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Encyclopedia > 19th century
Millennium: 2nd millennium
Centuries: 18th century · 19th century · 20th century
Decades: 1800s 1810s 1820s 1830s 1840s
1850s 1860s 1870s 1880s 1890s
Categories: Births – Deaths
Establishments – Disestablishments

During the 19th century, the Spanish, Portuguese, Chinese, and Ottoman empires began to crumble and the Holy Roman and Mughal empires ceased. A millennium (pl. ... On the Gregorian calendar, the 2nd millennium commenced on 1 January 1001, and ended at the end of 31 December 2000. ... These pages contain the trends of millennia and centuries. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... This is a list of decades which have articles with more information about them. ... // Invention of the Jacquard loom in 1801. ... Events and Trends End of the Napoleonic Wars in Europe (1803 - 1815). ... Nationalistic independence helped reshape the world during this decade: Greece gains independence from the Ottoman Empire in the Greek War of Independence (1821-1827). ... // Electromagnetic induction discovered by Michael Faraday Evolutionary theorist Charles Darwins expedition on the HMS Beagle. ... // First use of general anesthesia in an operation, by Crawford Long The first electrical telegraph sent by Samuel Morse on May 24, 1844 from Baltimore to Washington, D.C.. First signing of the Treaty of Waitangi (Te Tiriti o Waitangi) on February 6, 1840 at Waitangi, Northland New Zealand. ... // Production of steel revolutionized by invention of the Bessemer process Benjamin Silliman fractionates petroleum by distillation for the first time First transatlantic telegraph cable laid First safety elevator installed by Elisha Otis Railroads begin to supplant canals in the United States as a primary means of transporting goods. ... // The First Transcontinental Railroad in the USA was built in the six year period between 1863 and 1869. ... // The invention of the telephone (1876) by Alexander Graham Bell. ... // Development and commercial production of electric lighting Development and commercial production of gasoline-powered automobile by Karl Benz, Gottlieb Daimler and Maybach First commercial production and sales of phonographs and phonograph recordings. ... The 1890s were sometimes referred to as the Mauve Decade, because William Henry Perkins aniline dye allowed the widespread use of that colour in fashion, and also as the Gay Nineties, under the then-current usage of the word gay which referred simply to merriment and frivolity, with no... China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... This article is about the medieval empire. ... Capital Delhi / Agra Language(s) Persian (initially also Chagatai, Turkish; later also Urdu) Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1526-1530 Babur  - 1530–1539 and after restoration 1555–1556 Humayun  - 1556–1605 Akbar  - 1605–1627 Jahangir  - 1628–1658 Shah Jahan  - 1659–1707 Aurangzeb History  - Established April 21, 1526  - Ended September 21, 1857 Area...


Following the Napoleonic Wars, the British Empire became the world's leading power, controlling one quarter of the world's population and one third of the land area. It enforced a Pax Britannica, encouraged trade, and battled rampant piracy. During this time the 19th century was an era of widespread invention and discovery, with significant developments in the understanding or manipulation of mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology, electricity, and metallurgy largely setting the groundworks for the comparably overwhelming and very rapid technological innovations which would take place the following century. Modest advances in medicine and the understanding of human anatomy and disease prevention were also applicable to the 1800s, and were partly responsible for rapidly accelerating population growth in the western world. The introduction of Railroads provided the first major advancement in land transportation for centuries, and their placement and application radically altered the ways people could live and rapidly and reliably obtain necessary commodities, fueling major urbanization movements in countries across the globe. Numerous cities worldwide surpassed populations of 1,000,000 or more during this century, the first time which cities surpassed the peak population of ancient Rome. The last remaining undiscovered landmasses of Earth, largely pacific island chains and atolls, were discovered during this century, and with the exception of the extreme zones of the Arctic and Antarctic, accurate and detailed maps of the globe were available by the 1890s. Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ... Pax Britannica (Latin for the British Peace, modelled after Pax Romana) refers to a period of British imperialism after the 1805 Battle of Trafalgar, which led to a period of overseas British expansionism. ... This article is about maritime piracy. ... railroads redirects here. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ...


Slavery was greatly reduced around the world. Following a successful slave revolt in Haiti, Britain forced the Barbary pirates to halt their practice of kidnapping and enslaving Europeans, banned slavery throughout its domain, and charged its navy with ending the global slave trade. Britain abolished slavery in 1834, America's Emancipation Proclamation during the Civil War abolished slavery in 1863, and in Brazil slavery was abolished in 1888 (see Abolitionism). Similarly, serfdom was abolished in Russia. Slave redirects here. ... Combatants Haiti France Commanders Toussaint Louverture, Jean-Jacques Dessalines Charles Leclerc, vicomte de Rochambeau, Napoleon Bonaparte Strength Regular army: <55,000, Volunteers: <100,000 Regular army: 60,000, 86 warships and frigates Casualties Military deaths: unknown, Civilian deaths: <100,000 Military deaths: 57,000 (37,000 combat; 20,000 yellow... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Categories: | | ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: Emancipation Proclamation Reproduction of the Emancipation Proclamation at the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center in Cincinnati, Ohio The Emancipation Proclamation consists of two executive orders issued by United States President Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War. ... This article is about the definition of the specific type of war. ... This article is about the abolition of slavery. ... Serf redirects here. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


The 19th century was remarkable in the widespread formation of new settlement foundations which were particularly prevalent across North America and Australasia, with a significant proportion of the two continents largest cities being founded at some point in the 1800's.

Contents

Eras

A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... The English Regency, or simply Regency, is a name typically given to a period from 1811 to 1820 in the history of the United Kingdom. ... The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ... Kingdom of France Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy King of France and Navarre  - 1814-1824 Louis XVIII  - 1824-1830 Charles X  - 1830 Louis XIX  - 1830 Henri V Legislature Parliament History  - Louis XVIII restored 6 April, 1814  - July Revolution 21 January, 1830 Currency French Franc Following the ousting of... Kingdom of France Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy King of the French  - 1830-1848 Louis-Phillipe Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Chamber of Peers  - Lower house Chamber of Deputies History  - July Revolution 1830  - Revolution of 1848 1848 Currency French Franc The July Monarchy (1830-1848) was a period of... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Map of the French Second Empire Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1852-1870 Napoleon III Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif History  - French coup of 1851 December 2 1851  - Established 1852  - Disestablished September 4, 1870 Currency French Franc The Second French Empire or... Motto Liberté, égalité, fraternité (Liberty, equality, brotherhood) Anthem La Marseillaise The French Third Republic, pre-World War I Capital Paris Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism, protestantism and judaism official religions (until 1905), None (from 1905 until 1940) (Law on the separation of Church and State of 1905) Government Republic... The Edo period ), also called Tokugawa period, is a division of Japanese history running from 1603 to 1868. ... The Meiji period ), or Meiji era, denotes the 45-year reign of Emperor Meiji, running, in the Gregorian calendar, from 23 October 1868 to 30 July 1912. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... The Tanzimat (Ottoman Turkish: تنظيمات), meaning reorganization of the Ottoman Empire, was a period of reformation that began in 1839 and ended with the First Constitutional Era in 1876. ... Graphical timeline The First Constitutional Era of the Ottoman Empire was the period of constitutional monarchy from the promulgation of a Basic Law by Abdülhamid II on 23 November 1876 until 13 February 1878 when the constitution was suspended. ... Graphical timeline Decline of the Ottoman Empire covers the military and political events between 1828 to 1908. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... This article is about the history and influence of the concept. ...

Events

Map of the world from 1897. The British Empire (marked in pink) was the superpower of the 19th century.

Download high resolution version (1116x849, 158 KB)The World in 1897. ... Download high resolution version (1116x849, 158 KB)The World in 1897. ...

1800s

For the ship of the same name, see Royal Charter (ship). ... The Royal College of Surgeons of England is an independent professional body committed to promoting and advancing the highest standards of surgical care for patients. ... The Second Great Awakening  (1800–1830s) was the second great religious revival in United States  history and consisted of renewed personal salvation experienced in revival meetings. ... For an explanation of terms such as Scotland, Wales, England, (Great) Britain and United Kingdom, see British Isles (terminology). ... This article is about the Irish kingdom existing from 1541 to 1800. ... Not to be confused with Ranjitsinhji (1872-1933), cricketer and Maharaja of Nawanagar. ... Look up king in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Sikh Empire (from 1801-1849) was formed on the foundations of the Sikh Confederacy by Maharaja Ranjit Singh. ... The Barbary Wars were two wars between the United States of America and piratical city-states in North Africa. ... The states along the Barbary Coast, Algiers, Morocco, Tripoli, and Tunis, were collectively known as the Barbary States. ...  Northern Africa (UN subregion)  geographic, including above North Africa or Northern Africa is the northernmost region of the African continent, separated by the Sahara from Sub-Saharan Africa. ... North American redirects here. ... The Louisiana Purchase (French: Vente de la Louisiane) was the acquisition by the United States of America of 828,000 square miles (2,140,000 km²) of French territory (Louisiana) in 1803. ... This article is about the history and influence of the concept. ... A government map, probably created in the mid-20th century, that depicts a simplified history of territorial acquistions within the continental United States. ... The First Saudi State was established in the year 1744 (1157 H.) when the Wahhabi leader Sheikh Mohammed ibn Abd al Wahhab settled in Diriyah and Prince Mohammed Ibn Saud agreed to support and espouse his cause, with a view to cleansing the Islamic faith from distortions. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Anthem Volkshymne (Peoples Anthem) The Austrian Empire Capital Vienna Language(s) German Hungarian Romanian Czech Slovakian Slovenian Croatian Serbian Italian Polish Ruthenian Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy History  - Established 1804  - Ausgleich 1867 The Crown of the Austrian Emperor The Austrian Empire (German: ) was a modern era successor empire founded... Francis I in Austrian coronation regalia, 1832 Austrian thaler of Francis II, dated 1821. ... Fulani war 1804-1810 also know as Fulani Holy War or Jihad of Usman dan Fodio was a military conquest in present day Nigeria. ... // Flag of the First Serbian Uprising The First Serbian Uprising was a Serbian national revolution which lasted one decade (1804-1813), during which Serbia perceived itself as an independent state for the first time after 300 years of Ottoman and short-lasting Austrian occupations. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... This article is about the leader of Egypt. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... The Treaty of Lunéville was signed on February 9, 1801 between the French Republic and the Holy Roman Empire by Joseph Bonaparte and Louis, Count Cobentzel, respectively. ... For an explanation of terms such as Scotland, Wales, England, (Great) Britain and United Kingdom, see British Isles (terminology). ... Combatants Russia Sweden Commanders Fyodor Buxhoeveden Boris Knorring Barclay de Tolly Wilhelm Mauritz Klingspor Carl Johan Adlercreutz Georg Carl von Döbeln The Finnish War was fought between Sweden and Russia from February 1808 to September 1809. ... Guerrilla redirects here. ... For the 1862 American Civil War campaign, see Peninsula Campaign. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... For the state, see Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights. ... Bad Mergentheim (Mergentheim until 1926) is a town in the Main-Tauber district in the German state of Baden-Württemberg. ...

1810s

1816: Shaka rises to power over the Zulu kingdom

Image File history File links KingShaka. ... Image File history File links KingShaka. ... For other uses, see Shaka (disambiguation). ... Languages Zulu Religions Christian, African Traditional Religion Related ethnic groups Bantu Nguni Basotho Xhosa Swazi Matabele Khoisan The Zulu (South African English and isiZulu: amaZulu) are a South African ethnic group of an estimated 17-22 million people who live mainly in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. ... Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin The Humboldt University of Berlin (German Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin) is Berlins oldest university, founded in 1810 as the University of Berlin (Universität zu Berlin) by the liberal Prussian educational reformer and linguist Wilhelm von Humboldt whose university model has strongly influenced... Hegel redirects here. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Bismarck redirects here. ... Logo of the University of Bologna European research universities have a long history that arguably dates back to the founding of the University of Bologna in 1088, although the University of Paris and the University of Magnaura are other contenders for this position. ... An anachronous map of the Portuguese Empire (1415-1999). ... Combatants Mexico Spain Commanders Miguel Hidalgo José María Morelos Vicente Guerrero Spanish colonial authorities Strength  ?  ? Casualties  ?  ? Mexican War of Independence (1810-1821), was an armed conflict between the people of Mexico and Spanish colonial authorities, which started on September 16, 1810. ... Because Spain was virtually cut off from its colonies during the Peninsular War of 1808–1814, Latin America was, in these years, ruled by independent juntas. ... Combatants France Italy Naples Duchy of Warsaw Confederation of the Rhine Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Swiss Confederation Austria Prussia Russia Commanders Napoleon Eugène de Beauharnais Jérôme Bonaparte Jacques MacDonald Prince Schwarzenberg Józef Poniatowski Alexander I of Russia Michael Andreas Barclay de Tolly Pyotr Bagration Mikhail Kutuzov Strength... Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... This article is about the U.S.–U.K. war. ... For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Central Asia, circa 1848. ... The Congress of Vienna by Jean-Baptiste Isabey, 1819. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Concert of Europe also known as the Congress System was the result of a custom, following the era of Napoleon and the French Revolution, adopted by the old great powers of Europe of meeting from time to time in an International Conference, or Congress, in order to plan a... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... Combatants French Empire Seventh Coalition: United Kingdom Prussia United Netherlands Hanover Nassau Brunswick Commanders Napoleon Bonaparte, Michel Ney Duke of Wellington, Gebhard von Blücher Strength 73,000 67,000 Anglo-Allies 60,000 Prussian (48,000 engaged by about 18:00) Casualties 25,000 killed or wounded 7,000... Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... Pax Britannica (Latin for the British Peace, modelled after Pax Romana) refers to a period of British imperialism after the 1805 Battle of Trafalgar, which led to a period of overseas British expansionism. ... Development of global average temperatures during the last thousand years. ... For other uses, see Shaka (disambiguation). ... Languages Zulu Religions Christian, African Traditional Religion Related ethnic groups Bantu Nguni Basotho Xhosa Swazi Matabele Khoisan The Zulu (South African English and isiZulu: amaZulu) are a South African ethnic group of an estimated 17-22 million people who live mainly in the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | Southern Africa ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ...

1820s

The American Colonization Society (in full, The Society for the Colonization of Free People of Color of America) was an organization that helped in founding Liberia, a colony on the coast of West Africa, in 1821 and transported free blacks there from the United States. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Combatants Greek revolutionaries United Kingdom France Russian Empire  Ottoman Empire Egyptian Khedivate Commanders Theodoros Kolokotronis Alexander Ypsilanti Georgios Karaiskakis Omer Vryonis Mahmud Dramali Pasha ReÅŸid Mehmed Pasha Ibrahim Pasha. ... Anthem Kaba Ma Kyei Capital Naypyidaw Largest city Yangon Official languages Burmese Demonym Burmese Government Military junta  -  Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council Than Shwe  -  Prime Minister Soe Win  -  Acting Prime Minister Thein Sein Establishment  -  Bagan 849–1287   -  Taungoo Dynasty 1486–1752   -  Konbaung Dynasty 1752–1885   -  Colonial rule... There have been three Burmese Wars or Anglo-Burmese Wars: First Anglo-Burmese War (1823 to 1826) Second Anglo-Burmese War (1852 to 1853) Third Anglo-Burmese War (1885 to 1887) The expansion of Myanmar had consequences along its frontiers. ... The Erie Canal (currently part of the New York State Canal System) is a canal in New York State, United States, that runs from the Hudson River to Lake Erie, connecting the Great Lakes with the Atlantic Ocean. ... The Great Lakes from space The Laurentian Great Lakes are a group of five large lakes in North America on or near the Canada-United States border. ... The Russo-Persian War of 1826-1828 was the last major military conflict between the Russian Empire and the Persian Empire. ... Persia redirects here. ... Combatants Brazilian Empire United Provinces of the Río de la Plata (present Uruguay and Argentina) Commanders Pedro I of Brazil Rodrigo Pinto Guedes Marquis of Barbacena Juan Antonio Lavalleja Bernardino Rivadavia Francis Drummond Carlos María de Alvear The Argentina-Brazil War (Portuguese: Guerra da Cisplatina; Spanish: Guerra del...

1830s

The Salt Lake Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is the largest attraction in the citys Temple Square. ... This article is about the historical Belgian Revolution of the 1830s. ... The Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and Limburg in 1839 1, 2 and 3 United Kingdom of the Netherlands (until 1830) 1 and 2 Kingdom of the Netherlands (after 1830) 2 Duchy of Limburg (In the German Confederacy after 1839 as compensation for Waals-Luxemburg) 3 and 4 Kingdom of Belgium (after... Capital Bogotá Created December 1819 Dissolved November 1831 Demonym Colombian Departments of the Republic Greater Colombia (Gran Colombia in Spanish) is the name given to the Republic of Colombia of 1819-1830, which was a short-lived republic in South America consisting of present-day Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador, and Panama. ... French rule in Algeria lasted from 1830 to 1962, under a variety of governmental systems. ... Categories: | | ... For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ... The Carlist Wars in Spain were the last major European civil wars in which pretenders fought to establish their claim to a throne. ... This article is about one of the historical Inquisitions. ... Imam Shamil Imam Shamil (1797 – March 1871) was an Avar political and religious leader of the Muslim tribes of the Northern Caucasus. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Caucasus Mountains. ... Combatants Texas Mexico Commanders Stephen F. Austin Sam Houston Antonio López de Santa Anna Martin Perfecto de Cos Strength c. ... For the latter day independence movement surrounding Texas, see Republic of Texas (group). ... The Rebellions of 1837 were a pair of Canadian armed uprisings that occurred in 1837 and 1838 in response to frustrations in political reform and ethnic conflict. ... Queen Victoria redirects here. ... For a comprehensive list of the territories that formed the British Empire, see Evolution of the British Empire. ... The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... | Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Flag Capital Guatemala City¹ Language(s) Spanish Government Republic History  - Established 1823  - Disestablished May 31, 1838 Currency Central American Republic real ¹ Moved to San Salvador in 1834. ... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1851 (MDCCCLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants Colorados With the support of: France British Empire Italian Legion The Empire of Brazil Blancos With the support of: Argentina Commanders Fructuoso Rivera Samuel Inglefield Giuseppe Garibaldi Manuel Oribe Juan Manuel de Rosas The Uruguayan Civil War, also known as Guerra Grande, was a series of armed conflicts that... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... Combat at Guangzhou during the Second Opium War The Opium Wars (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: ), also known as the Anglo-Chinese Wars, lasted from 1839 to 1842 and 1856 to 1860 respectively,[1] the climax of a trade dispute between China and the United Kingdom. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... Download high resolution version (401x620, 16 KB)Samuel F. B. Morse - Project Gutenberg eText 15161. ... Download high resolution version (401x620, 16 KB)Samuel F. B. Morse - Project Gutenberg eText 15161. ... Portrait of Samuel F. B. Morse by Mathew Brady, between 1855 and 1865 Samuel Finley Breese Morse (April 27, 1791 – April 2, 1872) was an American inventor, and painter of portraits and historic scenes; he is most famous for inventing the electric telegraph and Morse code. ...

1840s

1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... One of the few extant copies of the Treaty of Waitangi The Treaty of Waitangi (Māori: Tiriti o Waitangi) is a treaty signed on February 6, 1840 by representatives of the British Crown, and Māori chiefs from the North Island of New Zealand. ... Te Puni, Māori Chief Māori is the name of the indigenous people of New Zealand, and their language. ... Jan. ... Telegraphy (from the Greek words tele = far away and grapho = write) is the long distance transmission of written messages without physical transport of letters, originally over wire. ... Jan. ... William Miller The Millerite tradition is a diverse family of denominations and Bible study movements that have arisen since the middle of the 19th century, traceable to the Adventist movement sparked by the teachings of William Miller. ... The Second Coming or Second Advent refers to the Christian belief in the return of Jesus Christ to fulfill the rest of the Messianic prophecy, such as the Last judgement and establishment of the Kingdom of God. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... William Miller This article is about a religious time in history. ... Jan. ... Shrine of the Báb in Haifa, Israel. ... The room where The Báb declared His mission on May 23, 1844 in His house in Shiraz. ... He whom God shall make manifest is a messianic figure predicted by the Báb within his book the Bayan that would come after him and lead the Babis. ... Shrine of Baháulláh Baháulláh (ba-haa-ol-laa Arabic: Glory of God) (November 12, 1817 – May 29, 1892), born Mírzá usayn-`Alí Nuri (Persian: ), was the founder of the Baháí Faith. ... This article is about the generally recognized global religious community. ... Jan. ... The emigration of upper-class Dominicans served to forestall rebellion and to prolong the period of Haitian occupation because most Dominicans reflexively looked to the upper class for leadership. ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1849 (MDCCCXLIX) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Bridget ODonnell and her two children during the famine The Great Famine or the Great Hunger (Irish: An Gorta Mór or An Drochshaol), known more commonly outside of Ireland as the Irish Potato Famine, is the name given to a famine in Ireland between 1845 and 1849. ... Emigrants Leave Ireland, engraving by Henry Doyle (1827-1892), from Mary Frances Cusacks Illustrated History of Ireland, 1868 // The Irish diaspora (Irish: Diaspóra na nGael) consists of Irish emigrants and their descendants in countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Argentina, Mexico, New Zealand... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 25,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 AWOL: 9,200+ 25,000... Regional definitions vary from source to source. ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The Latter Day Saint movement is a religious movement within Christian Restorationism beginning in the early 19th century that led to the set of doctrines, practices, and cultures called Mormonism and to the existence of numerous Latter Day Saint churches. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Caste War of Yucatán (1847–1901) began with the revolt of native Maya people of Yucatán (Mexico) against the population of European descent (called Yucatecos) in political and economic control. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The European Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations or the Year of Revolution, were a revolutionary wave which erupted in Sicily and then, further triggered by the revolutions of 1848 in France, soon spread to the rest of Europe and as far afield as... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The California Gold Rush (1848–1855) began shortly after January 24, 1848 (when gold was discovered at Sutters Mill in Coloma). ...

1850s

Charge of the Light Brigade. ... Charge of the Light Brigade. ... For the poem about the charge, see The Charge of the Light Brigade (poem). ... Combatants Allies: Second French Empire British Empire Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,194 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease ~134,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1853–1856) was fought... For the game, see: 1850 (board game) 1850 (MDCCCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Little Ice Age (LIA) was a period of cooling occurring after a warmer era known as the Medieval climate optimum. ... 1851 (MDCCCLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... // The First Transcontinental Railroad in the USA was built in the six year period between 1863 and 1869. ... The Victorian gold rush was a period in the history of Victoria in Australia between approximately 1851 and the early 1860s. ... 1851 (MDCCCLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Combatants Qing Empire United Kingdom France (United Kingdom and France join the war later) Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Commanders Xianfeng Emperor Tongzhi Emperor Empress Dowager Cixi Charles George Gordon Frederick Townsend Ward Hong Xiuquan Yang Xiuqing Xiao Chaogui Feng Yunshan Wei Changhui Shi Dakai Li Xiucheng Strength 2,000,000-5... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... On March 31, 1854, the Convention of Kanagawa (Japanese: 神奈川条約, Kanagawa Jōyaku, or 日米和親条約, Nichibei Washin Jōyaku) was used by Commodore Matthew Perry of the U.S. Navy to force the opening of the Japanese ports of Shimoda and Hakodate to American trade and ended Japans 200 year policy... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Seclusion. ... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants Allies: Second French Empire British Empire Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,194 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease ~134,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1853–1856) was fought... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Year 1855 (MDCCCLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Bessemer process was the first inexpensive industrial process for the mass-production of steel from a molten pig iron. ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... View of Shell Oil Refinery in Martinez, California. ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Belligerents Rebellious East India Company Sepoys, 7 Indian princely states, deposed rulers of the independent states of Oudh, Jhansi Some Indian civilians. ... Year 1859 (MDCCCLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Charles Darwins Origin of Species (publ. ...

1860s

The first vessels sail through the Suez Canal

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1071x801, 285 KB) Suez Canal, between Kantara and El-Fedane. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1071x801, 285 KB) Suez Canal, between Kantara and El-Fedane. ... For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... In this map:  Union states prohibiting slavery  Union territories  Border states on the Union side which allowed slavery  Kansas, which entered and fought with the Union as a free state after the Bleeding Kansas crisis  The Confederacy  Confederate claimed and sometimes held territories During the American Civil War, the Union... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial)  States that seceded under CSA control  States and territories claimed by CSA without formal secession and/or control Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Belligerents Second French Empire Second Mexican Empire United Mexican States and some Latin American Allies Strength 38,493 French soldiers, 7,000 Austro-Hungarian volunteers, 2,000 Belgian volunteers ~80,000 Casualties and losses 6,654 French killed and wounded 12,000 Mexican killed and wounded Emperor Maximilian I of... This article is about 1862 . ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The Dungan Revolt is also known as the Hui Minorities War and the Muslim Rebellion. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Red Cross redirects here. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: First Geneva Convention The First Geneva Convention is one of several Geneva Conventions. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... Polonia (Poland), 1863, by Jan Matejko, 1864, oil on canvas, 156 × 232 cm, National Museum, Kraków. ... The subject of this article was previously also known as Russia. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Combatants Kingdom of Spain Chile; Peru The Chincha Islands War (Spanish: Guerra Hispano-Peruana, Guerra Hispano-Chilena, Spanish-Peruvian War or Spanish-Chilean War, the name changing depending on the nationality of the author) was a series of coastal and naval battles between Spain and its former colonies of Peru... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants Paraguay Uruguay, Argentina, Empire of Brazil Commanders Francisco Solano López † José E. Díaz Pedro II of Brazil Duke of Caxias Bartolomé Mitre Venancio Flores Strength at the beginning of the war ca. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Reconstruction (disambiguation). ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... The first transatlantic telegraph cable crossed the Atlantic Ocean from Foilhommerum, Valentia Island, in western Ireland to Hearts Content, in eastern Newfoundland. ... Year 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Combatants Austria, Saxony, Bavaria, Baden, Württemberg, Hanover and some minor German States (formerly as the German Confederation) Prussia, Italy, and some minor German States Strength 600,000 Austrians and German allies 500,000 Prussians and German allies 300,000 Italians Casualties 20,000 dead or wounded 37,000 dead... The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... Map of the North German Confederation Capital Berlin Political structure Federation Presidency Prussia (William I) Chancellor Otto von Bismarck History  - Constitution tabelled April 16, 1867  - Confederation formed July 1, 1867  - Elevation to empire January 18, 1871 The North German Federation (in German, Norddeutscher Bund) came into existence in 1867, following... Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... The Meiji Restoration ), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to enormous changes in Japans political and social structure. ... Modernization (also Modernisation) is a concept in the sphere of social sciences that refers to process in which society goes through industrialization, urbanization and other social changes that completely transforms the lives of individuals. ... Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Check used to pay for Alaska The Alaska purchase from Russia by the United States occurred in 1867 at the behest of Secretary of State William Seward. ... Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... We dont have an article called Canadian-confederation Start this article Search for Canadian-confederation in. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... This article refers to a railroad built in the United States between Omaha and Sacramento completed in 1869. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... Location of the Red Sea The Red Sea is an inlet of the Indian Ocean between Africa and Asia. ...

1870s

Alexander Graham Bell speaking into prototype model of the telephone

Image File history File links 1876_Bell_Speaking_into_Telephone. ... Image File history File links 1876_Bell_Speaking_into_Telephone. ... Alexander Graham Bell (3 March 1847 – 2 August 1922) was an eminent scientist, inventor and innovator who is credited with the invention of the telephone. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants Second French Empire North German Confederation allied with South German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III François Achille Bazaine Patrice de Mac-Mahon, duc de Magenta Otto von Bismarck Helmuth von Moltke the Elder Strength 400,000 at wars beginning 1,200,000 Casualties 150,000... Map of the French Second Empire Capital Paris Language(s) French Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1852-1870 Napoleon III Legislature Parliament  - Upper house Senate  - Lower house Corps législatif History  - French coup of 1851 December 2 1851  - Established 1852  - Disestablished September 4, 1870 Currency French Franc The Second French Empire or... {{}} // The term imperialism was used from the third quarter of the nineteenth century to describe various forms of political control by a greater power over less powerful territories or nationalities, although analytically the phenomena which it denotes may differ greatly from each other and from the New imperialism. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This is an incomplete list of major famines, ordered by date. ... Anthem SorÅ«d-e MellÄ«-e Īrān Â² Capital (and largest city) Tehran Official languages Persian Demonym Iranian Government Islamic Republic  -  Supreme Leader  -  President Unification  -  Unified by Cyrus the Great 559 BCE   -  Parthian (Arsacid) dynastic empire (first reunification) 248 BCE-224 CE   -  Sassanid dynastic empire 224–651 CE   -  Safavid dynasty... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Second Industrial Revolution (1865–1900) is a phrase used by some historians to describe an assumed second phase of the Industrial Revolution. ... // The invention of the telephone (1876) by Alexander Graham Bell. ... The 1890s were sometimes referred to as the Mauve Decade, because William Henry Perkins aniline dye allowed the widespread use of that colour in fashion, and also as the Gay Nineties, under the then-current usage of the word gay which referred simply to merriment and frivolity, with no... The Long Depression (1873 – 1896) affected much of the world from the early 1870s until the mid-1890s and was contemporary with the Second Industrial Revolution. ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Yellowstone redirects here. ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... A young Maxwell at university. ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Around the world there have been a number of First Republics: French First Republic - 1792 First Spanish Republic First Philippine Republic In Italy the term First Republic is used informally to refer to the period up to 1991, when a series of scandals (mainly bribery) hit many politicians. ... 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... In the past, droughts have periodically led to major Indian famines [1] . The prospect of a devastating famine every few years was inherent in Indias ecology [2] From the earliest endeavours of the British East India Company on the Subcontinent but especially since 1857—the year of the first... Year 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) // January 31 - United States orders all Indigenous peoples in the United States to move onto reservations February 2 - The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs of Major League Baseball is formed. ... Development of the April Uprising The April Uprising (Bulgarian: Априлско въстание) was an insurrection organised by the Bulgarians in the Ottoman Empire from April to May 1876, the indirect result of which was the liberation of Bulgaria in 1878. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Year 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) // January 31 - United States orders all Indigenous peoples in the United States to move onto reservations February 2 - The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs of Major League Baseball is formed. ... Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... <nowiki>Insert non-formatted text hereBold text</nowiki>A famine is a social and economic crisis that is commonly accompanied by widespread malnutrition, starvation, epidemic and increased mortality. ... Year 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) // January 31 - United States orders all Indigenous peoples in the United States to move onto reservations February 2 - The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs of Major League Baseball is formed. ... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... <math> </math></math> The Breakers, a gilded-age mansion in Newport, Rhode Island. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Since the building of railroads they were the advance agents of industrialism, opening a national market for the first time and themselves providing a market for iron, steel, coal, and the products of related industries. ... Strike action, often simply called a strike, is a work stoppage caused by the mass refusal by employees to perform work. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Balkan redirects here. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... Plevna Monument near the walls of Kitai-gorod. ... The separate Bulgaria after The Treatry of Berlin - Lithography Nikolay Pavlovich The Treaty of Berlin was the final Act of the Congress of Berlin (June 13-July 13, 1878), by which the United Kingdom, Austria-Hungary, France, Germany, Italy, Russia and the Ottoman government under Sultan Hamid revised the Treaty... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... A telephone operator manually connecting calls with patch cables at a telephone switchboard. ... New Haven redirects here. ... Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants United Kingdom Zulu Nation Commanders Sir Bartle Frere, Frederick Augustus Thesiger, 2nd Baron Chelmsford Cetshwayo Strength 14,800 (6,400 Europeans 8,400 Natal Troops) 40,000 Casualties 1,727 killed, 256 wounded 8,250+ killed, 3,000+ wounded The Anglo-Zulu War was fought in 1879 between the... Adjusted grayscale tonal values: contrast and brightness. ... Adjusted grayscale tonal values: contrast and brightness. ... Edison redirects here. ...

1880s

Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants United Kingdom Transvaal Commanders Major-General Sir George Pomeroy Colley Commandant-General Piet Joubert Strength 1,200 3,000 Casualties 408 killed, 315 wounded 41 killed, 47 wounded The First Boer War (Dutch: Eerste Boerenoorlog, Afrikaans: Eerste Vryheidsoorlog, literally First Freedom War) also known as the First Anglo-Boer... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... A power station (also power plant) is a facility for the generation of electric power. ... 11kV/400V-230V transformer in an older suburb of Wellington, New Zealand Electricity distribution is the penultimate stage in the delivery (before retail) of electricity to end users. ... , The Pepperpot, Godalmings former town hall. ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants British Empire:  United Kingdom British India Australia[1]  Egypt Italy[2] Belgium[3] Mahdist Sudan Commanders Charles George Gordon â€  Herbert Kitchener Muhammad Ahmad Abdullah  The Mahdist War was a colonial war of the late 19th century. ... Year 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For the 1969 film about the Krakatoa eruption, see Krakatoa, East of Java. ... Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The conference of Berlin The Berlin Conference (German: or Congo Conference) of 1884–85 regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period, and coincided with Germanys sudden emergence as an imperial power. ... Cecil Rhodes: Cape-Cairo railway project. ... The Buxton Memorial Fountain, celebrating the emancipation of slaves in the British Empire in 1834, London. ... Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants France Qing China Black Flag Army Annam Strength 15,000 to 20,000 soldiers 25,000 to 35,000 soldiers (from the provinces of Guangdong, Guangxi, Fujian, Zhejiang and Yunnan) Casualties 2,100 killed or wounded 10,000 killed or wounded The Sino-French War or Franco-Chinese War... Flag Capital Hanoi Language(s) French Political structure Federation Historical era New Imperialism  - Addition of Laos 1893, 1887  - Vietnamese Declaration of Independence September 2, 1945  - Independence of Laos July 19, 1949  - Independence of Cambodia November 9, 1953  - Recognized Independence of Vietnam 1954, 1954 Area  - 1945 750,000 km² Currency French... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants Russian Empire Circassia  Ottoman Empire Caucasian Imamate Commanders Alexander I, Nicholas I, Alexander II, Aleksey Yermolov, Mikhail Vorontsov, Aleksandr Baryatinskiy Sheikh Mansur Ghazi Mollah Gamzat-bek Muhammad-Amin, naib of Imam Shamil[1] Strength 150,000 – 200,000[2] 20,000 regulars[3] Casualties Unknown 300,000 – 4,000... Circassian language is used in a number of ways: as a synonym for the Adyghe language; as a synonym for the Kabardian language; as a term for a distinct language that includes both Adyghe and Kabardian. ... Imam Shamil Imam Shamil (1797 – March 1871) was an Avar political and religious leader of the Muslim tribes of the Northern Caucasus. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Lei Áurea (Golden Law), adopted on May 13, 1888, was the law that finally abolished slavery in Brazil. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Mirza Ghulam Ahmad of Qadian (مرزا غلام احمد) (February 13, 1835 - May 26, 1908 corresponding to Shawal 14, 1250 AH - Rabi al-thani 24 1326 AH). ... This article is about the Ahmadiyya branch of Islam founded by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad. ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Empire of Brazil was a political entity that comprised present-day Brazil under the rule of Emperors Pedro I and his son Pedro II. Founded in 1822, it was replaced by a republic in 1889. ... // The Constitutionalist Revolution From 1889 to 1930, the government was a constitutional democracy, with the presidency alternating between the dominant states of São Paulo and Minas Gerais. ...

1890s

u. ... u. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar). ... 48-star flag, 1957 This is a survey of the postage stamps and postal history of the United States. ... For other uses, see George Eastman (disambiguation). ... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... Belligerents Sioux United States Commanders Big Foot† James W. Forsyth Strength 120 men 230 women and children 500 men Casualties and losses 178 killed 89 wounded 150 missing 25 killed 39 wounded For other uses, see Wounded Knee (disambiguation). ... For wars involving India, see Military history of India. ... The cowboy, the quintessential symbol of the American Old West, circa 1887. ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants  Qing Dynasty (China)  Empire of Japan Commanders Li Hongzhang Yamagata Aritomo Strength 630,000 men Beiyang Army  Beiyang Fleet 240,000 men Imperial Japanese Army  Imperial Japanese Navy Casualties 35,000 dead or wounded 13,823 dead, 3,973 wounded The First Sino-Japanese War (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese... This article is about the Korean civilization. ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... Combatants Kingdom of Italy Ethiopian Empire Commanders Oreste Baratieri Menelik II Strength 17,000 80,000-150,000 (estimated) Casualties 18,133 11,000 The First Italo–Ethiopian War was fought between Italy and Ethiopia in 1895-1896. ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... Routes to the Klondike. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Gojong, the Emperor Gwangmu (광무제 光武帝 gwang mu je) (8 September 1852–21 January 1919) was the twenty-sixth king and first emperor of the Korean Joseon Dynasty. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants United States Republic of Cuba Philippine Republic Kingdom of Spain Commanders Nelson A. Miles William R. Shafter George Dewey Máximo Gómez Emilio Aguinaldo Patricio Montojo Pascual Cervera Arsenio Linares Ramón Blanco Casualties 3,289 U.S. dead (432 from combat); considerably higher although undetermined Cuban and... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... Combatants Eight-Nation Alliance (ordered by contribution): Empire of Japan Russian Empire British Empire French Third Republic United States German Empire Kingdom of Italy Austro-Hungarian Empire Righteous Harmony Society Qing Dynasty (China) Commanders Edward Seymour Alfred Graf von Waldersee Ci Xi Strength 20,000 initially 49,000 total 50... Military of the Powers during the Boxer Rebellion, with their naval flags, from left to right: Italy, United States, France, Austria-Hungary, Japan, Germany, United Kingdom, Russia. ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants British Empire Orange Free State South African Republic Commanders Sir Redvers Buller Lord Kitchener Lord Roberts Paul Kruger Louis Botha Koos de la Rey Martinus Steyn Christiaan de Wet Casualties 6,000 - 7,000 (A further ~14,000 from disease) 6,000 - 8,000 (Unknown number from disease) Civilians... Year 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Belligerents United States Philippine Constabulary Philippine Scouts First Philippine Republic several groups post-1902 Commanders William McKinley Theodore Roosevelt Emilio Aguinaldo Miguel Malvar several unofficial leaders post-1902 Strength 126,000 soldiers[1] First Philippine Republic: 80,000 soldiers Casualties and losses ~5,000-7,000[1][2] ~12,000... Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

Significant people

Franz Boas one of the pioneers of modern anthropology

Famed American nurse Clara Barton, first president of the American Red Cross. ... A WWII-era poster encouraged American women to volunteer for the Red Cross as part of the war effort. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 330 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (846 × 1536 pixels, file size: 312 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 330 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (846 × 1536 pixels, file size: 312 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... For the western film, see Sitting Bull (film). ... For the western film, see Sitting Bull (film). ... Eddie Plenty Holes, a Sioux Indian photographed about 1899. ... Colonel David Crockett (August 17, 1786 – March 6, 1836) was a celebrated 19th-century American folk hero, frontiersman, soldier and politician; usually referred to as Davy Crockett and by the popular title King of the Wild Frontier. He represented Tennessee in the U.S. House of Representatives, served in the... A folk hero is type of hero, real or mythological. ... A frontier is a political and geographical term referring to areas near or beyond a boundary, or of a different nature. ... This article is about a military rank. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A politician is an individual who is a formally recognized and active member of a government, or a person who influences the way a society is governed through an understanding of political power and group dynamics. ... For other uses, see Jefferson Davis (disambiguation). ... William Gilbert Grace (July 18, 1848–October 23, 1915) was an English cricketer who, by his extraordinary skills, made cricket perhaps the first modern spectator sport, and who developed most of the techniques of modern batting. ... Haussmann, circa 1865 Georges-Eugène Haussmann (March 27, 1809 – January 11, 1891), who called himself Baron Haussmann, was a French civic planner whose name is associated with the rebuilding of Paris. ... Franz Joseph I (in Hungarian I. Ferenc József, in English Francis Joseph I) (August 18, 1830 – November 21, 1916) of the Habsburg Dynasty was Emperor of Austria, Apostolic King of Hungary, King of Bohemia from 1848 until 1916 and a German prince (Deutscher Fürst). ... Chief Joseph (March 3, 1840–September 21, 1904) was the chief of the Wal-lam-wat-kain (Wallowa) band of Nez Perce Indians during General Oliver O. Howards attempt to forcibly remove his band and the other non-treaty Indians to a reservation in Idaho. ... Nez Percé warrior on horse, 1910 The Nez Percé or Nez Perce (pronounced as in French, or ) are a tribe of Native Americans who inhabited the Pacific Northwest region of the United States at the time of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. ... For other uses, see Ned Kelly (disambiguation). ... Elizabeth Kenny (1950) Sister Elizabeth Kenny (20 September 1880 - 20 November 1952) was an Australian bush nurse famous for her innovative treatment of Poliomyelitis (polio). ... Sándor Körösi Csoma (1784-1836) was a Hungarian traveller and philologist, born in Körös, Transylvania, who attempted to trace the origin of the Magyar ethnic group. ... This article is about historical/cultural Tibet. ... Tibetan women demonstrating use of the butter churn at the Field Museum The Tibetan civilization boasts a rich culture. ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... Fitz Hugh Ludlow Fitz Hugh Ludlow, sometimes seen as “Fitzhugh Ludlow,” (September 11, 1836 – September 12, 1870) was an American author, journalist, and explorer; best-known for his autobiographical book The Hasheesh Eater (1857). ... Embley Park, now a school, was the family home of Florence Nightingale. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... For other persons of the same name, see Matthew Perry. ... Sacagawea (Sakakawea, Sacajawea, Sacajewea; see below) (c. ... Ignaz Semmelweis (1860 portrait): advised handwashing with a chlorinated-lime solution in 1847. ... Hygiene refers to practices associated with ensuring good health and cleanliness. ... Dr. John Snow John Snow (16 March 1813 – 16 June 1858) was a British physician and a leader in the adoption of anaesthesia and medical hygiene. ... Epidemiology is the study of factors affecting the health and illness of populations, and serves as the foundation and logic of interventions made in the interest of public health and preventive medicine. ... Frederick Fred Spofforth (born in Balmain, Sydney on 9 September 1853, died in Surrey, England on 4 June 1926) - also called The Demon, was arguably the Australian cricket teams first and best pace bowler of the 19th century. ... This article is about the sport. ... Victoria Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria) (24 May 1819–22 January 1901) was a Queen of the United Kingdom, reigning from 20 June 1837 until her death. ... The British monarch or Sovereign is the monarch and head of state of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories, and is the source of all executive, judicial and (as the Queen-in-Parliament) legislative power. ... William Wilberforce (24 August 1759–29 July 1833) was a British politician and philanthropist. ... A statue of Hong Xiuquan Hóng Xiùquán (洪秀全, Wade-Giles: Hung Hsiu-chüan, born Hong Renkun 洪仁坤, Courtesy name Huoxiu 火秀; January 10, 1812-June 1, 1864) was a Hakka Chinese Christian who led the Taiping Rebellion and established the Heavenly Kingdom of Taiping, in which he was known... Combatants Qing Empire United Kingdom France (United Kingdom and France join the war later) Taiping Heavenly Kingdom Commanders Xianfeng Emperor Tongzhi Emperor Empress Dowager Cixi Charles George Gordon Frederick Townsend Ward Hong Xiuquan Yang Xiuqing Xiao Chaogui Feng Yunshan Wei Changhui Shi Dakai Li Xiucheng Strength 2,000,000-5... Franz Boas This work is copyrighted. ... Franz Boas This work is copyrighted. ... Franz Boas Franz Boas (July 9, 1858 – December 21, 1942[1]) was one of the pioneers of modern anthropology and is often called the Father of American Anthropology. Born in Germany, Boas worked for most of his life in North America. ... This article is about the social science. ...

Show business and Theatre

Sarah Bernhardt (October 23, 1844 – March 26, 1923) was a French stage actress. ... Edwin Booth as Hamlet. ... Anton Pavlovich Chekhov (Russian: , IPA: ) was a Russian short story writer and playwright. ... Buffalo Bill (February 26, 1846 – January 10, 1917) was born William Frederick Cody in the American state of Iowa. ... Great Basin region, typical American West The Western United States has played a significant role in history and fiction. ... Eleonora Duse (October 3, 1858–April 21, 1924), was an Italian actress, often known simply as Duse. ... Ibsen redirects here. ... Edmund Kean (March 17, 1787 – May 15, 1833) was an English actor, regarded in his time as the greatest ever. ... Charles John Kean (January 18, 1811 - January 22, 1868), was born at Waterford, Ireland, the son of the actor Edmund Kean. ... First U.S.Daguerrotype of Jenny Lind in New York, September 14, 1850 taken by her Swedish classmate, Poly Von Schneidau from Chicago, at the Mathew Brady Studio in New York City. ... Elizabeth Rosanna Gilbert [1] (February 17, 1821 – January 17, 1861), better known by the stage name Lola Montez, was an Irish-born dancer and actress who became famous as an exotic dancer, courtesan and the mistress of King Ludwig I of Bavaria. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the sharpshooter. ... Great Basin region, typical American West The Western United States has played a significant role in history and fiction. ... Dame Ellen Terry, GBE (February 27, 1848 – July 21, 1928) was an English stage actress. ...

Athletics

Adrian Constantine Anson (April 17, 1852 – April 14, 1922), known by the nicknames Cap (for Captain) and Pop, was a professional baseball player in the National Association and Major League Baseball. ... James John Corbett, born September 1, 1866 in San Francisco, California, United States – died February 18, 1933 in Bayside, New York, was a heavyweight boxing champion. ... Edward James Delahanty (1867-1903) Edward James Delahanty (October 30, 1867 - July 2, 1903) was a Hall of Fame Major League Baseball player from 1888 to 1903. ... Robert James Bob Fitzsimmons (May 26, 1863 - October 22, 1917) was a Cornish native and moved to New Zealand in his childhood. ... Pud Galvin baseball card, 1887 James Francis Pud Galvin (December 25, 1856 – March 7, 1902), an American professional baseball pitcher, was Major League Baseballs first 300-game winner. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... Alternative meanings at IOC (disambiguation) The International Olympic Committee is an organization based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin in 1894 to reinstate the Ancient Olympic Games held in Greece, and organize this sports event every four years. ... The Summer Olympic Games are an international multi-sport event held every four years, organised by the International Olympic Committee. ... For other uses, see Athens (disambiguation). ... Charles Radbourn on a 1887-1890 Goodwin & Company baseball card (Old Judge (N172)). Charles Gardner Radbourn (December 11, 1854 - February 5, 1897), nicknamed Old Hoss, was a pitcher in Major League Baseball prior to the turn of the 20th century. ... For the U.S. Secretary of the Navy, see John L. Sullivan (U.S. Navy). ...

Business

Main article: Robber Barons

The term robber baron dates back to the twelfth and thirteenth centuries and originally referred to feudal lords of land through which the Rhine River in Europe passed who abused their position to stop passing merchant ships and demand tolls without being authorized to do so. ... Andrew Carnegie (last name properly pronounced , but often )[1] (November 25, 1835 – August 11, 1919) was a Scottish industrialist, businessman, a major philanthropist, and the founder of Pittsburghs Carnegie Steel Company which was later merged with Elbert H. Garys Federal Steel Company and several smaller companies to create... Henry Clay Frick Henry Clay Frick (December 19, 1849 – December 2, 1919) was an American industrialist and art patron. ... Jay Gould (1836-1892) Jason Gould (May 27, 1836 – December 2, 1892) was an American financier. ... Andrew William Mellon (March 24, 1855 — August 27, 1937) was an American banker, industrialist, philanthropist, art collector and Secretary of the Treasury from March 4, 1921 until February 12, 1932. ... John Pierpont Morgan (April 17, 1837 – March 31, 1913), American financier and banker, was born in Hartford, Connecticut, a son of Junius Spencer Morgan (1813–1890), who was a partner of George Peabody and the founder of the house of J. S. Morgan & Co. ... John Davison Rockefeller, Sr. ... Alternative meaning: Claude L vi-Strauss, the French anthropologist. ...

Famous and infamous personalities

Deputies Bat Masterson and Wyatt Earp in Dodge City, 1876

Wyatt Earp and Bat Masterson File links The following pages link to this file: Wyatt Earp ... Wyatt Earp and Bat Masterson File links The following pages link to this file: Wyatt Earp ... William Barclay Bat Masterson (November 27, 1853 [1] – October 25, 1921) was a figure of the American Old West. ... Wyatt Berry Stapp Earp (March 19, 1848–January 13, 1929) was an American farmer, teamster, sometime buffalo hunter, officer of the law in various Western frontier towns, gambler, saloon-keeper, and miner. ... For Michael Curtizs 1939 western movie, see Dodge City (1939 movie). ... Henry McCarty (November 23, 1860–July 14, 1881) better known as Billy the Kid but also known by the alias William Henry Bonney, was a 19th century American frontier outlaw and murderer who was a participant in the Lincoln County War. ... For other uses, see Billy the Kid (disambiguation). ... Great Basin region, typical American West The Western United States has played a significant role in history and fiction. ... James Bowie (1796 - March 6, 1836), better known as Jim Bowie, was a pioneer and soldier who took a prominent part in the Texas Revolution and was killed at the Battle of the Alamo. ... Alamo may mean: The Battle of the Alamo, a battle fought during the Texas Revolution Alamo Mission in San Antonio, a building in Texas which was the focus of the Battle of the Alamo in 1836 Alamo Beer, a brand from King of the Hill TV series Alamo Rent A... A typical bowie knife, with its hallmark large blade and unique shape. ... Jim Bridger Jim Bridger (right) is honored along with Pony Express founder Alexander Majors (left) and Kansas City founder John Calvin McCoy at Pioneer Square in Westport in Kansas City. ... Great Basin region, typical American West The Western United States has played a significant role in history and fiction. ... Liver-Eating Johnson The Mountain Men is also the name of a 1980 movie starring Charlton Heston. ... Kit Carson Christopher Houston Kit Carson (December 24, 1809 – May 23, 1868) was an American frontiersman. ... Great Basin region, typical American West The Western United States has played a significant role in history and fiction. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... For other uses, see Cochise (disambiguation). ... Chiricahua - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Custer redirects here. ... Great Basin region, typical American West The Western United States has played a significant role in history and fiction. ... Wyatt Berry Stapp Earp (March 19, 1848–January 13, 1929) was an American farmer, teamster, sometime buffalo hunter, officer of the law in various Western frontier towns, gambler, saloon-keeper, and miner. ... Great Basin region, typical American West The Western United States has played a significant role in history and fiction. ... Patrick Pat Floyd Garrett (June 5, 1850 – February 28, 1908) was an American Old West lawman, bartender, and customs agent who was best known for killing Billy the Kid. ... Great Basin region, typical American West The Western United States has played a significant role in history and fiction. ... For other uses, see Geronimo (disambiguation). ... Chiricahua - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... James Butler Hickok (May 27, 1837-August 2, 1876) better known as Wild Bill Hickok, was a semi-legendary figure in the American Wild West. ... Great Basin region, typical American West The Western United States has played a significant role in history and fiction. ... John Henry Doc Holliday (August 14, 1851 – November 8, 1887) was an American dentist, gambler, and gunfighter of the American Old West frontier who is usually remembered for his associations with Wyatt Earp and the Gunfight at the O.K. Corral. ... Great Basin region, typical American West The Western United States has played a significant role in history and fiction. ... For other uses, see Crazy Horse (disambiguation). ... Eddie Plenty Holes, a Sioux Indian photographed about 1899. ... For other people named Frank James, see Frank James (disambiguation). ... Great Basin region, typical American West The Western United States has played a significant role in history and fiction. ... For other persons named Jesse James, see Jesse James (disambiguation). ... Great Basin region, typical American West The Western United States has played a significant role in history and fiction. ... For the film, see Calamity Jane (1953 film) Calamity Jane at age 33. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... William Barclay Bat Masterson (November 27, 1853 [1] – October 25, 1921) was a figure of the American Old West. ... Great Basin region, typical American West The Western United States has played a significant role in history and fiction. ... Brooklyn Eagle, March 10, 1855 (partial) Brooklyn Eagle, March 20, 1855 William Poole, aka Bill The Butcher (July 1821 - March 8, 1855), was a member of the Bowery Boys street gang and the U.S. political party the Know-Nothings. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The Bowery Boys were a nativist, anti-Catholic, and anti-Irish gang based North of the Five Points district of New York City. ... See also bare-knuckle for other uses. ... The Know-Nothing movement was a nativist American political movement of the 1850s. ...

Anthropology

Franz Boas Franz Boas (July 9, 1858 – December 21, 1942[1]) was one of the pioneers of modern anthropology and is often called the Father of American Anthropology. Born in Germany, Boas worked for most of his life in North America. ... Nicholai Nicholaevich Miklukho-Maklai (Николай Николаевич Миклухо-Маклай in Russian) (1846 – 1888) was a Russian ethnologist, anthropologist and biologist. ... Lewis Henry Morgan (November 21, 1818 – December 17, 1881) was an American ethnologist, anthropologist and writer. ... Edward Burnett Tylor. ... Karl Adolf Verner (* 7. ...

Journalists, missionaries, explorers

Roald Engelbregt Gravning Amundsen (July 16, 1872 – c. ... Sir Samuel White Baker (8 June 1821-30 December 1893) was an English explorer. ... For other persons named Richard Burton, see Richard Burton (disambiguation). ... Horace Greeley (February 3, 1811 – November 29, 1872) was an American editor of a leading newspaper, a founder of the Liberal Republican Party, reformer and politician. ... David Livingstone (19 March 1813 – 1 May 1873) was a Scottish Congregationalist pioneer medical missionary with the London Missionary Society and explorer in central Africa. ... Thomas Nast (September 27, 1840 – December 7, 1902) was a famous German-American caricaturist and editorial cartoonist in the 19th century and is considered to be the father of American political cartooning. ... A caricaturist is an artist who specializes in drawing caricatures. ... An editorial cartoonist, also known as a political cartoonist, is an artist who draws cartoons that contain some level of political or social commentary. ... Robert Peary in naval uniform Robert Edwin Peary (May 6, 1856 – February 20, 1920) was an American explorer who claimed to have been the first person, on April 6, 1909, to reach the geographic North Pole -- a claim that has subsequently attracted much criticism. ... John Hanning Speke (May 4, 1827 – September 15, 1864) was an officer in the British Indian army, who made three voyages of exploration to Africa. ... Sir Henry Morton Stanley, also known in the Congo as Bula Matari (Breaker of Rocks or, alternatively, Sledge Hammer) , born John Rowlands (January 28, 1841 – May 10, 1904), was a journalist and explorer famous for his exploration of Africa and his search for David Livingstone. ... John L. OSullivan as he appeared on the cover of Harpers Weekly in November 1874. ... This article is about the history and influence of the concept. ...

Visual artists, painters, sculptors

Main articles: History of painting and Western painting
Monet's Impression, Sunrise, which gave the name to Impressionism

The Realism and Romanticism of the early 19th century gave way to Impressionism and Post-Impressionism in the later half of the century, with Paris being the dominant art capital of the world. In the United States the Hudson River School was prominent. 19th century painters included: // The history of painting reaches back in time to artifacts from pre-historic humans, and spans all cultures. ... See also Western art, History of painting, History of art, Art history, Painting, Outline of painting history Jan Vermeer, Girl with a Pearl Earring, known as the Mona Lisa of the North 1665-1667 Édouard Manet, The Balcony 1868 The history of Western painting represents a continuous, though disrupted, tradition... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1241x1022, 171 KB) Same image in much smaller size is found at Image:Liberty Leading the People. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1241x1022, 171 KB) Same image in much smaller size is found at Image:Liberty Leading the People. ... Liberty Leading the People (French: ) is a painting by Eugène Delacroix commemorating the July Revolution of 1830, which toppled Charles X. A woman personifying Liberty leads the people forward over the bodies of the fallen, holding the tricolore flag of the French Revolution in one hand and brandishing a... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1051x808, 300 KB) Claude Monet, Impression, soleil levant, 1872 Oil on canvas, 48 x 63 cm - Musee Marmottan, Paris File links The following pages link to this file: Claude Monet 19th century Impression, Sunrise French art of the 19th century ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1051x808, 300 KB) Claude Monet, Impression, soleil levant, 1872 Oil on canvas, 48 x 63 cm - Musee Marmottan, Paris File links The following pages link to this file: Claude Monet 19th century Impression, Sunrise French art of the 19th century ... Not to be confused with Édouard Manet, another painter of the same era. ... Impression, Sunrise (Impression, soleil levant) Impression, Sunrise (Impression, soleil levant) is a painting by Claude Monet, for which the Impressionist movement was named. ... This article is about the art movement. ... Realism is a style of painting that depicts the actuality of what the eyes can see. ... Romantics redirects here. ... This article is about the art movement. ... Camille Pissarro, Haying at Eragny, 1889, Private Collection Post-Impressionism is the term coined by the British artist and art critic Roger Fry in 1910, to describe the development of European art since Manet. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Thomas Cole (1801-1848) View from Mount Holyoke, Northampton, Massachusetts, after a Thunderstorm or The Oxbow 1836 The Hudson River School was a mid-19th century American art movement by a group of landscape painters, whose aesthetic vision was influenced by romanticism. ...

Albert Bierstadt, by Napoleon Sarony. ... For other persons named William Blake, see William Blake (disambiguation). ... Self-portrait (1878) by painter Mary Cassatt Mary Stevenson Cassatt (May 22, 1844 – June 14, 1926) was an American painter and printmaker. ... Categories: 1839 births | 1906 deaths | French painters | Post-impressionism | Artist stubs ... Frederic Edwin Church (May 4, 1826 - April 7, 1900) was an American landscape painter born in Hartford, Connecticut. ... Thomas Cole, ca. ... A self portrait by John Constable John Constable (11 June 1776 – 31 March 1837) was an English Romantic painter. ... Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot (portrait by Nadar) Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot (July 26, 1796 – February 22, French landscape painter. ... Jean Désiré Gustave Courbet (10 June 1819 – 31 December 1877) was a French painter who led the Realist movement in 19th-century French painting. ... Honoré Daumier (portrait by Nadar). ... Degas redirects here. ... Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (April 26, 1798 – August 13, 1863) was one of the most important of the French Romantic painters. ... Self portrait (1902), National Academy of Design, New York. ... Self-portrait in chalk, 1810 by fellow artist Georg Friedrich Kersting, 1812 Caspar David Friedrich (September 5, 1774 – May 7, 1840) was a 19th century German romantic painter, considered by many critics to be one of the finest representatives of the movement. ... Eugène Henri Paul Gauguin (7 June 1848 – 8 May 1903) was a leading Post-Impressionist painter. ... Monument at Gericaults tomb. ... van Gogh redirects here. ... Memorial portrait of Hiroshige by Kunisada. ... Winslow Homer Winslow Homer (February 24, 1836 – September 29, 1910) was an North American landscape painter and printmaker, most famous for his marine subjects. ... Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (pronounced (Ang, rhymes with bang, with a hint of the r, but the final es is not pronounced) (August 29, 1780 - January 14, 1867) was a French Neoclassical painter. ... Manet redirects here. ... Not to be confused with Édouard Manet, another painter of the same era. ... Berthe Morisot in a portrait by Édouard Manet, 1872 Berthe Morisot (January 14, 1841 – March 2, 1895) was an Impressionist painter. ... The Scream. ... Muybridges The Horse in Motion. ... The garden of Pontoise, painted 1875. ... Pierre-Auguste Renoir (February 25, 1841–December 3, 1919) was a French artist who was a leading painter in the development of the Impressionist style. ... Auguste Rodin - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The Race Track (Death on a Pale Horse) (1895 - 1910), Cleveland Museum of Art Albert Pinkham Ryder (March 19, 1847 - March 28, 1917) was an American painter best known for his poetic and moody allegorical works and seascapes, as well as his eccentric personality. ... Self Portrait, 1906, oil on canvas, 70 x 53 cm, Uffizi Gallery, Florence. ... Le Chahut was painted by Seurat from 1889 to 1890. ... Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (IPA ) (November 24, 1864 – September 9, 1901) was a French painter, printmaker, draftsman, and illustrator, whose immersion in the decadent and theatrical life of fin de siècle Paris yielded an oeuvre of provocative images of modern life. ... Joseph Mallord William Turner (23 April 1775[1] – 19 December 1851) was an English Romantic landscape painter, watercolourist and printmaker, whose style can be said to have laid the foundation for Impressionism. ... James Abbott McNeill Whistler (July 14, 1834 - July 17, 1903) was an American painter and etcher. ... Tsukioka Yoshitoshi (1839 - June 9, 1892) (Japanese: 月岡 芳年; also named Taiso Yoshitoshi) was the last great master - and one of the great innovative and creative geniuses - of the Japanese woodblock print. ...

Music

Sonata form matured during the Classical era to become the primary form of instrumental compositions throughout the 19th century. Much of the music from the nineteenth century was referred to as being in the Romantic style. Many great composers lived through this era such as Ludwig van Beethoven, Franz Liszt, Frédéric Chopin, Piotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky and Richard Wagner. Others included: The Romantic music era was the predominant music era of the 19th century. ... The expression romantic music and the homophone phrase Romantic music have two essentially different meanings. ... Romantics redirects here. ... Download high resolution version (662x826, 99 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (662x826, 99 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... “Beethoven” redirects here. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... The expression romantic music and the homophone phrase Romantic music have two essentially different meanings. ... “Beethoven” redirects here. ... Liszt redirects here. ... Chopin redirects here. ... Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky (Russian Пётр Ильи́ч Чайко́вский, sometimes transliterated as Piotr, Anglicised as Peter Ilich), (May 7, 1840 – November 6, 1893 (N.S.); April 25, 1840 – October 25, 1893 (O.S.)) was a Russian composer of the Romantic era. ... Richard Wagner Wilhelm Richard Wagner (22 May 1813 – 13 February 1883) was a German composer, conductor, music theorist, and essayist, primarily known for his operas (or music dramas as they were later called). ...

Schubert redirects here. ... For other persons named Robert Schumann, see Robert Schumann (disambiguation). ... Chopin redirects here. ... Painting of Berlioz by Gustave Courbet, 1850. ... Portrait of Mendelssohn by the English miniaturist James Warren Childe (1778-1862), 1839 Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, born and generally known as Felix Mendelssohn (February 3, 1809 – November 4, 1847) is a German composer, pianist and conductor of the early Romantic period. ... “Verdi” redirects here. ... Bruckner redirects here. ... Johannes Brahms Johannes Brahms (May 7, 1833 – April 3, 1897) was a German composer of the Romantic period. ... Mahler redirects here. ... Antonín Dvořák Antonín Leopold Dvořák ( , often anglicized DVOR-zhak; September 8, 1841 – May 1, 1904) was a Czech composer of romantic music, who employed the idioms and melodies of the folk music of his native Bohemia and Moravia in symphonic, oratorial, chamber and operatic works. ... W. S. Gilbert Arthur Sullivan Gilbert and Sullivan refers to the Victorian era partnership of librettist W. S. Gilbert (1836–1911) and composer Arthur Sullivan (1842–1900). ... Charles Camille Saint-Saëns () (9 October 1835 – 16 December 1921) was a French composer, organist, conductor, and pianist, known especially for his large-scale orchestral works The Carnival of the Animals, Danse Macabre, Samson et Dalila, and Symphony No. ... Edvard Grieg Edvard Hagerup Grieg (15 June 1843 – 4 September 1907) was a Norwegian composer and pianist who composed in the romantic period. ... Georges Bizet Georges Bizet (October 25, 1838 – June 3, 1875) was a French composer and pianist of the romantic era. ... Alexander Porfiryevich Borodin (Russian: , Aleksandr Porfirevič Borodin) (31 Oct. ... Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky Modest Petrovich Mussorgsky (Russian: , Modest Petrovič Musorgskij, French: ) (March 9/21, 1839 – March 16/28, 1881), one of the Russian composers known as the Five, was an innovator of Russian music. ... Niccolò (or Nicolò) Paganini (October 27, 1782 – May 27, 1840) was an Italian violinist, violist, guitarist, and composer. ... Claude Debussy, photo by Félix Nadar, 1908. ... Jacques Offenbach Jacques Offenbach (20 June 1819, in Cologne – 5 October 1880, in Paris) was a French composer and cellist of the Romantic era and one of the originators of the operetta form. ... Categories: Artist stubs | 1827 births | 1901 deaths | German painters | Swiss painters | Natives of Basel ...

Literature

Mark Twain in 1894

On the literary front the new century opens with Romanticism, a movement that spread throughout Europe in reaction to 18th-century rationalism, and it develops more or less along the lines of the Industrial Revolution, with a design to react against the dramatic changes wrought on nature by the steam engine and the railway. William Wordsworth and Samuel Taylor Coleridge are considered the initiators of the new school in England, while in the continent the German Sturm und Drang spreads its influence as far as Italy and Spain. Literature of the nineteenth century is, for the purpose of this article, literature written from (roughly) 1799 to 1900. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Charles_Dickens_3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Charles_Dickens_3. ... Dickens redirects here. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (727x918, 225 KB) Summary Twain in the lab of Nikola Tesla, spring of 1894 Taken in the spring of 1894, and originally published as part of an article by T.C. Martin called Teslas Oscillator and Other Inventions that appeared... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (727x918, 225 KB) Summary Twain in the lab of Nikola Tesla, spring of 1894 Taken in the spring of 1894, and originally published as part of an article by T.C. Martin called Teslas Oscillator and Other Inventions that appeared... Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910),[1] better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American humanist,[2] humorist, satirist, lecturer and writer. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... A watercolour and pencil sketch of Jane Austen, believed to be drawn from life by her sister Cassandra (c. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1190x1490, 419 KB) en: Daguerreotype of Edgar Allan Poe 1848, first published 1880. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1190x1490, 419 KB) en: Daguerreotype of Edgar Allan Poe 1848, first published 1880. ... An 1837 daguerreotype by Daguerre. ... Edgar Allan Poe (January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American poet, short story writer, playwright, editor, literary critic, essayist and one of the leaders of the American Romantic Movement. ... Ralph Waldo Emerson photogravure from 19th century book This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Ralph Waldo Emerson photogravure from 19th century book This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882) was an American essayist, poet, and leader of the Transcendentalist movement in the early nineteenth century. ... Romantics redirects here. ... // The term steam engine may also refer to an entire railroad steam locomotive. ... This is the top-level page of WikiProject trains Rail tracks Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ... Wordsworth redirects here. ... Samuel Taylor Coleridge (October 21, 1772 – July 25, 1834) (pronounced ) was an English poet, critic, and philosopher who was, along with his friend William Wordsworth, one of the founders of the Romantic Movement in England and one of the Lake Poets. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Sturm und Drang (literally: storm and stress) was a Germany literary movement that developed during the latter half of the 18th century. ...


French arts had been hampered by the Napoleonic Wars but subsequently developed rapidly. Modernism began. Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ...


The Goncourts and Emile Zola in France and Giovanni Verga in Italy produce some of the finest naturalist novels. Italian naturalist novels are especially important in that they give a social map of the new unified Italy to a people that until then had been scarcely aware of its ethnic and cultural diversity. On February 21, 1848, Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels published the Communist Manifesto. mile Zola (April 2, 1840 - September 29, 1902) was an influential French novelist, the most important example of the literary school of naturalism, and a major figure in the political liberalization of France. ... Giovanni Verga. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Engels redirects here. ...


There was a huge literary output during the 19th century. Some of the most famous writers included the Russians Leo Tolstoy, Anton Chekov and Fyodor Dostoevsky; the English Charles Dickens, John Keats, and Jane Austen; the Scottish Sir Walter Scott; the Irish Oscar Wilde; the Americans Edgar Allan Poe, Ralph Waldo Emerson, and Mark Twain; and the French Victor Hugo, Honoré de Balzac, Jules Verne and Charles Baudelaire. Some other important writers of note included: Count Lev Nikolayevich Tolstoy(Lyof, Lyoff) (September 9 [O.S. August 28] 1828 – November 20 [O.S. November 7] 1910) (Russian: , IPA:  ), commonly referred to in English as Leo Tolstoy, was a Russian writer – novelist, essayist, dramatist and philosopher – as well as pacifist Christian anarchist and educational reformer. ... Anton Pavlovich Chekhov (Анто́н Па́влович Че́хов) (born January 29, 1860 (Jan. ... Fyodor Mikhailovich Dostoevsky (Russian: , Russian pronunciation: , sometimes transliterated Dostoyevsky, Dostoievsky, Dostojevskij or Dostoevski  ) (November 11 [O.S. October 30] 1821 – February 9 [O.S. January 28] 1881) was a Russian novelist and writer of fiction whose works, including Crime and Punishment and The Brothers Karamazov, have had a profound and... Dickens redirects here. ... Keats redirects here. ... A watercolour and pencil sketch of Jane Austen, believed to be drawn from life by her sister Cassandra (c. ... For the first Premier of Saskatchewan see Thomas Walter Scott Sir Walter Scott (August 14, 1771 - September 21, 1832) was a prolific Scottish historical novelist and poet popular throughout Europe. ... Oscar Fingal OFlahertie Wills Wilde (October 16, 1854 – November 30, 1900) was an Irish playwright, novelist, poet, and author of short stories. ... Edgar Allan Poe (January 19, 1809 – October 7, 1849) was an American poet, short story writer, playwright, editor, literary critic, essayist and one of the leaders of the American Romantic Movement. ... Ralph Waldo Emerson (May 25, 1803 – April 27, 1882) was an American essayist, poet, and leader of the Transcendentalist movement in the early nineteenth century. ... Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910),[1] better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American humanist,[2] humorist, satirist, lecturer and writer. ... Victor-Marie Hugo (pronounced ) (February 26, 1802 — May 22, 1885) was a French poet, playwright, novelist, essayist, visual artist, statesman, human rights campaigner, and perhaps the most influential exponent of the Romantic movement in France. ... Balzac redirects here. ... This article is about the French author. ... “Baudelaire” redirects here. ...

Leopoldo Alas (1852 - 1901) was a Spanish author, writer and critic. ... For other uses, see Hans Christian Andersen (disambiguation). ... Joaquim Maria Machado de Assis (June 21, 1839 - September 29, 1908) was a Brazilian realist novelist, poet and short-story writer born in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. ... A watercolour and pencil sketch of Jane Austen, believed to be drawn from life by her sister Cassandra (c. ... Gertrudis Gómez de Avellaneda y Arteaga (1814-1873) was a Cuban writer. ... Gustavo Adolfo Bécquer Gustavo Adolfo Domínguez Bastida, better known as Bécquer, (Seville February 17, 1836 – Madrid December 22, 1870) was a Spanish post-romanticist writer of poetry and short stories, now considered one of the most important figures in Spanish literature. ... Elizabeth Barrett Browning Elizabeth Barrett Browning (Moulton) (March 6, 1806 – June 29, 1861) was a member of the Barrett family and one of the most respected poets of the Victorian era. ... Anne Brontës grave at Scarborough Anne Brontë (IPA: ) (January 17, 1820 – May 28, 1849) was a British novelist and poet, the youngest of the Brontë literary family. ... Charlotte Brontë (IPA: ) (April 21, 1816 – March 31, 1855) was an English novelist and the eldest of the three Brontë sisters whose novels have become enduring classics of English literature. ... Emily Jane Brontë (pronounced ); (July 30, 1818 – December 19, 1848) was a British novelist and poet, now best remembered for her only novel Wuthering Heights, a classic of English literature. ... Lord Byron, English poet Lord Byron (1803), as painted by Elisabeth Vigee-Lebrun George Gordon Byron, 6th Baron Byron, (January 22, 1788 – April 19, 1824) was the most widely read English language poet of his day. ... Karl Georg Büchner (October 17, 1813 – February 19, 1837) was a German dramatist and writer of prose. ... Rosalía de Castro Rosalía Castro de Murguía better known as Rosalía de Castro (24 February 1837 – 15 July 1885) was a Galician writer and poet. ... François-René de Chateaubriand, painting by Anne-Louis Girodet de Roussy-Trioson, beginning of 19th century. ... Kate Chopin (born Katherine OFlaherty on February 8, 1850 – August 22, 1904) was an American author of short stories and novels, mostly of a Louisiana Creole background. ... Samuel Taylor Coleridge (October 21, 1772 – July 25, 1834) (pronounced ) was an English poet, critic, and philosopher who was, along with his friend William Wordsworth, one of the founders of the Romantic Movement in England and one of the Lake Poets. ... Cooper portrait by John Wesley Jarvis, 1822 James Fenimore Cooper (September 15, 1789 – September 14, 1851) was a prolific and popular American writer of the early 19th century. ... For the U.S. Continental Congress delegate, see Stephen Crane (delegate). ... From the daguerreotype taken at Mount Holyoke, December 1846 or early 1847. ... Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle, DL (22 May 1859 – 7 July 1930) was a British author most noted for his stories about the detective Sherlock Holmes, which are generally considered a major innovation in the field of crime fiction, and for the adventures of Professor Challenger. ... Alexandre Dumas redirects here. ... Mary Ann (Marian) Evans (22 November 1819 – 22 December 1880), better known by her pen name George Eliot, was an English novelist. ... Gustave Flaubert Gustave Flaubert (December 12, 1821 – May 8, 1880) was a French writer who is counted among the greatest Western novelists. ... Margaret Fuller, by Marchioness Ossoli. ... Elizabeth Gaskell, in the 1832 miniature by William John Thomson Elizabeth Cleghorn Gaskell (née Stevenson; 29 September 1810–12 November 1865), often referred to simply as Mrs. ... Goethe redirects here. ... Nikolai Vasilievich Gogol (Russian: ; IPA: ; Ukrainian: ) (April 1, 1809 — March 4, 1852) was a Russian-language writer of Ukrainian origin. ... Juana Manuela Gorriti (1818-1896) Argentine writer. ... For other uses, see Brothers Grimm (disambiguation). ... Sir Henry Rider Haggard KBE (June 22, 1856 – May 14, 1925), born in Norfolk, England, was a Victorian writer of adventure novels set in exotic locations. ... Thomas Hardy redirects here. ... Nathaniel Hawthorne (born Nathaniel Hathorne; July 4, 1804 – May 19, 1864) was a 19th century American novelist and short story writer. ... Friedrich Hölderlin Johann Christian Friedrich Hölderlin [] (March 20, 1770 – June 6, 1843) was a major German lyric poet. ... Christian Johann Heinrich Heine (December 13, 1797 – February 17, 1856) was a journalist, an essayist, and one of the most significant German romantic poets. ... Ibsen redirects here. ... Washington Irving (April 3, 1783 – November 28, 1859) was an American author of the early 19th century. ... For other uses of this name, see Henry James (disambiguation). ... Jules Laforgue (August 16, 1860–August 20, 1887) was a French poet born in Montevideo, Uruguay. ... Giacomo Leopardi, Count (June 29, 1798 – June 14, 1837) is generally considered, along with such figures as Dante, Petrarca, Ariosto and Tasso, to be among Italys greatest poets and one of its greatest thinkers. ... Alessandro Manzoni (Francesco Hayez, 1841, Brera Art Gallery). ... Portrait of Stéphane Mallarmé by Édouard Manet. ... For other persons named José Martí, see José Martí (disambiguation). ... Clorinda Matto de Turner was a fairly important important Latin American writer of the age of Latin American independence. ... Herman Melville (August 1, 1819 – September 28, 1891) was an American novelist, short story writer, essayist, and poet. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a nineteenth-century German philologist and philosopher. ... Manuel González Prada (1844-1918) was a freethinker and social critic who brought Peruvian thought into the twentieth century. ... Aleksandr Pushkin by Vasily Tropinin Aleksandr Sergeyevich Pushkin (Russian: Алекса́ндр Серге́евич Пу́шкин, Aleksandr Sergeevič PuÅ¡kin,  ) (June 6, 1799 [O.S. May 26] – February 10, 1837 [O.S. January 29]) was a Russian Romantic author who is considered to be the greatest Russian poet[1] [2][3] and the founder of modern Russian... Rimbaud redirects here. ... Upper: Steel-plate engraving of Ruskin as a young man, made circa 1845, scanned from print made circa 1895. ... George Sand sewing, portrait by Eugène Delacroix (1838). ... Percy Bysshe Shelley Percy Bysshe Shelley (August 4, 1792 - July 8, 1822) was one of the major English Romantic poets. ... Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (née Godwin) (30 August 1797 – 1 February 1851) was an English romantic/gothic novelist and the author of Frankenstein, or The Modern Prometheus. ... Stendhal. ... Robert Louis (Balfour) Stevenson (November 13, 1850–December 3, 1894), was a Scottish novelist, poet and travel writer, and a representative of neo-romanticism in English literature. ... Abraham Bram Stoker (November 8, 1847 – April 20, 1912) was an Irish writer, best remembered as the author of the influential horror novel Dracula. ... Harriet Elizabeth Beecher Stowe (June 14, 1811 – July 1, 1896) was an American author and abolitionist, whose novel Uncle Toms Cabin (1852) attacked the cruelty of slavery; it reached millions as a novel and play, and became influential, even in Britain. ... Lord Tennyson, Poet Laureate Alfred Tennyson, 1st Baron Tennyson (August 6, 1809 - October 6, 1892) is generally regarded as one of the greatest English poets. ... Thoreau redirects here. ... Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910),[1] better known by the pen name Mark Twain, was an American humanist,[2] humorist, satirist, lecturer and writer. ... Paul Verlaine Paul-Marie Verlaine (IPA: ; March 30, 1844–January 8, 1896) was a French poet associated with the Symbolist movement. ... This article is about the French author. ... H. G. Wells at the door of his house at Sandgate Herbert George Wells (September 21, 1866 - August 13, 1946) was an English writer best known for his science fiction novels such as The War of the Worlds and The Time Machine. ... Walter Whitman (May 31, 1819 – March 26, 1892) was an American poet, essayist, journalist, and humanist. ... Wordsworth redirects here. ... Émile Zola (2 April 1840 – 29 September 1902) was an influential French writer, the most important example of the literary school of naturalism, and a major figure in the political liberalization of France. ... José Zorrilla y Moral (February 21, 1817 - January 23, 1893), was a Spanish poet and dramatist. ...

Science

The 19th century saw the birth of science as a profession; the term scientist was coined in 1833 by William Whewell[1]. Among the most influential ideas of the 19th century were those of Charles Darwin, who in 1859 published the book The Origin of Species, which introduced the idea of evolution by natural selection. Louis Pasteur made the first vaccine against rabies, and also made many discoveries in the field of chemistry, including the asymmetry of crystals. Thomas Alva Edison gave the world light with his invention of the lightbulb. Karl Weierstrass and other mathematicians also carried out the arithmetization of analysis. But the most important step in science at this time was the ideas formulated by Michael Faraday and James Clerk Maxwell. Their work changed the face of physics and made possible for new technology to come about. Other important 19th century scientists included: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (580x708, 36 KB) Summary picture of Charles Darwin in 1881, from The Illustrated Origin of Species by Charles Darwin, abridged and illustrated by Richard Leakey ISBN 0-571-14586-8 Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (580x708, 36 KB) Summary picture of Charles Darwin in 1881, from The Illustrated Origin of Species by Charles Darwin, abridged and illustrated by Richard Leakey ISBN 0-571-14586-8 Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... A scientist, in the broadest sense, refers to any person that engages in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge or an individual that engages in such practices and traditions that are linked to schools of thought or philosophy. ... In linguistics, a neologism is a recently coined word, or the act of inventing a word or phrase. ... William Whewell In later life William Whewell (May 24, 1794 – March 6, 1866) was an English polymath, scientist, Anglican priest, philosopher, theologian, and historian of science. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... Charles Darwins Origin of Species (publ. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... For other uses, see Natural selection (disambiguation). ... Louis Pasteur (December 27 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French chemist and microbiologist best known for his remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and prevention of disease. ... A vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a disease. ... Optical isomerism is a form of isomerism (specifically stereoisomerism) where the two different isomers are the same in every way except being non-superposable mirror images of each other. ... Thomas Alva Edison (February 11, 1847 - October 18, 1931) was an inventor and businessman who developed many important devices. ... The incandescent light bulb uses a glowing wire filament heated to white-hot by electrical resistance, to generate light (a process known as thermal radiation). ... Karl Theodor Wilhelm Weierstrass (Weierstraß) (October 31, 1815 – February 19, 1897) was a German mathematician who is often cited as the father of modern analysis. // Karl Weierstrass was born in Ostenfelde, Westphalia (today Germany). ... The arithmetization of analysis was a research program in the foundations of mathematics carried out in the second half of the 19th century. ... Michael Faraday, FRS (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was an English chemist and physicist (or natural philosopher, in the terminology of that time) who contributed to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. ... James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish mathematician and theoretical physicist. ...

Avogadro redirects here. ... Johann Jakob Balmer (May 1, 1825 – March 12, 1898) was a Swiss mathematician and an honorary physicist. ... For the SI unit of radioactivity, see Becquerel. ... Alexander Graham Bell (3 March 1847 – 2 August 1922) was an eminent scientist, inventor and innovator who is credited with the invention of the telephone. ... Ludwig Eduard Boltzmann (Vienna, Austrian Empire, February 20, 1844 – Duino near Trieste, September 5, 1906) was an Austrian physicist famous for his founding contributions in the fields of statistical mechanics and statistical thermodynamics. ... János Bolyai (December 15, 1802–January 27, 1860) was a Hungarian mathematician. ... Louis Braille (January 4, 1809 – January 6, 1852) was the inventor of braille[1], a world-wide system used by blind and visually impaired people for reading and writing. ... Listen to this article ( info/dl) This audio file was created from a revision dated 2006-09-06, and may not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... Robert Wilhelm Eberhard Bunsen (31 March 1811 – 16 August 1899) was a German chemist. ... This article is about the chemist and physicist. ... Pierre Curie (May 15, 1859 – died April 19, 1906) was a French physicist, a pioneer in crystallography, magnetism, piezoelectricity and radioactivity. ... Louis Daguerre Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre (November 18, 1787 – July 10, 1851) was the French artist and chemist who is recognized for his invention of the Daguerreotype process of photography. ... Gottlieb Daimler Gottlieb Wilhelm Daimler (March 17, 1834 - March 6, 1900) was an engineer, industrial designer and industrialist, born in Schorndorf (Kingdom of Württemberg), in what is now Germany. ... Christian Doppler Johann Christian Andreas Doppler (November 29, 1803 – March 17, 1853) was an Austrian mathematician and physicist, most famous for the hypothesis of what is now known as the Doppler effect which is the apparent change in frequency and wavelength of a wave that is perceived by an observer... Edison redirects here. ... Michael Faraday, FRS (September 22, 1791 – August 25, 1867) was an English chemist and physicist (or natural philosopher, in the terminology of that time) who contributed to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry. ... Jean Bernard Léon Foucault (IPA: ) (18 September 1819 – 11 February 1868) was a French physicist best known for the invention of the Foucault pendulum, a device demonstrating the effect of the Earths rotation. ... Friedrich Ludwig Gottlob Frege (8 November 1848, Wismar – 26 July 1925, IPA: ) was a German mathematician who became a logician and philosopher. ... Sigmund Freud (IPA: ), born Sigismund Schlomo Freud (May 6, 1856 – September 23, 1939), was an Austrian neurologist and psychiatrist who founded the psychoanalytic school of psychology. ... Johann Carl Friedrich Gauss (pronounced ,  ; in German usually Gauß, Latin: ) (30 April 1777 – 23 February 1855) was a German mathematician and scientist who contributed significantly to many fields, including number theory, statistics, analysis, differential geometry, geodesy, electrostatics, astronomy, and optics. ... Josiah Willard Gibbs (February 11, 1839 – April 28, 1903) was an American mathematical physicist who contributed much of the theoretical foundation that led to the development of chemical thermodynamics and was one of the founders of vector analysis. ... Ernst Haeckel. ... Heinrich Rudolf Hertz (February 22, 1857 - January 1, 1894) was the German physicist and mechanician for whom the hertz, an SI unit, is named. ... An 1859 portrait of Alexander von Humboldt by the artist Julius Schrader, showing Mount Chimborazo in the background. ... Nikolay Ivanovich Lobachevsky Nikolai Ivanovich Lobachevsky (Никола́й Ива́нович Лобаче́вский) (December 1, 1792–February 24, 1856 (N.S.); November 20, 1792–February 12, 1856 (O.S.)) was a Russian mathematician. ... There have been a number of people named William Thomson: William Thomson, 1st Baron Kelvin, usually known as Lord Kelvin, was a 19th century British physicist. ... William Thomson, Archbishop of York, has the same name as this man. ... For the American lobbyist, see Bobby Koch. ... Freiherr Justus von Liebig (May 12, 1803 in Darmstadt, Germany – April 18, 1873 in Munich, Germany) was a German chemist who made major contributions to agricultural and biological chemistry, and worked on the organization of organic chemistry. ... Auguste (left) and Louis Lumière. ... Wilhelm Maybach Wilhelm Maybach (February 9, 1846 – December 29, 1929), was an early German engine designer and industrialist. ... James Clerk Maxwell (13 June 1831 – 5 November 1879) was a Scottish mathematician and theoretical physicist. ... “Mendel” redirects here. ... Portrait of Dmitri Mendeleev by Ilya Repin (Russian: , Dmitri Ivanovich Mendeleev  ) (8 February [O.S. 27 January] 1834 in Tobolsk – 2 February [O.S. 20 January] 1907 in Saint Petersburg), was a Russian chemist and inventor. ... Samuel Morely (October 23, 1762 - April 17, 1843) was an American inventor, who invented an internal combustion engine and was a pioneer in steamships who accumulated a total of 20 patents. ... Nicéphore Niépce, circa 1795. ...   (October 21, 1833, Stockholm, Sweden—December 10, 1896, Sanremo, Italy) was a Swedish chemist, engineer, innovator, armaments manufacturer and the inventor of dynamite. ... Louis Pasteur (December 27 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French chemist and microbiologist best known for his remarkable breakthroughs in the causes and prevention of disease. ... Bernhard Riemann. ... Santiago Ramón y Cajal Santiago Ramón y Cajal (May 1, 1852 – October 17, 1934) was a famous Spanish histologist, physician, and Nobel laureate. ... Nikola Tesla (1856-1943)[1] was a world-renowned Serbian inventor, physicist, mechanical engineer and electrical engineer. ...

Philosophy and religion

Otto Von Bismarck, the Iron Chancellor
The last shogun Tokugawa Yoshinobu in French military uniform
One of the first photographs, produced in 1826 by Nicéphore Niépce

The 19th century was host to a variety of religious and philosophical thinkers, including: Image File history File links Karl_Marx. ... Image File history File links Karl_Marx. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... Image File history File links FWNietzscheSiebe. ... Image File history File links FWNietzscheSiebe. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a nineteenth-century German philologist and philosopher. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Bismarck1894. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Bismarck1894. ... Bismarck redirects here. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Minamoto no Yoritomo, the first shogun of the Kamakura shogunate Shōgun )   is supreme general of the samurai,a military rank and historical title in Japan. ... Image:View from the Window at Le Gras, Joseph Nicéphore Niépce. ... Image:View from the Window at Le Gras, Joseph Nicéphore Niépce. ... Nicéphore Niépce, circa 1795. ...

Shrine of Baháulláh Baháulláh (ba-haa-ol-laa Arabic: Glory of God) (November 12, 1817 – May 29, 1892), born Mírzá usayn-`Alí Nuri (Persian: ), was the founder of the Baháí Faith. ... This article is about the generally recognized global religious community. ... Mikhail Alexandrovich Bakunin (Russian: Михаил Александрович Бакунин, Michel Bakunin on the grave in Bern), (May 18 (30 N.S.), 1814 – June 19 (July 1 N.S.), 1876) was a well-known Russian revolutionary, and often considered one of the “fathers of modern anarchism. Born in the Russian Empire to a family of Russian... For other persons named William Booth, see William Booth (disambiguation). ... Shield of The Salvation Army The Salvation Army is a non-military evangelical Christian organisation. ... Auguste Comte (full name: Isidore Marie Auguste François Xavier Comte; January 17, 1798 - September 5, 1857) was a French thinker who coined the term sociology. ... Mary Baker Eddy (born Mary Morse Baker July 16, 1821 – December 3, 1910) founded the Church of Christ, Scientist in 1879 and was the author of its fundamental doctrinal textbook, Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures. ... Christian Science is a religious teaching regarding the efficacy of spiritual healing according to the interpretation of the Bible by Mary Baker Eddy, in her book Science and Health with Key to the Scriptures (first published in 1875). ... Engels redirects here. ... Hegel redirects here. ... Søren Aabye Kierkegaard (IPA: , but usually Anglicized as ;  ) 5 May 1813 – 11 November 1855) was a prolific 19th century Danish philosopher and theologian. ... Karl Heinrich Marx (May 5, 1818 – March 14, 1883) was a 19th century philosopher, political economist, and revolutionary. ... John Stuart Mill (20 May 1806 – 8 May 1873), British philosopher, political economist, civil servant and Member of Parliament, was an influential liberal thinker of the 19th century. ... This page is about William Morris, the writer, designer and socialist. ... Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche (October 15, 1844 – August 25, 1900) (IPA: ) was a nineteenth-century German philologist and philosopher. ... Saint Nikolai of Japan, Nikolai Kasatkin (born Ioan Dimitrovich Kasatkin August 1 of Julian calendar/ August 13 of Gregorian calendar, 1836 ; died February 16, 1912) was a Russian Orthodox priest, monk, and saint. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... Sri Thakur Gadadhar Chattopadhyaya Ramakrishna Paramahamsa (Bangla: শ্রীরামকৄষ্ঞ পরমহংস) (February 18, 1836 - August 16, 1886) was a Bengali saint. ... Henri de Saint-Simon Claude Henri de Rouvroy, comte de Saint-Simon, often referred to as Henri de Saint-Simon (October 17, 1760 – May 19, 1825), the founder of French socialism, was born in Paris. ... Religious socialism Key Issues People and organizations Related subjects Socialism refers to a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... Arthur Schopenhauer (February 22, 1788 – September 21, 1860) was a German philosopher best known for his work The World as Will and Representation. ... Joseph Smith redirects here. ... For other uses, see Brigham Young (disambiguation). ... For more general information about religious denominations that follow the teachings of Joseph Smith, Jr. ... Ellen Gould Harmon White (November 26, 1827 - July 16, 1915) was co-founder of Seventh-day Adventism. ... The Seventh-day Adventist (abbreviated Adventist[3]) Church is a Protestant Christian denomination which is distinguished mainly by its observance of Saturday, the seventh day of the week, as the Sabbath. ...

Politics and the Military

For other uses, see Susan B. Anthony (disambiguation). ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... Bismarck redirects here. ... John Caldwell Calhoun (March 18, 1782 – March 31, 1850) was a leading United States Southern politician and political philosopher from South Carolina during the first half of the 19th century. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... Henry Clay, Sr. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... For other uses, see Jefferson Davis (disambiguation). ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial)  States that seceded under CSA control  States and territories claimed by CSA without formal secession and/or control Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Benjamin Disraeli, 1st Earl of Beaconsfield (December 21, 1804 - April 24, British Conservative Prime Minister of the United Kingdom and author. ... Frederick Douglass, ca. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... Ferdinand VII (October 14, 1784 - September 29, 1833) was King of Spain from 1813 to 1833. ... Joseph Fouché Joseph Fouché, duc dOtrante (Duke of Otranto) (May 21, 1763 – December 25, 1820) was a French statesman and Minister of Police under Napoleon Bonaparte. ... John Charles Frémont (January 21, 1813 – July 13, 1890), was an American military officer, explorer, the first candidate of the Republican Party for the office of President of the United States, and the first presidential candidate of a major party to run on a platform in opposition to slavery. ... Giuseppe Garibaldi (July 4, 1807 – June 2, 1882) was an Italian patriot and General of the Risorgimento. ... For other uses, see Piedmont (disambiguation). ... Isabella II (October 10, 1830 – April 10, 1904), Isabel II in Spanish, was Queen regnant of Spain (Queen of the Spains officially from August 13, 1836, Isabella II the queen of Castile, Leon, Aragon,...) // Isabella was born in Madrid in 1830 and was the eldest daughter of Ferdinand VII, king... Gojong, the Gwangmu Emperor (July 25, 1852–January 21, 1919) was the twenty-sixth king of the Korean Joseon Dynasty and the first emperor of the Korean Empire. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... William Lloyd Garrison William Lloyd Garrison (December 12, 1805–May 24, 1879) was a prominent United States abolitionist, journalist, and social reformer. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... William Ewart Gladstone (29 December 1809 – 19 May 1898) was a British Liberal Party statesman and Prime Minister (1868–1874, 1880–1885, 1886 and 1892–1894). ... Ulysses S. Grant,[2] born Hiram Ulysses Grant (April 27, 1822 – July 23, 1885), was an American general and the eighteenth President of the United States (1869–1877). ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... George Hearst George Hearst (September 3, 1820–February 28, 1891) was a wealthy American businessman, United States Senator and father of famed newspaperman William Randolph Hearst. ... For other people named William Randolph Hearst, see William Randolph Hearst (disambiguation) William Randolph Hearst I (April 29, 1863 – August 14, 1951) was an American newspaper magnate. ... Theodor Herzl, in his middle age. ... This article is about Zionism as a movement, not the History of Israel. ... For other uses, see Andrew Jackson (disambiguation). ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... Thomas Jefferson (13 April 1743 N.S.–4 July 1826) was the third President of the United States (1801–09), the principal author of the Declaration of Independence (1776), and one of the most influential Founding Fathers for his promotion of the ideals of Republicanism in the United States. ... Lajos Kossuth Lajos Louis Kossuth [] (Monok, September 19, 1802–Turin, March 20, 1894) was a Hungarian lawyer, politician and Regent-President of the Kingdom of Hungary in 1849. ... Libertadores (Spanish and Portuguese for Liberators) refers to the leaders of the revolutions which gained the nations of Latin America independence from Spain and Portugal. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... For other uses, see Robert E. Lee (disambiguation). ... Motto Deo Vindice (Latin: Under God, Our Vindicator) Anthem (none official) God Save the South (unofficial) The Bonnie Blue Flag (unofficial) Dixie (unofficial)  States that seceded under CSA control  States and territories claimed by CSA without formal secession and/or control Capital Montgomery, Alabama (until May 29, 1861) Richmond, Virginia... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... The Right Honourable Sir John Alexander Macdonald, GCB, QC (January 11, 1815 - June 6, 1891) was the first Prime Minister of Canada from July 1, 1867 - November 5, 1873 - and - October 17, 1878 - June 6, 1891. ... Emperor Meiji (Mutsuhito) Mutsuhito (睦仁), the Meiji Emperor (明治天皇, literally Enlightened Rule Emperor) (3 November 1852–30 July 1912) was the 122nd Emperor of Japan. ... Klemens Wenzel von Metternich Klemens Wenzel Nepomuk Lothar Fürst von Metternich-Winneberg-Beilstein (May 15, 1773 – June 11, 1858) (sometimes rendered in English as Prince Klemens Metternich) was an Austrian politician and statesman and perhaps the most important diplomat of his era. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (April 20, 1808 - January 9, 1873) was the son of King Louis Bonaparte and Queen Hortense de Beauharnais; both monarchs of the French puppet state, the Kingdom of Holland. ... Cecil Rhodes Cecil John Rhodes, PC, DCL, (July 5, 1853 – March 26, 1902[1]) was a British-born South African businessman, mining magnate, and politician. ... “General Sherman” redirects here. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Amasa Leland Stanford (March 9, 1824 – June 21, 1893) was an American tycoon, politician and founder of Stanford University. ... Count István Széchenyi, in Hungarian: Gróf Széchenyi István, born in Vienna, 21 September 1791 and died in Döbling, 8 April 1860. ... Charles Maurice de Talleyrand Charles Maurice de Talleyrand-Périgord (February 2, 1754 - May 17, 1838) was a French diplomat. ... Harriet Tubman (c. ... Languages Predominantly American English Religions Protestantism (chiefly Baptist and Methodist); Roman Catholicism; Islam Related ethnic groups Sub-Saharan Africans and other African groups, some with Native American groups. ... This article is about the abolition of slavery. ... Humanitarianism is the view that all people should be treated with the respect and dignity they deserve as human beings, and that advancing the well-being of humanity is a noble goal. ... This article is about a 19th-century slave escape route. ... William M. Boss Tweed (April 3, 1823 – April 12, 1878) was an American politician and head of Tammany Hall, the name given to the Democratic Party political machine that played a major role in the history of 19th century New York City politics. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Tammany Hall was the Democratic Party political machine that played a major role in controlling New York City politics from the 1790s to the 1960s. ... Queen Victoria redirects here. ... A statue of Hong Xiuquan Hóng Xiùquán (洪秀全, Wade-Giles: Hung Hsiu-chüan, born Hong Renkun 洪仁坤, Courtesy name Huoxiu 火秀; January 10, 1812-June 1, 1864) was a Hakka Chinese Christian who led the Taiping Rebellion and established the Heavenly Kingdom of Taiping, in which he was known... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Son of... Tokugawa Yoshinobu in French military uniform, c. ... Minamoto no Yoritomo, the first shogun of the Kamakura shogunate Shōgun )   is supreme general of the samurai,a military rank and historical title in Japan. ...

See also

The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ... // 1800 War of the Castes in Haiti 1801 War of the Oranges 1801-1805 First Barbary War 1801-1807 Temme War 1802-1805 Second War of Haitian Independence 1802-1805 Second Anglo-Maratha War 1803-1804 British Expedition to Ceylon 1803 Emmets Insurrection 1803-1815 Napoleonic Wars 1805 War... This is a chronological list of inventions. ... 19th Century (1801-1900) 1803: Shah Abdul Aziz bin Muhammad bin Saud assassinated by a Shia fanatic. ... The History of France from 1789 to 1914 (the long 19th century) extends from the French Revolution to World War I and includes the periods of the First French Empire, the Restoration under Louis XVIII and Charles X (1814–1830), the July Monarchy under Louis Philippe dOrléans (1830... The Russian Empire in 1866 // The late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries were times of crisis for Russia. ... History of Spain series Prehistoric Spain Roman Spain Medieval Spain - Visigoths - Al-Andalus - Age of Reconquest Age of Expansion Age of Enlightenment Reaction and Revolution First Spanish Republic The Restoration Second Spanish Republic Spanish Civil War The Dictatorship Modern Spain Topics Economic History Military History Social History Spain in the... Capitalism in the nineteenth century As the nineteenth century began, the United Kingdom was locked in a struggle with Napoleonic France that did much to define the terms for institutional developments, capitalist and otherwise, in the remainder of the century. ... In the 18th century the philosophies of The Enlightenment would begin to have dramatic effect, and the landmark works of philosophers such as Immanuel Kant and Jean-Jacques Rousseau would have an electrifying effect on a new generation of thinkers. ... Nineteenth century theater is theatre of the 19th century. ... see also: 18th century in games, 1900s in games Games Released or Invented in the 19th century Ludo (1896) Reversi (1898) Snakes and ladders (1870) Categories: | ... See also: 1900 in film, list of years in film. Events 1832 - Joseph Plateau (Belgium) and Simon Stampfer (Vienna) introduced simultaneously a scientific demonstration device that creates an optical illusion of movement by mounting drawings on the face of a slotted, spinning disk. ...

Eras, Epochs, Decades and years

The Age of Enlightenment (French: ; Italian: ; German: ; Spanish: ; Swedish: ; Polish: ) was an eighteenth-century movement in Western philosophy. ... Victorianism is the name given to the attitudes, art, and culture of the later two-thirds of the 19th century. ... For other uses, see Realism (disambiguation). ... This is a list of decades which have articles with more information about them. ... A year is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... 20XX redirects here. ... Events and Trends French Revolution (1789 - 1799). ... Year 1790 (MDCCXC) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1792 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1793 (MDCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1795 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1796 (MDCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1797 (MDCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1798 (MDCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1799 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... // Invention of the Jacquard loom in 1801. ... // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Year 1802 (MDCCCII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1804 was a leap year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Thomas Jefferson. ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1807 (MDCCCVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... Year 1808 (MDCCCVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... Events and Trends End of the Napoleonic Wars in Europe (1803 - 1815). ... 1810 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... For the US Federal Agent designation, see Special agent. ... For the overture by Tchaikovsky, see 1812 Overture; For the wars, see War of 1812 (USA - United Kingdom) or Patriotic War of 1812 (France - Russia) For the Siberia Airlines plane crashed over the Black Sea on October 4, 2001, see Siberia Airlines Flight 1812 1812 was a leap year starting... Year 1813 (MDCCCXIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... Year 1816 (MDCCCXVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1817 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1818 (MDCCCXVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1819 (MDCCCXIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) in the [[Grhttp://en. ... Nationalistic independence helped reshape the world during this decade: Greece gains independence from the Ottoman Empire in the Greek War of Independence (1821-1827). ... 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1821 (MDCCCXXI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1822 (MDCCCXXII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1823 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The oldest surviving photograph, Nicéphore Niépce, circa 1826 1826 (MDCCCXXVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1827 (MDCCCXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1828 (MDCCCXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1829 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... // Electromagnetic induction discovered by Michael Faraday Evolutionary theorist Charles Darwins expedition on the HMS Beagle. ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Leopold I 1831 (MDCCCXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1832 (MDCCCXXXII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1833 (MDCCCXXXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1834 (MDCCCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1836 (MDCCCXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... | Jöns Jakob Berzelius, discoverer of protein 1838 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... // First use of general anesthesia in an operation, by Crawford Long The first electrical telegraph sent by Samuel Morse on May 24, 1844 from Baltimore to Washington, D.C.. First signing of the Treaty of Waitangi (Te Tiriti o Waitangi) on February 6, 1840 at Waitangi, Northland New Zealand. ... 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1841 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1843 (MDCCCXLIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Jan. ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1847 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1849 (MDCCCXLIX) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... // Production of steel revolutionized by invention of the Bessemer process Benjamin Silliman fractionates petroleum by distillation for the first time First transatlantic telegraph cable laid First safety elevator installed by Elisha Otis Railroads begin to supplant canals in the United States as a primary means of transporting goods. ... For the game, see: 1850 (board game) 1850 (MDCCCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1851 (MDCCCLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1855 (MDCCCLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1856 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1857 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1859 (MDCCCLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... // The First Transcontinental Railroad in the USA was built in the six year period between 1863 and 1869. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about 1862 . ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... 1866 (MDCCCLXVI) is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Year 1867 (MDCCCLXVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1868 (MDCCCLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... // The invention of the telephone (1876) by Alexander Graham Bell. ... 1870 (MDCCCLXX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1873 (MDCCCLXXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) // January 31 - United States orders all Indigenous peoples in the United States to move onto reservations February 2 - The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs of Major League Baseball is formed. ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... // Development and commercial production of electric lighting Development and commercial production of gasoline-powered automobile by Karl Benz, Gottlieb Daimler and Maybach First commercial production and sales of phonographs and phonograph recordings. ... Year 1880 (MDCCCLXXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1881 (MDCCCLXXXI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1882 (MDCCCLXXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1883 (MDCCCLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1887 (MDCCCLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1889 (MDCCCLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The 1890s were sometimes referred to as the Mauve Decade, because William Henry Perkins aniline dye allowed the widespread use of that colour in fashion, and also as the Gay Nineties, under the then-current usage of the word gay which referred simply to merriment and frivolity, with no... Year 1890 (MDCCCXC) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the Julian calendar). ... Year 1891 (MDCCCXCI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1894 (MDCCCXCIV) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1895 (MDCCCXCV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1898 (MDCCCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1899 (MDCCCXCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the decade starting in 1900 and ending in 1909. ... Äž: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... Year 1901 (MCMI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1902 (MCMII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1903 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see 1905 (disambiguation). ... 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1907 (MCMVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1908 (MCMVIII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... These pages contain the trends of millennia and centuries. ... These pages contain the trends of millennia and centuries. ... The 4th millennium BC saw major changes in human culture. ... Mythologically, the 40 Century BC relates to the beginning of primeval human civilization. ... (40th century BC - 39th century BC - 38th century BC - other centuries) (5th millennium BC - 4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC) // Construction in England of the Sweet Track, the Worlds first known engineered roadway. ... Michelangelos Creation of Adam, from the Sistine Chapel. ... (38th century BC - 37th century BC - 36th century BC - other centuries) (5th millennium BC - 4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC) Events Start of Naqada culture in Egypt Significant persons Inventions, discoveries, introductions Categories: Centuries | 37th century BC | 4th millennium BC ... (37th century BC - 36th century BC - 35th century BC - other centuries) (5th millennium BC - 4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC) Events Civilization of Sumeria Significant persons Inventions, discoveries, introductions Categories: Centuries | 36th century BC | 4th millennium BC ... (36th century BC - 35th century BC - 34th century BC - other centuries) (5th millennium BC - 4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC) Events 3500 BC - 3000 BC; Face of a woman, from Uruk (modern Warka, Iraq) was made. ... (35th century BC - 34th century BC - 33rd century BC - other centuries) (5th millennium BC - 4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC) Events Stage IIIa2 of the Naqada culture in Egypt (dated in 1998) Significant persons 3322 BC - Fu Hsi, legendary ruler of China, was born (according to James Legge). ... (34th century BC - 33rd century BC - 32nd century BC - other centuries) (5th millennium BC - 4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC) Events Unification of the first Ancient Egyptian state, marking the beginning of the Ancient Egyptian civilization. ... (33rd century BC - 32nd century BC - 31st century BC - other centuries) (5th millennium BC - 4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC) Events Varna nekropol: The oldest gold in the world found near Varna lake. ... (32nd century BC – 31st century BC – 30th century BC – other centuries) (5th millennium BC – 4th millennium BC – 3rd millennium BC) Events c. ... The 3rd millennium BC spans the Early to Middle Bronze Age. ... // Ceremonial temple butcher knife made of flint, with the Horus name of the pharaoh Djer inscribed on its gold handle. ... 2900 BC – 2334 BC — Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period. ... // Ancient painting of Nuwa and Fu Xi. ... (28th century BC - 27th century BC - 26th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC -- Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period 2775 - 2650 BC -- Second Dynasty wars in Egypt Germination of the Bristlecone pine tree Methuselah about 2700 BC, the... (27th century BC - 26th century BC - 25th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC – Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period. ... // The ruined pyramid of Userkaf at Saqqara. ... // Extent and major sites of the Indus Valley Civilization. ... // Ruins of the pyramid complex of Pepi II, the longest reigning monarch in recorded history 2334–2279 BC — (short chronology) Sargon of Akkads conquest of Mesopotamia. ... (23rd century BC - 22nd century BC - 21st century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2217 - 2193 BC -- Nomadic invasions of Akkad. ... (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2112 BC — 2095 BC — Sumerian campaigns of Ur-Nammu. ... The 2nd millennium BC marks the transition from the Middle to the Late Bronze Age. ... (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 2064 – 1986 BC -- Twin Dynasty wars in Egypt. ... EGGS! ... // Events 1787 - 1784 BC -- Amorite conquests of Uruk and Isin 1786 BC -- Egypt: Queen Sobekneferu died. ... // Overview Events 1700 – 1500 BC -- Hurrian conquests. ... The Lion Gate at Mycenae, the center of Mycenean Greece 1700 – 1500 BC -- Hurrian conquests. ... // Overview Events 1504 BC – 1492 BC -- Egypt conquers Nubia and the Levant. ... // Overview Events 1344 BCE – 1322 BCE -- Beginning of Hittite empire Rise of the Urnfield culture Significant persons Akhenaten, Pharaoh of Egypt Tutankhamun, Pharaoh of Egypt Suppiliulima, king of the Hittites Moses Inventions, discoveries, introductions Template:DecadesAndYearsBCE Category: ‪14th century BCE‬ ... This bronze ritual wine vessel, dating from the Shang Dynasty in the 13th century BC, is housed at the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution. ... (13th century BC - 12th century BC - 11th century BC - other centuries) (1200s BC - 1190s BC - 1180s BC - 1170s BC - 1160s BC - 1150s BC - 1140s BC - 1130s BC - 1120s BC - 1110s BC - 1100s BC - other decades) (3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC) Events 1200 BC - Ancient Pueblo Peoples... David and Saul (1885) by Julius Kronberg. ... The 1st millennium BC encompasses the Iron Age and sees the rise of successive empires. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) // Overview Events Partition of ancient Israel into the Kingdoms of Judah and Israel (c. ... (10th century BC - 9th century BC - 8th century BC - other centuries) (900s BC - 890s BC - 880s BC - 870s BC - 860s BC - 850s BC - 840s BC - 830s BC - 820s BC - 810s BC - 800s BC - other decades) (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium AD) Events Kingdom of Kush (900 BC... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) Ruins of the training grounds at Olympia, Greece. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 7th century BC started on January 1, 700 BC and ended on December 31, 601 BC. // Overview Events Ashurbanipal, king of Assyria who created the the first systematically collected library at Nineveh A 16th century depiction of the Hanging Gardens of... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 6th century BC started on January 1, 600 BC and ended on December 31, 501 BC. // Monument 1, an Olmec colossal head at La Venta The 5th and 6th centuries BC were a time of empires, but more importantly, a time... The 5th century BC started the first day of 500 BC and ended the last day of 401 BC. // The Parthenon of Athens seen from the hill of the Pnyx to the west. ... The 4th century BC started the first day of 400 BC and ended the last day of 301 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ... The 3rd century BC started the first day of 300 BC and ended the last day of 201 BC. It is considered part of the Classical era, epoch, or historical period. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 2nd century BC started on January 1, 200 BC and ended on December 31, 101 BC. // Coin of Antiochus IV. Reverse shows Apollo seated on an omphalos. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 1st century BC started on January 1, 100 BC and ended on December 31, 1 BC. An alternative name for this century is the last century BC. The AD/BC notation does not use a year zero. ... In the Gregorian calendar, the 1st millennium is the period of one thousand years that commenced with the year 1 Anno Domini. ... The 1st century was that century that lasted from 1 to 100 according the Gregorian calendar. ... The 2nd century is the period from 101 - 200 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... // Overview Events 212: Constitutio Antoniniana grants citizenship to all free Roman men 212-216: Baths of Caracalla 230-232: Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east 235-284: Crisis of the Third Century shakes Roman Empire 250-538: Kofun era, the first... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... Europe in 450 The 5th century is the period from 401 to 500 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... The 6th century is the period from 501 - 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... On the Gregorian calendar, the 2nd millennium commenced on 1 January 1001, and ended at the end of 31 December 2000. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 11th century was that century which lasted from 1001 to 1100. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... The third millennium (so called because it is the third period of 1000 years in the Common Era) is a period of time which began on (depending on your beliefs) 1 January 2001 and will end on 31 December 3000 or 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2999. ... 20XX redirects here. ... The 22nd century of the anno Domini (common) era will span the years 2101–2200 of the Gregorian calendar. ... The 23rd century of the anno Domini (common) era will span the years 2201 – 2300 of the Gregorian calendar. ... The 24th century (Gregorian Calendar) comprises the years 2301-2400. ... The 25th century of the anno Domini (common) era will span the years 2401–2500 of the Gregorian calendar. ... The 26th century of the anno Domini (common) era will span the years 2501–2600 of the Gregorian calendar. ... The 27th century of the anno Domini (common) era will span the years 2601–2700 of the Gregorian calendar. ... The 28th century (Gregorian Calendar) comprises the years 2701 to 2800. ... The 29th century of the anno Domini (common) era will span the years 2801–2900 of the Gregorian calendar. ... The 30th century of the anno Domini (common) era will span the years 2901–3000 of the Gregorian calendar. ... The fourth millennium is a period of time which will begin on 1 January 3001 and will end on 31 December 4000. ... The 31st century of the anno Domini (common) era will span the years 3001–3100 of the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  1. ^ William Whewell. Stanford University. Retrieved on 2008-03-03.
2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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19th Century Recipes (466 words)
Read on to find authentic 19th century recipes, from those that please the palate to homemade remedies that heal an ailment, many of which we still use today.
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19th Century Cake Recipes includes general directions for making cakes and frosting, and the appropriate method for beating the whites of eggs.
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Up until the second half of the nineteenth century, most of the population of Britain, the United States and even the Australian colonies were buried in churchyards or burial grounds attached to churches.
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century the cemetery was regarded as the Westminster Abbey of Glasgow and nearly every eminent member of Glasgow Society who died between the 1830s and 1870s is buried or memorialised there.
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