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Encyclopedia > 2002 Bali terrorist bombing

The Bali Bombing occurred on October 12, 2002 in the town of Kuta on the Indonesian island of Bali, killing 202 people and injuring a further 209. It is considered the deadliest act of terrorism in Indonesian history. The majority of the dead were foreign tourists, especially Australians, but nearly one fifth were Indonesian nationals. October 12 is the 285th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (286th in leap years). ... 2002(MMII) is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Café, Kuta Beach Street Kuta Beach Street Kuta Beach Kuta Beach Kuta Beach Kuta is a beach town with white sandy beaches that are among the best on Bali. ... Topography Map showing Bali within Indonesia Sunset at Jimbaran Beach, Bali Young Balinese Dancers Rice terraces at entrance to Gunung Kawi Temple Balis Sanur Beach Statue of Dewi Sri — Ubud, Bali Bali is an Indonesian island. ... Terror attack in Jerusalem The word terrorism is controversial, with no universally agreed definition. ...

National flags at Kuta explosion site (October 17, 2002)
National flags at Kuta explosion site (October 17, 2002)

A number of Indonesians were sentenced to death for their parts in the bombings and in October 2002 Abu Bakar Bashir, a leader of the Jemaah Islamiah organisation often accused of being behind the attacks, was charged over his alleged role in the bombing. In March 2005, Bashir was found guilty of conspiracy over the attacks in Bali. National flags at explosion site in Kuta, Bali, Indonesia, October 17, 2002. ... National flags at explosion site in Kuta, Bali, Indonesia, October 17, 2002. ... Abu Bakar Bashir Abu Bakar Bashir (also Abubakar Baasyir) alias Abdus Somad (born August 1938) is an Indonesian Muslim cleric who is the alleged spiritual head of Jemaah Islamiyah (JI), a militant Islamic separatist group. ... Jemaah Islamiyah, sometimes rendered Jemaah Islamiah, is a militant Islamic separatist movement, suspected of killing hundreds of civilians, dedicated to the establishment of a fundamentalist Islamic state in Southeast Asia, in particular Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei, Malaysia, and the south of Thailand and the Philippines. ...

Contents


The bombing

At 23:05 (15:05 UTC) on 12 October 2002, an electronically triggered bomb hidden in a backpack ripped through Paddy's Bar. The device was small and crude, but killed the backpack owner, likely a suicide operative. The injured immediately fled into the street. Approximately ten to fifteen seconds later, a second much more powerful car bomb of close to 1,000 kg, concealed in a white Mitsubishi van was detonated by remote control in front of the Sari Club. Windows throughout the town were blown out. The explosion left a three feet deep crater [1]. There were scenes of horror and panic inside and outside the bars. The local hospital was unable to cope with the number of injured, particularly burn victims. Many of the wounded, of all nationalities, were flown by the Royal Australian Air Force to hospitals in Darwin and other Australian cities. October 12 is the 285th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (286th in leap years). ... 2002(MMII) is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A car bomb is a bomb that is placed in a car or truck and is intended to be exploded while there. ... Mitsubishi Motors Corporation (in Japanese: 三菱自動車工業株式会社, in romaji Mitsubishi Jidōsha Kōgyō Kabushiki Kaisha) (TYO: 7211) is a Japanese automobile company, manufacturing an extensive range of cars and trucks (see Fuso). ... Evolution of a 2nd degree burn — One hour Evolution of a 2nd degree burn — One day Evolution of a 2nd degree burn — two days This article describes a type of injury. ... The RAAF Roundel is based on that of the British Royal Air Force, with the central circle replaced by a Kangaroo, a symbol of Australia. ... Central Darwin, circa 1986 Darwin is the capital of the Northern Territory, and is a city of 109,419 people (2001 census) on Australias far north-western coastline. ...


Almost simultaneously, a third bomb detonated in the street in front of the American consulate in Bali. This bomb caused no injuries, and only modest damage.


The final death toll was 202, the majority holiday-makers in their 20s and 30s who were in the two bars. Many Balinese/Indonesians working in Kuta also were killed. Hundreds more people suffered horrific burns and other injuries. The largest group among those killed were holiday-makers from Australia. The Bali bombing is sometimes called "Australia's September 11" because of the large number of its citizens killed in the attack. The September 11, 2001 attacks were a series of suicide attacks against civilians of the United States conducted on Tuesday, September 11, 2001. ...


There were many acts of individual heroism. Kossy Halemai, a hotel manager, was singled out for praise with the award of Medal of the Order of Australia (OAM) in 2005. Kusitino Kossy Halemai was awarded the Medal of the Order of Australia in 2005 for aid given to victims of the 2002 Bali bombing. ... The Order of Australia is an order of chivalry for the purpose of according recognition to Australian citizens and other persons for achievement or for meritorious service. The Order was established on February 14, 1975, when Queen Elizabeth II, acting in her capacity of Queen of Australia, signed Letters Patent... 2005(MMV) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The nationalities of the dead were believed to be:

The monument, featuring a Balinese tree-like sculpture, a small fountain and the 22 flags of the victims' homelands, stands between the Sari Club and Paddy's Bar where the two bombs exploded.
The monument, featuring a Balinese tree-like sculpture, a small fountain and the 22 flags of the victims' homelands, stands between the Sari Club and Paddy's Bar where the two bombs exploded.

Three bodies remained unidentified and were cremated at Bali in September 2003. Download high resolution version (1125x1500, 280 KB)This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Download high resolution version (1125x1500, 280 KB)This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Topography Map showing Bali within Indonesia Sunset at Jimbaran Beach, Bali Young Balinese Dancers Rice terraces at entrance to Gunung Kawi Temple Balis Sanur Beach Statue of Dewi Sri — Ubud, Bali Bali is an Indonesian island. ... National motto: 널리 인간을 이롭게 하라 Translation: Bring benefit to all people Official language Korean Capital Seoul Largest city Seoul President Roh Moo-hyun Prime Minister Lee Hae-chan Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 107th 99,274 km² 0. ... National motto: None Official language Mandarin Chinese Capital and largest city Taipei President Chen Shui-bian Premier Frank Hsieh Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 138th 35,980 km² 2. ... 2003(MMIII) is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The bomb was at first believed to be made of C4 plastic explosive. However, on 21 October investigators at the scene disclosed that the main portion of the bomb was made of ammonium nitrate. Ammonium nitrate is a fertilizer agent and easily available in Indonesia, while C4 is a military grade product and difficult to get. C4 or Composition C4 is a common variety of military plastic explosive. ... Plastic explosive (or plastique) is a specialised form of explosive material. ... October 21 is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 71 days remaining. ... The chemical compound ammonium nitrate, the nitrate of ammonia with chemical formula NH4NO3, is commonly used in agriculture as a high-nitrogen fertilizer. ... Fertilizers or fertilisers are compounds given to plants with the intention of promoting growth; they are usually applied either via the soil, for uptake by plant roots, or by foliar spraying, for uptake through leaves. ...


Suspects

The organisation immediately suspected of responsibility for the bombing was Jemaah Islamiyah, an Islamist group linked in many news reports to the al-Qaeda network. The Indonesian chief of police, General Da'i Bachtiar said that the bombing was the "worst act of terror in Indonesia's history". Other Indonesian ministers stated their belief that the blasts were related to al-Qaeda. PremJi Chechawala, sometimes rendered PremJi Chechawala, is a militant Islamic separatist movement, suspected of killing hundreds of civilians, dedicated to the establishment of a fundamentalist Islamic state in Southeast Asia, in particular Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei, Malaysia, and the south of Thailand and the Philippines. ... Islamism is a political ideology derived from the conservative religious views of Muslim fundamentalism. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... Dai Bachtiar and the military. ...


Abu Bakar Bashir, an Islamic cleric believed by many to be among the leaders of Jemaah Islamiyah and wanted in Singapore and Malaysia, held a news conference on 12 October to deny any involvement. In a number of statements he denied that the bombing had been perpetrated by Indonesians, and blamed the United States for exploding the bomb, claiming that it wasn't possible for Indonesians to construct such a sophisticated device. Abu Bakar Bashir Abu Bakar Bashir (also Abubakar Baasyir) alias Abdus Somad (born August 1938) is an Indonesian Muslim cleric who is the alleged spiritual head of Jemaah Islamiyah (JI), a militant Islamic separatist group. ... October 12 is the 285th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (286th in leap years). ...


Aris Munandar (aka Sheik Aris) is a JI associate linked to Bashir. He is believed to have assisted the Bali bomber Amrozi in acquiring some of the explosives used in the Bali bombings. Philippine intelligence considers Munandar to be associated with Mohammad Abdullah Sughayer, a Saudi national suspected of financing the al-Qaeda affiliated Abu Sayyaf Group in southern Philippines. Munandar is still at large. Amrozi bin Nurhasyim (born July 5, 1962), native of East Java, also known simply as Amrozi, is an Indonesian who was convicted for his part in the 2002 Bali terrorist bombing. ... The Abu Sayyaf Group (ASG), or simply Abu Sayyaf, also known as Al Harakat Al Islamiyya, is a separatist group of Islamist terrorists based in and around the southern islands of the Philippines, primarily Jolo, Basilan, and Mindanao. ...


Indonesian authorities also believe more suspects remain at large. In 2005, Indonesian police arrested 24 additional people suspected of involvement in the Bali attacks and a 2003 bombing of the Marriott Hotel in Jakarta. Some were believed to have been making preparations to leave for the Philippines. Motto: Jaya Raya (Indonesian): Prosper and Great Founded 22 June 1527 Governor Sutiyoso Area 661. ...


Legal proceedings

Sari Club
Sari Club

Download high resolution version (1500x1131, 434 KB)This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Download high resolution version (1500x1131, 434 KB)This is a file from the Wikimedia Commons, a repository of free content hosted by the Wikimedia Foundation. ...

Initial charges and trials

In April 2003 Indonesian authorities charged Abu Bakar Bashir (also rendered "Ba'asyir") with treason. It was alleged that he tried to overthrow the government and set up an Islamic state. The specific charges against Bashir related to a series of church bombings during Christmas in 2000, and to a plot to bomb United States and other Western interests in Singapore. He was initially not charged over the Bali attack, although he was frequently accused of being the instigator or inspirer of the attack. On 2 September Bashir was acquitted of treason but convicted of lesser charges and sentenced to four years prison. He said he would appeal. On October 15, 2004, he was arrested by the Indonesian authorities and charged with involvement in another bomb attack, which killed 14 people at the J. W. Marriott hotel in Jakarta on August 5, 2003. Secondary charges in this indictment accused him of involvement in the Bali bombing, the first time he faced charges in relation to this attack. On March 3, 2005, Bashir was found not guilty of the charges surrounding the 2003 bombing, but guilty of conspiracy over the 2002 attacks in Bali. He was sentenced to two and a half years imprisonment. The Australian, US, and many governments expressed its disappointment that the sentence was too short. 2003(MMIII) is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Abu Bakar Bashir Abu Bakar Bashir (also Abubakar Baasyir) alias Abdus Somad (born August 1938) is an Indonesian Muslim cleric who is the alleged spiritual head of Jemaah Islamiyah (JI), a militant Islamic separatist group. ... In law, treason is the crime of disloyalty to ones nation. ... This article is about the year 2000. ... September 2 is the 245th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (246th in leap years). ... October 15 is the 288th day of the year (289th in Leap years). ... 2004(MMIV) is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto: Jaya Raya (Indonesian): Prosper and Great Founded 22 June 1527 Governor Sutiyoso Area 661. ... August 5 is the 217th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (218th in leap years), with 148 days remaining. ... 2003(MMIII) is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 3 is the 62nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (63rd in leap years). ... 2005(MMV) is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On 30 April 2003, the first charges related to the Bali bombings were made against Amrozi bin Haji Nurhasyim, known as Amrozi, for allegedly buying the explosives and the van used in the bombings. On 8 August he was found guilty and sentenced to death. Another participant in the bombing, Imam Samudra, was sentenced to death on 10 September. Amrozi's brother, Ali Imron, who had expressed remorse for his part in the bombing, was sentenced to life imprisonment on 18 September. A fourth accused, Mukhlas, was sentenced to death on 1 October. All those convicted have said they will appeal, and none of the death sentences have yet been carried out. April 30 is the 120th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (121st in leap years), with 245 days remaining, as the last day in April. ... 2003(MMIII) is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Amrozi bin Nurhasyim (born July 5, 1962), native of East Java, also known simply as Amrozi, is an Indonesian who was convicted for his part in the 2002 Bali terrorist bombing. ... August 8 is the 220th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (221st in leap years), with 145 days remaining. ... September 10 is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years). ... September 18 is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years). ... October 1 is the 274th day of the year (275th in Leap years). ...


The Australian, US, and many other foreign governments expressed satisfaction with the speed and efficiency with which the Indonesian police and courts dealt with the bombing's primary suspects, despite what they characterized as light sentences. All Australian jurisdictions abolished the death penalty more than 30 years ago, but a poll showed that 55% of Australians approved of the death sentences in the Bali cases. The Australian government said it would not ask Indonesia to refrain from using the death penalty. Capital punishment, also referred to as the death penalty, is the judicially ordered execution of a prisoner as a punishment for a serious crime, often called a capital offense or a capital crime. ...


On 15 August Riduan Isamuddin, generally known as Hambali, described as the operational chief of Jemaah Islamiyah and as al-Qaeda's "point man" in Southeast Asia, was arrested in Bangkok. He is in American custody in an undisclosed location, and has not been charged in relation to the Bali bombing or any other crime. It was reported that the United States is reluctant to hand Hambali over to Indonesian authorities in light of the lenient sentence given to Abu Bakar Bashir. August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... Riduan Isamuddin Riduan Isamuddin (also transliterated as Riduan Isamudin, Riduan Isomuddin, and Riduan Isomudin, better known by the nom de guerre Hambali, born as Encep Nurjaman, born April 4, 1966) was the leader of the Indonesian terrorist organization Jemaah Islamiyah (JI), which allegedly has a partnership with Al Qaeda. ... PremJi Chechawala, sometimes rendered PremJi Chechawala, is a militant Islamic separatist movement, suspected of killing hundreds of civilians, dedicated to the establishment of a fundamentalist Islamic state in Southeast Asia, in particular Indonesia, Singapore, Brunei, Malaysia, and the south of Thailand and the Philippines. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... Bangkok from the Chao Phraya River at sunset, July 2004 Image:Bangkok4. ...


Constitutional appeals

On July 23, 2004, one of the convicted bombers, Maskur Abdul Kadir, successfully appealed his conviction. He had been tried under retrospective laws which were introduced after the Bali Bombing and which were employed to aid the prosecution of those involved in the attack. These laws were used by the prosecution instead of existing criminal laws as they allowed the death penalty to be imposed and lowered certain evidentiary restrictions. The highest court in Indonesia, the Constitutional Court, found by a margin of 5:4 that trying the terrorist suspects under these retrospective laws violated Article 28I(1) of the constitution [2]. The minority judges argued that international human rights documents such as the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights allowed an exception to not applying retrospective legislation in the prosecution of crimes against humanity. The majority found that this argument was inconsistent with the text of Article 28I(1) which states that the rights listed there "cannot be limited under any circumstances." Following this decision, charges related to the Bali bombings against Idris, who openly confessed to participating in the attacks to the police and court were dismissed. Perhaps due to diplomatic pressure from Australia the significance of these legal decisions has been downplayed by members of the Indonesian government and judiciary. Both the chief of the Constitutional Court (in extra-judicial comments) and the Indonesian Justice Minister, Yusril Mahendra, claimed that the decision has no effect on the status of the 32 other convictions attained before the Constitutional Court's ruling. It is unknown if this interpretation will have legal effect as it is difficult to see how an appeal by any of those 32 prisoners could be unsuccessful. The legal status of Kadir, Idris and others who might have their convictions quashed following the ruling on the retrospective law is unclear. There has been some suggestion that principles of double jeopardy might preclude prosecuting the bombers under pre-existing criminal laws, though this is by no means certain. Conventional western common law legal opinion would suggest that double jeopardy would not preclude prosecution for murder, arson, conspiracy and so on because the accused were never tried under a valid law and thus were not in 'jeopardy'. The situation would be similar to a person mistakenly tried in the wrong jurisdiction. However the relative newness of the Indonesian legal system means such questions are still open. The decision by the Constitutional Court has been seen as an important demonstration of its independence from the Indonesian government. It is a relatively new body, created after the fall of Soeharto, and this decision has demonstrated that it is able to make a politically unpopular decision which overruled the contitutionality of the government's application of a law. In this respect, the effect of the decision may be as important to the Indonesian legal system as Marbury v. Madison was in the US.


See also: 2005_Bali_bombing Wikinews has news related to this article: Explosions hit Bali Map showing Bali within Indonesia A series of explosions occurred on October 1, 2005 in Bali, Indonesia. ...


External links

  • Remember Bali: Indonesian memorial website
  • Australian Broadcasting Corp. Online
    • News on the Bali bombing
    • Current affairs program Four Corners: "The Bali Confessions" (February 10, 2003)
  • Photographs and writings pertaining to the Bali tragedy
  • Emptybottle.org: A weblogger writes (and friends and family gather online) as his friend is caught in the bombing, is hospitalized, and later dies from his wounds.
  • Asian Law Centre: Melbourne University legal analysis of the Constitutional Court's decision (July 27, 2004)

  Results from FactBites:
 
2002 Bali terrorist bombing (807 words)
The Bali terrorist bombing took place on October 12 2002 in the town of Kuta on the Indonesian island of Bali, killing 202 people and injuring 209, mainly overseas holiday makers.
In a number of statements he denied that the bombing had been perpetrated by Indonesians, and blamed the United States for exploding the bomb, claiming that it was impossible for Indonesians to contruct such a sophisticated device.
On 30 April 2003, the first charges related to the Bali bombings were made against Amrozi bin Haji Nurhasyim, known as Amrozi, for allegedly buying the explosives and the van used in the bombings.
2002 Bali terrorist bombing - Gurupedia (798 words)
The Bali terrorist bombing occurred on October 12, 2002 in the town of Kuta on the Indonesian island of
In a number of statements he denied that the bombing had been perpetrated by Indonesians, and blamed the United States for exploding the bomb, claiming that it was impossible for Indonesians to contruct such a sophisticated device.
Another particpant in the bombing, Imam Samudra, was sentenced to death on 10 September.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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