault)—nicknamed the “Screaming Eagles”—is an airborne division of the United States Army primarily trained for air assault operations. ... The 82nd Airborne Division of the United States Army was formed originally as the 82nd Infantry Division on August 25, 1917, at Camp Gordon, Georgia. ... For other uses, see Najaf (disambiguation). ... Kufa (الكوفة al-Kufa in Arabic) is a city in Iraq, about 170 km south of Baghdad, and 10 km northeast of Najaf. ...


Further south, the British, Australian, and Danish armies fought their way into Iraq's second-largest city, Basra, on 6 April, coming under constant attack by regulars and Fedayeen, while the British Red Devils cleared the 'old quarter' of the city that was inaccessible to vehicles. Entering Basra had only been achieved after two weeks of conflict, which included the biggest tank battle by British and Australian forces since World War II and the biggest Danish tank battle in Denmark's history when the Coalition destroyed 64 Iraqi tanks on 27 March. Elements of 1 (UK) Armoured Division began to advance north towards U.S. positions around Al Amarah on 9 April. The British 3rd Armoured and 4th Mechanized Division, Australian 1st Infantry Division, and the Danish 3rd Infantry Brigade attacked small Iraqi defenses. Pre-existing electrical and water shortages continued throughout the conflict and looting began as Iraqi forces collapsed. While Coalition forces began working with local Iraqi Police to enforce order, Royal Electrical Mechanical Engineers (REME) and Royal Engineers of the British Army rapidly set up and repaired dockyard facilities to allow humanitarian aid began to arrive from ships arriving in the port city of Umm Qasr. This article is about the city of Basra. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Parachute Regiment redirects here, for the Indian regiment, see The Parachute Regiment (India) The Parachute Regiment is the Airborne Infantry element of the British Army. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... History The 1st Armoured Division was a regular division in the British Army at the outbreak of World War II. It had formerly been designated The Mobile Division. ... Amarah (sometimes written al-Amarah), is a city in southeastern Iraq, located next to the Tigris River waterway south of Baghdad, at 32°10N 46°03E. Predominately Shiite, it had a population of about 340,000 as of 2002. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Corps of Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers (REME; pronounced phonetically as Reemee) is a corps of the British Army that has responsibility for the maintenance, servicing and inspection of almost every electrical and mechanical piece of equipment within the British Army from Challenger II main battle tanks and AH64... The Corps of Royal Engineers, usually just called the Royal Engineers (RE), and commonly known as the Sappers, is one of the corps of the British Army. ... Cranes at Umm Qasr await cargo. ...


After a rapid initial advance, the first major pause occurred in the vicinity of Karbala. There, U.S. Army elements met resistance from Iraqi troops defending cities and key bridges along the Euphrates River. These forces threatened to interdict supply routes as Coalition forces moved north. Spanish units also met heavy resistance. By the end of March, elements of the 82nd Airborne Division augmented with a mechanized infantry battalion task force of the U.S. 5th Armored Division began diversionary assaults in and around the city of Samawah to divert Iraqi forces that may have otherwise threatened the extended rear of the Coalition's lead elements. Meanwhile, the U.S. 101st Airborne Division supported by an armored battalion task force of the 2nd Armored division and infantry elements of the U.S. 1st Marine Division with Coalition air support and Polish soldiers, attacked and secured the cities of Najaf and Karbala to prevent any Iraqi counterattacks from the east. This eased pressure on the Spanish and Italian units, who broke through and were moving to Baghdad. These attacks effectively protected the eastern flank and rear of the U.S. Army's, which allowed the western flank of the invasion to resupply and continue its advance north through the Karbala Gap and on toward Baghdad, where U.S Marine, Polish, Australian, and British forces had already begun a preliminary assault on the outskirts of the city. Spanish forces quickly moved to the city to take part in the final battle. // Karbala (Arabic: ; BGN: Al-Karbalā’; also spelled Karbala al-Muqaddasah) is a city in Iraq, located about 100 km southwest of Baghdad at 32. ...


Special operations

The northern front during March and April 2003

The 2nd Battalion of the U.S. 5th Special Forces Group, United States Army Special Forces (Green Berets) conducted reconnaissance in the cities of Basra, Karbala and various other locations. Image File history File links Iraq_invasion_northern_front. ... Image File history File links Iraq_invasion_northern_front. ... Symbol of the Austrian 14th Armoured Battalion in NATO military graphic symbols This article is about the military unit. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Blue Light redirects here. ... This article is about the city of Basra. ... // Karbala (Arabic: ; BGN: Al-Karbalā’; also spelled Karbala al-Muqaddasah) is a city in Iraq, located about 100 km southwest of Baghdad at 32. ...


In the North, the 10th Special Forces Group (10th SFG) which included U.S., Spanish, British, and Polish paratroopers had the mission of aiding the Kurdish parties, the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan and the Kurdistan Democratic Party, de facto rulers of Iraqi Kurdistan since 1991, and employing them against the 13 Iraqi Divisions located in the vicinity of Kirkuk and Mosul. Turkey had officially forbidden any Coalition troops from using their bases or airspace, so lead elements of the 10th SFG had to make a detour infiltration; their flight was supposed to take four hours but instead took ten. Hours after the first of such flights, Turkey did allow the use of its air space and the rest of the 10th SFG infiltrated in. The preliminary mission was to destroy the base of the Kurdish terrorist group Ansar al-Islam, believed to be linked to Al Qaeda. Concurrent and follow-on missions involved attacking and fixing Iraqi forces in the north, thus preventing their deployment to the southern front and the main effort of the invasion. The 10th Special Forces Group was formed on June 19th, 1952, at Fort Bragg, North Carolina, with Colonel Aaron Bank in command. ... The Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK) (est. ... The Kurdistan Democratic Party (KDP; Kurdish: Partiya Demokrat a Kurdistanê or PDK) is a Kurdish political party led by Massoud Barzani. ... For other uses, see Kurdistan (disambiguation). ... Ansar al-Islam (Arabic: انصار الاسلام, Supporters or Partisans of Islam) is a Kurdish Sunni Islamist group, promoting a radical interpretation of Islam and holy war. ...


On March 26, 2003, the 173rd Airborne Brigade augmented the invasion's northern front by parachuting into northern Iraq onto Bashur Airfield, controlled at the time by elements of 10th SFG and Kurdish peshmerga. The fall of Kirkuk on 10 April 2003 to the 10th SFG and Kurdish peshmerga precipitated the 173rd's planned assault, preventing the unit's involvement in combat against Iraqi forces during the invasion. The successful occupation of Kirkuk came as a result of approximately two weeks of fighting that included the Battle of the Green Line (the unofficial border of the Kurdish autonomous zone) and the subsequent Battle of Kani Domlan Ridge (the ridgeline running northwest to southeast of Kirkuk), the latter fought exclusively by 3rd Battalion, 10th SFG and Kurdish peshmerga against the Iraqi I Corps. The 173rd, 185th, 111th Polish 100th, Spanish 165th, British 195th, and British 175th would eventually take responsibility for Kirkuk days later, becoming involved in the counterinsurgency fight and remain there until redeploying a year later. March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Shoulder sleeve patch of the 173rd Airborne Brigrade. ...


After Sargat was taken, Bravo Company, 3rd Battalion, 10th SFG along with their Kurdish allies pushed south towards Tikrit and the surrounding towns of Northern Iraq. Previously, during the Battle of the Green Line, Bravo Company, 3/10 with their Kurdish allies pushed back, destroyed, or routed the 13th Iraqi Infantry Division. The same company took Tikrit. Iraq was the largest deployment of Special Forces since Vietnam. Looking north along the Tigris towards Saddams Presidential palace in April 2003 Tikrit (تكريت, Tikrīt also transliterated as Takrit or Tekrit) is a town in Iraq, located 140 km northwest of Baghdad on the Tigris river (at 34. ... For other uses, see Special forces (disambiguation). ...


Fall of Baghdad (April 2003)

Three weeks into the invasion, Coalition forces moved into Baghdad. Initial plans were for Coalition units to surround the city and gradually move in, forcing Iraqi armor and ground units to cluster into a central pocket in the city, and then attack with air and artillery forces. This plan soon became unnecessary, as an initial engagement of armor units south of the city saw most of the Republican Guard's armor assets destroyed and much of the southern outskirts of the city occupied. On 5 April TF 1-64 Armor of the U.S. Army executed a raid, later called the "Thunder Run", to test remaining Iraqi defenses, with 29 tanks and 14 Bradley Armored Fighting Vehicles rushing from a staging base to the Baghdad airport. They met heavy resistance, including many suicide attacks[citation needed] , but were successful in reaching the airport. Two days later another thunder run was launched by the U.S. Army into the Palaces of Saddam Hussein, where they seized the palaces and government offices of central Baghdad. Within hours of the palace seizure, and television coverage of this spreading through Iraq, U.S. forces ordered Iraqi forces within Baghdad to surrender, or the city would face a full-scale assault. Iraqi government officials had either disappeared or had conceded defeat, and on April 9, 2003, Baghdad was formally occupied by Coalition forces and the power of Saddam Hussein was declared ended. Much of Baghdad remained unsecured however, and fighting continued within the city and its outskirts well into the period of occupation. Saddam had vanished, and his whereabouts were unknown. Many Iraqis celebrated the downfall of Saddam by vandalizing the many portraits and statues of him together with other pieces of his cult of personality. Combatants Iraq Coalition Forces: U.S Casualties 2320 killed 34 killed; several hundred wounded The 2003 invasion of Baghdad was a military invasion that took place in early April 2003, as part of the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... is the 95th day of the year (96th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 99th day of the year (100th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the political institution. ...


One widely publicized event was the dramatic toppling of a large statue of Saddam in Baghdad' Firdos Square. This attracted considerable media coverage at the time. As the British Daily Mirror reported, Alternate newspaper: The Daily Mirror (Australia) The Daily Mirror is a popular British tabloid daily newspaper. ...

"For an oppressed people this final act in the fading daylight, the wrenching down of this ghastly symbol of the regime, is their Berlin Wall moment. Big Moustache has had his day."[100]

As Staff Sergeant Brian Plesich reported in On Point: The United States Army in Operation Iraqi Freedom,

"The Marine Corps colonel in the area saw the Saddam statue as a target of opportunity and decided that the statue must come down. Since we were right there, we chimed in with some loudspeaker support to let the Iraqis know what it was we were attempting to do..." "Somehow along the way, somebody had gotten the idea to put a bunch of Iraqi kids onto the wrecker that was to pull the statue down. While the wrecker was pulling the statue down, there were Iraqi children crawling all over it. Finally they brought the statue down"[101]

The fall of Baghdad saw the outbreak of regional violence throughout the country, as Iraqi tribes and cities began to fight each other over old grudges. The Iraqi cities of Al-Kut and Nasiriyah declared war upon each other immediately following the fall of Baghdad to establish dominance in the new country, and the Coalition quickly found themselves embroiled in a potential civil war. Coalition forces ordered the cities to cease hostilities immediately, and explained that Baghdad would remain the capital of the new Iraqi government. Nasiriyah responded favorably and quickly backed down; however, Al-Kut placed snipers on the main roadways into town, with orders that invading forces were not to enter the city. After several minor skirmishes, the snipers were removed, but tensions and violence between regional, city, tribal, and familial groups continued into the occupation period. Kūt (كوت; also known as Kut-Al-Imara and Kut El Amara) is a city in eastern Iraq, on the left bank of the Tigris River, about 100 miles south east of Baghdad, at 32. ... NāşirÄ«yah (also transliterated as Nassiriya or Nasiriya; in Arabic الناصرية, al-Nasiriyah or an-Nasiriyah) is a city in Iraq. ...


General Tommy Franks assumed control of Iraq as the supreme commander of occupation forces. Shortly after the sudden collapse of the defense of Baghdad, rumors were circulating in Iraq and elsewhere that there had been a deal struck (a "safqua") wherein the Coalition had bribed key members of the Iraqi military elite and/or the Ba'ath party itself to stand down. In May 2003, General Franks retired, and confirmed in an interview with Defense Week that the Coalition had paid Iraqi military leaders to defect. The extent of the defections and their effect on the war are unclear. Tommy Ray Franks (born June 17, 1945 in Wynnewood, Oklahoma) is a retired General in the United States Army, previously serving as the Commander of the United States Central Command, overseeing United States Armed Forces operations in a 25-country region, including the Middle East. ...


Coalition troops promptly began searching for the key members of Saddam Hussein's government. These individuals were identified by a variety of means, most famously through sets of most-wanted Iraqi playing cards. Saddam Hussein as the Ace of Spades. ...


On 22 July 2003 during a raid by the U.S. 101st Airborne Division and men from Task Force 20, Saddam Hussein's sons Uday and Qusay, and one of his grandsons were killed. is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... The 101st Airborne Division (Air Assault)—nicknamed the “Screaming Eagles”—is an airborne division of the United States Army primarily trained for air assault operations. ... Task Force 20 is a temporary, top secret Task Force assigned to Iraq. ... Uday Saddam Hussein al-Tikriti (June 18, 1964 Baghdad – July 22, 2003 Mosul), (Arabic: ) was the eldest son of Saddam Hussein and his first wife, Sajida Talfah. ... Qusay Saddam Hussein al-Tikriti (Arabic: قصي صدام حسين ) (or Qusai) (May 17, 1966 – July 22, 2003) was the second son of former Iraqi president Saddam Hussein. ...


Saddam Hussein was captured on December 13, 2003 by the U.S. Army's 4th Infantry Division and members of Task Force 121 during Operation Red Dawn. Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... The United States Army is the largest, and by some standards oldest, established branch of the armed forces of the United States and is one of seven uniformed services. ... It has been suggested that U.S. 1st Brigade 4th Infantry Division be merged into this article or section. ... Task Force 121 is a classic example of the United States Joint Task Force concept of conducting Special Operations. ... Belligerents United States Saddam Hussein Commanders James Hickey Saddam Hussein # Strength 600 3 Casualties and losses None 3 (Captured) Operation Red Dawn was a military operation conducted by the United States Armed Forces on December 13, 2003 in the small town of ad-Dawr in Iraq, near Tikrit. ...


Other areas

In the north, Kurdish forces opposed to Saddam Hussein had already occupied for years an autonomous area in northern Iraq. With the assistance of U.S. Special Forces and air strikes, they were able to rout the Iraqi units near them and to occupy oil-rich Kirkuk on 10 April. Kirkuk (also spelled Karkuk or Kerkuk; Arabic: كركوك, Kirkūk; Kurdish: كه‌ركووك, Kerkûk; Syriac: ܐܪܦܗܐ, Arrapha; Persian: کرکوک; Turkish: Kerkük) is a city in northern Iraq and capital of Taamim Governorate. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


U.S. special forces had also been involved in the extreme south of Iraq, attempting to occupy key roads to Syria and airbases. In one case two armored platoons were used to convince Iraqi leadership that an entire armored battalion was entrenched in the west of Iraq.


On 15 April, U.S. forces took control of Tikrit, the last major outpost in central Iraq, with an attack led by the Marines' Task Force Tripoli. About a week later the Marines were relieved in place by the Army's 4th Infantry Division. is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Looking north along the Tigris towards Saddams Presidential palace in April 2003 Tikrit (تكريت, Tikrīt also transliterated as Takrit or Tekrit) is a town in Iraq, located 140 km northwest of Baghdad on the Tigris river (at 34. ... Task Force Tripoli (TFT) was a United States Marine Corps air ground task force formed after the fall of Baghdad during the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... It has been suggested that U.S. 1st Brigade 4th Infantry Division be merged into this article or section. ...


Summary of the invasion

Aircraft of the USAF 379th Air Expeditionary Wing and UK and Australian counterparts stationed together at Al Udeid Air Base, Qatar, in southwest Asia, fly over the desert on April 14, 2003. Aircraft include KC-135 Stratotanker, F-15E Strike Eagle, F-117 Nighthawk, F-16CJ Falcon, British GR-4 Tornado, and Australian F/A-18 Hornet.
Aircraft of the USAF 379th Air Expeditionary Wing and UK and Australian counterparts stationed together at Al Udeid Air Base, Qatar, in southwest Asia, fly over the desert on April 14, 2003. Aircraft include KC-135 Stratotanker, F-15E Strike Eagle, F-117 Nighthawk, F-16CJ Falcon, British GR-4 Tornado, and Australian F/A-18 Hornet.

The Coalition forces managed to topple the government and capture the key cities of a large nation in only 21 days, taking minimal losses while also trying to avoid large civilian deaths and even high numbers of dead Iraqi military forces. The invasion did require the huge army build-up like the 1991 Gulf War, but many didn't see combat and many were withdrawn after the invasion ended. This did prove short-sighted, however, due to the requirement for a much larger force to combat the irregular Iraqi forces in the aftermath of the war. General Eric Shinseki, Army Chief of Staff, recommended "several hundred thousand"[citation needed] troops be used to maintain post-war order, but Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld — and especially his deputy, Paul Wolfowitz — strongly disagreed. General Abizaid later said Shinseki was right.[citation needed] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1956x2100, 518 KB) Summary Aircraft of the 379th Air Expeditionary Wing and coalition counterparts stationed together at Al Udeid Air Base, Qatar, in southwest Asia, fly over the desert. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1956x2100, 518 KB) Summary Aircraft of the 379th Air Expeditionary Wing and coalition counterparts stationed together at Al Udeid Air Base, Qatar, in southwest Asia, fly over the desert. ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Boeing KC-135 Stratotanker is an aerial refueling tanker aircraft. ... The F-15E Strike Eagle is a modern United States all-weather strike fighter, designed for long-range interdiction of enemy ground targets deep behind enemy lines. ... This article is about the stealth fighter. ... The F-16 Fighting Falcon is an American multirole jet fighter aircraft developed by General Dynamics and Lockheed Martin for the United States Air Force. ... The Panavia Tornado is a family of twin-engine fighters, which was jointly developed by the United Kingdom, Germany and Italy. ... The McDonnell Douglas (now Boeing) F/A-18 Hornet is a modern all-weather carrier-capable strike fighter jet, designed to attack both ground and aerial targets. ... Combatants New Iraqi Army Kurdish Army Coalition: United States United Kingdom Australia Poland Other Coalition forces Baath Party Loyalists Mahdi Army al-Qaeda in Iraq Other Insurgent groups Commanders Nouri al-Maliki Massoud Barzani George W. Bush Tommy Franks Ricardo Sanchez George Casey David Petraeus Tony Blair Gordon Brown Brian... General Eric Ken Shinseki (born November 28, 1942) was the 34th Chief of Staff of the United States Army (1999 - 2003). ... Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is a businessman, a U.S. Republican politician, the 13th Secretary of Defense under President Gerald Ford from 1975 to 1977, and the 21st Secretary of Defense under President George W. Bush from 2001 to 2006. ... Paul Dundes Wolfowitz (born December 22, 1943) is a visiting scholar at the American Enterprise Institute, working on issues of international economic development, Africa and public-private partnerships. ... General Abizaid John P. Abizaid (born April 1, 1951) is a general in the United States Army and the Commander of the United States Central Command (CENTCOM), overseeing American military operations in a 25-country region, from the Horn of Africa to Central Asia, covering much of the Middle East. ...


The Iraqi army, armed mainly with Soviet-built equipment, was overall ill-equipped in comparison to the U.S. and UK forces. Missiles launched from Iraq were either interdicted by U.S. anti-air batteries, or made little to no strategic impact on their targets. Attacks on U.S. supply routes by Fedayeen militiamen were repulsed. The Iraqis' artillery proved largely ineffective, and they were unable to mobilize their air force to attempt a defense. The Iraqi T-72 tanks, the heaviest armored vehicles in the Iraqi Army, were both outdated and ill-maintained, and when they were mobilized they were rapidly destroyed, thanks in part to U.S. and UK air supremacy. The U.S. Air Force, Marine Corps, Naval Aviation, and British Royal Air Force operated with impunity throughout the country, pinpointing heavily defended enemy targets and destroying them before ground troops arrived. Fedayeen (from the Arabic fidāī, plural fidāīyun, فدائيون: one who is ready to sacrifice his life, Armenian: ) describes several distinct, primarily Arab groups at different times in history. ... The T-72 is a Soviet-designed main battle tank that entered production in 1971. ... Air supremacy is the most favorable state of control of the air. ... Seal of the Air Force. ... RAF redirects here. ...


The main battle tanks (MBT) of the U.S. and UK forces, the U.S. M1 Abrams and British Challenger 2, proved their worth in the rapid advance across the country. Even with the large number of rocket propelled grenade (RPG) attacks by irregular Iraqi forces, few U.S. and UK tanks were lost and no tank crewmen were killed by hostile fire. The only tank loss sustained by the British Army was a Challenger 2 of the Queen's Royal Lancers that was hit by another Challenger 2, killing two crewmen. All three British tank crew fatalities were a result of friendly fire. The US M1A1 Abrams tank is a typical modern main battle tank. ... The M1 Abrams is a military tank produced in the United States. ... The Challenger 2 is the most recent main battle tank in service with the United Kingdom and Oman. ... An RPG-7 captured by the US Army RPG, or Rocket propelled grenade is a loose term describing hand-held, shoulder-launched anti-tank weapons capable of firing an unguided rocket equipped with an explosive warhead. ... The Queens Royal Lancers (The Death or Glory Boys) is an armoured regiment of the British Army. ... For other uses, see Friendly Fire (disambiguation). ...


The Iraqi Army suffered from poor morale, even amongst the elite Republican Guard. Entire units disbanded into the crowds upon the approach of invading troops, or actually sought out U.S. and UK forces out to surrender. In one case, a force of roughly 20-30 Iraqis attempted to surrender to a two-man vehicle repair and recovery team, invoking similar instances of Iraqis surrendering to news crews during the Persian Gulf War. Other Iraqi Army officers were bribed by the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) or coerced into surrendering. Worse, the Iraqi Army had incompetent leadership - reports state that Qusay Hussein, charged with the defense of Baghdad, dramatically shifted the positions of the two main divisions protecting Baghdad several times in the days before the arrival of U.S. forces, and as a result the units within were both confused and further demoralized when U.S. Marine and British forces attacked. By no means did the invasion force see the entire Iraqi military thrown against it; U.S. and UK units had orders to move to and seize objective target-points rather than seek engagements with Iraqi units. This resulted in most regular Iraqi military units emerging from the war fully intact and without ever having been engaged by U.S. forces, especially in southern Iraq. It is assumed that most units disintegrated to either join the growing Iraqi insurgency or returned to their homes. For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... CIA redirects here. ... Qusay Saddam Hussein al-Tikriti (Arabic: قصي صدام حسين ) (or Qusai) (May 17, 1966 – July 22, 2003) was the second son of former Iraqi president Saddam Hussein. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... The Iraqi insurgency denotes groups using armed resistance against the US-led Coalition occupation of Iraq. ...


According to the declassified Pentagon report, "The largest contributing factor to the complete defeat of Iraq's military forces was the continued interference by Saddam." The report, designed to help U.S. officials understand in hindsight how Saddam and his military commanders prepared for and fought the war, paints a picture of an Iraqi government blind to the threat it faced, hampered by Saddam's inept military leadership and deceived by its own propaganda. According to the BBC, the report portrays Saddam Hussein as "chronically out of touch with reality - preoccupied with the prevention of domestic unrest and with the threat posed by Iran."[102] This article is about the United States military building. ... 1967 Chinese propaganda poster from the Cultural Revolution. ...


Security, looting and war damage

Looting took place in the days following the 2003 invasion. Similar looting occurred for two weeks following the 1989 U.S. invasion of Panama.


It was reported that the National Museum of Iraq was among the looted sites. The assertion that U.S. forces did not guard the museum because they were guarding the Ministry of Oil and Ministry of Interior is apparently true.[103] According to U.S. officials the "reality of the situation on the ground" was that hospitals, water plants, and ministries with vital intelligence needed security more than other sites. There were only enough U.S. troops on the ground to guard a certain number of the many sites that ideally needed protection, and so, apparently, some "hard choices" were made. Also, it was reported that many trucks of purported Iraqi gold and $1.6 billion of bricks of U.S. cash were seized by U.S. forces. An American Tank guards the Museum following the 2003 Invasion of Iraq The National Museum of Iraq is located in Baghdad, Iraq. ...


The FBI was soon called into Iraq to track down the stolen items. It was found that the initial claims of looting of substantial portions of the collection were heavily exaggerated. Initial reports claimed a near-total looting of the museum, estimated at upwards of 170,000 pieces. The most recent estimate places the number of looted pieces at around 15,000. Over 5,000 looted items have since been recovered.[104] F.B.I. and FBI redirect here. ...


There has been speculation that some objects still missing were not taken by looters after the war, but were taken by Saddam Hussein or his entourage before or during the fighting. There have also been reports that early looters had keys to vaults that held rarer pieces, and some have speculated as to the pre-meditated systematic removal of key artifacts.


The National Museum of Iraq was only one of many museums and sites of cultural significance that were affected by the war. Many in the arts and antiquities communities briefed policy makers in advance of the need to secure Iraqi museums. Despite the looting being lighter than initially feared, the cultural loss of items from ancient Sumer is significant. An American Tank guards the Museum following the 2003 Invasion of Iraq The National Museum of Iraq is located in Baghdad, Iraq. ... Sumer ( Sumerian: KI-EN-GIR, Land of the Lords of Brightness[1], or land of the Sumerian tongue[2][3], Akkadian: Å umeru; possibly Biblical Shinar ), located in southern Mesopotamia, is the earliest known civilization in the world. ...


More serious for the post-war state of Iraq was the looting of cached weaponry and ordnance which fueled the subsequent insurgency. As many as 250,000 tons of explosives were unaccounted for by October 2004.[105] Disputes within the US Defense Department led to delays in the post-invasion assessment and protection of Iraqi nuclear facilities. Tuwaitha, the Iraqi site most scrutinized by UN inspectors since 1991, was left unguarded and may have been looted.[106] The Iraqi insurgency denotes groups using armed resistance against the US-led Coalition occupation of Iraq. ... The United States Department of Defense, abbreviated DoD or DOD and sometimes called the Defense Department, is a civilian Cabinet organization of the United States government. ... The Baghdad Nuclear Research Facility near Kut, Iraq, contains the remains of nuclear reactors bombed by Israel in 1981 and the United States in 1991. ...


Zainab Bahrani, professor of Ancient Near Eastern Art History and Archaeology at Columbia University, reported that a helicopter landing pad was constructed in the heart of the ancient city of Babylon, and "removed layers of archeological earth from the site. The daily flights of the helicopters rattle the ancient walls and the winds created by their rotors blast sand against the fragile bricks. When my colleague at the site, Maryam Moussa, and I asked military personnel in charge that the helipad be shut down, the response was that it had to remain open for security reasons, for the safety of the troops."[107] Zainab Bahrani is Professor of Ancient Near Eastern Art and Archaeology at Columbia University. ... Alma Mater Columbia University is a private university in the United States and a member of the Ivy League. ... For other uses, see Babylon (disambiguation). ...


Bahrani also reported that in the summer of 2004, "the wall of the Temple of Nabu and the roof of the Temple of Ninmah, both sixth century BC, collapsed as a result of the movement of helicopters."[107] Electrical power is scarce in post-war Iraq, Bahrani reported, and some fragile artifacts, including the Ottoman Archive, would not survive the loss of refrigeration.[107]


Bush declares "End of major combat operations" (May 2003)

The USS Abraham Lincoln returning to port carrying its Mission Accomplished banner
The USS Abraham Lincoln returning to port carrying its Mission Accomplished banner
George W. Bush on the Abraham Lincoln wearing a flight suit after landing on the aircraft carrier in a military jet.
George W. Bush on the Abraham Lincoln wearing a flight suit after landing on the aircraft carrier in a military jet.
Occupation zones in Iraq as of September 2003
Occupation zones in Iraq as of September 2003

On 1 May 2003, Bush landed on the aircraft carrier USS Abraham Lincoln, in a Lockheed S-3 Viking, where he gave a speech announcing the end of major combat operations in the Iraq war. Bush's landing was criticized by opponents as an overly theatrical and expensive stunt. Clearly visible in the background was a banner stating "Mission Accomplished." The banner, made by White House staff and supplied by request of the United States Navy,[108] was criticized as premature - especially as sectarian violence and American casualties have continued to increase since the official end of hostilities. The White House subsequently released a statement that the sign and Bush's visit referred to the initial invasion of Iraq and disputing the claim of theatrics. The speech itself noted: "We have difficult work to do in Iraq. We are bringing order to parts of that country that remain dangerous."[109] USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72) Mission Accomplished U.S. Navy photo by Photographers Mate 3rd Class Juan E. Diaz. ... USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72) Mission Accomplished U.S. Navy photo by Photographers Mate 3rd Class Juan E. Diaz. ... President George W. Bush addresses sailors during the Mission Accomplished speech, May 1, 2003. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Map: occupation (stabilization) zones in Iraq, September 2003 Made by Kpalion File links The following pages link to this file: Post-invasion Iraq, 2003-2005 Categories: GFDL images ... Map: occupation (stabilization) zones in Iraq, September 2003 Made by Kpalion File links The following pages link to this file: Post-invasion Iraq, 2003-2005 Categories: GFDL images ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... USS Abraham Lincoln (CVN-72), nicknamed Abe, is the fifth Nimitz-class supercarrier in the United States Navy. ... Lockheed/BAE/Northrop F-35 Lockheed Trident missile C-130 Hercules; in production since the 1950s, now as the C-130J Lockheed Martin (NYSE: LMT) is an aerospace manufacturer formed in 1995 by the merger of Lockheed Corporation with Martin Marietta. ... An S-3B Viking launches from the catapult aboard USS Abraham Lincoln The Lockheed S-3 Viking is a United States Navy jet aircraft used to hunt and destroy enemy submarines and provide surveillance of surface shipping. ... For other uses, see White House (disambiguation). ...


Post-invasion Iraq has been marked by violent conflict between U.S.-led soldiers and forces described by the occupiers as insurgents. The ongoing resistance in Iraq was concentrated in, but not limited to, an area referred to by Western media and the occupying forces as the Sunni triangle and Baghdad.[110] Combatants New Iraqi Army Kurdish Army Coalition: United States United Kingdom Australia Poland Other Coalition forces Baath Party Loyalists Mahdi Army al-Qaeda in Iraq Other Insurgent groups Commanders Nouri al-Maliki Massoud Barzani George W. Bush Tommy Franks Ricardo Sanchez George Casey David Petraeus Tony Blair Gordon Brown Brian... The Iraqi insurgency denotes groups using armed resistance against the US-led Coalition occupation of Iraq. ... Map of the Sunni Triangle The Sunni Triangle refers to a roughly triangular area of Iraq to the northwest of Baghdad. ...


This resistance may be described as guerrilla warfare. The tactics in use were to include mortars, suicide bombers, roadside bombs, small arms fire, improvised explosive devices (IED's), and handheld antitank grenade-launchers (RPG's), as well as sabotage against the oil infrastructure. There are also accusations, questioned by some, about attacks toward the power and water infrastructure. Guerrilla redirects here. ... Munitions rigged for an IED discovered by Iraqi police in Baghdad, November 2005. ... An RPG-7 captured by the US Army RPG, or Rocket propelled grenade is a loose term describing hand-held, shoulder-launched anti-tank weapons capable of firing an unguided rocket equipped with an explosive warhead. ...


There is evidence that some of the resistance was organized, perhaps by the fedayeen and other Saddam Hussein or Ba'ath loyalists, religious radicals, Iraqis angered by the occupation, and foreign fighters.[111] Fedayeen (from the Arabic fidāī, plural fidāīyun, فدائيون: one who is ready to sacrifice his life, Armenian: ) describes several distinct, primarily Arab groups at different times in history. ...


Many experts now consider Iraq to have degenerated into civil war, although the Bush administration disputes the accuracy of the term. According to a survey 2006 study conducted by the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, more than 601,000 Iraqis have died in the violence following the 2003 invasion.[112] This article is about the definition of the specific type of war. ... The medical journal, The Lancet, published two peer-reviewed studies on the effect of the 2003 invasion of Iraq and subsequent occupation on Iraqi mortality, the first in 2004, the second (by many of the same authors) in 2006. ... The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health is part of Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, U.S. It was the first institution of its kind in the world. ...


Casualties

Iraqi soldier killed in April, 2003 by United States Marines defending a nearby bridge Casualties in the 2003 invasion of Iraq, the ensuing 2003 occupation of Iraq, and the continuing coalition presence there have come in many forms, and the accuracy of the information available on different types of casualties... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ...

Death toll

While estimates on the number of casualties during the invasion in Iraq vary widely, the majority of deaths and injuries have occurred after U.S. President Bush declared the end of "major combat operations" on May 1, 2003.[113] According to CNN, the U.S. government reported that 139 American military personnel were killed before May 1, 2003, while almost 4,000 have been killed since 2003.[113] Estimates on civilian casualties are more variable than those for military personnel. According to Iraq Body Count, a group that relies on Western press reports to measure civilian casualties, approximately 7,500 civilians were killed during the invasion phase, while more than 60,000 civilians have been killed as of April 2007.[114] The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ...


In November 2006 Iraq's Health Minister Ali al-Shemari said that since the March 2003 invasion between 100,000 and 150,000 Iraqis have been killed.[115] Al-Shemari based his figure on an estimate of 100 bodies per day brought to morgues and hospitals – such a calculation would come out closer to 130,000 in total.[116] The Council of Ministers of Iraq is the executive branch of the (now transitional) government of Iraq. ... Ali al-Shemari is the Health Minister of Iraq. ...


The Lancet surveys of casualties of the Iraq War, conducted by researchers at Johns Hopkins University, estimates much higher civilian casualties, but does not differentiate between the invasion phase (March-May 2003) and the occupation phase (post May 2003). The Lancet survey estimates that over 650,000 Iraqi civilians have died as a result of the conflict, with the vast majority of these deaths occurring after May 2003.[117] The medical journal, The Lancet, published two peer-reviewed studies on the effect of the 2003 invasion of Iraq and subsequent occupation on Iraqi mortality, the first in 2004, the second (by many of the same authors) in 2006. ... The Johns Hopkins University, founded in 1876, is a private institution of higher learning located in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. ...


A September 14, 2007 estimate by ORB (Opinion Research Business), an independent British polling agency, suggests that the total Iraqi violent death toll due to the Iraq War since the US-led invasion is in excess of 1.2 million (1,220,580). Although higher than the 2006 Lancet estimate, these results, which were based on a survey of 1499 adults in Iraq from August 12-19, 2007, are more or less consistent with the figures that were published in the Lancet study.[118][119][120][121] On Friday, September 14, 2007, ORB (Opinion Research Business), an independent polling agency located in London, published estimates of the total war casualties in Iraq since the US-led invasion of Iraq in 2003. ... The medical journal, The Lancet, published two peer-reviewed studies on the effect of the 2003 invasion of Iraq and subsequent occupation on Iraqi mortality, the first in 2004, the second (by many of the same authors) in 2006. ...


On 28 January 2008, ORB published an update based on additional work carried out in rural areas of Iraq. Some 600 additional interviews were undertaken and as a result of this the death estimate was revised to 1,033,000 with a given range of 946,000 to 1,120,000.[122] is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ...


Iraqi refugees

Over 4.2 million Iraqis, more than 16% of the Iraqi population, have lost their homes and become refugees since 2003. As of June 21, 2007, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees estimated that 2.2 million Iraqis had been displaced to neighboring countries, and 2 million were displaced internally, with nearly 100,000 Iraqis fleeing to Syria and Jordan each month.[123][124] Roughly 40% of Iraq's middle class is believed to have fled, the U.N. said. Most are fleeing systematic persecution and have no desire to return. All kinds of people, from university professors to bakers, have been targeted by militias, insurgents and criminals. An estimated 331 school teachers were slain in the first four months of 2006, according to Human Rights Watch, and at least 2,000 Iraqi doctors have been killed and 250 kidnapped since the 2003 U.S. invasion.[125][126][127] What is Refugees? Refugees is a simple internet community that was created as a homeland and haven for the members of the message board MegaMassMedia. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) (established December 14, 1950) protects and supports refugees at the request of a government or the United Nations and assists in their return or resettlement. ... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ... A militia is a group of citizens organized to provide paramilitary service. ... An insurgency is an armed rebellion against a constituted authority, by any irregular armed force that rises up against an enforced or established authority, government, or administration. ...


The UN reports that although Christians comprise less than 5% of Iraq's population, they make up nearly 40% of the refugees fleeing Iraq.[128][129] More than 50% of Iraqi Christians have already left the country.[130] In the 16th century, Christians were half the population of Iraq.[131] In 1987, the last Iraqi census counted 1.4 million Christians.[132] But as the war has radicalized Islamic sensibilities, Christians' total numbers slumped to about 500,000, of whom 250,000 live in Baghdad.[133][134] Furthermore, the Mandaean and Yazidi communities are at the risk of elimination due to ethnic cleansing by Islamic extremists.[135][136] As many as 110,000 Iraqis could be targeted as collaborators because of their work for coalition forces.[137] This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ... The Assyrians are an ethnic group found in what is today Iraq, Iran, Turkey, Syria, and Lebanon, who are speakers of various neo-Aramaic languages. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... Mandaeanism is a pre-Christian religion which has been classified by scholars as Gnostic. ... Religions Yazdânism (Yazidism) Scriptures Kitêba Cilwe (Book of Illumination) Languages Kurmanji, Arabic The Yazidi (also Yezidi, Kurdish: Êzidîtî or Êzidî, Arabic: يزيدي or ايزيدي) are adherents of the smallest of the three branches of Yazdânism, a Middle Eastern religion with ancient Indo-European roots. ... For the video game, see Ethnic Cleansing (computer game). ... This article is about political Islam For the religion of Islam, see Islam. ... Collaborationism, as a pejorative term, can describe the treason of cooperating with enemy forces occupying ones country. ...


A May 25, 2007 article notes that in the past seven months only 69 people from Iraq have been granted refugee status in the United States.[138] 2000 Census Population Ancestry Map Immigration to the United States of America is the movement of non-residents to the United States. ...


Media coverage

The 2003 invasion of Iraq involved unprecedented media coverage. ...

U.S. media coverage

The U.S. invasion of Iraq was the most widely and closely reported war in military history.[139] Television network coverage was largely pro-war and viewers were six times more likely to see a pro-war source as one who was anti-war.[140] The New York Times ran a number of articles describing Saddam Hussein's attempts to build weapons of mass destruction. The September 8, 2002 article titled "U.S. Says Hussein Intensifies Quest for A-Bomb Parts" would be discredited, leading the New York Times to issue a public statement admitting it was not as rigorous as it should have been.[141] is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


At the start of the war in March 2003, as many as 775 reporters and photographers were traveling as embedded journalists.[142] These reporters signed contracts with the military that limited what they were allowed to report on.[143] When asked why the military decided to embed journalists with the troops, Lt. Col. Rick Long of the U.S. Marine Corps replied, “Frankly, our job is to win the war. Part of that is information warfare. So we are going to attempt to dominate the information environment.”[144] An embedded journalist is a news reporter who is attached to a military unit involved in an armed conflict. ... Information warfare is the use and management of information in pursuit of a competitive advantage over an opponent. ...


A September 2003 poll revealed that seventy percent of Americans believed there was a link between Saddam Hussein and the attacks of 9/11.[145] 80% of Fox viewers were found to hold at least one such belief about the invasion, compared to 23% of PBS viewers.[146] Ted Turner, founder of CNN, said that Rupert Murdoch was using Fox News to advocate an invasion.[147] Critics have argued that this statistic is indicative of misleading coverage by the U.S. media since viewers in other countries were less likely to have these beliefs.[148] For other persons named Ted Turner, see Ted Turner (disambiguation). ... Keith Rupert Murdoch AC, KCSG (born 11 March 1931) is an Australian born United States citizen who is a global media executive and is the controlling shareholder, chairman and managing director of News Corporation, based in New York. ...


Independent media coverage

Independent media also played a prominent role in covering the invasion. The Media Workers Against the War [13] and the Indymedia [14] network, among many other independent networks including many journalists from the invading countries, provided reports in a way difficult to control by any government, corporation or political party. In the United States Democracy Now, hosted by Amy Goodman has been critical of the reasons for the 2003 invasion and the alleged crimes committed by the U.S. authorities in Iraq. Australian war artist George Gittoes collected independent interviews with soldiers while producing his documentary Soundtrack To War. The war in Iraq provided the first time in history that military on the front lines were able to provide direct, uncensored reportage themselves, thanks to blogging software and the reach of the internet. Dozens of such reporting sites, known as soldier blogs or milblogs, were started during the war. These blogs were more often than not largely pro-war and stated various reasons why the soldiers and Marines felt they were doing the right thing.[15] Alternative media are defined most broadly as those media practices falling outside the mainstreams of corporate communication. ... The Independent Media Center, also called Indymedia or the IMC, is a loose network of amateur or alternative media organizations and journalists who organize into decentralized collectives, normally around geographic locations. ... Democracy Now! is an independent, award-winning news and opinion radio program airing on over 300 stations across North America every weekday, as well as both satellite television networks. ... Amy Goodman on Democracy Now! Amy Goodman b. ... Vasily Vereshchagin. ... George Gittoes is an Australian war artist who uses painting, drawing, photographs and video. ... Soundtrack to War is a 90 minute documentary by Australian war artist George Gittoes. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... A warblog is a weblog devoted mostly or wholly to covering news events concerning an ongoing war. ...


International media coverage

International coverage of the war differed from coverage in the U.S. in a number of ways. The Arab-language news channel Al Jazeera and the German Satellite channel Deutsche Welle featured almost twice as much information on the political background of the war.[149] Al Jazeera also showed scenes of civilian casualties which were rarely seen in the U.S.


Criticisms

Opponents of military intervention in Iraq have attacked the decision to invade Iraq along a number of lines, including calling into question the evidence used to justify the war, arguing for continued diplomacy, challenging the war’s legality, suggesting that the U.S. had other more pressing security priorities, (i.e. Afghanistan and North Korea) and predicting that the war would destabilize the Middle East region. The breadth and depth of the criticism was particularly notable in comparison with the first Gulf War, which met with considerably less domestic and international opposition, although the geopolitical situation had evolved since the last decade. The U.S. rationale for the Iraq War has faced heavy criticism from an array of popular and official sources both inside and outside the United States. ... This article is about the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... This article is about the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ...


Rationale based on faulty evidence

The central U.S. justification for launching the Iraq War was that Saddam Hussein's alleged development of nuclear and biological weapons and purported ties to al-Qaeda made his regime a "grave and growing"[150] threat to the United States and the world community.[151] During the lead-up to the war and the aftermath of the invasion, critics cast doubt on the evidence supporting this rationale. Concerning Iraq’s weapons programs, prominent critics included Scott Ritter, a former U.N. weapons inspector who argued in 2002 that inspections had eliminated the nuclear and chemical weapons programs, and that evidence of their reconstitution would “have been eminently detectable by intelligence services …,” and Joseph C. Wilson, an American diplomat who investigated claims that Iraq had sought uranium for nuclear weapons in Niger.[152][153] The U.S. Senate Intelligence Committee "found that Wilson's report, rather than debunking intelligence about purported uranium sales to Iraq, as he has said, bolstered the case for most intelligence analysts."[154] Prior to the invasion, Wilson also argued that Iraq had weapons of mass destruction."[155]"[156] Scott Ritter speaks at SUNY New Paltz on March 16, 2006. ... This page is for the diplomat. ...


Similarly, alleged links between Iraq and al-Qaeda were called into question during the lead up to the war, and were largely discredited by an October 21, 2004 report from U.S. Senator Carl Levin, which was later corroborated by an April 2006 report from the Defense Department’s inspector general.[157] These reports further alleged that Bush Administration officials, particularly former undersecretary of defense Douglas J. Feith, manipulated evidence to support links between al-Qaeda and Iraq.[158] Carl Milton Levin (born June 28, 1934) is a Democratic United States Senator from Michigan and is the Chairman of the Senate Committee on Armed Services. ... Douglas Feith Douglas J. Feith (born July 16, 1953) served as the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy for United States President George W. Bush from July 2001 until he resigned from his position effective August 8, 2005. ...


Lack of a U.N. mandate

One of the main questions in the lead-up to the war was whether the United Nations Security Council would authorize military intervention in Iraq. When it became increasingly clear that U.N. authorization would require significant further weapons inspections, and that the U.S. and Britain planned to invade Iraq regardless, many criticized their effort as unwise, immoral, and illegal. Robin Cook, then the leader of the British House of Commons and a former foreign secretary, resigned from Tony Blair's cabinet in protest over Britain’s decision to invade without the authorization of a U.N. resolution. Cook said at the time that: "In principle I believe it is wrong to embark on military action without broad international support. In practice I believe it is against Britain's interests to create a precedent for unilateral military action.”[159] “Security Council” redirects here. ... Robert Finlayson Cook (28 February 1946 – 6 August 2005) was a politician in the British Labour Party. ... Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency...


United Nations Secretary-General Kofi Annan said, when pressed in an interview with the BBC in September 2004, "[F]rom our point of view and from the Charter point of view [the war] was illegal."[160] This drew immediate criticism from the United States and was immediately played down."[161] His annual report to the General Assembly for 2003 included no more than the statement: "Following the end of major hostilities which resulted in the occupation of Iraq..."[162] A similar report from the Security Council was similarly terse in its reference to the event: "Following the cessation of hostilities in Iraq in April 2003..."[163] The Secretary-General of the United Nations is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal organs of the United Nations. ... Kofi Atta Annan GCMG (born April 8, 1938) is a Ghanaian diplomat who served as the seventh Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1, 1997 to January 1, 2007, serving two five-year terms. ... General assembly could be: The United Nations General Assembly General Assembly (presbyterian church), a supreme governing body, such as the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in Ireland See also List of Christian denominations#Presbyterian and Reformed Churches The General Assembly of Unitarian...


However, it is widely argued that Kofi Annan was simply picking sides and playing politics. The United Nations Security Council has passed nearly 60 resolutions on Iraq and Kuwait since Iraq's invasion of Kuwait in 1990. The most relevant to this issue is Resolution 678, passed on November 29, 1990. It authorizes "member states co-operating with the Government of Kuwait...to use all necessary means" to (1) implement Security Council Resolution 660 and other resolutions calling for the end of Iraq's occupation of Kuwait and withdrawal of Iraqi forces from Kuwaiti territory and (2) "restore international peace and security in the area." For this reason it is argued by pro-war advocates that the U.S. already had UN authorization. UN Security Council Resolution 678 is a UN security council resolution authorizing member states to use all necessary means to uphold and implement resolution 660 and all subsequent relevant resolutions and to restore international peace and security[1] to the Persian Gulf region, following the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait in... United Nations Security Council Resolution 660 was adopted by the UN Security Council on 2 August 1990. ...


Military intervention vs diplomatic solution

Further information: Dominique de Villepin's speech at the U.N. Security Council (February 14, 2003)

Criticisms about the evidence used to justify the war notwithstanding, many opponents of military intervention objected on the grounds that a diplomatic solution would be preferable, and that war should be reserved as a truly last resort. This position was exemplified by French Foreign Minister Dominique de Villepin, who responded to U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell's February 5, 2003 presentation to the U.N Security Council by saying that: "Given the choice between military intervention and an inspections regime that is inadequate because of a failure to cooperate on Iraq's part, we must choose the decisive reinforcement of the means of inspections."[164] Dominique de Villepin (born Dominique Marie François René Galouzeau de Villepin (IPA: —  ) on 14 November 1953 in Rabat, Morocco) served as the Prime Minister of France from May 31, 2005 to May 17, 2007. ... General Colin Luther Powell, United States Army (Ret. ...


On February 12, 2003 following the U.N. inspection report delivery, each one of the 15 representative of the U.N Security Council were given a 10 minute speech to expose the position they chose for their country. The Hans Blix-led United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission report concluded on "no evidence of forbidden military nuclear activities", "no evidence of mass destruction weapon" (Iraq’s unconventional weapons program would had been successfully dismantled during the 1990s), but "Baghdad must cooperate more".[165]   (born 28 June 1928 in Uppsala, Sweden) is a Swedish diplomat and politician. ... The United Nations Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission (UNMOVIC) was created through the adoption of Security Council resolution 1284 of 17 December 1999. ...


First speaker was the Syrian Arab Republic representative —sole Arab state in the council— who strongly supported the continuation of the inspections, arguing that Iraq was accused to not respect the UN resolutions while Israel ignored more than 500 of them and owned mass destruction weapons as well. The Syrian Arab Republic or Syria is a country in the Middle East, bordering (from south to north) on Lebanon, Israel, Jordan, Iraq and Turkey. ...


Next was de Villepin. Some excerpts that voice opposition to immediate use of military force: “In adopting unanimously resolution 1441, we have collectively shown our agreement on proceeding with two steps: the choice of disarmament by way of inspections, and, in case of failure of this strategy, the examination by the Security Council of all options, including that of recourse to force. It's in this scenario of failure of the inspections, and in this case only, that a second resolution can be justified. … France has two convictions: first, that the option of inspections hasn't been carried through to its conclusion and can bring an effective response to the imperative to disarm Iraq; and second, that a use of force would have such heavy consequences for people, for the region et for international stability, that it couldn’t be envisaged except as a last resort. … We have just heard [in the report from Mr Blix and Mr El Baradeï] that the inspections are giving results. Of course, each of us wants more, and we continue together to put pressure on Bagdad to obtain more. But the inspections are giving results. [De Villepin then lists some of these results, and describes them as ‘significant advances’. He describes steps France has made to help these inspections give more results.]


“There are two options: the option of war may appear a priori the fastest. But let us not forget that that after having won the war, we will have to construct peace. And let us not deceive ourselves: it will be long and difficult, for we will have to preserve the unity of Iraq, re-establish in a durable manner stability in a country and a region strongly affected by the intrusion of force. [The other option is the inspections], which allow to progress day by day towards an effective and peaceful disarmament of Iraq. All things considered, is this option not the most sure and the fastest?


“… In this context, the use of force isn't justified today. …


“The authority for our action rests on the unity of the international community. A military intervention that is premature would jeopardize that unity, which would remove its legitimacy and, over the course of time, its effectiveness.


“Such an intervention could have incalculable consequences for the stability of this bruised and fragile region. It would reinforce the feeling of injustice, would aggravate tensions and would risk opening the way to other conflicts.”


On the subject of terrorism, de Villepin casts doubt on “the supposed links between Al-Qaida and the regime of Baghdad”. He continues: “On the other hand, … would such an intervention today not risk aggravating the fractures between societies, between cultures, between people, the fractures on which terrorism lives?”[166]


France took the lead of the diplomatic solution front together with Germany and Russia, in the likes of a classic XIXth century European empires alliance, as de Villepin advocated for an additional time for the inspectors. There have been numerous alliances known as the Triple Alliance: Aztec Triple Alliance - Tenochtitlan, Texcoco and Tlacopán. ...

In this temple of the United Nations, we are the guards of an ideal, we are the guards of a conscience. The heavy responsibility and the immense honor we have must lead us to give priority to disarmament in peace. … And it is an old country, France, of an old continent like mine, Europe, that says this to you today, which has seen war, occupation, cruelty. A country that does not forget and that knows all that it owes to the freedom fighters from America and elsewhere. … Faithful to its values, it believes in our capacity to construct together a better world.
U.S. President George W. Bush (55) and French President Jacques Chirac (69) in 2001
U.S. President George W. Bush (55) and French President Jacques Chirac (69) in 2001

Colin Powell responded that Iraq cheated with the UN and the inspections could not continue indefinitely.[165] Image File history File links President Bush and President Chirac of France talk over issues during the G-8 sessions, July 21, 2001. ... Image File history File links President Bush and President Chirac of France talk over issues during the G-8 sessions, July 21, 2001. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... “Chirac” redirects here. ...


The direct opposition between diplomatic solution and military intervention involving France and the United States which was impersonated by Chirac versus Bush then later Powell versus de Villepin, became a milestone in the Franco-American relations. Anti-French propangada exploiting the classic Francophobic clichés immediately ensued in the United States and Great Britain. A call for a boycott on French wine was launched in the United States and the New York Post covered on the 1944 "Sacrifice" of the GIs France would had forgotten. It was followed a week later, in February 20, by the British newspaper The Sun publishing a special issue entitled "Chirac is a worm" and including ad hominem attacks such as "Jacques Chirac has become the shame of Europe".[167] Actually both newspapers expressed the opinion of their owner, U.S. billionaire Rupert Murdoch, a military intervention supporter and a George W. Bush partisan as argued by Roy Greenslade in The Guardian published on February 17.[168][167] The statue of liberty, a gift from France to the U.S. Franco-American relations refers to interstate relations between the French Republic and the United States of America. ... Francophobia is a consistent hostility toward the government, culture, history, or people of France or the Francophonie. ... The New York Post is the 13th-oldest newspaper published in the United States and the oldest to have been published continually as a daily. ... GI or G.I. is a term describing a member of the US armed forces or an item of their equipment. ... This article is about a British tabloid. ... Look up ad hominem in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Keith Rupert Murdoch AC, KCSG (born 11 March 1931) is an Australian born United States citizen who is a global media executive and is the controlling shareholder, chairman and managing director of News Corporation, based in New York. ... Roy Greenslade is Professor of Journalism at London’s City University and has been a media commentator since 1992, most notably for The Guardian. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ...


Distraction from the war on terrorism and other priorities

Both supporters and opponents of the Iraq War widely viewed it within the context of a post-September 11 world, where the U.S. has sought to make terrorism the defining international security paradigm. Bush often describes the Iraq War as a “central front in the war on terror.”.[169] Some critics of the war, particularly within the U.S. military community, argued pointedly against the conflation of Iraq and the war on terror, and criticized Bush for losing focus on the more important objective of fighting al-Qaeda. As Marine Lieut. General Greg Newbold, the Pentagon's former top operations officer, wrote in a 2006 Time article, “I now regret that I did not more openly challenge those who were determined to invade a country whose actions were peripheral to the real threat--al-Qaeda.”[170] A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... This article is about U.S. actions, and those of other states, after September 11, 2001. ... Lieutenant General Gregory S. Newbold (USMC Retired) served for the Joint Chiefs of Staff as Director of Operations before he retired in October 2002. ...


Critics within this vein have further argued that containment would have been an effective strategy for the Hussein government, and that the top U.S. priorities in the Middle East should be encouraging a solution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, working for the moderation of Iran, and solidifying gains made in Afghanistan and central Asia. In an October 2002 speech, Retired Marine Gen. Anthony Zinni, former head of Central Command for U.S. forces in the Middle East and State Department's envoy to the Palestinian-Israeli conflict, called Iraq “maybe six or seven,” in terms of U.S. Middle East priorities, adding that “the affordability line may be drawn around five.”[171] However, while commander of CENTCOM, Zinni held a very different opinion concerning the threat posed by Iraq. In testimony before the Senate Armed Services Committee in February 2000, Zinni said: “Iraq remains the most significant near-term threat to U.S. interests in the Persian Gulf region. This is primarily due to its large conventional military force, pursuit of WMD, oppressive treatment of Iraqi citizens, refusal to comply with United Nations Security Council Resolutions (UNSCR), persistent threats to enforcement of the No Fly Zones (NFZ), and continued efforts to violate UN Security Council sanctions through oil smuggling.”[172] A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... Israel, with the West Bank, Gaza Strip and Golan Heights The Israeli-Palestinian conflict is an ongoing dispute between the State of Israel and Arab Palestinians. ... Anthony Charles Zinni (born September 17, 1943) is a retired general in the United States Marine Corps and a former Commander in Chief of U.S. Central Command (CENTCOM). ... Emblem of the United States Central Command. ...


Potential to destabilize the region

In addition to arguing that Iraq was not the top strategic priority in the war on terrorism or in the Middle East, critics of the war also suggested that it could potentially destabilize the surrounding region. Prominent among such critics was Brent Scowcroft, who served as National Security Adviser to George H. W. Bush. In an August 15, 2002 Wall Street Journal editorial entitled "Don't attack Saddam," Scowcroft wrote that: “Possibly the most dire consequences would be the effect in the region” where there could be “an explosion of outrage against us” that “could well destabilize Arab regimes” and “could even swell the ranks of the terrorists.”[173] Lieutenant General Brent Scowcroft KBE (born March 19, 1925 in Ogden, Utah), USAF (Ret. ... National Security Advisor may mean: United States National Security Advisor National Security Advisor (Canada) This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... This article is about the day of the year. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... The Wall Street Journal is an influential international daily newspaper published in New York City, New York with an average daily circulation of 1,800,607 (2002). ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ...


Related phrases

See also: Public relations preparations for 2003 invasion of Iraq

This campaign featured a variety of new terminology, much of it initially coined by the U.S. government or military. The military official name for the invasion was Operation Iraqi Liberation (White House Press Release). However this was quickly changed to "Operation Iraqi Freedom." Also notable was the usage "death squads" to refer to fedayeen paramilitary forces. Members of the Saddam Hussein government were called by disparaging nicknames - e.g., "Chemical Ali" (Ali Hassan al-Majid), "Baghdad Bob" or "Comical Ali" (Mohammed Saeed al-Sahaf), and "Mrs. Anthrax" or "Chemical Sally" (Huda Salih Mahdi Ammash). Saddam Hussein was systematically referred to as "Saddam", which some Westerners mistakenly believed to be disparaging. (Although there is no consensus about how to refer to him in English, "Saddam" is acceptable usage, and is how people in Iraq and the Middle East generally refer to him.[174]) The Rendon Group, a Washington, DC based public relations firm with close ties to the US government, and which has had a prominent role in promoting the Iraqi National Congress, was alleged by some journalists to be planning to support the 2003 invasion of Iraq by a careful public relations... // A death squad is an armed squad of men that kills civilians. ... Fedayeen (from the Arabic fidāī, plural fidāīyun, فدائيون: one who is ready to sacrifice his life, Armenian: ) describes several distinct, primarily Arab groups at different times in history. ... // A nickname is a name of an entity or thing that is not its proper name. ... Ali Hassan al-Majid at an investigative hearing in 2004 Ali Hassan Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (Arabic: ‎ transliteration: , born 1941) is a former Baathist Iraqi Defense Minister and military commander. ... Iraqi Information Minister Mohammed Saeed al-Sahaf (also Mohammed Said al-Sahhaf) (born 1940) is an Iraqi diplomat and politician. ... Most Wanted playing card Huda Salih Mahdi Ammash (Arabic: هدى صالح مهدي عماش) (born Baghdad 1953) is an American-educated Iraqi scientist, dubbed Mrs. ...


Terminology introduced or popularized during the war include:

  • "Axis of evil", originally used by Bush during a State of the Union address on January 29, 2002 to describe the countries of Iraq, Iran and North Korea.[175]
  • "Coalition of the willing", a term that originated in the Clinton era (e.g., interview, Clinton, ABC, June 8, 1994), and used by the Bush Administration to describe the countries contributing troops in the invasion, of which the U.S. and UK were the primary members.
  • "Dead checking", a U.S. military colloquial term for killing all wounded men in any suspected insurgent house they enter.
  • "Decapitating the regime", a euphemism for either overthrowing the government or killing Saddam Hussein.
  • "Embedding", United States practice of assigning civilian journalists to U.S. military units.
  • "Old Europe", Rumsfeld's term used to describe European governments not supporting the war: "You're thinking of Europe as Germany and France. I don't. I think that's old Europe."
  • "Regime change", a euphemism for overthrowing a government.
  • "Shock and Awe", the strategy of reducing an enemy's will to fight through displays of overwhelming force.

Many slogans and terms coined came to be used by Bush's political opponents, or those opposed to the war. For example, in April 2003 John Kerry, the Democratic candidate in the presidential election, said at a campaign rally: "What we need now is not just a regime change in Saddam Hussein and Iraq, but we need a regime change in the United States."[176] Other war critics use the name "Operation Iraqi Liberation (OIL)" to subtly point out their opinion as to the cause of the war, such as the song Operation Iraqi Liberation (OIL) by David Rovics, a popular folk protest singer. For other uses, see Axis of evil (disambiguation). ... Alternative meanings in State of the Union (disambiguation) The State of the Union Address is an annual event in which the President of the United States reports on the status of the country, normally to a joint session of the U.S. Congress (the House of Representatives and the Senate). ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with multinational force in Iraq. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) is an American television network. ... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... Dead checking is U.S. military jargon for the killing of all wounded men by U.S. Armed Forces when they enter a suspected Iraqi insurgent house as part of Operation Iraqi Freedom. ... Decapitation (from Latin, caput, capitis, meaning head), or beheading, is the removal of a living organisms head. ... An embedded civilian journalist taking photographs of US soldiers in Panama. ... For other uses, see Journalist (disambiguation). ... In January 2003 the term Old Europe surfaced after U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld used it to refer to European countries that did not support the 2003 invasion of Iraq, most notably France and Germany. ... Donald Henry Rumsfeld (born July 9, 1932) is a businessman, a U.S. Republican politician, the 13th Secretary of Defense under President Gerald Ford from 1975 to 1977, and the 21st Secretary of Defense under President George W. Bush from 2001 to 2006. ... This article is about the act of overthrowing a government. ... Shock and awe, technically known as rapid dominance, is a military doctrine based on the use of overwhelming decisive force, dominant battlefield awareness, dominant maneuvers, and spectacular displays of power to paralyze an adversarys perception of the battlefield and destroy its will to fight. ... John Forbes Kerry (born December 11, 1943) is the junior United States Senator from Massachusetts, in his fourth term of office. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... David Rovics sings at the A16 rally in Washington DC in early 2005. ...


See also

Wikinews
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Iraq War
Iraq War Portal
Iraq Portal

Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... // The administrations position Much of the position is summed up in the main article on the U.S. plan to invade Iraq. ... Anti war demonstration in Washington DC President Bush meets troops in flight gear Support for the U.S. plan to invade Iraq started out very high in early 2002, but began to slip later in the year. ... An Australian SAS patrol in western Iraq. ... The British Mandate of Iraq was a League of Nations Class A mandate under Article 22 and entrusted to Britain when the Ottoman Empire was divided in 1919 by the Treaty of Versailles following World War I. This award was completed on April 25, 1920, at the San Remo conference... Casualties of the conflicts in Iraq since 2003 (beginning with the 2003 invasion of Iraq and continuing with the ensuing 2003 occupation of Iraq coalition presence as well as the activities of the various armed groups operating in the country) have come in many forms, and the accuracy of the... Peace Palace in The Hague Command responsibility, sometimes referred to as the Yamashita standard, or the Medina standard is the doctrine of hierarchical accountability in cases of war crimes. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about energy crises in general. ... Beginning in April 2004, members of the Iraqi insurgency began taking hostage foreign civilians in Iraq. ... This article describes the positions of world governments prior to the actual initiation of the 2003 invasion of Iraq, and not their current positions as they may have changed since then. ... The Bush administration and many parties have expressed concern about the state of human rights in Iraq after the 2003 occupation of Iraq. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Iraqi insurgency denotes groups using armed resistance against the US-led Coalition occupation of Iraq. ... Jus ad bellum (Latin for Justice of War; see also Just War Theory) are a set of criteria that are consulted before engaging in war, in order to determine whether entering into war is justifiable. ... The medical journal, The Lancet, published two peer-reviewed studies on the effect of the 2003 invasion of Iraq and subsequent occupation on Iraqi mortality, the first in 2004, the second (by many of the same authors) in 2006. ... Image:AntiWarProtestLondon. ... List of people associated with the 2003 Invasion of Iraq. ... This is a list of wars and man-made disasters by death toll by strange diseases. ... The movement to impeach George W. Bush refers to actions and commentary within the public and private spheres tending towards support for the impeachment of United States President George W. Bush. ... Timeline of events during Multinational forces occupation of Iraq, following 2003 invasion of Iraq, and relevant quotations about nature of occupation from officials. ... Oil imperialism theories characterize a broad group of political science theories which assert that direct and indirect control of world petroleum reserves is a root factor in current international politics. ... An oil well in Canada. ... It has been suggested that some sections of this article be split into a new article entitled Peak Oil. ... Petrodollar warfare is a hypothesis that many international manœuvres in recent decades are taken to support the current dollar hegemony over other currencies. ... The oil industry is a type of industry which brings petroleum to a financial market. ... A Polish Army soldier patrol leader debriefs his team after completing an afternoon patrol around the perimeter of Camp Babylon, Iraq. ... This article is about the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... This article is about protests concerning the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... A Rendering of the Sindbad Hotel Complex and Conference Center. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Following the Coalition-led invasion and war of Iraq, there has been an increased level of sectarian violence in Iraq. ... José Antonio Gutierrez was the second American to die in the Iraq war. ... This article is about the Anglo-American 2003 Invasion of Iraq. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This page contains links to several topics relating to views on the 2003 invasion of Iraq and the subsequent occupation of Iraq. ... The War on Terrorism (also known as the War on Terror) is campaign begun by the Bush administration which includes various military, political, and legal actions taken to ostensibly curb the spread of terrorism following the September 11, 2001 attacks on the United States. ... This article covers the weapons used in the 2003 invasion and subsequent occupation of Iraq. ... The withdrawal of American military forces from Iraq has been a contentious issue within the United States since the beginning of the Iraq War. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq. ...

Notes

  1. ^ "Sectarian divisions change Baghdad’s image", Associated Press, 2006-07-03. Retrieved on 2006-08-06. 
  2. ^ iCasualties.org (was lunaville.org). Benicia, California. Patricia Kneisler, et al., "Iraq Coalition Casualties".
  3. ^ US Wounded Chart
  4. ^ "Secretary of Defense Interview with Bob Woodward - 23 Oct, 2003". United States Department of Defense: News Transcript. April 19, 2004.
  5. ^ a b "New Study Finds: 11,000 to 15,000 Killed in Iraq War; 30 Percent are Non-combatants". Project on Defense Alternatives. Press release. Oct. 20, 2003.
  6. ^ "Body counts". By Jonathan Steele. The Guardian. May 28, 2003.
  7. ^ Iraq Body Count project. Source of IBC quote on undercounting by media is here.
  8. ^ a b President Discusses Beginning of Operation Iraqi Freedom.
  9. ^ President Bush Meets with Prime Minister Blair
  10. ^ a b "Poll: Talk First, Fight Later". CBS.com, Jan. 24, 2003. Retrieved on April 23, 2007.
  11. ^ "Report: Hundreds of WMDs Found in Iraq", FOXNews.com, June 22, 2006
  12. ^ Fax and report, June 21, 2006
  13. ^ Guinness World Records, Largest Anti-War Rally (English). Guinness World Records. Archived from the original on 2004-09-04. Retrieved on 2007-01-11.
  14. ^ Callinicos, Alex. "Anti-war protests do make a difference", Socialist Worker, March 19, 2005. Retrieved on 2007-01-11. (English) 
  15. ^ U.S. has 100,000 troops in Kuwait.
  16. ^ a b "Iraq tests no-fly zone", CNN.com, January 4, 1999. Retrieved on 2006-05-25. 
  17. ^ a b "Coalition planes hit Iraq sites in no-fly zone", CNN.com, November 28, 2002. Retrieved on 2006-05-25. 
  18. ^ Iraq Liberation Act of 1998 (Enrolled as Agreed to or Passed by Both House and Senate). Library of Congress. Retrieved on 2006-05-25.
  19. ^ RESOLUTION 687 (1991) (April 8, 1991). Retrieved on 2006-05-25.
  20. ^ Arkin, William. “The Difference Was in the Details”. The Washington Post, January 17, 1999; Page B1. Retrieved from [1] on April 23, 2007.
  21. ^ REPUBLICAN PLATFORM 2000. CNN.com. Retrieved on 2006-05-25.
  22. ^ "O'Neill: 'Frenzy' distorted war plans account", CNN.com, January 14, 2004. Retrieved on 2006-05-26. 
  23. ^ "Plans For Iraq Attack Began On 9/11", CBS News, September 4, 2002. Retrieved on 2006-05-26. 
  24. ^ Smith, Jeffrey R. “Hussein's Prewar Ties To Al-Qaeda Discounted”. The Washington Post, Friday, April 6, 2007; Page A01. Retrieved on April 23, 2007.
  25. ^ "Chronology of the Bush Doctrine". Frontline.org. Retrieved on April 23, 2007.
  26. ^ William Schneider. Marketing Iraq: Why now?. Retrieved on 2006-09-04.
  27. ^ George W. Bush, "President's Remarks at the United Nations General Assembly: Remarks by the President in Address to the United Nations General Assembly, New York, New York", official transcript, press release, The White House, September 12, 2002, accessed May 24, 2007.
  28. ^ "France threatens rival UN Iraq draft". BBC News, October 26, 2002. Retrieved on April 23, 2007
  29. ^ U.S. Wants Peaceful Disarmament of Iraq, Says Negroponte. Embassy of the United States in Manila (November 8, 2002). Retrieved on 2006-05-26.
  30. ^ "US, Britain and Spain Abandon Resolution", Associated Press, 2003-03-17. Retrieved on 2006-08-06. 
  31. ^ "Bush: Iraq is playing 'willful charade'", CNN, 2003-03-07. Retrieved on 2006-08-06. 
  32. ^ Iraq. House of Commons Hansard Debates for 18 Mar 2003 (pt 6). Retrieved on 2006-05-25.
  33. ^ Largest anti-war rally, Guinness Book of World Records, 2004
  34. ^ Global Message. Whitehouse.gov. Retrieved on 2006-06-07.
  35. ^ Jason Webb (Wednesday, September 26, 2007). Bush thought Saddam was prepared to flee: report. Reuters, Washington Post. Retrieved on 2007-09-27.
  36. ^ News Release.
  37. ^ Wolf Blitzer. "Did the Bush Administration exaggerate the threat from Iraq?", CNN, July 8, 2003. 
  38. ^ Bob Kemper. "Saddam can keep rule if he complies: Bush", Daily Times: date=October 23 2002. 
  39. ^ Tony Blair: Answer to Parliamentary Question. Hansard.
  40. ^ PM gives interview to Radio Monte Carlo.
  41. ^ "Bush, Blair: Time running out for Saddam". 
  42. ^ Tony Blair: Parliamentary Statement.
  43. ^ Dana Milbank|"Bush Defends Assertions of Iraq-Al Qaeda Relationship" Washington Post|June 18, 2004; Page A09|http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/articles/A50679-2004Jun17.html|Retrieved 22/10/07
  44. ^ Linda Feldmann|The impact of Bush linking 9/11 and Iraq|Christian Science Monitor|March 14, 2003|http://www.csmonitor.com/2003/0314/p02s01-woiq.html|Retrieved 22/10/07
  45. ^ BBC News Online|"Bush administration on Iraq 9/11 link"|Thursday, 18 September, 2003|news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/3119676.stm|Retrieved 22/10/07
  46. ^ Anne E. Kornblut and Bryan Bender|"Cheney link of Iraq, 9/11 challenged"|16/9/2003|http://www.boston.com/news/nation/articles/2003/09/16/cheney_link_of_iraq_911_challenged/|Retrieved 22/10/07
  47. ^ "Kerry challenges Bush on Iraq-9/11 connection"|CNN|12/9/04|http://www.cnn.com/2004/ALLPOLITICS/09/12/kerry.powell.iraq/index.html|Retrieved 22/10/07
  48. ^ "Transcript of Powell's U.N. Presentation:... a Transcript of U.S. Secretary of State Colin Powell's Presentation to the U.N. Security Council on the U.S. Case Against Iraq". cnn.com, February 6, 2003, accessed May 24, 2007. (Part 5 on "Iraq's Biological Weapons Program" inc. still photo of Powell with sample anthrax vial from Powell's presentation of February 5, 2003.) Cf.Press release and The White House video clip of full presentation, February 5, 2003, accessed May 24, 2007.
  49. ^ Press, Associated. "CIA’s final report: No WMD found in Iraq". MSNBC.com, April 25, 2005. Retrieved on April 5, 2007].
  50. ^ Australian Associated Press. "Pilger claims White House knew Saddam was no threat.", Sydney Morning Herald, September 23, 2003. 
  51. ^ Marquis, Christopher. "Powell Admits No Hard Proof in Linking Iraq to Al Qaeda.", New York Times, January 9, 2004. 
  52. ^ "Evidence on Iraq Challenged," Joby Warrick, The Washington Post, Sept. 19, 2002
  53. ^ Colin Powell’s speech to the UN, Feb 5, 2003
  54. ^ Meet the Press, NBC, May 16, 2004
  55. ^ [. http://www.thememoryhole.org/war/powell-rice-wmd.wmv]
  56. ^ Lichtblau, Eric. "2002 Memo Doubted Uranium Sale Claim", The New York Times, January 18, 2006. Retrieved on May 10, 2007.
  57. ^ Ensor, David. "Fake Iraq documents 'embarrassing' for U.S.", CNN.com, 2003-03-14. Retrieved on 2007-05-10. 
  58. ^ Pincus, Walter. "British Intelligence Warned of Iraq War". Washington Post, Friday, May 13, 2005; Page A18. Retrieved on April 5, 2007.
  59. ^ "Revealed: The Secret Cabal Which Spun for Blair," Sunday Herald, Neil Mackay, June 8, 2003
  60. ^ Senator Bill Nelson (January 28, 2004) "New Information on Iraq's Possession of Weapons of Mass Destruction", Congressional Record
  61. ^ Lowe, C. (December 16, 2003) "Senator: White House Warned of UAV Attack," Defense Tech
  62. ^ Hammond, J. (November 14, 2005) "The U.S. 'intelligence failure' and Iraq's UAVs" The Yirmeyahu Review
  63. ^ Senators Slam Shifting Iraq War Justification. Islamonline. July 30, 2003.
  64. ^ Roth, Ken. "War in Iraq: Not a Humanitarian Intervention" Human Rights Watch. January 2004. Retrieved April 6, 2007.
  65. ^ Porter, Adam. "British lawmaker: Iraq war was for oil". Aljazeera.net. May 22, 2005. Retrieved April 5, 2007.
  66. ^ "Rumsfeld: It Would Be A Short War". CBSNews.com. Nov. 15, 2002. Retrieved on April 5, 2007.
  67. ^ author=Bob Woodward|title=Greenspan Is Critical Of Bush in Memoir; Former Fed Chairman Has Praise for Clinton|publisher=Washington Post|date=September 16 2007
  68. ^ author=Richard Adams|title=Invasion of Iraq was driven by oil, says Greenspan|publisher=Guardian Unlimited|date=September 17 2007
  69. ^ Saddam Hussein's Defiance of UNSCRs
  70. ^ UN Security Council Resolution 1441
  71. ^ Links to Opinions of Legality of War Against Iraq
  72. ^ Law Groups Say U.S. Invasion Illegal
  73. ^ International Commission of Jurists
  74. ^ Burkeman, Oliver. "Invasion right but 'illegal', says US hawk", The Age, November 21, 2003. Retrieved on 2006-05-26. 
  75. ^ Oliver Burkeman and Julian Borger. "War critics astonished as US hawk admits invasion was illegal", The Guardian, November 20, 2003. Retrieved on 2006-05-26. 
  76. ^ Transcript of Powell's U.N. Presentation.[CNN.com]
  77. ^ Richard Norton-Taylor International court hears anti-war claims in The Guardian May 6, 2005.
  78. ^ Chamberlin, Gethin. "Court 'can envisage' Blair prosecution". The Sunday Telegraph, March 17, 2003. Retrieved on May 25, 2005.
  79. ^ Press Briefing by Ari Fleischer. The White House press release (2003-03-24). Retrieved on 2006-07-21.
  80. ^ Bush: Join 'coalition of willing'. CNN (20-11-2002).
  81. ^ Coalition Members. The White House (27-03-2003).
  82. ^ for more information about Turkey's policy during the invasion look, Ali Balci and Murat Yesiltas, 'Turkey's New Middle East Policy: The Case of the Meeting of the Foreign Ministers of Iraq's Neighboring Countries', Journal of South Asian and Middle Eastern Studies, XXIX (4), Summer 2006, pp. 18-38
  83. ^ Ford, Peter. A weak northern front could lengthen Iraq War. Christian Science Monitor, April 03, 2003. Retrieved on May 7, 2003.
  84. ^ "Saddam's Last Line Of Defense", CBS, 2003-03-26. Retrieved on 2006-08-06. 
  85. ^ "Saddam counts on Republican Guard as last chance for defending Baghdad", Associated Press, 2003-03-26. Retrieved on 2006-08-06. 
  86. ^ Burgess, Mark. "CDI Primer: Iraqi Military Effectiveness", Center for Defense Information, 2002-11-12. Retrieved on 2006-08-06. 
  87. ^ Windle, David. "Military muscle", New Scientist, 2003-01-29. Retrieved on 2006-08-06. 
  88. ^ Iraqi Ground Forces Organization. GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved on 2006-08-06.
  89. ^ "Most loyal soldiers in Iraq belong to Fedayeen Saddam", The Seattle Times, 2003-03-27. Retrieved on 2006-08-06. 
  90. ^ [2][3][4]
  91. ^ Smith, Michael. "The war before the war", The New Statesman, 2005-05-30. Retrieved on 2006-08-06. 
  92. ^ [5][6]
  93. ^ Bush 'plotted to lure Saddam into war with fake UN plane' - Americas, World - Independent.co.uk
  94. ^ a b A chronology of the six-week invasion of Iraq. PBS (February 26, 2004). Retrieved on 2008-03-19.
  95. ^ a b Gordon, Michael R. & Trainor, Bernard E. (March 12, 2006). Iraqi Leader, in Frantic Flight, Eluded U.S. Strikes. New York Times. Retrieved on 2008-03-19.
  96. ^ At Saddam's Bombed Palace: New Details About The First Strike On Saddam. CBS Evening News (May 28, 2003). Retrieved on 2008-03-19.
  97. ^ Cockburn, Alexander (March 24, 2007). Where are the Laptop Bombardiers Now?. Couterpunch. Retrieved on 2008-03-21.
  98. ^ Eugene Jarecki, Why We Fight; Sarah Leah Whitson, Presentation of Aerial Attacks on Regime Leaders, World Tribunal on Iraq, 2004.
  99. ^ Lowe, Christian. "Stopping Blue-on-Blue", The Daily Standard, 2003-09-08. Retrieved on 2006-08-07. 
  100. ^ Anton Antonowicz, ‘Toppling Saddam's Statue Is The Final Triumph For These Oppressed People’ in The Mirror, April 10, 2003.
  101. ^ Staff Sergeant Brian Plesich, team leader, Tactical Psychological Operations Team 1153, 305th Psychological Operations Company, interview by Lieutenant Colonel Dennis Cahill, 31 May 2003 in Col. Gregory Fontenot, Lt. Col. E.J. Degen, and Lt. Col. David Tohn: ‘On Point: The United States Army in Operation Iraqi Freedom’, Chapter 6 ‘Regime Collapse’
  102. ^ "Russia denies Iraq secrets claim", BBC News, 2006-03-25. Retrieved on 2006-08-07. 
  103. ^ "US shamed by looting of antiquities", The Scotsman, April 19, 20003. 
  104. ^ Harms, William. "Archaeologists review loss of valuable artifacts one year after looting", The University of Chicago Chronicle, 2004-04-15. Retrieved on 2006-08-07. 
  105. ^ "Pentagon: Some explosives possibly destroyed", Associated Press, 2004-10-29. Retrieved on 2006-08-07. 
  106. ^ Gellman, Barton. "U.S. Has Not Inspected Iraqi Nuclear Facility", Washington Post, 2003-04-25, p. A14. Retrieved on 2006-08-07. 
  107. ^ a b c Bahrani, Zainab. "Days of plunder", The Guardian, 2004-08-31. Retrieved on 2006-08-07. 
  108. ^ Bash, Dana. "White House pressed on 'mission accomplished' sign", CNN, 2003-10-29. Retrieved on 2006-07-21. 
  109. ^ "Text Of Bush Speech", Associated Press, 2003-05-01. Retrieved on 2006-07-21. 
  110. ^ Operation Iraqi Freedom Maps. GlobalSecurity.org. Retrieved on 2006-07-21.
  111. ^ "Iraqi attacks could signal wide revolt", The Seattle Times, 2003-07-01. Retrieved on 2006-08-07. 
  112. ^ 2006 Study of Iraq Mortality.
  113. ^ a b Reuters, "Getting amputees back on their feet".Washington Post. Oct. 25, 2005.
  114. ^ Iraq Body Count: A Dossier of Civilian Casualties in Iraq, 2003 – 2005.. Retrieved on May 2, 2007.
  115. ^ Iraqi health minister estimates as many as 150,000 Iraqis killed by insurgents.
  116. ^ Iraqi death toll estimates go as high as 150,000.
  117. ^ Parsons, Tim. "Updated Iraq Study Affirms Earlier Mortality Estimates". The JHU Gazette, October 16, 2006. Retrieved May 24, 2007.
  118. ^ "More than 1,000,000 Iraqis murdered". September 2007. Opinion Research Business. PDF report: [7]
  119. ^ "Poll: Civilian Death Toll in Iraq May Top 1 Million". By Tina Susman. Sept. 14, 2007. Los Angeles Times.
  120. ^ "Greenspan Admits Iraq was About Oil, As Deaths Put at 1.2 Million". By Peter Beaumont and Joanna Walters. Sept. 16, 2007. The Observer (UK).
  121. ^ "The Media Ignore Credible Poll Revealing 1.2 Million Violent Deaths In Iraq". Sept. 18, 2007. MediaLens.
  122. ^ Update on Iraqi Casualty Data by Opinion Research Business, January 2008
  123. ^ Iraq refugees chased from home, struggle to cope
  124. ^ U.N.: 100,000 Iraq refugees flee monthly. Alexander G. Higgins, Boston Globe, November 3, 2006
  125. ^ 40% of middle class believed to have fled crumbling nation.
  126. ^ Iraq's middle class escapes, only to find poverty in Jordan
  127. ^ '50,000 Iraqi refugees' forced into prostitution
  128. ^ Christians, targeted and suffering, flee Iraq
  129. ^ Iraq's Endangered Minorities
  130. ^ Out of Iraq, a flight of Chaldeans
  131. ^ UNHCR |Iraq
  132. ^ Christians live in fear of death squads
  133. ^ 'We're staying and we will resist'.
  134. ^ Terror campaign targets Chaldean church in Iraq.
  135. ^ Iraq's Mandaeans 'face extinction'.
  136. ^ Iraqi officials: Truck bombings killed at least 500
  137. ^ Ambassador wants more visas for loyal Iraqis.
  138. ^ Ann McFeatters: Iraq refugees find no refuge in America. Seattle Post-Intelligencer May 25, 2007
  139. ^ Reporters, commentators conduct an in-depth postmortem of Iraq war's media coverage.
  140. ^ Amplifying Officials, Squelching Dissent.
  141. ^ The Times and Iraq.
  142. ^ Reporters, commentators visit Berkeley to conduct in-depth postmortem of Iraq war coverage.
  143. ^ Pros and Cons of Embedded Journalism.
  144. ^ Postmortem: Iraq war media coverage dazzled but it also obscured.
  145. ^ Poll: 70% believe Saddam, 9-11 link.
  146. ^ Misperceptions, the Media and the Iraq War.
  147. ^ Murdoch helped start war on Iraq, says Turner.
  148. ^ Bush and Iraq: Mass Media, Mass Ignorance.
  149. ^ International comparison of TV news coverage of Iraq.
  150. ^ President's Remarks at the United Nations General Assembly, September 12, 2002.
  151. ^ "Transcript of Powell's U.N. presentation". [8], February 6, 2003. Retrieved on April 6, 2007.
  152. ^ Pitt, William R. War On Iraq: What Team Bush Doesn't Want You to Know. 2002, Context Books, New York. ISBN 1-893956-38-5.
  153. ^ Wilson, Joseph C. "What I Didn’t Find in Africa." The New York Times, Sunday, July 6, 2003. Retrieved from [9] on April 17, 2007.
  154. ^ "Plame's Input Is Cited on Niger Mission"
  155. ^ "How Saddam Thinks"
  156. ^ "A "Big Cat" With Nothing to Lose"
  157. ^ Jehl, Douglas. "Pentagon official distorted intelligence, report says". International Herald Tribune, October 22, 2004. Retrieved on April 18, 2007.
  158. ^ Pincus, Walter and R. Jeffrey Smith. “Official’s Key Report on Iraq is Faulted. The Washington Post, Friday, February 9, 2007; Page A01
  159. ^ Tempest, Matthew. “Cook resigns from cabinet over Iraq”. The Guardian, March 17, 2003. Retrieved on April 17, 2007.
  160. ^ "Excerpts: Annan interview", BBC News, 16 September 2004. Retrieved on 2007-08-07. 
  161. ^ Lynch, Colum. "U.S., Allies Dispute Annan on Iraq War", Washington Post, September 17, 2004, p. A18. Retrieved on 2006-05-25. 
  162. ^ United Nations General Assembly Document session 58 page 9 on 28 August 2003 (retrieved 2007-08-08)
  163. ^ United Nations General Assembly Document session 58 page 20 on 23 September 2003 (retrieved 2007-08-08)
  164. ^ “Nations take sides after Powell's speech”. CNN.com, February 6, 2003. Retrieved April 17, 2006.
  165. ^ a b Discours Villepin Powell à Onu (National Audiovisual Institute archives), French news national edition, France 3 French public channel, 14 February 2003
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  168. ^ Their master's voice, Roy Greenslade, The Guardian, Monday February 17, 2003.
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  170. ^ Newbold, Greg. "Why Iraq Was a Mistake". Time Magazine, April 9, 2006. Retrieved on April 16, 2007.
  171. ^ Boehlert, Eric. "I'm not sure which planet they live on". Salon, October 17, 20002. Retrieved April 17, 2007.
  172. ^ Statement of General Anthony C. Zinni, Commander in Chief, US Central Command, before the U.S. Senate Committee on the Armed Services
  173. ^ Scowcroft, Brent. "Don't attack Saddam". The Wall Street Journal, August 15, 2002. Retrieved April 17, 2007.
  174. ^ Shewchuk, Blair. "Words: Woe and Wonder", CBC News Online, February 2003. Retrieved on 2006-07-21. 
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  176. ^ Balz, Dan. "Kerry Angers GOP in Calling For 'Regime Change' in U.S.", The Washington Post, 2003-04-03, p. A10. Retrieved on 2006-07-21. 

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Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... is the 126th day of the year (127th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Center for Defense Information, or CDI, is an organization composed partially of academics and a few retired high-ranking military officers formed for the purpose of critical analysis of United States defence policy. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... New Scientist is a weekly international science magazine covering recent developments in science and technology for a general English-speaking audience. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... GlobalSecurity. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Seattle Times is the leading daily newspaper in Seattle, Washington, United States. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New Statesman is a left-of-centre political weekly published in London. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 150th day of the year (151st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Not to be confused with Public Broadcasting Services in Malta. ... is the 57th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 71st day of the year (72nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... CBS Evening News is the flagship nightly television news program of the American television network CBS. The network has broadcast this program since 1948, and has used the CBS Evening News title since 1963. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 78th day of the year (79th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Weekly Standard is an American neoconservative political magazine published 48 times per year. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 115th day of the year (116th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... This just IN !!!:paris hiltons new dog. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... MediaLens is a media analysis website based in the United Kingdom. ... The Boston Globe is the most widely-circulated daily newspaper in Boston, Massachusetts and in the greater New England region. ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The daily Seattle Post-Intelligencer is the second leading newspaper in Seattle, Washington, United States. ... is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 145th day of the year (146th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Spanish president in the General Assembly in New York Org type: Principal Organ Acronyms: GA, UNGA Head: President of the UN General Assembly As of 18 September 2007 Srgjan Kerim former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Status: Active Established: 1945 Website: www. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Spanish president in the General Assembly in New York Org type: Principal Organ Acronyms: GA, UNGA Head: President of the UN General Assembly As of 18 September 2007 Srgjan Kerim former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Status: Active Established: 1945 Website: www. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Allen, Mike and Juliet Eilperin. Monday, August 26, 2002. Page A01 The Washington Post "Bush Aides Say Iraq War Needs No Hill Vote". Accessed on 2008-05-21.
  • CNN.com/Inside Politics (2002-10-11). "Senate approves Iraq war resolution". Accessed on June 06, 2005.
  • Donnelly, Thomas. Rebuilding America's Defenses: Strategy, Forces and Resources For a New Century. Report of the Project for the New American Century, September 2000. Available online.
  • Joint Forces Command. "Iraq war from Saddam's perspective", 2006.
  • McCain, John. "Finishing the Job in Iraq". Air Force Magazine, July 2004.
  • Paul, U.S. Representative Ron, Office of (2002). "Paul Calls for Congressional Declaration of War with Iraq". Accessed on June 06, 2005.
  • Reynolds, Nicholas E. (2005-05-01). Basrah, Baghdad, and Beyond: U.S. Marine Corps in the Second Iraq War. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 9781591147176. 
  • Ricks, Thomas E. [2006]. Fiasco: The American Military Adventure in Iraq . Penguin. ISBN 159420103X. 
  • Wright, Steven. The United States and Persian Gulf Security: The Foundations of the War on Terror. Ithaca Press: 2007. ISBN 978-0863723216.
  • Zucchino, David (2004). Thunder Run: The Armored Strike to Capture Baghdad. New York: Atlantic Monthly Press. ISBN 0871139111. 

The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 284th day of the year (285th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... June 6 is the 157th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (158th in leap years), with 208 days remaining. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Project for the New American Centurys Logo The Project for the New American Century (PNAC) is an American neoconservative think tank based in Washington, D.C., co-founded as a non-profit educational organization by William Kristol and Robert Kagan in early 1997. ... McCain redirects here. ... Ronald Ernest Ron Paul (b. ... June 6 is the 157th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (158th in leap years), with 208 days remaining. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Naval Institute is a non-profit, professional organization in the United States related to the Navy. ...

Further reading

Dissent Magazine is a left-wing magazine that was started in 1954 by Irving Howe and Lewis Coser. ... Paul Berman is a prominent liberal American intellectual. ... Seyla Benhabib (born 1950, Istanbul) is a Turkish professor of political science and philosophy at Yale and director of the program in Ethics, Politics, and Economics, and a well-known contemporary philosopher. ... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Ben D. 00:39, 26 March 2006 (UTC) Category: ... Hans Köchler (born October 18, 1948 in Schwaz, Tyrol, Austria) is a professor of Philosophy at the University of Innsbruck, Austria. ...

External links

  • Over half a million Iraqi's dead, 4 years later, May 2007 after "us surge" monthly death rates not decreasing
  • "Fact Sheets: The Lancet Survey: Mortality after the 2003 invasion of Iraq". (Authors: Professors Gilbert Burnham, M.D., and Riyadh Lafta, M.D., and Shannon Doocy, Ph.D., Les Roberts, Ph.D. Participating institutions: The Johns Hopkins University Bloomberg School of Public Health, in Baltimore, Maryland, and Al Mustansiriya University, in Baghdad.) Electronic Iraq/electronicIraq.net. Accessed May 24, 2007. ("Electronic Iraq/electronicIraq.net [is] a joint project from Voices in the Wilderness and The Electronic Intifada.")
  • War Report. More than 5,000 articles, documents and analyses of the Iraq and Afghanistan wars, updated four times a week -- Project on Defense Alternatives.
  • CIA’s final report
  • Occupation of Iraq Timeline at the History Commons
  • Morgues so full, bodies turned away
  • The War In Context News aggregator
  • ProCon's examination of Iraq Invasion
  • by Professor Dr. Sedat Laciner, "Ten Impasses of the Resistance in Iraq"
  • Amnesty International Report on Iraq
  • Iraq: Amnesty International seeks clarification on house demolitions by US troops in Iraq
  • Iraq: full texts of speeches and key documents archived by The Guardian. Retrieved 31 May 2005.
  • Iraq: Forcible return of refugees and asylum-seekers is contrary to international law
  • Iraq: Tribunal established without consultation
  • Memorandum on concerns related to legislation introduced by the Coalition Provisional Authority
  • National Priorities Project Cost of the Iraqi War Estimate
  • Reconstruction must ensure the human rights of Iraqis
  • Video Seminar on Iraq Coalition Politics: 20 April 2005, sponsored by the Program in Arms Control, Disarmament, and International Security at the University of Illinois.
  • War in Iraq: Day by Day Guide
  • Iraq War NEWS DIGEST-Iraq and the U.S.A.
  • Iraq Special Weapons News
  • Attacks on journalists in Iraq - IFEX
  • Archaeologists Review Loss of Valuables in Museum Looting
  • by Emre Ozkan and Murat Sogangoz, "Do Talabani and Barzani prefer Civil-War in Iraq?"
  • Iraqi Perspectives Report, Joint Center for Operational Analysis at United States Department of Defense, March 2006
  • "Frontline: The Dark Side" PBS documentary on Vice President Dick Cheney's remaking of the Executive and infighting leading up to the war in Iraq
  • Angle, Jim and Liss, Sharon Kehnemui. "Report: Hundreds of WMDs Found in Iraq", Fox News, 2006-06-22. Retrieved on 2006-07-21. 
  • "Hundreds of chemical weapons found in Iraq: US intelligence", AFP, 2006-06-22. Retrieved on 2006-07-21. 
  • 1999 Desert Crossing War Game to Plan Invasion of Iraq and to Unseat Saddam Hussein

Les Roberts (epidemiologist) (b. ... The Johns Hopkins University, founded in 1876, is a private institution of higher learning located in Baltimore, Maryland, United States. ... The Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health was founded in 1916 by William H. Welch and John D. Rockefeller. ... Baltimore redirects here. ... Mustansiriya University is one of the oldest Islamic universities in the world, established in 1233 by the Abbasid Caliph al-Mustansir. ... Baghdad (Arabic: ) is the capital of Iraq and of Baghdad Governorate. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... This page has been deleted, and protected to prevent re-creation. ... The Electronic Intifada (ei) is a not-for-profit, independent online publication which covers the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict from a Palestinian perspective, aimed at combating the pro-Israeli, pro-American spin its editors believe exists in mainstream media accounts. ... For other uses, see Guardian. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... International Freedom of Expression eXchange. ... The United States Department of Defense (DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to national security and the military. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 202nd day of the year (203rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Video

  • Cheney in '00: Invading Baghdad Would Make Us "An Imperial Power"

[[zh:伊拉克άu uf This is a list of countries spanning more than one continent. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
2003 Invasion of Iraq - Uncyclopedia, the content-free encyclopedia (993 words)
The 2003 Invasion of Iraq, also known as Operation Iraqi Liberation (O.I.L.) and the Domino Theory, was a wise, justified American invasion of Iraq.
The invasion of Iraq succeeded beyond the imaginations of neoconservatives as Bush delivered the liberty he had offered to the 6/7ths of the Iraqis that didn't flee[1].
The Invasion of Iraq was an exemplary instance of American Diplomacy.
2003 Invasion of Iraq - dKosopedia (2137 words)
Iraq had been effectively disarmed of its capacity to make chemical weapons by the United Nations long before the start of the conflict.
After the WMD and terrorism pretexts were shown to be deceptions, the administration deployed democratization as a post-hoc explanation for the invasion.
Why we HAD to invade Iraq Wed Jan 12th, 2005 at 17:21:47 EST by Lestatdelc - proposes that the real reason for the invasion was the potential consequences of sanctions being lifted, once the UN inspectors concluded that Saddam was in compliance with relevant resolutions.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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