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Encyclopedia > 2001 anthrax attacks
2001 anthrax attacks
2001 anthrax attacks
A letter sent to Senate Majority Leader Tom Daschle containing anthrax powder killed two postal workers
Location New York City, New York
Boca Raton, Florida
Washington, D.C.
Date Letters postmarked September 18, 2001 and October 9, 2001; some were opened at a later date
Attack type Bioterrorism
Deaths 5
Injured 17 infected
Perpetrator(s) Unknown

The 2001 anthrax attacks in the United States, also known as Amerithrax from its FBI case name, occurred over the course of several weeks beginning on September 18, 2001. Letters containing anthrax spores were mailed to several news media offices and two Democratic U.S. Senators, killing five people and infecting 17 others. The crime remains unsolved. Image of envelope in which the letter containing Anthrax was sent to Senator Tom Daschle during the 2001 anthrax attacks The return address given in the top left says: 4th Grade, Greendale School, Franklin Park, New Jersey, 08852. ... A Senate Majority Leader is a politician within a Senate who leads the majority party, or majority coalition, of sitting senators. ... Thomas Andrew Daschle (born December 9, 1947) is a former U.S. Senator and Senate Majority Leader from South Dakota. ... A postal worker is one who works for a post office, such as a mail carrier. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... This article is about the state. ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country State County Palm Beach Founded 1925 Government  - Type Commission-Manager  - Mayor Steven L. Abrams Area  - City  29. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... For the use of biological agents in warfare, see Biological warfare. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Binomial name Cohn 1872 Structure of Bacillus anthracis. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States...

Contents

Overview

Seven letters are believed to have been mailed, resulting in 22 infections; five people died.
Seven letters are believed to have been mailed, resulting in 22 infections; five people died.

The anthrax attacks came in two waves. The first set of anthrax letters had a Trenton, New Jersey postmark dated September 18, 2001, exactly one week after the September 11, 2001 attacks. Five letters are believed to have been mailed at this time, to ABC News, CBS News, NBC News and the New York Post, all located in New York City; and to the National Enquirer at American Media, Inc. (AMI) in Boca Raton, Florida.[1] Robert Stevens, the first person who died from the mailings, worked at a tabloid called Sun, also published by AMI. Only the New York Post and NBC News letters were actually found;[2] the existence of the other three letters is inferred because individuals at ABC, CBS and AMI became infected with anthrax. Scientists examining the anthrax from the New York Post letter said it appeared as a coarse brown granular material looking like Purina Dog Chow.[3] Download high resolution version (964x633, 218 KB)Graphical depiction of 2001 anthrax mailing (source: CDC) File links The following pages link to this file: 2001 anthrax attacks Categories: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention images ... Download high resolution version (964x633, 218 KB)Graphical depiction of 2001 anthrax mailing (source: CDC) File links The following pages link to this file: 2001 anthrax attacks Categories: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention images ... Nickname: Location of Trenton inside of Mercer County Coordinates: , Country State County Mercer Incorporated November 13, 1792 Government  - Mayor Douglas H. Palmer Area  - City  8. ... An example of a postmark A postmark is a postal marking made on a letter, package, postcard or the like indicating the (more or less precise) date and time that the item was delivered into the care of the postal service. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... ABC News logo ABC News Special Report ident, circa 2006 ABC News is a division of American television and radio network ABC, owned by The Walt Disney Company. ... CBS News logo, used from Sept. ... NBC News endcap, used from 2002 to present. ... The New York Post is the 13th-oldest newspaper published in the United States and the oldest to have been published continually as a daily. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The National Enquirer is a national American supermarket tabloid. ... American Media, Inc. ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country State County Palm Beach Founded 1925 Government  - Type Commission-Manager  - Mayor Steven L. Abrams Area  - City  29. ... Robert Stevens (d. ... A Supermarket Tabloid owned by American Media Inc. ... The New York Post is the 13th-oldest newspaper published in the United States and the oldest to have been published continually as a daily. ... NBC News endcap, used from 2002 to present. ... The Ralston Purina Company, based in St. ...


Two more anthrax letters, bearing the same Trenton postmark, were dated October 9, three weeks after the first mailing. The letters were addressed to two Democratic Senators, Tom Daschle of South Dakota and Patrick Leahy of Vermont. At the time Daschle was the Senate Majority leader and Leahy was head of the Senate Judiciary Committee. Both were identified in the media as holding up the proposed Patriot Act because of concerns that some parts of it would violate civil liberties.[citation needed] The Daschle letter was opened by an aide on October 15, and the government mail service was shut down. The unopened Leahy letter was discovered in an impounded mail bag on November 16. The Leahy letter had been misdirected to the State Department mail annex in Sterling, Virginia, due to a misread ZIP code; a postal worker there, David Hose, contracted inhalation anthrax. is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Thomas Andrew Daschle (born December 9, 1947) is a former U.S. Senator and Senate Majority Leader from South Dakota. ... Patrick Joseph Leahy (born March 31, 1940) is the senior United States Senator from Vermont. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Sterling, Virginia is an unincorporated Washington, D.C. suburb, northwest of Herndon, east of Ashburn, and west of Reston, close to Dulles International Airport in Loudoun County. ... Mr. ...


More potent than the first anthrax letters, the material in the Senate letters was a highly refined dry powder consisting of about one gram of nearly pure spores. Earlier reports described the material in the Senate letters as "weaponized" or "weapons grade" anthrax. However, in September 2006, the Washington Post reported that the FBI no longer believes the anthrax was weaponized.


At least 22 people developed anthrax infections, with 11 of the especially life-threatening inhalation variety. Five died of inhalation anthrax: Stevens; two employees of the Brentwood mail facility in Washington, D.C., Thomas Morris Jr. and Joseph Curseen; and two about whom their source of exposure to the bacteria is still unknown: Kathy Nguyen, a Vietnamese immigrant resident in the borough of the Bronx who worked in New York City, and Ottilie Lundgren, a 94-year old widow of a prominent judge from Oxford, Connecticut, who was the last known victim.


The 2001 anthrax attacks have been compared to the Unabomber attacks which took place from 1978 to 1995.[4] Unabomber is a nickname applied to three people: Theodore Kaczynski, an American terrorist. ...


The letters

The anthrax letters are believed to have been mailed from Princeton, New Jersey.[5] In August 2002, investigators found anthrax spores in a city street mailbox located at 10 Nassau Street near the Princeton University campus. About 600 mailboxes that could have been used to mail the letters were tested for anthrax. The box on Nassau Street was the only one to test positive. Nassau Street, Princetons main street. ... Nassau Street is the main downtown thoroughfare of Princeton, New Jersey. ... Princeton University is a private coeducational research university located in Princeton, New Jersey. ...


The notes

The New York Post and NBC News letters contained the following note: The New York Post is the 13th-oldest newspaper published in the United States and the oldest to have been published continually as a daily. ... NBC News endcap, used from 2002 to present. ...

09-11-01
THIS IS NEXT
TAKE PENACILIN NOW
DEATH TO AMERICA
DEATH TO ISRAEL
ALLAH IS GREAT
The second anthrax note
The second anthrax note

The second note that was addressed to Senators Daschle and Leahy read: Download high resolution version (810x843, 42 KB)Second anthrax note. ... Download high resolution version (810x843, 42 KB)Second anthrax note. ... Thomas Andrew Daschle (born December 9, 1947) is a former U.S. Senator and Senate Majority Leader from South Dakota. ... Patrick Joseph Leahy (born March 31, 1940) is the senior United States Senator from Vermont. ...

09-11-01
YOU CAN NOT STOP US.
WE HAVE THIS ANTHRAX.
YOU DIE NOW.
ARE YOU AFRAID?
DEATH TO AMERICA.
DEATH TO ISRAEL.
ALLAH IS GREAT.

The return address

The letters addressed to Senators Daschle and Leahy have the return address:

4th Grade
Greendale School
Franklin Park NJ 08852

The address is fictitious. Franklin Park, New Jersey exists, but the zip code 08852 is for nearby Monmouth Junction, New Jersey. There is no Greendale School in Franklin Park or Monmouth Junction New Jersey, though there is a Greenbrook Elementary School in adjacent South Brunswick Township, New Jersey, of which Monmouth Junction is a part. Franklin Park is an unincorporated area within portions of North Brunswick Township in Middlesex County and Franklin Township in Somerset County, in New Jersey, United States. ... Monmouth Junction is a census-designated place located in Middlesex County, New Jersey. ... South Brunswick Township is a Township in Middlesex County, New Jersey, United States. ...


The anthrax material

The letters contained at least two grades of anthrax material; the coarse brown material sent in the media letters and the fine powder sent to the two U.S. Senators. In addition, it has been suggested the anthrax material sent to an old Post Office Box address of the National Enquirer and then forwarded to AMI may have been an intermediate grade similar to the anthrax sent to the Senate.[6] The brown granular anthrax sent to media outlets in New York City caused only skin infections, cutaneous anthrax. The anthrax sent to the Senators caused the more dangerous form of infection known as inhalation anthrax, as did the anthrax sent to AMI in Florida. American Media, Inc. ... Anthrax, also referred to as splenic fever, is an acute infectious disease caused by the bacteria Bacillus anthracis and is highly lethal in some forms. ... Anthrax is an acute infectious disease caused by the bacteria Bacillus anthracis and is highly lethal in some forms. ...


Although the anthrax preparations were of different grades, all of the material derived from the same bacterial strain. Known as the Ames strain, it was first researched at the U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID), Fort Detrick, Maryland. The Ames strain was then distributed to at least fifteen bio-research labs within the U.S. and six locations overseas. In biology, Strain can be used two ways. ... The Ames strain is one of 89 strains of the anthrax bacterium (Bacillus anthracis). ... The U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases is based at Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland. ... The U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases is based at Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland. ... Fort Detrick is a United States Army Medical Command installation located in Frederick, Maryland, USA. Its 1,200 acres support a multi-governmental community that conducts biomedical research and development, medical materiel management, global medical communications and the study of foreign plant pathogens. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N...


DNA sequencing of the anthrax taken from Robert Stevens (the first victim) was conducted at The Institute for Genomic Research beginning in December 2001. Sequencing was finished within a month and the analysis was published in the journal Science in early 2002.[7] The Institute for Genomic Research (TIGR), is a non-profit genomics research institute founded in 1992 by Craig Venter in Rockville, Maryland, United States. ...


Radiocarbon dating conducted by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in June 2002 established that the anthrax was cultured no more than two years before the mailings. In October 2006 it was reported that water used to process the anthrax spores came from a source in the northeastern United States.[8] Erroneous press reports in 2003 indicated the FBI failed to reverse engineer the type of anthrax found in the letters.[9][10] According to Chemical & Engineering News, December 4, 2006,[8] there was never any attempt to "reverse engineer" the attack anthrax. Instead, Dugway "used the Leahy powder as the culture starter to 'produce several different preparations using different media, and different ways of drying and milling the preparation' that the FBI could use for comparison purposes." They "never analyzed the Leahy powder and did no comparative analyses between the preparations made and the Leahy powder." Radiocarbon dating is a radiometric dating method that uses the naturally occurring isotope carbon-14 (14C) to determine the age of carbonaceous materials up to about 60,000 years. ... Aerial view of the lab and surrounding area, facing NW. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California is a United States Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory, managed and operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (LLNS), a limited liability consortium comprised of Bechtel National, the University of... A microbiological culture is a way to determine the cause of infectious disease by letting the agent multiply (reproduce) in predetermined media. ... Reverse engineering (RE) is the process of taking something (a device, an electrical component, a software program, etc. ...


Controversy over coatings and additives

Early reports suggested the anthrax sent to the Senate had been "weaponized." On October 29, 2001, Major General John Parker at a White House briefing said that silica had been found in the Daschle anthrax sample. Homeland Security Director Tom Ridge in a White House press conference on November 7, 2001, told reporters that tests indicated a binding agent had been used in making the anthrax.[11] Later, the FBI claimed a "lone individual" could have weaponized anthrax spores for as little as $2,500, using a makeshift basement laboratory.[12] is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... The chemical compound silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is the oxide of silicon, chemical formula SiO2. ... DHS redirects here. ... Thomas Joseph Ridge (born August 27, 1945 near Pittsburgh, USA) is an American politician who served as a member of the United States House of Representatives (1983–1995), Governor of Pennsylvania (1995–2001), Assistant to the President for Homeland Security (2001–2003), and the first United States Secretary of Homeland... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...


A number of press reports appeared suggesting the Senate anthrax had coatings and additives.[13][14][15] Newsweek reported the anthrax sent to Senator Leahy had been coated with a chemical compound previously unknown to bioweapons experts.[16] The Newsweek logo Newsweek is a weekly news magazine published in New York City and distributed throughout the United States and internationally. ...


Two experts on the Soviet anthrax program, Kenneth Alibek and Matthew Meselson, were consultants with the Justice Department and were shown electron micrographs of the anthrax from the Daschle letter. They replied to the Washington Post article "FBI's Theory on Anthrax Is Doubted" (October 28, 2002), reporting that they saw no evidence the anthrax spores had been coated and that more careful investigation of the specimens is necessary.[17] Russia possesses one of the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction in the world. ... Dr. Kenneth Alibek was born Kanatjan Alibekov in Kazakhstan. ... Matthew S. Meselson in 1964 Matthew Stanley Meselson (b. ... ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ...


A week after Meselson and Alibek had their letter published in the Washington Post, the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology (AFIP), one of the military labs that analyzed the Daschle anthrax, published an official newsletter stating that silica was a key aerosol enabling component of the Daschle anthrax.[18] The AFIP lab deputy director, Florabel Mullick, said "This [silica] was a key component. Silica prevents the anthrax from aggregating, making it easier to aerosolize. Significantly, we noted the absence of aluminum with the silica. This combination had previously been found in anthrax produced by Iraq." To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


In February 2005, Stephan P. Velsko of Lawrence Livermore National Labs published a paper titled "Physical and Chemical Analytical Analysis: A key component of Bioforensics".[19] In this paper, Velsko illustrated that different silica coating processes gave rise to weaponized anthrax simulants that look completely different from one another. He suggested that the difference in the look of products could provide evidence of what method the lab that manufactured the 2001 anthrax used, and thus provide clues to the ultimate origin of the material. Aerial view of the lab and surrounding area. ...


In May 2005, Academic Press published the volume "Microbial Forensics" edited by Roger Breeze, Bruce Budowle and Steven Schutzer.[20] Bruce Budowle is with the Federal Bureau of Investigation's (FBI) Forensic Science Laboratory. Although the volume does not directly discuss the silica coatings found in the Senate anthrax of 2001, the contributors to the chapters discuss in detail the forensics of silica coated weaponized bacterial spores. Pictures are shown of silica weaponized bacillus spores that are both mixed with silica and fully coated with silica. Pictures of weaponized Clostridium spores coated with Colloidal, spherical silica are also shown. Again, the aim of these studies is to define the forensic fingerprints of silica weaponization processes. Species Clostridium acetobutylicum Clostridium aerotolerans Clostridium botulinum Clostridium colicanis Clostridium difficile Clostridium formicaceticum Clostridium novyi Clostridium perfringens Clostridium sordelli Clostridium tetani Clostridium piliforme Clostridium tyrobutyricum etc. ... A colloid or colloidal dispersion, is a form of matter intermediate between a true solution and a mixture (suspension). ...


In July 2005, Dr Michael V Callahan (who is presently with DOD's Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA)) gave a briefing before the Subcommittee on Prevention of Nuclear and Biological Attack.[21] Dr Callahan stated "First, the attack illustrated that advanced expertise had readily been exploited by a bioterrorist; the preparation in the Daschle letter contained extraordinarily high concentrations of purified endospores. Second, the spore preparation was coated with an excipient which helped retard electrostatic attraction, thus increasing aerosolization of the agent." An excipient is an inactive substance used as a vehicle for medication, or an active ingredient. ... Electrostatics is the branch of physics that deals with the force exerted by a static (i. ... Aerosol technically refers to airborne solid particles (also called dust or particulate matter (PM)) or liquid droplets. ...


The August 2006 issue of Applied and Environmental Microbiology contained an article written by Dr. Douglas Beecher of the FBI labs in Quantico, VA.[22] The article, titled "Forensic Application of Microbiological Culture Analysis to Identify Mail Intentionally Contaminated with Bacillus anthracis spores ," states "Individuals familiar with the compositions of the powders in the letters have indicated that they were comprised simply of spores purified to different extents." The article also specifically criticizes "a widely circulated misconception" "that the spores were produced using additives and sophisticated engineering supposedly akin to military weapon production." The harm done by such things is described this way: "This idea is usually the basis for implying that the powders were inordinately dangerous compared to spores alone. The persistent credence given to this impression fosters erroneous preconceptions, which may misguide research and preparedness efforts and generally detract from the magnitude of hazards posed by simple spore preparations." However, after this article had appeared the editor of Applied and Environmental Microbiology, L. Nicholas Ornston, stated that he was uncomfortable with Beecher's statement in the article since it had no evidence to back it up and contained no citation.[23]


In April 2007 an analysis of the spore preparation was published in the International Journal of Intelligence and Counterintelligence.[24] This analysis by Dr. Dany Shoham and Dr. Stuart Jacobsen pointed out that the sophisticated additives and processing used to create the weapon likely could be used to trace the origin.


In August 2007 Dr. Kay Mereish, UN Chief, Biological Planning and Operations, published a letter in Applied and Environmental Microbiology titled "Unsupported Conclusions on the Bacillus anthracis Spores".[25] This letter, published in the same journal as FBI scientist Douglas Beecher (see paragraph above), points out that the statements made by Dr. Beecher in his article on the lack of additives were not backed up with any data. She suggested that Dr. Beecher publish a paper with analytical data showing the absence of silica or other additives. Such data would include SEM images of the pure spores as well as EDX spectra and EDX images showing the absence of any foreign additives such as silica or the elements silicon and oxygen. Dr. Mereish referenced a 2006 CBRN, Counter-Proliferation and Response meeting in Paris where a presenter announced that an additive was present in the attack anthrax that affected the spore's electrical charges.


Fox News reported in March 2008 that an email written by a scientist at Fort Detrick revealed details of the powder preparation;[26] these details appear to be consistent with a highly specialized powder. The Fox News report said "But in an e-mail obtained by FOX News, scientists at Fort Detrick openly discussed how the anthrax powder they were asked to analyze after the attacks was nearly identical to that made by one of their colleagues. "Then he said he had to look at a lot of samples that the FBI had prepared ... to duplicate the letter material," the e-mail reads. "Then the bombshell. He said that the best duplication of the material was the stuff made by [name redacted]. He said that it was almost exactly the same … his knees got shaky and he sputtered, 'But I told the General we didn't make spore powder!'" The Fox News report added that around 4 persons, all with connections to Fort Detrick, were being looked at as suspects by the FBI.


Investigation

A reward for information totalling US$2.5 million is being offered by the FBI, U.S. Postal Service and ADVO, Inc.
A reward for information totalling US$2.5 million is being offered by the FBI, U.S. Postal Service and ADVO, Inc.

As of 2008, the anthrax investigation seems to have gone cold.[27][28] Authorities have traveled to six different continents, interviewed over 9,000 people, conducted 67 searches and have issued over 6,000 subpoenas. The number of FBI agents assigned to the case is 17 and the number of postal inspectors investigating the case is ten.[29] There are no reports that the investigators have identified the lab used to make the anthrax powders. Download high resolution version (483x720, 214 KB)2001 anthrax reward poster File links The following pages link to this file: 2001 anthrax attacks ... Download high resolution version (483x720, 214 KB)2001 anthrax reward poster File links The following pages link to this file: 2001 anthrax attacks ... USD redirects here. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... A USPS Truck at Night A U.S. Post Office sign The United States Postal Service (USPS) is the United States government organization responsible for providing postal service in the United States and is generally referred to as the post office. ... 2008 (MMVIII) will be a leap year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... The United States Postal Inspection Service or USPIS is the law enforcement arm of the United States Postal Service. ...


Anthrax attack bug "identical" to army strain report

On 9 May 2002, New Scientist published an article that reported: is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... New Scientist is a weekly international science magazine covering recent developments in science and technology for a general English-speaking audience. ...

'The DNA sequence of the anthrax sent through the US mail in 2001 has been revealed and confirms suspicions that the bacteria originally came from a US military laboratory. The data released uses codenames for the reference strains against which the attack strain was compared. The two reference strains that appear identical to the attack strain most likely originated at the US Army Medical Research Institute for Infectious Diseases at Fort Detrick (USAMRIID), Maryland. The new work also shows that substantial genetic differences can emerge in two samples of an anthrax culture separated for only three years. This means the attacker's anthrax was not separated from its ancestors at USAMRIID for many generations.' [30] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Fort Detrick is a United States Army Medical Command installation located in Frederick, Maryland, USA. Its 1,200 acres support a multi-governmental community that conducts biomedical research and development, medical materiel management, global medical communications and the study of foreign plant pathogens. ... The U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases is based at Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland. ...

A "person of interest"

The Justice Department has named no suspects in the anthrax case. Although Attorney General John Ashcroft labeled Dr. Steven Hatfill a "person of interest" in a press conference, no charges have been brought against him. Hatfill, a virologist, vehemently denied he had anything to do with the anthrax mailings and sued the FBI, the Justice Department, John Ashcroft, Alberto Gonzales, and others for violating his constitutional rights and for violating the Privacy Act. On June 27, 2008, the Department of Justice announced it would settle Hatfill's case for $4.6 million. [31] Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building, Washington, D.C. For animal rights group, see Justice Department (JD) The United States Department of Justice (DOJ) is a Cabinet department in the United States government designed to enforce the law and defend the interests of the United States according to the... Seal of the United States Department of Justice The United States Attorney General is the head of the United States Department of Justice (see 28 U.S.C. Â§ 503) concerned with legal affairs and is the chief law enforcement officer of the United States government. ... John David Ashcroft (born May 9, 1942) is an American politician who was the 79th United States Attorney General. ... Dr. Steven Jay Hatfill (b. ... Person of interest is a phrase used by law enforcement when announcing the name of someone involved in a criminal investigation who has not yet been arrested or formally accused of a crime. ... A joint press conference by U.S. President George W. Bush and British Prime Minister Tony Blair at the White House. ... Virology, often considered a part of microbiology or of pathology, is the study of organic viruses: their structure and classification, their ways to infect and exploit cells to reproduce and cause disease, the techniques to isolate and culture them, and their potential uses in research and therapy. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... Robert F. Kennedy Department of Justice Building, Washington, D.C. For animal rights group, see Justice Department (JD) The United States Department of Justice (DOJ) is a Cabinet department in the United States government designed to enforce the law and defend the interests of the United States according to the... John David Ashcroft (born May 9, 1942) is an American politician who was the 79th United States Attorney General. ... Alberto Gonzales (born August 4, 1955), is the 80th and current Attorney General of the United States. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


He has also sued The New York Times and its columnist Nicholas D. Kristof and, separately, Donald Foster, Vanity Fair, Reader's Digest, and Vassar College, for defamation. (The case against The New York Times was initially dismissed,[32] but was reinstated on appeal. Nicholas Kristof has been dropped from the suit.) Hatfill's lawyers believe the Privacy Act was violated and continue to question journalists who have reported on their client.[33] The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... Nicholas D. Kristof Nicholas Donabet Kristof (born April 27, 1959) is an American political scientist, author, and Pulitzer Prize-winning journalist specializing in East Asia. ... Donald W. Foster, born 1950, is a professor of English at Vassar College in New York. ... Vanity Fair is a glossy American glamour magazine monthly that offers a mixture of articles on high-brow culture, jet-set and entertainment-business personalities, politics, and current affairs. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Vassar College is a private, coeducational, liberal arts college situated in the town of Poughkeepsie, New York, USA. Founded as a womens college in 1861, it was the first member of the Seven Sisters to become coeducational. ... Slander and Libel redirect here. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Others have claimed Dr. Philip Zack, who worked at Ft. Detrick where the anthrax came from, is a person of interest.[34] Dr. Philip Zack had the means, access to weaponized anthrax, exhibited hostile behaviours towards Dr. Ayaad Assaad, his colleague, and was caught on a security video entering a lab without authorization where anthrax samples went missing. The FBI knew of Zack and his unauthorized access to the lab, and it has been reported that Assaad had been questioned by the FBI in connection with the attacks.[35][36] Philip M. Zack, Lt. ... Ayaad Assaad, Ph. ...


Congressional oversight

In late 2002 Senators Daschle and Leahy called in the FBI to explain the Washington Post story "FBI's Theory On Anthrax Is Doubted", Washington Post, October 28, 2002. This was later on reported in "Anthrax Powder — State of the Art?".[37] The latter article described how Dwight Adams, chief FBI scientist, told Senators Daschle and Leahy that there were no special additives in the senate anthrax and that the silica was "naturally occurring". However, Adams admitted that there was scientific information concerning the nature of the anthrax organism that was deemed by his superiors too sensitive to share with Senators Daschle and Leahy: ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ...

Connolly: Earlier you testified that regarding the scientific aspect of the investigation there was information that was simply in your view too sensitive to share to the public about the particular characteristics of the organism sent in the mail. Is that correct?

Adams: In so many words, yes, sir.

Connolly: I don't want to mischaracterize it. If you think I've mischaracterized it in any way then, please, put your own words on it.

Adams: No, that's fine.

Connolly: Did you feel like you had the same restrictions in informing the senate, congress, or their staff in terms of what it is you would reveal to them about the particular characteristics of the organism that was sent?

Adams: As I've already stated there was specific information that I did not feel appropriate to share with either the media or to the Hill because it was too sensitive of the information to do so.[38]

On October 23, 2006 Senator Charles Grassley of Iowa sent a six-page letter to Attorney General Alberto Gonzales requesting a briefing on the anthrax investigation. By December 2006, a total of 33 members of Congress have demanded that the Attorney General update them on the investigation. [39] is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Charles Ernest Chuck Grassley (born September 17, 1933) is the senior United States Senator from Iowa. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Alberto Gonzales (born August 4, 1955), is the 80th and current Attorney General of the United States. ...


The FBI's Assistant Director for Congressional Affairs said, "After sensitive information about the investigation citing congressional sources was reported in the media, the Department of Justice and the FBI agreed that no additional briefings to Congress would be provided." [40]


Aftermath

Contaminated mail flow
Contaminated mail flow

Download high resolution version (1085x800, 200 KB)CDC anthrax mail flow diagram File links The following pages link to this file: 2001 anthrax attacks ... Download high resolution version (1085x800, 200 KB)CDC anthrax mail flow diagram File links The following pages link to this file: 2001 anthrax attacks ...

Contamination and cleanup

Dozens of buildings were contaminated with anthrax as a result of the mailings. American Media, Inc. moved to a different building. The decontamination of the Brentwood postal facility took 26 months and cost US$130 million. The Hamilton, NJ postal facility remained closed until March 2005; its cleanup cost US$65 million. The United States Environmental Protection Agency spent US$41.7 million to clean up government buildings in Washington, D.C. One FBI document said the total damage exceeded US$1 billion.[41] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Hamilton Township highlighted in Mercer County. ... EPA redirects here. ...


The principal means of decontamination is fumigation with chlorine dioxide gas. Fumigation is a method of pest control that completely fills an area with gaseous pesticides to suffocate or poison the pests within. ... Chlorine dioxide is a chemical compound with the formula ClO2. ...


Private consultants

Blasland, Bouck, & Lee (now Arcadis-BBL) was contracted by both CBS and NBC to manage their Anthrax situations. Jay D. Keough CIH, Greg Ertel MS, CIH, CSP, and Jim Poesl MS, CIE were the site personnel.


Political effects

The anthrax attacks, as well as the September 11, 2001 attacks, have spurred significant increases in U.S. government funding for biological warfare research and preparedness. For example, biowarfare-related funding at the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) increased by US$1.5 billion in 2003. In 2004, Congress passed the Project Bioshield Act, which provides US$5.6 billion over ten years for the purchase of new vaccines and drugs.[42] A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) is a component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. ... National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) is a component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), which is an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. ... The Project Bioshield Act was an act passed by the United States Congress in 2004 calling for the donation of over $5 billion for purchasing vaccines that would be used in the event of a bioterrorist attack. ...


A theory that Iraq was behind the attacks, based upon the evidence that the powder was weaponized and some reports of alleged meetings between 9/11 conspirators and Iraqi officials, may have been a contributing prevarication used by the United States government to justify war with that country.[43]


Health

Years after the attack, several anthrax victims reported lingering health problems including fatigue, shortness of breath and memory loss. The cause of the reported symptoms is unknown.[44]


A postal inspector, William Paliscak, became severely ill and disabled after removing an anthrax-contaminated air filter from the Brentwood mail facility on October 19, 2001. Although his doctors, Tyler Cymet and Gary Kerkvliet, believe that the illness was caused by anthrax exposure, blood tests did not find anthrax bacteria or antibodies, and therefore the CDC does not recognize it as a case of inhalation anthrax.[45] The United States Postal Inspection Service or USPIS is the law enforcement arm of the United States Postal Service. ... Map of Washington, D.C., with Brentwood highlighted in red Brentwood is a neighborhood in Northeast Washington, D.C. and is named after the Brentwood Mansion built at Florida Avernue and 6th Street NE in 1817 by Robert Brent, the first mayor of Washington City, as a wedding present for... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Binomial name Cohn 1872 Structure of Bacillus anthracis. ... Each antibody binds to a specific antigen; an interaction similar to a lock and key. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ...


Journalists

Several noted journalists have published major articles which have contributed to public understanding and misunderstanding of the anthrax case.


Dave Altimari and Jack Dolan have written many of the articles on the anthrax case that have appeared in The Hartford Courant. In their reporting they found incidents of mismanagement, racism, and missing pathogens at the Army's biodefense lab at Fort Detrick, Maryland.[46] The Hartford Courant is Connecticuts largest daily newspaper, and is a morning newspaper for most of the state north of New Haven and east of Waterbury. ... Fort Detrick is a United States Army Medical Command installation located in Frederick, Maryland, USA. Its 1,200 acres support a multi-governmental community that conducts biomedical research and development, medical materiel management, global medical communications and the study of foreign plant pathogens. ...


William J. Broad writes for the New York Times.[47] The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ...


Gary Matsumoto is a television producer for Bloomberg News, and an investigative journalist who specializes in science and military affairs, who wrote, "Anthrax Powder - State of the Art?"[37] He also co-wrote, "FBI's Theory On Anthrax Is Doubted"[48] with Washington Post science writer, Guy Gugliotta. Matsumoto discusses the advanced properties of the anthrax found in the Senate letters. In his Science article, Matsumoto reports that the powder in the Senate letters most closely resembled the advanced aerosols now being made in U.S. biodefense labs. Bloomberg Television is a cable television network that broadcasts business and financial news 24 hours a day. ...


Scott Shane writing for the Baltimore Sun and New York Times has written several articles on the anthrax case.[49][50][51] The Baltimore Sun is the major newspaper in Baltimore, Maryland, with a daily press run of about 430,000 copies, and a Sunday run of 540,000 copies. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ...


David Tell writes for The Weekly Standard, a neo-conservative publication that has been critical of the FBI's profile of a lone domestic terrorist being involved in the anthrax case.[52] The Weekly Standard is an American neoconservative [1] magazine published 48 times per year. ... Neoconservatism describes several distinct political ideologies which are considered new forms of conservatism. ...


Amateur investigators

A number of people outside government have taken an interest in the anthrax case, analyzing clues and developing theories.[53]


Kenneth J. Dillon is the author of the article "Was Abderraouf Jdey the Anthrax Mailer?"[54] He is an academic historian who served as a foreign service officer and U.S. Department of State intelligence analyst. In November, 2006 Dillon had a letter printed in the Los Angeles Times suggesting that the FBI knows that al Qaeda operative Abderraouf Jdey was responsible for the anthrax attacks.[citation needed] Photo Found Alongside Suicide Note Abderraouf Jdey (a. ... Photo Found Alongside Suicide Note Abderraouf Jdey (a. ...


Donald Foster is the author of the article, "The Message in the Anthrax".[55] Unlike other amateur investigators, Foster was an insider in the case and has helped the FBI in the past as a forensic linguistic analyst. Foster believes a series of bioterrorist hoaxes trails his prime suspect, Dr. Steven Hatfill. Donald W. Foster, born 1950, is a professor of English at Vassar College in New York. ... Dr. Steven Jay Hatfill (b. ...


According to Hatfill's defamation lawsuit against Foster, Foster had previously argued based on the writing and language of the letters that the perpetrator could be a foreigner who spoke Arabic or Urdu. The lawsuit cited an October 23, 2001 appearance by Foster on ABC’s Good Morning America; an article that quoted him in the November 5, 2001 issue of TIME; and a December 26, 2001 The Times article that quoted him. Arabic redirects here. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) is an American television network. ... Good Morning America is a weekday morning news show that is broadcast on the ABC television network. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... TIME redirects here. ... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... For other uses, see Times. ...


Dr. Hatfill's lawsuit was settled on or around February 23, 2007. The statement issued by Dr. Hatfill's lawyers said that it was "resolved to the mutual satisfaction of all parties."[56] Professor Foster, Readers' Digest and the owners of Vanity Fair magazine all retracted any implication that Dr. Hatfill was the anthrax mailer. It was not disclosed whether any money exchanged hands, but since the Statement was issued by Dr. Hatfills' lawyer who worked on a contingency basis, it seems certain that the settlement included a significant sum of money.


Ed Lake operates the web site anthraxinvestigation.com,[57] which contains links to most if not all of the published information relating to the case. Lake maintains Dr. Steven Hatfill is innocent. Lake believes a scientist who lives and works in Central New Jersey mailed the anthrax letters. Lake also believes the anthrax mailer obtained the anthrax from another scientist who stole the bacteria from a laboratory as much as 2 to 3 years before the attacks. Lake has self-published a book, Analyzing The Anthrax Attacks,[58] detailing his findings in the anthrax case. Chapter 15 of his book is titled "To Err Is Human"[59] and explains in detail how all the incorrect information about coatings and additives in the attack anthrax got started.


Dr. Barbara Hatch Rosenberg has been a major figure outside the official investigation. A few months after the anthrax attack, Rosenberg started a campaign to get the FBI to investigate Dr. Steven Hatfill. She gave talks and interviews suggesting the government knew who was responsible for the anthrax attacks, but did not want to charge the individual with the crime. She believed the person responsible was a contractor for the CIA and an expert in bio-warfare. She created a profile of the anthrax attacker that fit Dr. Hatfill. Rosenberg spoke before a committee of Senate staffers suggesting Hatfill was responsible, but did not explicitly provide his name. The highly publicized FBI scrutiny of Dr. Hatfill began shortly thereafter. The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... Dr. Steven Jay Hatfill (b. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ...


Richard M. Smith is a computer expert who publishes on his web site computerbytesman.com.[60] His site was the first to keep track of the anthrax case and was started in 2001. He has many articles about the anthrax case. Smith suggested that if the perpetrator looked up information such as addresses on the Internet, web server logs may contain valuable evidence. A server log is a file (or several files) automatically created and maintained by a server of activity performed by it. ...


Comments from bio-weapons experts

Kenneth Alibek Dr. Kenneth Alibek was born Kanatjan Alibekov in Kazakhstan. ...


"I would say preliminarily that they [anthrax terrorists] are not very highly trained professionals." "It could be homegrown or foreign. I cannot answer this question."


"It was a primitive process, but it was a workable process."[61]


William C. Patrick III William C. Patrick III is a now retired microbiologist and former bioweaponeer for the U.S. Army. ...


"It’s high-grade."


"It’s free flowing. It’s electrostatic free. And it’s in high concentration."


"It appears to have an additive that keeps the spores from clumping."


"The only difference between this and weapons grades is the size of the production. You can produce a very good grade of anthrax in the lab. The issue is whether those efforts can be expanded in scale, so you can make large quantities."[62]


"The fact that they have selected the Ames strain, a hot strain of anthrax, indicates to me that they know what the hell they are doing."


"Sometimes, I feel that a disgruntled professor who didn't get tenure is working at night in his little laboratory and producing this crud." "But I can't discount the possibility that it could be coming in by diplomatic pouch from a large supply. I can't answer it. I can't make up my mind. I really don't know."[63] // Diplomacy A diplomatic bag is a shipping container having diplomatic immunity from search or seizure. ...


Richard O. Spertzel Richard O. Spertzel is an expert in the area of biological warfare. ...


"In my opinion, there are maybe four or five people in the whole country who might be able to make this stuff, and I'm one of them." "And even with a good lab and staff to help run it, it might take me a year to come up with a product as good."[64]


"I do not believe science will identify the laboratory or country from which the present anthrax spores are derived. The quality of the product contained in the letter to Senator Daschle was better than that found in the Soviet, U.S. or Iraqi program, certainly in terms of the purity and concentration of spore particles."


"I have maintained from the first descriptions of the material contained in the Daschle letter that the quality appeared to be such that it could be produced only by some group that was involved with a current or former state program in recent years. The level of knowledge, expertise, and experience required and the types of special equipment required to make such quality product takes time and experimentation to develop. Further, the nature of the finished dried product is such that safety equipment and facilities must be used to protect the individuals involved and to shield their clandestine activity from discovery."[65]


I have believed all along that Iraqi intelligence had their dirty hands on this event. Based on ISG findings that Iraq had apparently decided in 1994 to not attempt production, but rather only research to enhance "break-out" capability and that the Iraqi and Syrian intelligence services had formed an alliance to develop the field "in chemical and biological of mutual interest," I now suspect that Syria made the anthrax product with Iraqi Intelligence assistance. The cooperation included Iraqi scientists assisting the Syrians.[66]


Comments from government officials

Director of the CIA George Tenet


The director of the CIA under the Bush administration until 2006 said in his book "At the Center of the Storm: My Years at the CIA" “The most startling revelation from this intelligence success story was that the anthrax program had been developed in parallel to 9/11 planning. As best as we could determine, al-Zawahiri’s project had been wrapped up in the summer of 2001, when the al-Qaida deputy, along with Hambali, were briefed over a week by Sufaat on the progress he had made to isolate anthrax. The entire operation had been managed at the top of al-Qai’da with strict compartmentalization. Having completed this phase of his work, Sufaat fled Afghanistan in December 2001 and was captured by authorities trying to sneak back into Malaysia. Rauf Ahmad was detained by Pakistani authorities in December 2001. Our hope was that these and our many other actions had neutralized the anthrax threat, at least temporarily.”


Tom Carey


Tom Carey was inspector in charge of the FBI Amerithrax investigation from October 2001 to April 2002.


On the mailings of the letters,


"What we do have and what we do know is that the anthrax was mailed here in the United States; we know it was mailed from 10 Nassau Street, Princeton, New Jersey, from a mailbox. We know the flow of the mail flow, we know the dates that the letters were sent, and it would appear to many of us that have worked this investigation, that it’s much more consistent with someone being an American-born, and having some level of familiarity with the Princeton-Clinton New Jersey area versus a foreign operative coming into the U.S. and being able to successfully conduct such an attack."


On an Iraqi connection,


"What I would say is the information that came out there that led weapons inspectors and others to suspect the Iraq connection was wrong information. Now it doesn’t say we still wouldn’t look for any potential connection to Iraq, or rather any other States sponsored terrorist, but what they specifically referred to didn’t exist, and it was misinformation."[67]


James Fitzgerald


FBI Behavioral Analysis Unit This does not cite any references or sources. ...


"We don't have any evidence at this point linking this to any more than one person." "We're not ruling anything out." "But we're looking in the direction of that being domestic." "He is an opportunist and took advantage of this as a veil of secrecy."[68]


Ari Fleischer Lawrence Ari Fleischer (born October 13, 1960) was the press secretary for U.S. President George W. Bush from January, 2001 to July, 2003. ...


White House Press Secretary The White House Press Secretary is a senior White House official with a rank one step below Presidential Cabinet level. ...


"The quality anthrax sent to Senator Daschle's office could be produced by a Ph.D. microbiologist and a sophisticated laboratory."[69]


Van A. Harp


Van A. Harp was Assistant Director in charge of the Washington Field Office of the FBI.


"The person knew what they were doing. Contrary to what was initially out there at the beginning of the investigation, this anthrax, we do not believe, was made up in a garage or a bathtub. There are only so many people, so many places that this can be done."[70]


"Regarding the hijacker who some believe may have had anthrax, exhaustive testing did not support that anthrax was present anywhere the hijackers had been."[71]


Timeline

NBC's Tom Brokaw was one of the targets in the first mailing.
NBC's Tom Brokaw was one of the targets in the first mailing.

Download high resolution version (803x456, 37 KB)NBC anthrax letter What is the copyright status of this letter/image? I would guess {{PD-USGov-FBI}} applies, but Im not sure, it could have been scanned by NBC. Knowing where the image was obtained would help. ... Download high resolution version (803x456, 37 KB)NBC anthrax letter What is the copyright status of this letter/image? I would guess {{PD-USGov-FBI}} applies, but Im not sure, it could have been scanned by NBC. Knowing where the image was obtained would help. ... NBC Nightly News is the flagship evening news program for NBC News and broadcasts from the GE Building, Rockefeller Center in New York City. ... Thomas John Brokaw (born February 6, 1940 in Webster, South Dakota) is a popular American television journalist, Previously working on regularly scheduled news documentaries for the NBC television network, and is the former NBC News anchorman and managing editor of the program NBC Nightly News with Tom Brokaw. ... Image File history File links Mergefrom. ... The following is a timeline the 2001 anthrax attacks in Florida. ...

2001: The attacks

  • October 12: The (already opened) anthrax letter to NBC News is found and turned over to the FBI. Only a trace amount of anthrax remains in the letter.
  • October 15: The letter to Senator Daschle is opened. The anthrax in the letter was described as a "fine, light tan powder" which easily flew into the air.
  • October 17: 31 Capitol workers (five Capitol police officers, three Russ Feingold staffers, 23 Tom Daschle staffers), test positive for the presence of anthrax (presumably via nasal swabs, etc.). Feingold's office is behind Daschle's in the Hart Senate Building. Anthrax spores are found in a Senate mailroom located in an office building near the Capitol. There are rumors that anthrax was found in the ventilation system of the Capitol building itself. The House of Representatives announces it will adjourn in response to the threat.
  • October 19: Tom Ridge, Director of Homeland Security, briefs the media on "potential anthrax threats." Ridge reports the tests conducted on the anthrax found as spores at the AMI building in Florida, the material from the NBC News letter and the anthrax from the Daschle letter are all "indistinguishable," meaning they are from the same strain. Also Governor Ridge reveals the FBI has found the site (mailbox) where the letters were first placed. (This initial report may have been in error.)[72]
  • October 22: Ridge reports at a White House press conference on the two new deaths of postal workers possibly from anthrax exposure.[73]
  • October 23: It is confirmed that the two postal handlers died of inhalation anthrax.
  • October 25: David Hose, who works at the State Department mail annex in Sterling, Virginia, is hospitalized with inhalation anthrax. The source is the Leahy anthrax letter (yet undiscovered), which was routed to the State Department mail facility in error.
  • October 25: Ridge gives an update on the scientific analysis of the anthrax samples. The anthrax from the Daschle letter is described as "highly concentrated" and "pure." The material is also a "very, very fine powder" similar to talcum powder. The spore clusters are smaller when compared to the anthrax found in the New York Post sample. The opinion is the anthrax from the Daschle sample is deadlier. The New York Post sample is coarser and less concentrated than the Daschle anthrax. It is described as "clumpy and rugged" while the Daschle anthrax is "fine and floaty." Although they differ radically, Ridge emphasizes both anthrax samples are from the same Ames strain.[74]
  • October 29: Kathy Nguyen, a New York City hospital worker, is hospitalized with inhalation anthrax. The source of the anthrax is unknown.
  • October 29: Major General John Parker at a White House briefing says silica was found in the Daschle anthrax sample. Also General Parker emphases the anthrax spore concentration in the Daschle letter was 10 times that of the New York Post letter.[75]
  • October 31: Major General John S. Parker testifies before the Senate Subcommittee on International Security, Proliferation and Federal Service concerning the anthrax found in the Daschle letter.[76]
  • November 7: President Bush describes the attacks as "a second wave of terrorist attacks upon our country." [77]
  • November 7: Ridge in a press briefing dismisses bentonite as a binding agent for the anthrax in the Daschle letter. He says the ingredient is silicon[sic].[78]
  • November 16: The Leahy anthrax letter is found in the impounded mail at the State Department mail facility in Sterling, Virginia.
  • November 20: Ottilie Lundgren, of Connecticut, is diagnosed with inhalation anthrax. The source was most likely contaminated mail, although no anthrax was detected in her home.
  • November 21: Ottilie Lundgren, 94, dies, the fifth and final person to die as a result of the mailings. This sparked major fear in the small affluent community of Oxford, Connecticut.

Image:anthraxchart.jpg A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: Location of Trenton inside of Mercer County Coordinates: , Country State County Mercer Incorporated November 13, 1792 Government  - Mayor Douglas H. Palmer Area  - City  8. ... An example of a postmark A postmark is a postal marking made on a letter, package, postcard or the like indicating the (more or less precise) date and time that the item was delivered into the care of the postal service. ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ABC News logo ABC News Special Report ident, circa 2006 ABC News is a division of American television and radio network ABC, owned by The Walt Disney Company. ... CBS News logo, used from Sept. ... NBC News endcap, used from 2002 to present. ... The New York Post is the 13th-oldest newspaper published in the United States and the oldest to have been published continually as a daily. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The National Enquirer is a national American supermarket tabloid. ... American Media, Inc. ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country State County Palm Beach Founded 1925 Government  - Type Commission-Manager  - Mayor Steven L. Abrams Area  - City  29. ... Supermarket tabloids are national weekly magazines in the United States, printed on newsprint in tabloid format, specalizing in celebrity news, gossip, astrology, and bizarre (some would say apocryphal) stories about ordinary people. ... The New York Post is the 13th-oldest newspaper published in the United States and the oldest to have been published continually as a daily. ... NBC News endcap, used from 2002 to present. ... is the 265th day of the year (266th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about human pneumonia. ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Robert Stevens (d. ... American Media, Inc. ... A Supermarket Tabloid owned by American Media Inc. ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country State County Palm Beach Founded 1925 Government  - Type Commission-Manager  - Mayor Steven L. Abrams Area  - City  29. ... Atlantis is a city located in Palm Beach County, Florida. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Robert Stevens (d. ... Year 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... DHHS redirects here. ... For other people with similar names, see Thomas Thompson. ... For other uses, see 5th October (Serbia). ... Robert Stevens (d. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Robert Stevens (d. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: Location of Trenton inside of Mercer County Coordinates: , Country State County Mercer Incorporated November 13, 1792 Government  - Mayor Douglas H. Palmer Area  - City  8. ... An example of a postmark A postmark is a postal marking made on a letter, package, postcard or the like indicating the (more or less precise) date and time that the item was delivered into the care of the postal service. ... is the 282nd day of the year (283rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Columbus Day is a holiday celebrating the anniversary of Christopher Columbuss arrival in the Americas, which happened on the October 12, 1492 in the Julian calendar, or October 21, 1492 in the modern Gregorian calendar. ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... NBC News endcap, used from 2002 to present. ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... NBC News endcap, used from 2002 to present. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 290th day of the year (291st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Russell Dana Russ Feingold (born March 2, 1953) is an American politician from the U.S. state of Wisconsin. ... Thomas Andrew Daschle (born December 9, 1947) is a former U.S. Senator and Senate Majority Leader from South Dakota. ... Located on Constitution Avenue, between 1st and 2nd Streets, NE The Hart Senate Office Building, the third U.S. Senate office building, was built in the 1970s. ... The United States Capitol is the capitol building that serves as the seat of government for the United States Congress, the legislative branch of the U.S. federal government. ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Post is the 13th-oldest newspaper published in the United States and the oldest to have been published continually as a daily. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Thomas Joseph Ridge (born August 27, 1945 near Pittsburgh, USA) is an American politician who served as a member of the United States House of Representatives (1983–1995), Governor of Pennsylvania (1995–2001), Assistant to the President for Homeland Security (2001–2003), and the first United States Secretary of Homeland... For the United States Cabinet department, see United States Department of Homeland Security. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of Washington, D.C., with Brentwood highlighted in red Brentwood is a neighborhood in Northeast Washington, D.C. and is named after the Brentwood Mansion built at Florida Avernue and 6th Street NE in 1817 by Robert Brent, the first mayor of Washington City, as a wedding present for... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of Washington, D.C., with Brentwood highlighted in red Brentwood is a neighborhood in Northeast Washington, D.C. and is named after the Brentwood Mansion built at Florida Avernue and 6th Street NE in 1817 by Robert Brent, the first mayor of Washington City, as a wedding present for... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Ames strain is one of 89 strains of the anthrax bacterium (Bacillus anthracis). ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The chemical compound silicon dioxide, also known as silica, is the oxide of silicon, chemical formula SiO2. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Bentonite - USGS Bentonite is an absorbent aluminium phyllosilicate generally impure clay consisting mostly of montmorillonite. ... Not to be confused with Silicone. ... is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Demonym Connecticuter or Connecticutian[2] Capital Hartford Largest city Bridgeport[3] Largest metro area Hartford Metro Area[4] Area  Ranked 48th in the US  - Total 5,543[5] sq mi (14,356 km²)  - Width 70 miles (113 km)  - Length 110 miles (177 km... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Coordinates: , NECTA Bridgeport-Stamford Region Central Naugatuck Valley Incorporated 1798 Government  - Type Selectman-town meeting  - First selectman August A. Palmer III Area  - City 86. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The U.S. Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases is based at Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland. ... Fort Detrick is a United States Army Medical Command installation located in Frederick, Maryland, USA. Its 1,200 acres support a multi-governmental community that conducts biomedical research and development, medical materiel management, global medical communications and the study of foreign plant pathogens. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... For other persons named Henry Hyde, see Henry Hyde (disambiguation). ... is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... The Ames strain is one of 89 strains of the anthrax bacterium (Bacillus anthracis). ... Chart of anthrax cases File links The following pages link to this file: 2001 anthrax attacks ...


2002: Related events

  • June 18, 2002: Barbara Hatch Rosenberg meets with Senate staffers and FBI officials.[81]
  • July 2, 2002: New York Times columnist Nicholas Kristof writes "Anthrax? The F.B.I. Yawns." Kristof talks about a "Mr. Z" (later identified as Steven Hatfill) in his column as being someone who the FBI has interviewed and who members of the biodefense community suggest may have been involved in the attacks.[82]
  • July 12, 2002: Columnist Nicholas Kristof writes "The Anthrax Files" suggesting his "Mr. Z" may have been part of several anthrax hoaxes in the past.[83]
  • December 14, 2002: The U.S. Postal Service begins to decontaminate the Brentwood mail facility 14 months after it was closed.

Also see: 2002 (number). ... The Federation of American Scientists (FAS)[1] is a non-profit organization formed in 1945 by scientists from the Manhattan Project who felt that scientists, engineers and other innovators had an ethical obligation to bring their knowledge and experience to bear on critical national decisions. ... is the 169th day of the year (170th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Dr. Steven Jay Hatfill (b. ... is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Nicholas D. Kristof is a columnist for The New York Times whose specialty is East Asian affairs, especially those of the Peoples Republic of China. ... is the 193rd day of the year (194th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... The following hoaxes have been perpetrated using anthrax as an implied threat. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Dr. Steven Jay Hatfill (b. ... Location in Virginia Coordinates: , Country State Founded 1749 Government  - Mayor William D. Euille Area  - Total 15. ... is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Map of Washington, D.C., with Brentwood highlighted in red Brentwood is a neighborhood in Northeast Washington, D.C. and is named after the Brentwood Mansion built at Florida Avernue and 6th Street NE in 1817 by Robert Brent, the first mayor of Washington City, as a wedding present for...

2003: The investigation continues

  • May 11, 2003: Ponds on the north side of Catoctin Mountain, near Gambrill Park Road and Tower Road in Frederick, Maryland, are under investigation by the FBI, in connection with the 2001 anthrax attacks. Divers reportedly retrieved a "clear box" with holes that could accommodate protective biological safety gloves, as well as vials wrapped in plastic from a pond in the Frederick Municipal Forest. A new theory has been developed suggesting how a criminal could have packed anthrax spores into envelopes without harming himself.
  • June 28, 2003: The FBI finishes its investigation of the pond in Frederick, Maryland. Evidence found in the pond includes a bicycle, some logs, a street sign, coins, fishing lures and a handgun. The FBI takes soil samples from the bottom of the pond for testing. No anthrax is found.

is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Scenic vista Catoctin Mountain Park is located near Thurmont in Frederick County, Maryland ( 39°39′ N 77°28′ W). ... Location in Maryland Coordinates: , Country State County Frederick Founded 1745 Government  - Mayor William J. Holtzinger (R)  - Board of Alderman Marcia Hall (D) Alan E. Imhoff (R) David P. Koontz (D) Donna K. Ramsburg (D) C. Paul Smith (R) Area  - Total 20. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... Front of an envelope mailed in the U.S. in 1906 contains postage stamp and address. ... is the 160th day of the year (161st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... Location in Maryland Coordinates: , Country State County Frederick Founded 1745 Government  - Mayor William J. Holtzinger (R)  - Board of Alderman Marcia Hall (D) Alan E. Imhoff (R) David P. Koontz (D) Donna K. Ramsburg (D) C. Paul Smith (R) Area  - Total 20. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... Location in Maryland Coordinates: , Country State County Frederick Founded 1745 Government  - Mayor William J. Holtzinger (R)  - Board of Alderman Marcia Hall (D) Alan E. Imhoff (R) David P. Koontz (D) Donna K. Ramsburg (D) C. Paul Smith (R) Area  - Total 20. ... is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hamilton Township highlighted in Mercer County. ... is the 356th day of the year (357th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Map of Washington, D.C., with Brentwood highlighted in red Brentwood is a neighborhood in Northeast Washington, D.C. and is named after the Brentwood Mansion built at Florida Avernue and 6th Street NE in 1817 by Robert Brent, the first mayor of Washington City, as a wedding present for...

2005-2006

  • September 25, 2006: Five years after the attacks unnamed officials and unnamed experts speaking to the BBC claimed that the anthrax was not 'military grade'. There was no specific mention or particular denial of the use of the Ames strain.[84]

is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Hamilton Township highlighted in Mercer County. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Charles Ernest Chuck Grassley (born September 17, 1933) is the senior United States Senator from Iowa. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Alberto Gonzales (born August 4, 1955), is the 80th and current Attorney General of the United States. ...

2007

  • September 4, 2007: Senator Patrick Leahy states in an interview with Vermont blog Vermont Daily Briefing that he is unsatisfied with the progress of the investigation and that he believes that some government officials may know more about the source of the anthrax than has been disclosed "I think there are people within our government — certainly from the source of it — who know where it came from."[85]

is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Patrick Joseph Leahy (born March 31, 1940) is the senior United States Senator from Vermont. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ...

2008

On March 28, 2008, Fox News [86] released details of an email exchange between scientists at Fort Detrick. These scientists were discussing the formulation of the powder. The Fox News report stated: "But in an e-mail obtained by FOX News, scientists at Fort Detrick openly discussed how the anthrax powder they were asked to analyze after the attacks was nearly identical to that made by one of their colleagues.


"Then he said he had to look at a lot of samples that the FBI had prepared ... to duplicate the letter material," the e-mail reads. "Then the bombshell. He said that the best duplication of the material was the stuff made by [name redacted]. He said that it was almost exactly the same … his knees got shaky and he sputtered, 'But I told the General we didn't make spore powder!'"
Screenshot rough translation:


Sent: Tuesday June 27 2006 7:38 AM
Subject: PDF images


(1) xxxxxx was giving his opinion on xxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxxx ?
(2) ? examine all of the letter spore powder samples. He said like XXXX
(3) ??????. Then he said he had to look at a lot of samples that the FBI had
(4) letter material. Then the bombshell, He said that the best duplication
(5) was if ???? ??????? ?????? ??????? exactly about looking at ?
(6) xxxxxx coming on and ????? ??????? xxx ??? him if this powder
(7) his knees got shaky and he sputtered “But I told the General we didn’t
(8) investigators that xxxxxxx was involved in some way in the letter incident
(9) was finding it was actually funny. The sentences were quite ????? ??
(10) words and phrases xxx said that xxxx was the worst Commander
(11) just believe that I had heard xx had made Ames spore powder just
(12)?? heard that xxxxxxx either knew about it or was behind it and that
(13) ???


See also

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta is recognized as the lead United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people by providing credible information to enhance health decisions, and promoting health through strong partnerships with state health departments and other organizations. ... In the United States, acts of domestic terrorism are generally considered to be uncommon. ... Irradiated mail is mail that has been deliberately exposed to radiation, typically in an effort to disinfect it. ... The following is a timeline the 2001 anthrax attacks in Florida. ... The following is a timeline the 2001 anthrax attacks in New York and New Jersey. ... A variety of conspiracy theories question the mainstream account of the September 11, 2001 attacks against the United States. ...

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The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the news website, see msnbc. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 79th day of the year (80th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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This just IN !!!:paris hiltons new dog. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Newsweek logo Newsweek is a weekly news magazine published in New York City and distributed throughout the United States and internationally. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Aerial view of the lab and surrounding area, facing NW. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California is a United States Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory, managed and operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (LLNS), a limited liability consortium comprised of Bechtel National, the University of... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Federation of American Scientists (FAS)[1] is a non-profit organization formed in 1945 by scientists from the Manhattan Project who felt that scientists, engineers and other innovators had an ethical obligation to bring their knowledge and experience to bear on critical national decisions. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Applied and Environmental Microbiology is an academic journal published by the American Society for Microbiology. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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This article is about the animal. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 91st day of the year (92nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... New Scientist is a weekly international science magazine covering recent developments in science and technology for a general English-speaking audience. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the original newspaper of the same name, see The New York Sun (historical) The New York Sun is a contemporary five-day daily newspaper published in New York City. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 92nd day of the year (93rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The logo of the National Science Foundation The National Science Foundation (NSF) is an independent United States government agency that supports fundamental research and education in all the non-medical fields of science and engineering. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Binomial name Ucla xenogrammus Holleman, 1993 The largemouth triplefin, Ucla xenogrammus, is a fish of the family Tripterygiidae and only member of the genus Ucla, found in the Pacific Ocean from Viet Nam, the Philippines, Palau and the Caroline Islands to Papua New Guinea, Australia (including Christmas Island), and the... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Science is the academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and is considered one of the worlds most prestigious scientific journals. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the news website, see msnbc. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... This article concerns the British newspaper. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... The Sun is the newspaper of record for Baltimore, Maryland, with a daily press run of 247,193 copies and a Sunday run of 418,670 copies (9/30/05 Audit Bureau of Circulations report). ... is the 261st day of the year (262nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Hartford Courant is Connecticuts largest daily newspaper, and is a morning newspaper for most of the state north of New Haven and east of Waterbury. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 100th day of the year (101st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Baltimore Sun is the major newspaper in Baltimore, Maryland, with a daily press run of about 430,000 copies, and a Sunday run of 540,000 copies. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Baltimore Sun is the major newspaper in Baltimore, Maryland, with a daily press run of about 430,000 copies, and a Sunday run of 540,000 copies. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Baltimore Sun is the major newspaper in Baltimore, Maryland, with a daily press run of about 430,000 copies, and a Sunday run of 540,000 copies. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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The Wall Street Journal (WSJ) is an international daily newspaper published by Dow Jones & Company in New York City, New York, USA, with Asian and European editions, and a worldwide daily circulation of more than 2 million as of 2006, with 931,000 paying online subscribers. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Vanity Fair is a glossy American glamour magazine monthly that offers a mixture of articles on high-brow culture, jet-set and entertainment-business personalities, politics, and current affairs. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the original newspaper of the same name, see The New York Sun (historical) The New York Sun is a contemporary five-day daily newspaper published in New York City. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 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The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 106th day of the year (107th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see New Yorker. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Richard O. Spertzel is an expert in the area of biological warfare. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Richard O. Spertzel is an expert in the area of biological warfare. ... Laurie Mylroie is a U.S. author who has written several controversial and heavily criticized books on the subject of Iraq and the War on Terror. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ABC Radio National is an Australia-wide radio network with many various programs, involving news and current affairs, arts, music, society, science, drama, comedy. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... AFP logo Paris headquarters of AFP Charles Havas Agence France-Presse (AFP) is the oldest news agency in the world, and one of the three largest with Associated Press and Reuters. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... USA Today is a national American daily newspaper published by the Gannett Company. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 110th day of the year (111th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the animal. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Common Era (or Anno Domini), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

Books

  • Leonard A. Cole, The Anthrax Letters, A Medical Detective Story (Joseph Henry Press, 2003) ISBN 0-309-08881-X [1]
  • Kenneth J. Dillon, Intriguing Anomalies: An Introduction to Scientific Detective Work (Scientia Press, 2008) ISBN 0-9642976-8-4 [2]
  • Robert Graysmith, AMERITHRAX: The Hunt for the Anthrax Killer (Berkley Books,2003) ISBN 0-425-19190-7
  • Ed Lake, Analyzing The Anthrax Attacks - The First 3 Years (Ed Lake, 2005) ISBN 0976616300
  • Philipp Sarasin, Anthrax: Bioterror as Fact and Fantasy (Harvard University Press 2006) ISBN 0674023463 [3]
  • Marilyn W. Thompson, The Killer Strain, Anthrax and a Government Exposed (HarperCollins,2003) ISBN 0-06-052278-X

Leonard A. Cole, an expert on bioterrorism and terror medicine, is an adjunct professor of political science at Rutgers University - Newark, in Newark, New Jersey. ... Robert Graysmith (born September 17, 1942) is a true-crime author of the books Zodiac; Zodiac Unmasked: the Identity of Americas Most Exclusive Serial Killer; Unabomber: a Desire to Kill; The Murder of Bob Crane: Who Killed the Star of Hogans Heroes?; The Bell Tower:The Case of...

Analysis and theories

Donald W. Foster, born 1950, is a professor of English at Vassar College in New York. ... Vanity Fair is a glossy American glamour magazine monthly that offers a mixture of articles on high-brow culture, jet-set and entertainment-business personalities, politics, and current affairs. ... 2003 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December A timeline of events in the news for October, 2003. ... Science is the academic journal of the American Association for the Advancement of Science and is considered one of the worlds most prestigious scientific journals. ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ...

Resources

  • The Anthrax Investigation (Ed Lake)
  • UCLA Department of Epidemiology
  • FBI's official 'Amerithrax' page
    • Photos of Anthrax Letters to NBC, Senator Daschle and NY Post
    • Linguistic/Behavorial Analysis of Anthrax Letters
  • Risk Assessment of Anthrax Threat Letters – Canadian study dated September 2001
  • Anthrax in America: A Chronology and Analysis of the Fall 2001 Attacks - detailed timeline
  • Hatfill v. Ashcroft – lawsuit filing
  • Hatfill v. Foster
  • Hatfill v. New York Times
    • Case dismissed (November 24, 2004)
      • Appeal filed December 15, 2004
        • Appeals Court ruling July 28, 2005 (reinstating case)
  • Stevens v. United States – lawsuit filing

Recent articles

  • The person who mailed anthrax spores in 2001 remains at large By Greg Gordon, August 7, 2006.
  • Anthrax Investigation A 'Cold Case?' The CBS Evening News, September 18, 2006.
  • New Anthrax Theory Offered - FBI Scientist Says Little Expertise Needed by Dave Altimari, The Hartford Courant, September 22, 2006.
  • FBI Is Casting A Wider Net in Anthrax Attacks Washington Post, September 25, 2006.
  • Low-tech anthrax still deadly? FBI research widens suspect list by George Smith, The Register, September 29, 2006.
  • Some Lessons Learned from the Anthrax Attacks by Michael Stebbins, Seed Magazine, October 2, 2006.
  • Questions on anthrax swirl anew for the FBI by Kevin Coughlin, The Star-Ledger October 9, 2006.
  • The Unsolved Case Of Anthrax by Tom Daschle, Washington Post, October 15, 2006.
  • Anthrax attack on US Congress made by scientists and covered up by FBI, expert says by Sherwood Ross, Middle East Times, December 11, 2006.
  • Anthrax attack posed greater potential threat than thought January 5, 2007.
The Hartford Courant is Connecticuts largest daily newspaper, and is a morning newspaper for most of the state north of New Haven and east of Waterbury. ... Current logo of The Register. ... Michael Stebbins is an American geneticist and science writer. ... Seed is a science magazine published bimonthly by Seed Media Group [1] and distributed internationally. ... The Star-Ledger is the leading newspaper in New Jersey. ... ... Middle East Times is a daily newspaper published in Cairo, Egypt. ... For the use of biological agents in warfare, see Biological warfare. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... The international biological hazard symbol Immediate disposal of used needles into a sharps container is standard procedure. ... For the use of biological agents by terrorists, see bioterrorism. ... Decontamination of humans is usually done by a three step procedure, separated by sex: removal of clothing, washing, and reclothing. ... This false-colored electron micrograph shows a malaria sporozoite migrating through the midgut epithelia. ... This article is about biological infectious particles. ... For other uses, see Toxin (disambiguation). ... Terrorist redirects here. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 559 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (600 × 643 pixels, file size: 44 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... A sampling of Bacillus anthracis—Anthrax A biological agent is an infectious disease or toxin that can be used in bioterrorism or biological warfare. ... For the H5N1 subtype of Avian influenza see H5N1. ... Botulinum toxin is a neurotoxin protein produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. ... Binomial name Burkholderia pseudomallei (Whitmore 1913) Yabuuchi et al. ... Chlamydophila psittaci is a lethal intracellular bacterial species that causes endemic avian chlamydiosis, epizootic outbreaks in mammals, and respiratory psittacosis in humans. ... Binomial name (Derrick 1939) Philip 1948 Coxiella burnetii is a species of intracellular, pathogenic bacteria, and is the causative agent of Q fever. ... For other uses, see Ebola (disambiguation). ... Equine encephalitis may be caused by several viruses: Eastern equine encephalitis virus Western equine encephalitis virus Venezualan equine encephalitis virus This is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... A foodborne illness (also foodborne disease) is any illness resulting from the consumption of food. ... Divisions Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota The Fungi (singular: fungus) are a large group of organisms ranked as a kingdom within the Domain Eukaryota. ... Glanders is an infectious disease that occurs primarily in horses, mules, and donkeys. ... Species Andes virus (ANDV) Bayou virus (BAYV) Black Creek Canal virus (BCCV) Cano Delgadito virus (CADV) Choclo virus (CHOV) Dobrava-Belgrade virus (DOBV) Hantaan virus (HTNV) Isla Vista virus (ISLAV) Khabarovsk virus (KHAV) Laguna Negra virus (LANV) Muleshoe virus (MULV) New York virus (NYV) Prospect Hill virus (PHV) Puumala virus... Species Hendravirus Nipahvirus Henipavirus is a genus of the family Paramyxoviridae, order Mononegavirales containing two members, Hendravirus and Nipahvirus. ... Legionellosis is an infectious disease caused by bacteria belonging to the genus Legionella. ... The Marburg virus is the causative agent of Marburg hemorrhagic fever. ... This article is about the fungi known as molds. ... Bubonic plague is the best-known manifestation of the bacterial disease plague, caused by the bacterium Yersinia pestis. ... Castor beans Ricin (pronounced ) is a protein toxin that is extracted from the castor bean (Ricinus communis). ... Binomial name (ex Kauffmann & Edwards 1952) Le Minor & Popoff 1987 Salmonella enterica is a rod shaped, flagellated, Gram-negative bacterium, and a member of the genus Salmonella. ... Salmonellosis is an infection with Salmonella bacteria. ... For a similar disease with a similar name, see typhus. ... This article is about the disease. ... Staphylococcus (in Greek staphyle means bunch of grapes and coccos means granule) is a genus of Gram-positive bacteria. ... Tularemia (also known as rabbit fever) is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis. ... For the unrelated disease caused by Salmonella typhi, see Typhoid fever. ... Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are a group of illnesses that are caused by several distinct families of viruses: Arenavirus, Filoviridae, Bunyaviridae and Flavivirus. ... The 1984 Rajneeshee bioterror attack refers to the salmonella food poisoning of over seven hundred and fifty individuals in Oregon through the contamination of salad bars at ten local restaurants. ... Australia Group is an informal group of countries established in 1985 (after the use of chemical weapons by Iraq in 1984) to help reduce the spread of chemical and biological weapons by monitoring and controlling the spread of technologies required to produce them. ... The Center for Biosecurity is an independent, nonprofit organization of the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) that is dedicated to improving the country’s resilience to major biological threats. ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) is an agency of the United States Department of Defense responsible for the development of new technology for use by the military. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) is an agency of the European Union. ... The Global Health Security Initiative (GHSI) is an international partnership between countries in order to supplement and strengthen their preparedness to repond to threats of biological, chemical, radio-nuclear terrorism (CBRN) and pandemic influenza. ... The Health Threat Unit of the Directorate-General for Health and Consumer Protection (European Commission), is responsible for terrorism surveillance and early warning of biological, chemical, and radiological threats within the European Union. ... The National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center (NBACC) is a highly classified government biodefense research laboratory created by the U.S. Department of Homeland Security (DHS) and located at the governments sprawling biodefense campus at Fort Detrick in Frederick, MD, USA. Created quietly a few months after the 2001... The National Science Advisory Board for Biosecurity is a panel of the Department of Health and Human Services in the United States federal government. ... USAMRIID banner The United States Army Medical Research Institute of Infectious Diseases (USAMRIID, pronounced U-Sam-Rid) is a military research institute for medicine based at Fort Detrick, Frederick, Maryland used for research of infectious disease that may have defensive applications against biological warfare that would protect the citizens of...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Anthrax Info - U.S. Anthrax Attacks 2001 (352 words)
In the fall of 2001, 22 people were made ill by an anthrax attack in the United States.
Anthrax spores were distributed via letter sent by U.S. mail to media organizations and political offices.
We now know that the anthrax exposures began in New York, but the first case that was reported to the CDC was in Florida.
anthrax2001 (16740 words)
The anthrax used in the attacks of 2001 was a highly sophisticated dry powder bioweapon containing silica coatings that were processed with the aid of a super-specialized siloxane binder.
Of particular significance is that the CDC conclude that Bob Stevens (the first fatality of the 2001 anthrax attacks) was exposed by primary aerosolization from a suspicious letter that we was seen holding close to his face on September 19.
On October 10, 2001 The Guardian reported that David Pecker, president of AMI, told the New York Post that Martha Moffett, 67, a librarian at the company who was already being treated for pneumonia, tested positive for anthrax exposure but sources said she had not contracted the disease.
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