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Encyclopedia > 1999 NATO bombing of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Operation Allied Force
Part of the Kosovo War

A USAF F-15E takes off from Aviano, Italy.
Date March 24 - June 10, 1999[1]
Location Yugoslavia,[2] mainly in the Republic of Serbia[3][4]
Result Total NATO victory; withdrawal of Yugoslav troops from the province of Kosovo.
Territorial
changes
No legal changes to Yugoslav borders according to the Resolution 1244, but effective political and economic separation of Kosovo from the rest of Yugoslavia under United Nations temporary administration
Belligerents
NATO
(USAF, RAF, and other air, maritime and land forces)
 Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Serbian and Montenegrin paramilitary and allied foreign volunteer forces[1]
Commanders
Wesley Clark (SACEUR)
Javier Solana (Secretary General of NATO)
Slobodan Milošević (Supreme Commander of the Yugoslav Army),
Dragoljub Ojdanić (Chief of Staff),
Svetozar Marjanović (Deputy Chief of Staff)
Strength
More than 1,031 aircraft[2] 85,000-114,000 regulars (up to 20,000 deployed to Kosovo by April), tens of thousands of policemen and irregulars[3]
Casualties and losses
2 NATO soldiers killed outside combat[4]

1 F-117A Nighthawk, 1 F-16C Fighting Falcon and a number of unmanned air vehicles (UAVs)[citation needed]
132-169 regular soldiers killed and approx. 300 wounded in Kosovo[5]
6 aircraft shot down, a number destroyed on the ground[citation needed]
52 armored vehicles and artillery pieces confirmed destroyed in Kosovo[6]
Around 500 civilians killed (including ethnic Albanians)[7]
Military losses according to each side's official figures, civilian according to the Human Rights Watch count.

The NATO bombing of Yugoslavia (code-named Operation Allied Force by NATO) was NATO's military operation against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia that lasted from 24 March to 10 June 1999 and is considered a major part of the Kosovo War. It was only the second major combat operation in NATO's history, following the September 1995 Operation Deliberate Force in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Image File history File links Acap. ... The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts (a civil war followed by an international war) in the southern Serbian province called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), part of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Image File history File links Aviano_f-15. ... See F-15 Eagle for main F-15 page. ... Aviano, 46°04′ N 12°35′ E, is a town and comune of Pordenone province at the foot of the Dolomites mountain range in northern Italy. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbian Government Republic President  - 1992 - 1993 Dobrica Ćosić  - 1993 - 1997 Zoran Lilić  - 1997 – 2000 Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević  - 2000 - 2003 Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Prime Minister  - 1992 - 1993 Milan Panić  - 1993 - 1998 Radoje Kontić  - 1998 - 2000 Momir Bulatović  - 2000 - 2001 Zoran Žižić  - 2001 - 2003 DragiÅ¡a Pe... Serbia and Montenegro  -Serbia    -Kosovo and Metohia    -Vojvodina  -Montenegro Official language Serbian1 Capital Belgrade Area  - Total  - % water 88,361 km² n/a Population  - Total (1998)  - Density 11,206,847 126. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wikisource. ... The United Nations Mission in Kosovo or UNMIK is an interim civilian administration of the Serbian province (as part of Serbia and Montenegro) called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), under the authority of the United Nations. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... USAF redirects here. ... RAF redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_FR_Yugoslavia. ... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbian Government Republic President  - 1992 - 1993 Dobrica Ćosić  - 1993 - 1997 Zoran Lilić  - 1997 – 2000 Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević  - 2000 - 2003 Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Prime Minister  - 1992 - 1993 Milan Panić  - 1993 - 1998 Radoje Kontić  - 1998 - 2000 Momir Bulatović  - 2000 - 2001 Zoran Žižić  - 2001 - 2003 DragiÅ¡a Pe... Paramilitary designates forces whose function and organization are similar to those of a professional military force, but which are not regarded as having the same status. ... Wesley Kanne Clark (born December 23, 1944) is a retired four-star general of the United States Army. ... NATO military is divided into two commands, Atlantic and Europe. ... Javier Solana Madariaga, Ph. ... Secretary General Jaap de Hoop Scheffer meeting President George W. Bush on March 20, 2006 The Secretary General of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) is the chair of the North Atlantic Council, the supreme decision-making organisation of the defence alliance. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_FR_Yugoslavia. ... MiloÅ¡ević redirects here. ... Supreme Commander - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The Yugoslav Peoples Army (Serbo-Croatian Jugoslavenska/Jugoslovenska narodna armija, JNA, Slovene Jugoslovanska ljudska armada, JLA, Macedonian Jugoslovenskata narodna armija, JNA) was the military of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_FR_Yugoslavia. ... Dragoljub Ojdanić (Serbian Cyrillic: Драгољуб Ојданић) (born Jun 1, 1941 in Užice, Kingdom of Yugoslavia) was former Chief of the General Staff and Defence minister of FRY. He is currently indicted with crimes against humanity and violations of the laws or customs of war by the ICTY.[1] 1958 he joined... Image File history File links Flag_of_FR_Yugoslavia. ... The Regular Army is the permanent force of the United States Army or any Countrys army that is maintained during peacetime, as opposed to those persons who may be part of a reserve or national guard outfit. ... For other uses, see Police (disambiguation). ... Irregular soldiers in Beauharnois, Quebec, 19th century. ... Shadow 200 UAV flying over Iraq. ... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbian Government Republic President  - 1992 - 1993 Dobrica Ćosić  - 1993 - 1997 Zoran Lilić  - 1997 – 2000 Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević  - 2000 - 2003 Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Prime Minister  - 1992 - 1993 Milan Panić  - 1993 - 1998 Radoje Kontić  - 1998 - 2000 Momir Bulatović  - 2000 - 2001 Zoran Žižić  - 2001 - 2003 DragiÅ¡a Pe... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts (a civil war followed by an international war) in the southern Serbian province called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), part of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... “Operation Deliberate Force” was a sustained air campaign conducted by NATO to undermine the military capability of Bosnian Serb who threatened or attacked UN designated safe areas in Bosnia. ...

Contents

Goals

NATO's objectives in the conflict in Kosovo were set out in the Statement issued at the Extraordinary Meeting of the North Atlantic Council held at NATO on 12 April 1999 and were reaffirmed by Heads of State and Government in Washington on 23 April 1999: is the 102nd day of the year (103rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ...

  • a verifiable stop to all military action and the immediate ending of violence and repression;
  • the withdrawal from Kosovo of the military, police and paramilitary forces;
  • the stationing in Kosovo of an international military presence;
  • the unconditional and safe return of all refugees and displaced persons and unhindered access to them by humanitarian aid organizations;
  • the establishment of a political framework agreement for Kosovo on the basis of the Rambouillet Accords, in conformity with international law and the Charter of the United Nations.

The Yugoslav Government claimed that it was protecting the minority Serbian population of Kosovo against attacks by the Kosovo Liberation Army. Ushtria Çlirimtare e Kosovës. ...


Strategy

Operation Allied Force relied almost exclusively on the use of a large-scale air campaign to destroy Yugoslav civilian and military infrastructure from high altitudes. Ground units were not used, although their use was threatened near the end of the conflict. This approach was adopted to minimize the risk to the NATO forces and attracted considerable public criticism due to its relative ineffectiveness against mobile ground targets such as tanks and troop formations. Strategic targets such as bridges and factories were also bombed, particularly in the later stages of the conflict. Long-range cruise missiles were used to hit a number of heavily defended targets such as strategic installations in Belgrade and Priština. Civilian installations such as power plants, even water processing plants and the state-owned broadcaster were also intentionally targeted. A Taurus KEPD 350 cruise missile of the German Luftwaffe A cruise missile is a guided missile which carries an explosive payload and uses a lifting wing and a propulsion system, usually a jet engine, to allow sustained flight; it is essentially a flying bomb. ... For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... The Palace of Youth building The building of the former Rilindja newspaper, also the tallest in PriÅ¡tina. ...


The operation

NATO's bombing campaign lasted from March 24 to June 11, 1999, involving up to 1,000 aircraft operating mainly from bases in Italy and aircraft carriers stationed in the Adriatic. At dusk, F-18 Hornets of the Spanish Air Force were the first NATO planes to take off and bomb Belgrade. Tomahawk cruise missiles were also extensively used, fired from ships and submarines. The United States was, inevitably, the dominant member of the coalition against Serbia, although all of the NATO members were involved to some degree — even Greece, despite publicly opposing the war. During the ten weeks of the conflict, NATO aircraft flew over 38,000 combat missions. For the German Air Force (Luftwaffe), the mission was its first conflict participation since World War II. In addition to air power, one battalion from the US Army's 82nd Airborne Division was deployed to help combat missions. The battalion secured Apache attack helicopter refueling sites, and a small team forward deployed to the Albania/Kosovo border to identify targets for Allied/NATO airstrikes. is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... A satellite image of the Adriatic Sea. ... The F/A-18 Hornet is an all-weather fighter and attack aircraft. ... The Spanish Air Force (Spanish: Ejército del Aire; literally, Army of the Air) is the air force of Spain. ... The Tomahawk Land Attack Missile (TLAM) is a long-range, all-weather, subsonic cruise missile. ... A Taurus KEPD 350 cruise missile of the German Luftwaffe A cruise missile is a guided missile which carries an explosive payload and uses a lifting wing and a propulsion system, usually a jet engine, to allow sustained flight; it is essentially a flying bomb. ...   (German IPA: ) is a generic German term for an air force. ... The AH-64 Apache is an all-weather day-night military attack helicopter and is the United States Armys principal attack helicopter, and is the successor to the AH-1 Cobra. ...


The proclaimed goal of the NATO operation was summed up by a NATO spokesperson as "Serbs out, peacekeepers in, refugees back". That is, Serbian troops would have to leave Kosovo and be replaced by international peacekeepers to ensure the Albanian refugees could return to their homes. However, the summary had an unfortunate double meaning which caused NATO considerable embarrassment after the war, when over 200,000 Serbs and other non-Albanian minorities fled or were expelled from the province. It was also suggested a small victorious war would help give NATO a new role. Terms like "humanitarian bombing" and "humanitarian war" were employed by the politicians. Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... Humanitarian bombing is a phrase first appearing in 1999, referring to the NATO bombing campaign during the Kosovo War (24 March - 10 June 1999). ...

Yugoslavian Army General Headquarters building damaged during NATO bombing.

The campaign was initially designed to destroy Serbian air defences and high-value military targets. Bad weather hindered many sorties in the early stages. NATO had seriously underestimated Milošević's will to resist: few in Brussels thought the campaign would last more than a few days, and although the initial bombardment was more than just a pin-prick, it was nowhere near the concentrated bombardments seen in Baghdad in 1991 and 2003. On the ground, over 300,000 Kosovo Albanians had fled into neighboring Albania and Macedonia, with many thousands more displaced within Kosovo. By April, the United Nations was reporting that 850,000 people — the vast majority of them Albanians — were refugees that fled from Kosovo. Another 230,000 Albanians were listed as internally displaced persons (IDPs) who had been driven from their homes, but were still inside Kosovo. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1739 × 1158 pixel, file size: 256 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo taken in August, 2005. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (1739 × 1158 pixel, file size: 256 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Photo taken in August, 2005. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... Main article: Targeting of civilian areas during Operation Allied Force The Grdelica train bombing occurred on April 12, 1999 (it was the second day of Easter holidays that year, according to the Serbian Orthodox Church), when two missiles fired by NATO warplanes hit a train while it was passing across... Main article: Targeting of civilian areas during Operation Allied Force The NATO bombing of Albanian refugees near Đakovica occurred on April 14, 1999 when NATO planes repeatedly bombed refugee movements over a twelve-mile stretch of road between Đakovica and Dečani in western Kosovo, killing 73 civilians. ... Main article: Targeting of civilian areas during Operation Allied Force The NATO bombing of the Serb Radio and Television headquarters occurred on April 23, 1999, during the Kosovo War, when NATO destroyed the headquarters of Radio Television of Serbia (RTS) network in Belgrade. ... Main article: Targeting of civilian areas during Operation Allied Force In NATO air raid May 1, 1999, on the central Belgrade residential area Vračar, family house in Vardarska street were completely destroyed. ... Main article: Targeting of civilian areas during Operation Allied Force The Lužane bus bombing occurred on May 1, 1999, when NATO missiles targeting a bridge in Kosovo hit a bus. ... The Cluster bombing of NiÅ¡ was an event that occurred on May 7, 1999 during the Kosovo War. ... On May 12, the flag at the United States Consulate General in Hong Kong was lowered in respect and sorrow for the Chinese people for a day as the plane carrying the bodies of victims of the embassy bombing came home to Beijing. ... Main article: Targeting of civilian areas during Operation Allied Force The NATO bombing of Albanian refugees near Korisa occurred on May 14, 1999 when NATO planes struck two convoys of ethnic Albanians trying to flee Kosovo, killing as many as 100 people. ...


The cause of the refugee exodus has been the subject of considerable controversy, not least because it formed the basis of United Nations war crimes charges against Slobodan Milošević and other officials responsible for directing the Kosovo conflict. The Serbian side and its Western supporters claimed the refugee outflows were caused by mass panic in the Kosovo Albanian population, and the exodus was generated principally by fear of NATO bombs. It was also alleged that the exodus was encouraged by KLA guerrillas, and in some cases the KLA issued direct orders to Albanians to flee. Many accounts from both Serbs and Albanians identified Serbian security forces and paramilitaries as the culprits, responsible for systematically emptying towns and villages of their Albanian inhabitants by forcing them to flee. [8] There were some well-documented instances of mass expulsions[citation needed], as happened in Priština at the end of March when tens of thousands of people were rounded up at gunpoint and loaded onto trains, before being deposited at the Macedonian border[citation needed]. Other towns, such as Peć, were burned and their inhabitants killed[citation needed]. UN redirects here. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... MiloÅ¡ević redirects here. ... Peć (Albanian: Pejë / Peja; Serbian: Пећ / Peć) is a city located in the western part of Kosovo (under UN-administration, formally part of Serbia). ...


German Foreign Minister Joschka Fischer claimed the refugee crisis had been produced by a Serbian plan codenamed "Operation Horseshoe". While the existence of that named plan remains controversial, the United Nations and international human rights organisations were convinced the refugee crisis was the result of a deliberate policy of ethnic cleansing. A postwar statistical analysis of the patterns of displacement, conducted by Patrick Ball of the American Association for the Advancement of Science [9], found there was a direct correlation between Serbian security force operations and refugee outflows, with NATO operations having very little effect on the displacements. There was other evidence of the refugee crisis having been deliberately manufactured: many refugees reported that their identity cards had been confiscated by security forces, making it much harder for them to prove that they were bona fide Yugoslav citizens. Since the conflict ended, Serbian sources have claimed that many of those who joined the refugee return were in fact Albanians from outside Kosovo. This page lists State Secretaries for Foreign Affairs under the German Empire (1873-1918), and Ministers of Foreign Affairs under succeeding governments thereafter. ... Joschka Fischer Joseph Martin Joschka Fischer (April 12, 1948 – ) was German foreign minister and Vice Chancellor in the government of Gerhard Schröder from 1998 to 2005. ... Operation Horseshoe (German: Hufeisenplan) was the name given by the German government to an alleged Serbian plan to expel the entire Albanian population of Kosovo. ... For the video game, see Ethnic Cleansing (computer game). ... The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an organization that promotes cooperation between scientists, defends scientific freedom, encourages scientific responsibility and supports scientific education for the betterment of all humanity. ... In law, good faith (in Latin, bona fides) is the mental and moral state of honest, even if objectively unfounded, conviction as to the truth or falsehood of a proposition or body of opinion, or as to the rectitude or depravity of a line of conduct. ...


It is unclear what Milošević may have hoped to achieve by expelling Kosovo's Albanian inhabitants. One possibility is he wished to replace the Albanian population with refugee Serbs from Bosnia and Croatia, thereby achieving the "Serbianization" of the province. NATO achieved considerable moral advantage by the flight, whether desired or not. If desired it was a great success, as it convinced NATO's member states populations that they had to win the conflict. Europe was still coping with previous waves of refugees and asylum seekers from the Balkans, and a further wave of refugees could have destabilised south-eastern Europe. The war in Kosovo was not initially in the interests of the NATO states, but the refugee crisis made it so. The pictures of thousands of refugees streaming across the border provided a stable foundation for NATO to claim that Serbian ethnic cleansing was a greater injustice than NATO bombardment.

Ostruznica highway bridge hit during Operation Allied Force.

NATO military operations switched increasingly to attacking Serbian units on the ground — hitting targets as small as individual tanks and artillery pieces — as well as continuing with the strategic bombardment. This activity was heavily constrained by politics, as each target needed to be approved by all nineteen members states. Montenegro was bombed several times, but NATO eventually desisted to prop up the precarious position of its anti-Milošević leader, Đukanović. So-called "dual-use" targets, of use to both civilians and the military, were attacked: this included bridges across the Danube, factories, power stations, telecommunications facilities, the headquarters of Yugoslavian Leftists, a political party led by Milošević's wife, and the Serbian state television broadcasting tower. Some saw these actions as violations of international law and the Geneva Conventions in particular. NATO however argued these facilities were potentially useful to the Serbian military, and their bombing was therefore justified. The alliance also stated it tried very hard to avoid civilian casualties during its bombing campaign. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1164x922, 293 KB) Ostruznica highway bridge hit during Operation Allied Force. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1164x922, 293 KB) Ostruznica highway bridge hit during Operation Allied Force. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... Milo Đukanović (Serbian Cyrillic: Мило Ђукановић) (born 15 February 1962 in NikÅ¡ić, Montenegro, Yugoslavia) is a former four mandate Prime Minister (1991 - 1992, 1992-1996, 1996-1998 and 2003 - 2006), president (1998 - 2002) of the Republic of Montenegro and an alleged criminal tycoon. ... Dual-use is a term often used in politics and diplomacy to refer to technology which can be used for both peaceful and military aims, usually in regard to the proliferation of nuclear weapons. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... JUL symbol Yugoslav Left (Serbo-Croat: Југословенска Левица оr Jugoslovenska Levica, ЈУЛ or JUL) is a political organization, formed in 1994 as is a coalition of 23 leftwing and communist parties, led by the League of Communists - Movement for Yugoslavia (SK-PJ). ... Original document. ...


At the start of May, a NATO aircraft attacked an Albanian refugee convoy, believing it was a Serbian military convoy, killing around 50 people. NATO admitted its mistake 5 days later, but the Serbs accused NATO of deliberately attacking the refugees. On May 7, NATO bombs hit the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade, killing three Chinese journalists and outraging the Chinese. NATO claimed they were firing at Yugoslav positions. The United States and NATO later apologized for the bombing, saying it occurred because of an outdated map provided by the CIA. This was challenged by a joint report from The Observer (UK) and Politiken (Denmark) newspapers [10], which claimed NATO intentionally bombed the embassy because it was being used as a relay station for Yugoslav army radio signals. The bombing strained relations between China and NATO countries and provoked angry demonstrations outside Western embassies in Beijing. According to one news source, unnamed, high-ranking NATO sources confirmed in 2005 that the attack was deliberate: "The NATO sources told Defense & Foreign Affairs that the attack was based on intelligence that then Serbian leader Slobodan Milošević was to have been in the Embassy at the time of the attack. The attack, then, was deliberately planned as a "decapitation" attack, intended to kill Milošević." [11] is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... On May 12, the flag at the United States Consulate General in Hong Kong was lowered in respect and sorrow for the Chinese people for a day as the plane carrying the bodies of victims of the embassy bombing came home to Beijing. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Peking redirects here. ...


By the start of April, the conflict seemed little closer to a resolution, and NATO countries began to think seriously about an invasion of Kosovo with ground units. This would have to be organised very quickly, as there was little time before winter set in, and much work would have to be done to improve the roads from the Greek and Albanian ports to the envisaged invasion routes through Macedonia and north-eastern Albania. US President Bill Clinton was reluctant to commit American forces for a ground offensive. At the same time, Finnish and Russian negotiators continued to try to persuade Milošević to back down. He finally recognised that NATO was serious in its resolve to end the conflict one way or another and that Russia would not intervene to defend Serbia despite Moscow's strong anti-NATO rhetoric. Faced with little alternative, Milošević accepted the conditions offered by a Finnish-Russian mediation team and agreed to a military presence within Kosovo headed by the UN, but incorporating NATO troops.


On 12 June, after Milošević accepted the conditions, KFOR began entering Kosovo. KFOR, a NATO force, had been preparing to conduct combat operations, but its mission was limited to peacekeeping.[5] The force was based on the Allied Rapid Reaction Corps headquarters commanded by then-Lieutenant General Mike Jackson of the British Army and consisted of British forces, a German Army brigade that entered from the west while the remaining forces advanced from the south, and Italian Army, Spanish Army and United States Army brigades. The U.S. contribution, the Initial Entry Force consisted of forces from the 2nd Battalion, 505th Parachute Infantry Regiment; the 26th Marine Expeditionary Unit from; the 1st Battalion, 26th Infantry Regiment, and Echo Troop, 4th Cavalry Regiment. Also attached to the U.S. force was the Greek Army's 501st Mechanized Infantry Battalion. The initial U.S. forces established their area of operation around the towns of Uroševac, the future Camp Bondsteel, and Gnjilane, at Camp Monteith, and spent four months——the start of a stay which continues to date——establishing order in the south east sector of Kosovo. The American and other NATO soldiers were greeted by Albanians young and old cheering and throwing flowers as KFOR rolled through their villages. Although no resistance was met, three U.S. soldiers from the Initial Entry Force lost their lives in accidents.[14] is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see KFOR (disambiguation). ... This article is about the military alliance. ... The Headquarters Allied Command Europe Rapid Reaction Corps, (HQ ARRC or ARRC) was created in 1992 in Bielefeld based on the former British I Corps (or I (BR) Corps ). It was originally created as the rapid reaction corps sized land force of the Reaction Forces Concept that emerged after the... General Sir Michael Mike Jackson, GCB, CBE, DSO, ADC Gen (born 21 March 1944) is a British army officer, currently Chief of the General Staff. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... The German Army (German: [1], [IPA: heɐ]  ) is the land component of the Bundeswehr (Federal Defence Forces) of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... Coat of Arms of the Italian Army Dardo IFV on exercise in Capo Teulada Soldiers of the 33rd Field Artillery Regiment Acqui on parade The Italian Army (Esercito Italiano) is the ground defense force of the Italian Republic. ... Emblem of the Spanish Army. ... The United States Army is the largest, and by some standards oldest, established branch of the armed forces of the United States and is one of seven uniformed services. ... The 26th Marine Expeditionary Unit (26th MEU) is one of seven Marine Expeditionary Units currently in existence in the United States Marine Corps. ... The Hellenic Army, (Greek: Ελληνικός Στράτος) is the land force of Greece (The Hellenic Republic). ... Camp Bondsteel, Kosovo Davidson SEAhuts Big Duke (Mt. ... A blindfolded KLA prisoner awaits interrogation at Camp Monteith, June 1999 Camp Monteith is a military base near Gnjilane, Kosovo. ... For other uses, see KFOR (disambiguation). ...


Air war

The wreckage of a Yugoslav Air Force MiG-29 shot down by NATO forces near town of Ugljevik, Republika Srpska
Canopy of F-117 shot down on March 27, 1999, near the village of Budjanovci, Serbia (Museum of Aviation in Belgrade)

An important portion of the war involved combat between the Yugoslav Air Force and the opposing air forces. U.S. Air Force F-15s and F-16s flying mainly from Italian air force bases attacked the defending Yugoslav fighters, mainly MiG-29s. Other NATO forces also contributed to the air war. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1268x1012, 782 KB) A U.S. Army documentation team surveys the wreckage of a Former Republic of Yugoslavia MiG-29 Fulcrum jet fighter outside the town of Ugljevik, Bosnia and Herzegovina, on March 27, 1999. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1268x1012, 782 KB) A U.S. Army documentation team surveys the wreckage of a Former Republic of Yugoslavia MiG-29 Fulcrum jet fighter outside the town of Ugljevik, Bosnia and Herzegovina, on March 27, 1999. ... The Air Force of Serbia consists of a relatively large array of combat aircraft, cargo aircraft, reconnaissance aircraft, UAV, combat helicopters, and cargo/utility helicopters. ... The Mikoyan MiG-29 (Russian: ) is a 4th generation jet fighter aircraft designed for the air superiority role in the Soviet Union. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... Location of Ugljevik within Bosnia and Herzegovina Coordinates: , Country Government  - Mayor Vasilije Perić (SDS) [1] Area  - Total 164 km² (63. ... Not to be confused with Serbia. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 595 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 761 pixel, file size: 374 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Canopy of F-117 shot down on March 27, 1999, near village Budjanovci, Yugoslavia. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 595 pixel Image in higher resolution (1024 × 761 pixel, file size: 374 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Canopy of F-117 shot down on March 27, 1999, near village Budjanovci, Yugoslavia. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... BuÄ‘anovci (Serbian Cyrillic: Буђановци) is a village in Serbia. ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... The Museum of Aviation in Belgrade was founded in 1957 and is located at Belgrade Nikola Tesla Airport. ... The Air Force of Serbia consists of a relatively large array of combat aircraft, cargo aircraft, reconnaissance aircraft, UAV, combat helicopters, and cargo/utility helicopters. ... Seal of the Air Force. ... The McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle is an all-weather, extremely maneuverable, tactical fighter designed to permit the U.S. Air Force to gain and maintain air superiority in aerial combat. ... The F-16 Fighting Falcon is a modern multi-role jet fighter aircraft built in the United States and used by dozens of countries all over the world. ... The Mikoyan MiG-29 (NATO reporting name Fulcrum) is a Russian fighter aircraft used in the air superiority role. ... This article is about the military alliance. ...


Dogfights/incidents of the 1999 Kosovo War:

  • March 24, 1999: Yugoslav MiG-29 pilot Nejbojsa Nikolić took off from Batajnica Air Force Base. He encountered 24 NATO fighter jets. The NATO fighters immediately reacted to his presence. The MiG-29 evaded two enemy missiles before an American F-15 shot him down. Nikolić ejected at around 2,000 meters altitude and survived. According to U.S. reports, two MiG-29s were shot down in the encounter, one by Captain Mike Shower and one by Lieutenant Colonel Cesar Rodriguez.[12]
  • March 25, 1999: A J-22 Orao piloted by Lt. Colonel Zivota Ðurić took off from Ladjevci. It hit a hill in Kosovo.
  • March 26, 1999: In the afternoon, two Yugoslav MiG-29s took off from Batajnica to chase a lone NATO aircraft flying in direction of Bosnia (possibly a reconnaissance Mirage IV). They crossed the border and were ambushed by a group of three U.S. F-15s. Both MiGs were shot down by U.S. Captain Jeff Hwang.[13] One of the pilots of the MiGs, Major Slobodan Perić evaded at least one missile before being hit. He ejected and survived, later being smuggled back to Yugoslavia by the Republika Srpska police. After the war stated in an interview that his aircraft's radar was not working. The other pilot, Captain Zoran Radosavljević did not eject and was killed. [14]
  • On March 27, 1999, the 3rd Battalion of the 250th Missile Brigade under the command of Colonel Zoltán Dani, equipped with the Isayev S-125 'Neva-M' (NATO designation SA-3 Goa), downed an American F-117 Nighthawk with a Neva-M missile.[6] According to Wesley Clark and other NATO generals, Yugoslav air defenses found that they could detect F-117s with their "obsolete" Soviet radars operating on long wavelengths. This, combined with the loss of stealth when the jets got wet or opened their bomb bays, made them visible on radar screens. The pilot successfully ejected and was rescued by CSAR forces near Belgrade. The incident was the first and so far only time a stealth aircraft was ever shot down in history.
  • On May 2, 1999, an American F-16 crashed near Sabac, in a rural area of Serbia, and the pilot ejected and was rescued. Yugoslavia claimed the aircraft to be shot down by a SAM. NATO said the crash was caused by engine failure.[15]
  • On May 4, 1999, a Yugoslav Mig-29, piloted by Lt. Colonel Milenko Pavlović (commander of the "Knights" squadron - the Yugoslav Mig-29 unit) was shot down over Valjevo by two USAF F-16s. The falling aircraft was possibly hit as well by Strela 2 fired by Yugoslav troops. Pavlović was killed.[16]

is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... The Mikoyan MiG-29 (NATO reporting name Fulcrum) is a Russian fighter aircraft used in the air superiority role. ... Batajnica is an urban neighborhood in Belgrade, Serbia. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... The aircraft known as the Soko J-22 Orao (Eagle) in Serbia and as the IAv Craiova IAR-93 in Romania was the result of a joint Yugoslav-Romanian project in the 1970s to develop a light ground-attack aircraft for the air forces of both nations. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... The McDonnell Douglas F-15 Eagle is an all-weather, extremely maneuverable, tactical fighter designed to permit the U.S. Air Force to gain and maintain air superiority in aerial combat. ... Not to be confused with Serbia. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... Colonel Zoltán Dani (Serbian: ) was the commander of a Serbian anti-aircraft battery which shot down a United States Air Force F-117 Nighthawk stealth fighter on March 27, 1999. ... Two S-125 dual missile launcher trailers. ... This article is about the stealth fighter. ... Wesley Kanne Clark (born December 23, 1944) is a retired four-star general of the United States Army. ... Tsar, (Bulgarian цар�, Russian царь; often spelled Czar or Tzar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to 1917. ... Stealth can refer to several things: Look up stealth in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... The F-16 Fighting Falcon is a modern multi-role jet fighter aircraft built in the United States and used by dozens of countries all over the world. ... Sabac Šabac (Шабац) is a city located in Serbia and Montenegro at 44. ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... Yugoslav refers to: Yugoslavia Kingdom of Yugoslavia Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Yugoslavs This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Mikoyan MiG-29 (NATO reporting name Fulcrum) is a Russian fighter aircraft used in the air superiority role. ... A soldier posing with a Strela launcher. ...

Forces employed by NATO

Aviation

The main element of the operation was the air forces of NATO, principally drawn from the United States Air Force and the Royal Air Force as well as other NATO air forces. The British Royal Air Force operated the Harrier GR7 and Tornado ground attack jets as well as an array of support aircraft. Belgian, Danish, Dutch and Turkish Air Forces operated F-16s. The Spanish Air Force and Canadian Air Force deployed F-18s, making Canadians responsible for 10% of all bombs dropped in the operation. The fighters were armed with both guided and unguided "dumb" munitions, including the Paveway series of laser-guided bombs. The bombing regiment marked the first time the German Luftwaffe actively participated in combat operations since the end of the Second World War, and the American B-2 Spirit stealth bomber also saw its first combat. Italian Tornado and AMX aircraft were also used in the operation. USAF redirects here. ... RAF redirects here. ... The BAE Systems/Boeing Harrier II (GR5/GR7/GR9 series) is a second generation vertical/short takeoff and landing (V/STOL) jet aircraft used by the Royal Air Force (RAF). ... 12 Sqn Tornado GR1 The RAF Tornado GR1 was the first generation version of the Panavia Tornado strike aircraft of the Royal Air Force. ... The Air Component, formerly the Belgian Air Force, is the air arm of the Belgian Armed Forces. ... The F-16 Fighting Falcon is a modern multi-role jet fighter aircraft built in the United States and used by dozens of countries all over the world. ... The Spanish Air Force (Spanish: Ejército del Aire; literally, Army of the Air) is the air force of Spain. ... Canadian Forces Air Command (AIRCOM) is the air force element of the Canadian Forces. ... The F/A-18 Hornet is an all-weather fighter and attack aircraft. ... A Paveway III seeker head, at the RAF Museum in Hendon, London. ...   (German IPA: ) is a generic German term for an air force. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... The Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit is a multi-role stealth heavy bomber, capable of deploying both conventional and nuclear weapons. ... The AMX International AMX Ghibli is a surface attack aircraft for battlefield interdiction, close air support and reconnaissance missions. ...


Space

Operation Allied Freedom incorporated the first large-scale use of satellites as a direct method of weapon guidance. The collective bombing was the first combat use of the Joint Direct Attack Munition JDAM kit, which uses an inertial-guidance and GPS-guided tail fin to increase the accuracy of conventional gravity munitions up to 95%. The JDAM kits were outfitted on the B-2s. The Joint Stand-Off Weapon (JSOW) had been previously used in Operation SOUTHERN WATCH earlier in 1999. The Joint Direct Attack Munition (JDAM) is a guidance tail kit that converts existing unguided free-fall bombs into accurate, adverse weather smart munitions. ...


Naval

NATO naval forces operated in the Adriatic Sea. The British Royal Navy sent a substantial task force that included the aircraft carrier HMS Invincible, which operated Sea Harrier FA2 fighter jets. The RN also deployed destroyers and frigates, and the Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA) provided support vessels, including the aviation training/primary casualty receiving ship RFA Argus. It was the first time the RN used cruise missiles in combat, operated from the nuclear fleet submarine HMS Splendid. A satellite image of the Adriatic Sea. ... This article is about the navy of the United Kingdom. ... For other ships of the same name, see HMS Invincible. ... The BAE Systems Sea Harrier is a British naval VTOL/STOVL jet fighter, reconnaissance and attack aircraft, a development of the Hawker Siddeley Harrier. ... USS McFaul underway in the Atlantic Ocean. ... For the bird, see Frigatebird. ... The Royal Fleet Auxiliary (RFA) is the service that keeps the Royal Navy of the United Kingdom running around the world. ... RFA Argus (A135) is an aviation training ship with a secondary role of primary casualty receiving ship in the Royal Fleet Auxiliary. ... A Taurus KEPD 350 cruise missile of the German Luftwaffe A cruise missile is a guided missile which carries an explosive payload and uses a lifting wing and a propulsion system, usually a jet engine, to allow sustained flight; it is essentially a flying bomb. ... The HMS Splendid (S106) was a nuclear powered submarine of the Swiftsure class. ...


The United States Navy provided a naval task force that included the aircraft carrier USS Theodore Roosevelt and the amphibious assault ship USS Kearsarge. The French Navy provided the aircraft carrier Foch and escorts. USN redirects here. ... The USS Theodore Roosevelt (CVN-71) (known affectionately as the Big Stick or TR) is the fourth Nimitz-class supercarrier and its call sign is Rough Rider, the name of President Theodore Roosevelts volunteer cavalry unit during the Spanish-American War. ... USS Kearsarge (LHD-3), the third Wasp-class amphibious assault ship, was the fifth ship of the United States Navy to be named (the fourth actually commissioned) in honor of the sloop Kearsarge, of American Civil War fame. ... The French Navy, officially called the National Navy (French: Marine Nationale) is the maritime arm of the French military. ... The Foch (R 99) was the sister-ship of the Clémenceau. ...


Army

U.S. ground forces included a battalion from the 505th Parachute Infantry Regiment, 82nd Airborne Division. The unit was deployed in March 1999 to Albania in support of the bombing campaign where the battalion secured the Tirana airfield, Apache helicopter refueling sites, established a forward-operating base to prepare for Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS) strikes and offensive ground operations, and deployed a small team with a Q-36 radar system to the Albania/Kosovo border where it acquired targets for allied/NATO air strikes. Immediately after the bombing campaign, the battalion was refitted back at Tirana airfield and issued orders to move into Kosovo as the initial entry force in support of Operation Joint Guardian. Task Force Hawk was also deployed. The 505th Parachute Infantry Regiment (505th PIR) is one of three infantry regiments of the 82nd Airborne Division of the United States Army. ... The 82nd Airborne Division of the United States Army was formed originally as the 82nd Infantry Division on August 25, 1917, at Camp Gordon, Georgia. ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country Albania Founded 1614 Elevation 295 ft (90 m) Population (2005 est)[1]  - City 585,756  - Metro 700,000 Tirana (Albanian: Tiranë or Tirana) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Albania. ... BM-13 Katyusha A Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS) is a form of rocket artillery system which includes a reusable launcher. ... The AN/TPQ-36 FIREFINDER is a mobile radar system manufactured by the Hughes Aircraft Company, later acquired by Raytheon. ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country Albania Founded 1614 Elevation 295 ft (90 m) Population (2005 est)[1]  - City 585,756  - Metro 700,000 Tirana (Albanian: Tiranë or Tirana) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Albania. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... Operation Joint Guardian was an military operation that occured inside the region of Kosovo, located inside the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... This article is under construction. ...


Aftermath

Civilian casualties

Power line attacked by NATO aviation.

Human Rights Watch reported between 489 and 528 civilians were killed in the ninety separate incidents in Operation Allied Force. Albanian refugees were among the victims. Between 62 and 66 percent of the total registered civilian deaths occurred in twelve incidents. The twelve incidents accounted for the 303 to 352 civilian deaths. These were the only incidents among the ninety documented, in which ten or more civilian deaths were confirmed. Almost half of the incidents resulted from attacks during daylight hours, when civilians could have been expected to be on the roads and bridges or in public buildings which may have been targeted.[7] power cut This is an image of a power transmission in Serbia bombed by NATO in May 1999. ... power cut This is an image of a power transmission in Serbia bombed by NATO in May 1999. ... The targeting of civilian areas during Operation Allied Force have been a major component in the conflict. ...


Military casualties

Military casualties on the NATO side were limited. According to official reports, the alliance suffered no fatalities from combat operations. However, on May 5, an American AH-64 Apache crashed and exploded during a night-time mission outside Tirana. The Yugoslavs claimed they shot it down, but NATO claimed it crashed due to a technical malfunction. It crashed close to the Albanian-Kosovo border, 40 miles (75km) from Tirana, [17] and the two pilots of the helicopter, Army Chief Warrant Officers David Gibbs and Kevin Reichert, died in the crash. According to newspaper reports at the time, KLA insurgents claimed an SAS soldier operating with them was killed by Serbian fire,[citation needed] which NATO and the Ministry of Defence denied.[citation needed] A few days later, an SAS soldier was listed as killed in a road accident during 'routine peacekeeping operations' in Bosnia.[citation needed] There were other casualties after the war, mostly due to land mines. After the war, the alliance reported the loss of three helicopters, 32 Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and five aircraft[citation needed] — all of them American, including the first stealth plane (F-117 Nighthawk) shot down by enemy fire; most of losses were from accidents in the 38,004 sorties flown. The Yugoslav armed forces claimed to have shot down seven helicopters, 30 UAVs, 61 planes and 238 cruise missiles; however, these figures were not verified independently. is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The AH-64 Apache is an all-weather day-night military attack helicopter and is the United States Armys principal attack helicopter, and is the successor to the AH-1 Cobra. ... Nickname: Coordinates: , Country Albania Founded 1614 Elevation 295 ft (90 m) Population (2005 est)[1]  - City 585,756  - Metro 700,000 Tirana (Albanian: Tiranë or Tirana) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Albania. ... A warrant officer (WO) or a chief warrant officer (CWO) is a member of a military organization, with a rank subordinate to other commissioned officers and senior to noncommissioned officers. ... A landmine is a type of mine which is placed onto or into the ground and explodes when triggered by a vehicle or person. ... An RQ-2 Pioneer, a reconnaissance UAV used by the US military during the Gulf and Iraq Wars. ... This article is about the stealth fighter. ...

Post-strike bomb damage assessment photo of Zastava car plant.

Operation Allied Force inflicted less damage on the Yugoslav military than originally thought due to the use of camouflage, which concealed vehicles and war techniques, and numerous easy-made decoys. Other misdirection techniques were used to disguise military targets. While NATO believed it had destroyed about 120 Serbian tanks during the conflict, only 14 were confirmed destroyed.[citation needed] It was only in the later stages of the campaign that strategic targets such as bridges and buildings were attacked in any systematic way, causing significant disruption and economic damage. This stage of the campaign led to controversial incidents, such as the bombing of the Chinese embassy in Belgrade where three Chinese reporters were killed and twenty others injured. NATO claimed this was erroneous because of old Belgrade maps. Then there was an attack on Serbia's main TV station, Zastava car factory and the bombing of chemical factories, which resulted in major pollution incidents and loss of jobs.[citation needed] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1169x919, 323 KB)Post-strike bomb damage assessment photograph of the Kragujevac Armor and Motor Vehicle Plant Crvena Zastava, Serbia, used by Joint Staff Director of Intelligence Rear Adm. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1169x919, 323 KB)Post-strike bomb damage assessment photograph of the Kragujevac Armor and Motor Vehicle Plant Crvena Zastava, Serbia, used by Joint Staff Director of Intelligence Rear Adm. ... BDA Photo of a military cable station in Basra, Iraq Bomb damage assessment, often referred to as BDA, is the practice of assessing damage inflicted on a target by an air campaign. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Zastava Auto. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Zastava Auto. ...


Political outcome

When NATO agreed Kosovo would be politically supervised by the United Nations, and that there would be no independence referendum for three years (the main objective of NATO was to have a vote on independence), the Yugoslav government agreed to withdraw its forces from Kosovo, under strong diplomatic initiative from Russia, and the bombing suspended on 10 June. The war ended June 11, and Russian paratroopers seized Slatina airport to become the first peacekeeping force in the war zone.[18] As British troops were still massed on the Macedonian border, planning to enter Kosovo at 5 am, the Serbs were hailing the Russian arrival as proof the war was a UN operation, not a NATO operation. After hostilities ended, on 12 June the U.S. Army's 82nd Airborne, 2-505th Parachute Infantry Regiment entered war-torn Kosovo as part of Operation Joint Guardian. is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Slatina airport near Pristina was the second largest underground airport in former Yugoslavia. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The 82nd Airborne Division of the United States Army was formed originally as the 82nd Infantry Division on August 25, 1917, at Camp Gordon, Georgia. ... Operation Joint Guardian was an military operation that occured inside the region of Kosovo, located inside the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ...


Yugoslav President Slobodan Milošević survived the conflict and declared its outcome a major victory for Yugoslavia and Serbia. He was, however, indicted for war crimes by the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia along with a number of other senior Serbian and Yugoslav political and military figures. His indictment led to Yugoslavia as a whole being treated as a pariah by much of the international community because Milošević was subject to arrest if he left Yugoslavia. The country's economy was badly affected by the conflict, and a year later, popular disillusionment with the Milošević regime led to his overthrow in October 2000. MiloÅ¡ević redirects here. ... In the context of war, a war crime is a punishable offense under International Law, for violations of the laws of war by any person or persons, military or civilian. ... The Tribunal building in The Hague. ... The front page of the first issue of the Politika daily newspaper after the 5th October overthrow, released around midnight October 6, 2000. ...


Thousands were killed during the conflict, and hundreds of thousands more fled from the province to other parts of the country and to the surrounding countries. Most of the Albanian refugees returned home within a few weeks or months. However, much of the non-Albanian population again fled to other parts of Serbia or to protected enclaves within Kosovo. Albanian guerrilla activity spread into other parts of Serbia and to neighbouring Macedonia, but subsided in 2001. The non-Albanian population has since diminished further following fresh outbreaks of inter-communal conflict and harassment, and veterans of the officially disbanded KLA are threatening renewed violence if their demand for secession is not fulfilled.


In December 2002, HM Queen Elizabeth II approved the awarding of the Battle Honour "Kosovo" to squadrons of the RAF that participated in the conflict. These were: Nos 1, 7, 8, 9, 14, 23, 31, 51, 101, and 216 squadrons. Squadrons that are emboldened are authorized to have the battle honour emblazoned on their Colours. Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... A battle honour is a military tradition practiced in the Commonwealth countries of the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada, and New Zealand and is an official acknowledgement rewarded to military units for their achievements in specific wars or operations of a military campaign. ... Once upon a time, there was a place called Mount Olympus, which was far up in the sky on a mountain. ... No. ... No. ... No. ... No. ... No. ... No. ... No. ... No. ... No. ... A colour is a name for certain kinds of flags. ...


Criticism of the case for war

Warning sign about NATO cluster bombs near ski slopes.

Some critics have accused the coalition of leading a war in Kosovo under the false pretense of genocide.[8] United States President Bill Clinton, and his administration, were accused of inflating the number of Kosovar Albanians killed by Serbians.[9] Clinton's Secretary of Defense, William Cohen, said, "The appalling accounts of mass killing in Kosovo and the pictures of refugees fleeing Serb oppression for their lives makes it clear that this is a fight for justice over genocide."[10] On CBS' Face the Nation Cohen claimed, "We've now seen about 100,000 military-aged men missing...They may have been murdered."[11] Clinton, citing the same figure, spoke of "at least 100,000 (Kosovar Albanians) missing".[12] Later, talking about Serbian elections, Clinton said, "they're going to have to come to grips with what Mr. Milošević ordered in Kosovo...They're going to have to decide whether they support his leadership or not; whether they think it's OK that all those tens of thousands of people were killed...".[13] In the same press conference, Clinton also claimed "NATO stopped deliberate, systematic efforts at ethnic cleansing and genocide."[14] Clinton compared the events of Kosovo to the Holocaust. CNN reported, "Accusing Serbia of 'ethnic cleansing' in Kosovo similar to the genocide of Jews in World War II, an impassioned President Clinton sought Tuesday to rally public support for his decision to send U.S. forces into combat against Yugoslavia, a prospect that seemed increasingly likely with the breakdown of a diplomatic peace effort."[15] Clinton's State Department also claimed Serbian troops had committed genocide. The New York Times reported, "the Administration said evidence of 'genocide' by Serbian forces was growing to include 'abhorrent and criminal action' on a vast scale. The language was the State Department's strongest yet in denouncing Yugoslav President Slobodan Milošević."[16] The State Department also gave the highest estimate of dead Albanians. The New York Times reported, "On April 19, the State Department said that up to 500,000 Kosovar Albanians were missing and feared dead."[17] The claims of purported genocide had subsequently been proven untrue.[who?] The NATO bombing of Yugoslavia took place during the Kosovo War. ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... Kosovar is a noun derived from Kosovo. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The United States Secretary of Defense is the head of the United States Department of Defense, concerned with the armed services and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... William Sebastian Cohen (1940- ) is an author and American politician from the U.S. state of Maine. ... “Shoah” redirects here. ... Department of State redirects here. ...


The United Nations Charter does not allow military interventions in other sovereign countries with few exceptions which, in general, need to be decided upon by the United Nations Security Council. The issue was brought before the UN Security Council by Russia, in a draft resolution which - inter alia - would affirm "that such unilateral use of force constitutes a flagrant violation of the United Nations Charter". China, Namibia and Russia voted for the resolution, the other members against, thus it failed to pass [19][20] (PDF). The absence of Security Council approval as a legal basis for the intervention led some observers to argue that the intervention undermined international law.[citation needed]


On April 29, 1999, Yugoslavia filed a complaint at the International Court of Justice (ICJ) at The Hague against ten NATO member countries (Belgium, Germany, France, Great Britain, Italy, Canada, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, and the U.S.). The Court did not decide upon the case because it ruled that Yugoslavia was not a member of the UN during the war. is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... Hague redirects here. ...


In Western countries, opposition to NATO's intervention was mainly from conservatives and libertarians on the right, and from most of the far left. In Britain, the war was opposed by many prominent conservative figures including former UK Foreign Secretary Sir Malcolm Rifkind, former Chancellor of the Exchequer Norman Lamont, and journalists Peter Hitchens and Simon Heffer, whereas opposition on the left was confined to The Morning Star newspaper and left wing MPs like Tony Benn and Alan Simpson. However, the Communist Party of Great Britain (Provisional Central Committee), a Leninist splinter-group, backed the Kosovo Liberation Army (while opposing NATO's intervention, seeing it as American-led imperialist opportunism) and supported the complete secession of Kosovo from Serbia. Conservatism is a term used to describe political philosophies that favor tradition and gradual change, where tradition refers to religious, cultural, or nationally defined beliefs and customs. ... This article is about the political philosophy based on private property rights. ... Right wing redirects here. ... The term far left refers to the relative position a person or group occupies within the political spectrum. ... The Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (colloquially called the Foreign Secretary) is a member of the British Government responsible for relations with foreign countries, heading the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (often called simply the Foreign Office). ... Sir Malcolm Leslie Rifkind, KCMG, QC (born 21 June 1946) is a Scottish Conservative and Unionist politician and Member of Parliament for the constituency of Kensington and Chelsea. ... The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British Cabinet minister responsible for all economic and financial matters. ... Norman Stewart Hughson Lamont, Baron Lamont of Lerwick, PC (born 8 May 1942) was Conservative Member of Parliament for Kingston-upon-Thames, England from 1972 until 1997. ... Peter Hitchens Peter Jonathan Hitchens (born 28 October 1951 in Sliema, Malta) is a British journalist, author and broadcaster. ... Simon James Heffer (born July 18, 1960) is an English journalist and writer. ... Left wing redirects here. ... For other uses, see Morning Star. ... Anthony Tony Neil Wedgwood Benn (born 3 April 1925), formerly 2nd Viscount Stansgate, is a British socialist politician. ... Alan John Simpson (born 20 September 1948 in Bootle, Liverpool) is a British Labour politician and Member of Parliament for Nottingham South. ... The Communist Party of Great Britain (Provisional Central Committee), which commonly calls itself the Communist Party of Great Britain (CPGB), is a British Leninist political grouping, which publishes the Weekly Worker newspaper. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism refers to various related political and economic theories elaborated by Bolshevik revolutionary leader Vladimir Lenin, and by other theorists who claim to be carrying on Lenins work. ... For the computer game, see Imperialism (computer game). ...


See also

he bombing of Belgrade occurred in the initial phases of World War II when German forces bombed the city in preperation for the invasion of Yugoslavia. ... The Headquarters Allied Command Europe Rapid Reaction Corps, (HQ ARRC or ARRC) was created in 1992 in Bielefeld based on the former British I Corps (or I (BR) Corps ). It was originally created as the rapid reaction corps sized land force of the Reaction Forces Concept that emerged after the... Destroyed old Varadin Bridge in Novi Sad during NATO bombing in 1999 During the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia in 1999, the second largest Yugoslav city of Novi Sad was one of the most heavily bombed targets. ... Main article: Targeting of civilian areas during Operation Allied Force The Grdelica train bombing occurred on April 12, 1999 (it was the second day of Easter holidays that year, according to the Serbian Orthodox Church), when two missiles fired by NATO warplanes hit a train while it was passing across... Yugoslavian SA.341/342 Gazelle GAMA. Yugoslavian MiG-29 in the 90s. ...

References

  1. ^ A historical overview of Operation Allied Force
  2. ^ NATO hits Montenegro, says Milosevic faces dissent, CNN, 29 April 1999
  3. ^ NATO's role in relation to the conflict in Kosovo, from NATO’s website, 15 July 1999
  4. ^ Nato warns Milosevic off Montenegro, BBC News,
  5. ^ HQ ARRC - Brochure
  6. ^ "Serb discusses 1999 downing of stealth", USATODAY.com, 2005-10-26. Retrieved on 2007-05-08. (English) 
  7. ^ Civilian Deaths in the NATO Air Campaign - The Crisis in Kosovo
  8. ^ Farah, Joseph (1999). "The Real War Crimes".
  9. ^ Schlafly, Phyllis (November 19, 1999). "Numbers Game in Kosovo". Washington Times.
  10. ^ Cohen, William (April 7, 1999). "Secretary Cohen's Press Conference at NATO Headquarters".
  11. ^ Doggett, Tom (May 16, 1999). "Cohen Fears 100,000 Kosovo Men Killed by Serbs". The Washington Post.
  12. ^ Clinton, Bill (May 13, 1999). "Speech by President to Veterans Organizations on Kosovo".
  13. ^ Clinton, Bill (June 25, 1999). "Press Conference by the President".
  14. ^ ibid
  15. ^ "Clinton: Serbs must be stopped now". (March 23, 1999). CNN.
  16. ^ Clines, Francis X (March 30, 1999). "NATO Hunting for Serb Forces; U.S. Reports Signs of 'Genocide'". The New York Times, p. A1.
  17. ^ Erlanger, Steven (November 11, 1999). "Early Count Hints at Fewer Kosovo Deaths". The New York Times, p. A6.

The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... This article refers to the news department of the British Broadcasting Corporation, for the BBC News Channel see BBC News (TV channel). ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 136th day of the year (137th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 89th day of the year (90th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ...

External links

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Wesley Kanne Clark (born December 23, 1944) is a retired four-star general of the United States Army. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Helmut Josef Michael Kohl (born April 3, 1930) is a German conservative politician and statesman. ... “Yeltsin” redirects here. ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency...   IPA: (October 26, 1916 – January 8, 1996) served as President of France from 1981 to 1995, elected as representative of the Socialist Party (PS). ... Boutros Boutros-Ghali (Arabic: بطرس بطرس غالي, Coptic: Î’OΥΤΡΟC BOYTPOC ΓΑΛΗ) (born November 14, 1922) is an Egyptian diplomat who was the sixth Secretary-General of the United Nations from January 1992 to December 1996. ...

 
 

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