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Encyclopedia > 1993 Mumbai Bombings
1993 Mumbai Bombings
Location Mumbai, India
Target(s) Hotels, Office Buildings, Banks, etc.
Date March 12, 1993
13:30-15:40 (UTC+ 5.5)
Attack Type Car Bombs
Fatalities 257
Injuries 1,400
Perpetrator(s) Militant Islamic groups

The 1993 Mumbai bombings were a series of 15 bomb explosions that took place in Mumbai (Bombay), India on March 12, 1993. The attacks were the most destructive and coordinated bomb explosions in the country's history. The attacks are widely believed to be the retaliation by the Muslim underworld and militant Islamic groups for the Babri Mosque demolition in December, 1992. MumbaÄ« (Marathi: मुंबई, IPA: ), formerly known as Bombay, is the capital of the state of Maharashtra, and the most populous city of India, with an estimated population of about 13 million (as of 2006)[1]. Mumbai is located on the west coast of Maharashtra. ... March 12 is the 71st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (72nd in leap years). ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... ... MumbaÄ« (Marathi: मुंबई, IPA: ), formerly known as Bombay, is the capital of the state of Maharashtra, and the most populous city of India, with an estimated population of about 13 million (as of 2006)[1]. Mumbai is located on the west coast of Maharashtra. ... March 12 is the 71st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (72nd in leap years). ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... A view of the Babri Mosque, pre-1992. ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ...

Contents

Background

In December 1992 and January 1993 there was widespread rioting in Mumbai following the destruction of the Babri Mosque in Ayodhya by Hindu groups. Although there was no loss of life in the incident, between January 1 and 5, Mumbai witnessed a series of riots in which 1,788[citation needed] (official figures) people lost their lives. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... January 5 is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Although numerous Riots have occurred in the City of Mumbai (Bombay) since Independence, usually this term refers to the riots in Mumbai in 1992-1993. ...


The bombings

At 1:30 p.m. a powerful car bomb exploded in the basement of the Bombay Stock Exchange building. The 28-story office building housing the exchange was severely damaged, and many nearby office buildings also suffered some damage. About 50 were killed by this explosion. About 30 minutes later, another car bomb exploded elsewhere in the city, and from 1:30 p.m. to 3:40 p.m. a total of 13 bombs exploded throughout Bombay. Most of the bombs were car bombs, but some were in scooters. Car bomb in Iraq, made from a number of concealed artillery shells in the back of a pickup truck. ... The Bombay Stock Exchange The Bombay Stock Exchange Limited (formerly, The Stock Exchange, Mumbai; popularly called The Bombay Stock Exchange, or BSE) is the oldest stock exchange in Asia. ...


Three hotels, the Hotel Sea Rock, Hotel Juhu Centaur, and Hotel Airport Centaur, were targeted by suitcase bombs left in rooms booked by the perpetrators. Banks, the regional passport office, hotels, an airline office (the Air India Building), and a major shopping complex were also hit. Bombs exploded at Zaveri Bazar, Century Bazar, Katha Bazar, Shiv Sena Bhawan, and Plaza Theatre. A jeep-bomb at the Century Bazar exploded early, thwarting another attack. Grenades were also thrown at Sahar International Airport and at Fishermen's Colony, apparently targeting Hindus at the latter. A double decker bus was very badly damaged in one of the explosions and that single incident accounted for the greatest loss of life - perhaps up to ninety people were killed. Almost all those killed were Hindus. Air India (Hindi: ) is the largest international airline in India and the national flag carrier of India with a worldwide network of passenger and cargo services. ... Grenade may refer to: The well-known hand grenade commonly used by soldiers. ... Chatrapati Shivaji International Airport (also transliterated as Chhatrapati Shivaji International Airport), formerly Sahar International Airport, is an airport in Mumbai, India. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Aftermath

The official number of dead was 257 dead with 1,400 others injured (some news sources say 317 people died; this is due to a bomb which killed 60 in Calcutta on March 17). Several days later, unexploded car bombs were discovered at a railway station. Islamic terrorist groups based in Pakistan were suspected to be responsible for these bombings, and evidence uncovered pointed to the involvement of underworld don Dawood Ibrahim. Many hundreds of people have been arrested and detained in Indian courts and are undergoing or awaiting trial. So far, no convictions have resulted twelve years after the blasts. This article is on Calcutta/Kolkata, the city. ... March 17 is the 76th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (77th in Leap years). ... Dawood Ibrahim (also known as Dawood Ebrahim and Sheikh Dawood Hassan, birth name Sheikh Dawood Ibrahim Kaskar) was born in Ratnagiri, India as a son of police constable, was the former Don of the organized crime syndicate named D-Company in Mumbai, a notorious terrorist He is accused of heading...


More than ten years later, on August 25, 2003, two large and destructive bombs left in taxis exploded in south Mumbai - the Gateway of India and Zaveri Bazaar in the busy Kalbadevi area - killing 52 people, again entirely Hindus and wounding more than a hundred others. Two Islamic militant groups, Jaish-e-Mohammed and Lashkar-e-Toiba, were found to be responsible for the attacks. Along with the July 2006 train bombings in Mumbai, these attacks are believed to be in retaliation for the 2002 Gujarat riots in which more than a thousand persons, mostly Muslims were killed [1], though the Gujarat Government denies such a connection [2]. August 25 is the 237th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (238th in leap years), with 128 days remaining. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Gateway of India as seen from the water. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Mohammads Army. ... Lashkar-e-Toiba (Urdu: لشكرِ طيبه laškar-ĕ ṯaiyyiba, literally The Army of Pure, also transliterated as Lashkar-i-Tayyaba, Lashkar-e-Tayyaba or Lashkar-i-Toiba) is one of the largest and most active Islamic terrorist outfits in South Asia. ... Map showing the Western line and blast locations. ... 2002 Gujarat violence refers to a series of riots and other incidents of mob violence that occurred in the Indian state of Gujarat in 2002. ...


On August 11, 2006, the former Chief Minister of Maharashtra,Sharad Pawar, admitted, on record, that he had “deliberately misled” people following the 1993 Mumbai blasts by saying there were "12 and not 11" explosions, adding the name of a Muslim-dominated locality to show that people from both communities had been affected. He tried to justify this deception by claiming that it was a move to prevent communal riots by falsely portraying that both Hindu and Muslim communities in the city had been affected adversely. He also admits to lying about evidence recovered and misleading people into believing that some of it pointed to the Tamil Tigers as possible suspects [3]. August 11 is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sharadchandra Govindrao Pawar (Marathi: शरदचंद्र गोविंदराव पवार)(born December 12, 1940) Maratha strongman and president of the Nationalist Congress Party which he formed in 1999 in India; and he leads its delegation in the Lok Sabha, representing his home town of Baramati. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


Arrests, Convictions and Verdict

The special TADA court hearing the long-drawn 1993 Mumbai blasts case on September 12, 2006 convicted four members of the Memon family - Yakub, Essa, Rubina and Yusuf.


Three other members of the Memon family - Suleiman, Hanifa and Rahil - have, however, been acquitted with the judge giving them the benefit of doubt. The four Memons have been held guilty on charges of conspiring and abetting acts of terror. They face jail terms ranging from a minimum of five years to life imprisonment. On Wednesday, 13Sep,TADA court announced that it would start pronouncing verdict beginning Thursday on 31 accused charged with transporting and planting bombs to effect the 1993 serial blasts. These include Mohammed Shoaib Ghansar, accused of planting a bomb in Zaveri Bazaar. All these accused are presently lodged in jail.


Yakub Memon, the brother of prime accused Tiger Memon, has been charged for possession of unauthorised arms. The complete verdict in the case will be delivered in batches in a staggered manner over a period of four weeks. Tiger Memon (Ibrahim Abdul Razak Memon) is the most wanted accused in the 1993 Mumbai bomb blasts case. ...


Yakub Memon is younger brother of prime accused and conspirator Tiger Memon. After the blasts, the family members of Tiger, including Yakub, had escaped to Dubai and from Mumbai to Pakistan. Correspondents say Tiger Memon owned a restaurant in Mumbai and was allegedly closely associated with Dawood Ibrahim, the chief suspect[4]. Dawood Ibrahim (also known as Dawood Ebrahim and Sheikh Dawood Hassan, birth name Sheikh Dawood Ibrahim Kaskar) was born in Ratnagiri, India as a son of police constable, was the former Don of the organized crime syndicate named D-Company in Mumbai, a notorious terrorist He is accused of heading...


Except Tiger and his brother Ayub, the entire family returned to India and arrested by CBI in 1994. Since then Yakub has been in custody and is undergoing treatment as he suffers from depression, according to his lawyer Subhash Kanse. The Menon family was tried and found guilty. The defense lawyers have asked for leniency in the sentencing and have caused delays in the process [5]. CBI is a TLA with a number of meanings, including: Central Bank of India Central Bank of Ireland Central Bureau of Investigation, India Chicago Bridge and Iron Confederation of British Industry Cosmic Background Imager China Burma India theater of World War II Caribbean Basin Initiative C.B.I. This is...


Dawood Ibrahim, believed to have masterminded the terrorist attacks, was formerly the Don of the Mumbai organized crime syndicate D-Company, largely consisting of Muslims.He is suspected of having connections to several Islamic terrorist groups [6] such as al-Qaeda and it's leader, Osama bin Laden[7], as well as Lashkar-e-Toiba[8] and was declared a terrorist by the Governments of India and the United States in 2003 . He is also wanted by Interpol[9]. He has absconded since the blasts and is believed to be hiding in Pakistan, which the Pakistani Government denies [10][11]. The Bush administration in the United States imposed sanctions on Ibrahim in 2006[12]. Dawood Ibrahim (also known as Dawood Ebrahim and Sheikh Dawood Hassan, birth name Sheikh Dawood Ibrahim Kaskar) was born in Ratnagiri, India as a son of police constable, was the former Don of the organized crime syndicate named D-Company in Mumbai, a notorious terrorist He is accused of heading... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... Al-Qaeda (Arabic: القاعدة, the foundation or the base) is the name given to a worldwide network of militant Islamist organizations under the leadership of Osama bin Laden. ... Osama bin Muhammad bin Awad bin Laden (Arabic: ‎; born March 10, 1957 [1]), most commonly known as Osama bin Laden is a militant Islamist and one of the founders of al-Qaeda. ... Lashkar-e-Toiba (Urdu: لشكرِ طيبه laÅ¡kar-Ä• ṯaiyyiba, literally The Army of Pure, also transliterated as Lashkar-i-Tayyaba, Lashkar-e-Tayyaba or Lashkar-i-Toiba) is one of the largest and most active Islamic terrorist outfits in South Asia. ... The Bush administration includes President George W. Bush, Vice President Richard Cheney, Bushs Cabinet, and other select officials and advisors. ...


See also

To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Map showing the Western line and blast locations. ... Sanjay Dutt. ... Black Friday is the story of the 1993 bomb blasts that took place in Mumbai. ...

External links

  • The Mumbai bombings
  • At least 48 die in Mumbai blasts in 2003
  • 2003 report: "Why is Mumbai a tempting target?"
  • A Google Maps displaying locations and details about terror attacks in Mumbai since 1993.

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