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Encyclopedia > 1982 Lebanon War
1982 Lebanon War
(Israel-Lebanon conflict)

Map of modern Lebanon
Date June - September 1982
Location Southern Lebanon
Casus
belli
Two main causes:
Result Conflicted result:
  • PLO withdrawal (1982)
  • Israeli occupation of southern Lebanon (1982–1985)
  • Israeli Security Zone and the SLA (1985–2000)
  • South Lebanon conflict (1982-2000)
  • Syrian de facto occupation of Lebanon (1976–2005)
  • Hezbollah control of southern Lebanon and southern Beirut (1980s–present)
Combatants
Israel
South Lebanon Army
LF (nominally neutral)
PLO
Syria
Amal (switched sides)
LCP
Commanders
Menachem Begin (Prime Minister)
Ariel Sharon, (Ministry of Defence)
Rafael Eitan, (CoS)
Yasser Arafat
Strength
Israel:
76,000 troops
800 tanks
1,500 APCs
634 aircraft
Syria:
22,000 troops
352 tanks
300 APCs
450 aircraft
300 major artillery
225 anti-aircraft (100 guns 125 SAM)
PLO:
15,000 troops
300 tanks
150 APCs
350+ major artillery
250+ anti-aircraft
Casualties
Killed: 675
Wounded: unknown
Killed: ~9,798 (Syrian & PLO)
Wounded: unknown
Lebanese civilians = 8,027 killed

The 1982 Lebanon War (Hebrew: מלחמת לבנון‎, Milkhemet Levanon), (Arabic: الإجتياح (Al-Ijtiah or the invasion)), called by Israel the Operation Peace of the Galilee (Hebrew: מבצע שלום הגליל, or מבצע של"ג Mivtsa Shlom HaGalil or Mivtsa Sheleg‎), and later colloquially also known in Israel as the First Lebanon War, began June 6, 1982, when the Israel Defense Forces invaded southern Lebanon. The Government of Israel ordered the invasion as a response to the assassination attempt against Israel's ambassador to the United Kingdom, Shlomo Argov by the Abu Nidal Organization. See also Operation Litani. Combatants Lebanon, Hezbollah, PLO Israel, SLA Israel-Lebanon conflict describes a series of related military clashes involving Israel, Lebanon, and various non-state militias acting from within Lebanon. ... Map of Lebanon from de wiki/CIA World Factbook. ... Casus belli is a modern Latin language expression meaning the justification for acts of war. ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the... Guerilla may refer to Guerrilla warfare. ... Shlomo Argov (December 14, 1929 - February 23, 2003) was the Israeli ambassador to the United Kingdom whose attempted killing sparked Israels Invasion of Lebanon. ... Created by a split from the Fatah in 1974, the Abu Nidal Organization (officially named Fatah - the Revolutionary Council) is an international organization named for its founder Abu Nidal. ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the... Israeli Security Zone - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The South Lebanon Army (SLA), also South Lebanese Army, (Arabic: جيش لبنان الجنوبي; transliterated: Jaysh Lubnān al-JanÅ«biyy. ... Combatants Hezbollah Israel South Lebanon Army Casualties 1283 1200 Israeli soldiers During the 1982-2000 South Lebanon conflict Hezbollah waged a guerrilla campaign against Israeli forces occupying Southern Lebanon. ... For other uses, see Hezbollah (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Image File history File links SLA_patch. ... The South Lebanon Army (SLA), also South Lebanese Army, (Arabic: جيش لبنان الجنوبي; transliterated: Jaysh Lubnān al-JanÅ«biyy. ... Image File history File links Logo_of_Lebanese_Forces. ... Lebanese Forces (LF) (Arabic: القوات اللبنانية al-quwāt al-lubnāniyya) is a Lebanese political party and a former militia , which fought on the Christian side during the civil war that ravaged Lebanon from 1975 to 1990. ... The official PLO emblem shows the Palestinian flag above a map of the land they claim as Palestine (roughly, present-day Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip) Source: [1] This is a copyrighted and/or trademarked logo. ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the... Image File history File links Flag_of_Syria. ... Image File history File links Amal_movement. ... For other uses of Amal, see the disambiguation page. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1536x1024, 47 KB)Lebanese Communist Party Flag File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Lebanese Communist Party (LCP, Arabic, الـحـزب الشـيـوعـي اللبـنـانـي hizbu-sh-shuy‘uÄ«-l-lubnānÄ«) is a Marxist political party in Lebanon. ...   (‎, August 16, 1913 – March 9, 1992) was a Polish-Jewish head of the Zionist underground group the Irgun, Nobel Peace Prize laureate and the first Likud Prime Minister of Israel. ... The Prime Minister of Israel (Hebrew: ראש הממשלה, Rosh HaMemshala, lit. ...   (Hebrew: , also known by his diminutive Arik אָרִיק) (born February 27, 1928) is a former Israeli politician and general. ... Rafael Eitan (Hebrew: רפאל איתן) (January 11, 1929 – November 23, 2004) was an Israeli general, former Chief of Staff of the Israeli Defence Forces and later a politician, a Knesset member, and Minister of Agriculture. ... Insignia of the Rav Aluf The Ramatkal (Hebrew: רמטכל, abbr. ... Not to be confused with Yasir Arafat (cricketer). ... Combatants Israel Defense Forces Syrian Army Casualties 18 KIA 22 tanks lost 2 helicopters lost Unknown KIA 15+ tanks lost 1 helicopter lost The battle of Sultan Yacoub was an tank engagement and massive Syrian victory against the Israeli Defense Forces during the 1982 Lebanon War. ... Combatants Israel Defense Forces Palestinian Liberation Organization Commanders Ariel Sharon Yasir Arafat Strength 30,000 15,000 Casualties 368 soldiers killed, 2,383 wounded 1000 PLO guerillas killed, 6000 captured. ... Combatants Lebanon, Hezbollah, PLO Israel, SLA Israel-Lebanon conflict describes a series of related military clashes involving Israel, Lebanon, and various non-state militias acting from within Lebanon. ... Combatants  Israel, Foreign Volunteers Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin John Bagot Glubb, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji, Ahmed Ali al-Mwawi Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially rising to 115,000 by... The 1968 Israeli raid on Lebanon (code-named Operation Gift) was a Israel Defense Forces commando operation in Beirut International Airport on the night of December 28 - 29 1968. ... Combatants Sayeret Matkal PLO Strength 25,000 unknown Casualties 2 KIA 12-100 KIA 3 civilian casualties The 1973 Israeli raid on Lebanon (code-named Operation Spring of Youth) took place on the night of April 9 and early morning of April 10, 1973 when Israel Defense Forces special forces... Combatants Israel South Lebanon Army PLO Strength 25,000 10,000 Casualties 20 9,800 The 1978 South Lebanon conflict (code-named Operation Litani by Israel) was the name of the Israel Defense Forces 1978 invasion of Lebanon up to the Litani River. ... Combatants Hezbollah Israel South Lebanon Army Casualties 8000+ 1600+ During the 1982–2000 South Lebanon conflict Hezbollah waged a guerrilla campaign against Israeli forces occupying Southern Lebanon. ... Combatants Hezbollah Lebanon Amal[2] LCP[3] PFLP-GC[4]  Israel Commanders Hassan Nasrallah Dan Halutz Moshe Kaplinsky[11] Udi Adam Strength 600-1,000 active fighters 3,000-10,000 reservists[5] Up to 10,000 ground troops. ... Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel and the United... This article describes violent events in the Old City of Jerusalem from April 4-7, 1920. ... On May 1, 1921, a scuffle began in Tel Aviv-Jaffa between rival groups of Jewish Bolsheviks, carrying Yiddish banners demanding Soviet Palestine, and Socialists parading on May Day. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine was an uprising during the British mandate by Palestinian Arabs in Palestine which lasted from 1936 to 1939. ... Combatants Palestine Jews Palestine Arabs United Kingdom The 1947-48 Palestinian Civil War lasted from 30 November 1947 to 14 May 1948. ... Combatants  Israel, Foreign Volunteers Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin John Bagot Glubb, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji, Ahmed Ali al-Mwawi Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially rising to 115,000 by... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA[1... Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Saudi Arabia Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ... Combatants Israel Egypt Soviet Union Strength unknown Egyptian: unknown Soviet advisors: 10,700–12,300 Casualties 594 soldiers and >127 civilians killed 2,000 soldiers and 700 civilians wounded[1][2] 15–16 aircraft lost[3] 10,000 Egyptian soldiers and civilians killed¹ 3 Soviet pilots killed 101–113 aircraft... Combatants  Israel  Egypt,  Syria, br/>  Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul... Combatants Israel South Lebanon Army PLO Strength 25,000 10,000 Casualties 20 9,800 The 1978 South Lebanon conflict (code-named Operation Litani by Israel) was the name of the Israel Defense Forces 1978 invasion of Lebanon up to the Litani River. ... Combatants Hezbollah Israel South Lebanon Army Casualties 8000+ 1600+ During the 1982–2000 South Lebanon conflict Hezbollah waged a guerrilla campaign against Israeli forces occupying Southern Lebanon. ... The First Intifada, or Palestinian uprising refers to a series of violent incidents between Palestinians and Israelis between 1987 and approximately 1990. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see al-Aqsa (disambiguation). ... Combatants Hezbollah Lebanon Amal[2] LCP[3] PFLP-GC[4]  Israel Commanders Hassan Nasrallah Dan Halutz Moshe Kaplinsky[11] Udi Adam Strength 600-1,000 active fighters 3,000-10,000 reservists[5] Up to 10,000 ground troops. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Emblem of the IDF The Israel Defense Forces are part of the Israeli Security Forces. ... Southern Lebanon is the geographical area of Lebanon composed of two Governates: the South Lebanon Governate and the Nabatiyeh Governate. ... Politics of Israel takes place in a framework of a parliamentary representative democratic republic, whereby the Prime Minister of Israel is the head of government, and of a pluriform multi-party system. ... Shlomo Argov (December 14, 1929 - February 23, 2003) was the Israeli ambassador to the United Kingdom whose attempted killing sparked Israels Invasion of Lebanon. ... Created by a split from the Fatah in 1974, the Abu Nidal Organization (officially named Fatah - the Revolutionary Council) is an international organization named for its founder Abu Nidal. ... Operation Litani was the official name of the Israel Defense Forces 1978 invasion of Lebanon up to the Litani river. ...


After attacking PLO, Syrian and Muslim Lebanese forces, Israel occupied southern Lebanon. Surrounded in West Beirut and subject to heavy bombardment, the PLO and the Syrian forces negotiated passage from Lebanon with the aid of international peacekeepers. The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... For other uses, see Beirut (disambiguation). ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the...

Contents

Background

Main article: Israel-Lebanon conflict

After the 1948 Arab-Israeli conflict, Lebanon became home to more than 110,000 Palestinian refugees from their homes in present day Israel. In 1970 and again in 1971, the PLO was engaged in the attempted overthrow of the Jordanian monarchy,[5] which routed a large number of Palestinian fighters and refugees into Lebanon. By 1975, they numbered more than 300,000, creating an informal state-within-a-state in South Lebanon. The PLO became a powerful force and played an important role in the Lebanese Civil War. Continual violence occurred between Israel and the PLO from 1968, peaking in Operation Litani. Combatants Lebanon, Hezbollah, PLO Israel, SLA Israel-Lebanon conflict describes a series of related military clashes involving Israel, Lebanon, and various non-state militias acting from within Lebanon. ... (Redirected from 1948 Arab-Israeli conflict) The 1948 Arab-Israeli War, called the War of Independence by Israelis and al Nakba the catastrophe by Arabs, was the first in a series of wars in the Arab-Israeli conflict. ... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... Combatants PLO Jordan Commanders Yasser Arafat King Hussein Casualties 7,000-8,000 killed[1] This article, Black September in Jordan, describes the events surrounding September, 1970 in Jordan. ... South Lebanon may refer to South Lebanon, Ohio South Lebanon, Oregon South Lebanon Township, Pennsylvania This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Combatants Lebanese Front Syria LNM PLO Commanders Bachir Gemayel Dany Chamoun Kamal Jumblatt Yasser Arafat The Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990) was a multifaceted civil war whose antecedents trace back to the conflicts and political compromises reached after the end of Lebanons administration by the Ottoman Empire. ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the... Operation Litani was the official name of the Israel Defense Forces 1978 invasion of Lebanon up to the Litani river. ...


Lead Up to War

On 10 July 1981, violence erupted in South Lebanon. According to the United Nations, Israeli air forces bombarded Palestinian targets in south Lebanon, followed by Palestinian elements retaliating with artillery and rockets into northern Israel. This attack on northern Israel was met with an Israeli bombardment of PLO encampments in southern Lebanon."[1] On July 24, United States envoy Philip Habib brokered a shaky ceasefire, but incidents continued. Over the next 11 months, Israel charged that the PLO committed 270 violations of the cease-fire, in which 29 Israelis were killed and more than 300 were injured.[citation needed] On 21 April 1982, after a land mine killed an Israeli officer in Lebanon, the Israeli Air Force attacked the Palestinian-controlled coastal town of Damour, killing 23 people. The Secretary-General reported to the Security Council (S/14789, S/15194) that from August 1981 to May 1982 inclusive, there were 2096 violations of Lebanese airspace and 652 violations of Lebanese territorial waters (Chomsky, 1999, p. 195; Cobban, 1984, p. 112) [2]. is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... South Lebanon may refer to South Lebanon, Ohio South Lebanon, Oregon South Lebanon Township, Pennsylvania This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... is the 205th day of the year (206th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Philip Charles Habib (February 25, 1920–May 25, 1992) was an American career diplomat known for work in Vietnam and the Middle East. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Damour (Arabic: دامور) is a Lebanese Christian town that is 12 miles south of Beirut. ... The Secretary-General of the United Nations is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal organs of the United Nations. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ...


International reaction

U.N. Secretary-General Kurt Waldheim noted, "After several weeks of relative quiet in the area, a new cycle of violence has begun and has, in the past week, steadily intensified." He further stated, "There have been heavy civilian casualties in Lebanon; there have been civilian casualties in Israel as well. I deeply deplore the extensive human suffering caused by these developments." The President of the U.N. Security Council, Ide Oumarou of Niger, expressed "deep concern at the extent of the loss of life and the scale of the destruction caused by the deplorable events that have been taking place for several days in Lebanon."[3] [4] Kurt Josef Waldheim (21 December 1918 – 14 June 2007) was an Austrian diplomat and politician. ... “Security Council” redirects here. ... Ide Oumarou (born 1937) was a Nigerien diplomat. ...


Palestinian and Lebanese Forces

The Palestinian forces continued to grow in Lebanon with full-time military personnel numbering around 15,000, although only 6,000 of these, including 4,500 regulars, were deployed in the south. They were armed with 60 aging tanks, many of which were no longer mobile, and 100-200 pieces of artillery (Sayigh, 1999, p. 524). According to Israeli analysts Schiff and Ya'ari (1984), the PLO more than tripled its artillery from 80 cannons and rocket launchers in July 1981 to 250 in June 1982 (pp. 83-84). The same authors also refer to Israeli intelligence estimates of the number of PLO fighters in southern Lebanon of 6,000 “divided into three concentrations; about 1,500 south of the Litani River in the so-called Iron Triangle (between the villages of Kana, Dir Amas, and Juya), Tyre, and its surrounding refugee camps; another 2,500 of the Kastel Brigade in three districts between the Litani and a line running from Sidon to northeast of Nabatiye; and a third large concentration of about 1,500-2,000 men of the Karameh Brigade in the east, on the slopes of Mount Hermon” (pp. 134-135). Zeev Schiff (1932 - June 19, 2007) (Hebrew: זאב שיף) was a French-born, journalist, author and military commentator who worked for the Israeli newspaper Haaretz. ... Ehud Yaari (אֶהוּד יָעָרִי)is a well-known Israeli commentator and expert on Middle Eastern issues, who frequently collaborated with and wrote books with the late Zeev Schiff. ... The Triumphal Arch Tyre (Arabic , Phoenician , Hebrew Tzor, Tiberian Hebrew , Akkadian , Greek Týros) is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon. ...


Israeli casus belli

Starting in 1968, Palestinian groups in southern Lebanon raided northern Israel, and bombarded Israeli towns with katyusha rockets. Israel wanted to protect its northern border and also derail the establishment of a regional base of operations for the PLO's activities, such as the 26 December 1968 attack on an Israeli civilian airliner in Athens. The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... Katyusha multiple rocket launchers are a type of rocket artillery built and fielded by the Soviet Union beginning in the Second World War. ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the... is the 360th day of the year (361st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Athens is the largest and the capital city of Greece, located in the Attica periphery. ...


Another reason given for the invasion was to intervene in the ongoing Lebanese Civil War in order to counteract Syria's influence in Lebanon.


Assassination attempt

On June 3, the Palestinian militant group Fatah-The Revolutionary Council (headed by Yasser Arafat's opponent Abu Nidal) attempted to assassinate Shlomo Argov, Israel's ambassador in London, paralyzing him. Prime Minister Menachem Begin had been informed by Israeli intelligence that the PLO was not involved in the attack on Argov, but withheld this information from his Cabinet (Gilbert, 1998, p. 503). Rafael Eitan, who was then the Chief of Staff of the Israeli Defence Forces, responded to the aforementioned information in his famous saying "Abu Nidal, abu shmidal. We need to screw PLO!" ("!אבו נידאל, אבו שמידאל. צריך לדפוק את אש"ף"). is the 154th day of the year (155th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Not to be confused with Yasir Arafat (cricketer). ... Abu Nidal in 1976 in a photograph released by the Israeli Defense Forces, one of only a handful of photographs of him known to exist. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...   (‎, August 16, 1913 – March 9, 1992) was a Polish-Jewish head of the Zionist underground group the Irgun, Nobel Peace Prize laureate and the first Likud Prime Minister of Israel. ... Rafael Eitan (Hebrew: רפאל איתן) (January 11, 1929 – November 23, 2004) was an Israeli general, former Chief of Staff of the Israeli Defence Forces and later a politician, a Knesset member, and Minister of Agriculture. ... Insignia of the Rav Aluf The Ramatkal (Hebrew: רמטכל, abbr. ...


Timeline

Invasion

On June 4 and 5, Israeli F-16 planes bombed Palestinian refugee camps and other PLO targets in Beirut and southern Lebanon killing 45 and wounding 150. For the first time in over ten months, the PLO responded by launching artillery and mortar attacks on civilian centers in northern Israel. On 6 June 1982, Israeli forces under direction of Defense Minister Ariel Sharon invaded southern Lebanon in "Operation Peace of the Galilee." June 4 is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The F-16 Fighting Falcon is an American multirole jet fighter aircraft developed by General Dynamics and Lockheed Martin for the United States Air Force. ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...   (Hebrew: , also known by his diminutive Arik אָרִיק) (born February 27, 1928) is a former Israeli politician and general. ...


Course of the fighting

Main article: Siege of Beirut

Israel's publicly stated objective was to push back the PLO militants 40 kilometers to the north. The Israeli forces soon reached that target but were determined to drive the PLO from southern Lebanon once and for all.[5] Tyre and Sidon (major cities in the south of Lebanon, still within the 40 kilometer limit) were heavily damaged, and the Lebanese capital Beirut was shelled for ten weeks, killing both PLO members and civilians. Combatants Israel Defense Forces Palestinian Liberation Organization Commanders Ariel Sharon Yasir Arafat Strength 30,000 15,000 Casualties 368 soldiers killed, 2,383 wounded 1000 PLO guerillas killed, 6000 captured. ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the... The Triumphal Arch Tyre (Arabic , Phoenician , Hebrew Tzor, Tiberian Hebrew , Akkadian , Greek Týros) is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon. ... View of the new city the Sea Castle. ...


The Israeli Air Force shot down 86 Syrian aircraft, whith no air combat losses of its own. This was the largest combat of the jet age with 150 fighters from both sides [6] It also performed ground attacks, notably destroying the majority of Syrian anti-aircraft batteries stationed in Lebanon. AH-1 Cobra helicopter gunships were used widely against Syrian armor and fortifications. The IAF Cobras destroyed dozens of Syrian armored fighting vehicles, including some of the modern Soviet T-72 main battle tanks. The Israeli Air Force (IAF; Hebrew: זרוע האויר והחלל, Zroa HaAvir VeHaḤalal, Air and Space Division, commonly known as חיל האוויר Hel HaAvir) is the air force of the Israel Defense Forces. ... The Bell AH-1 Cobra is an attack helicopter. ... An armoured fighting vehicle (AFV) is a military vehicle, equipped with protection against hostile attacks and often mounted weapons. ... The T-72 is a Soviet-designed main battle tank that entered production in 1971. ... The US M1A1 Abrams tank is a typical modern main battle tank. ...


An agreement was reached later in 1982, and American, French and Italian peacekeepers, known as the Multinational Force in Lebanon, sent more than 14,000 PLO combatants out of the country in August and September. About 6,500 Al Fatah fighters sailed from Beirut to Jordan, Syria, Iraq, Sudan, North and South Yemen, Greece, and Tunisia, which became the new PLO headquarters.[7] Philip Habib, Ronald Reagan's envoy to Lebanon, provided an undertaking to the PLO that the Palestinian civilians in the refugee camps would not be harmed. However, the United States Marines left West Beirut two weeks before the end of their official mandate following the 1983 Beirut barracks bombing. The Multinational Force in Lebanon (also MNF) was an international peacekeeping force created in 1982 and sent to Lebanon to oversee the withdrawal of the Palestinian Liberation Organization. ... North Yemen is a term currently used to designate both the Yemen Arab Republic (1962-1990) and its predecessor, the Mutawakkilite Kingdom of Yemen (1918-1962), that exercised sovereignty over the territory that is now the northern part of the state of Yemen in southern Arabia. ... Capital Aden Language(s) Arabic Government Socialist republic President Haidar Abu Bakr al-Attas Prime Minister Yasin Said Numan Historical era Cold War  - Independence November 30, 1967  - UN membership December 14, 1967  - Constitution October 31, 1978  - Reunification May 22, 1990 Area  - 1990 332,970 km² Population  - 1990 est. ... Philip Charles Habib (February 25, 1920–May 25, 1992) was an American career diplomat known for work in Vietnam and the Middle East. ... “Reagan” redirects here. ... The 1983 Beirut barracks bombing was a major incident during the Lebanese Civil War. ...


After the assassination of Bashir Gemayel, newly appointed President of Lebanon, September 14, Israeli forces occupied West Beirut the next day, in violation of the Habib agreement. At that time the Lebanese Christian Militia, also known as the Phalangists, were allied with Israel.[6] The Israeli command authorized a force of about 150 Phalange fighters' entrance into the Sabra and Shatila refugee camps,[7] claiming there were remaining force of "2000 PLO terrorists" in the camp.[6] The result was a massacre of between 700 and 3500 defenseless Palestinians by the Phalange -- who suffered only two casualties. Meanwhile, Israeli troops surrounded the camps with tanks and checkpoints, monitoring entrances and exits.[6] Israeli further investigation found that Ariel Sharon is indirectly responsible of this massacre,[6][8] leading to his resignation from his position as defense minister.[6] Bachir Gemayel, first name also spelt Bashir, (November 10, 1947 - September 14, 1982) was a Lebanese military commander and politician. ... is the 257th day of the year (258th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Phalange redirects here. ... The Sabra and Shatila massacre (or Sabra and Chatila massacre) was carried out in September 1982 by Lebanese Maronite Christian militias in then-Israeli-occupied Beirut, Lebanon. ... Combatants Lebanese Phalangist No combatants Commanders Elie Hobeika No commander Strength 150 irregulars Unarmed civilian population Casualties 2 700 - 3,500 civilians (see below) The Sabra and Shatila massacre (or Sabra and Chatila massacre; Arabic: مذبحة صبرا وشاتيلا) was carried out in September 1982 by a Lebanese Forces militia group against Palestinian refugee...   (Hebrew: , also known by his diminutive Arik אָרִיק) (born February 27, 1928) is a former Israeli politician and general. ...


Outcome of the war

Casualties

It is estimated that around 17,825 Arabs were killed during the war. There are different estimates of the proportion of civilians killed. Beirut newspaper An Nahar estimated that 5,515 people, military and civilian, were killed in the Beirut area only during the conflict, and 9,797 military personnel (PLO, Syrian, and others) and 2,513 civilians were killed outside of the Beirut area.[8] Approximately 675 Israeli soldiers were killed.


The security buffer zone

In August 1982, the PLO withdrew most of its forces from Lebanon. With U.S. assistance, Israel and Lebanon reached an accord in May 1983 that set the stage to withdraw Israeli forces from Lebanon while letting them patrol a "security zone" together with the Lebanese Army. The instruments of ratification were never exchanged, however, and in March 1984, under pressure from Syria, Lebanon canceled the agreement. In January 1985 Israel started to withdraw most of its troops, leaving a small residual Israeli force and an Israeli-supported militia in southern Lebanon in a "security zone," which Israel considered a necessary buffer against attacks on its northern territory. The Israeli withdrawal to the security zone ended in June 1985. The Peace Treaty between Israel and Lebanon was signed on May 17, 1983 and put an end to the condition of war between the two states. ... The Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF) consists of three branches: Lebanese Army Lebanese Air Force Lebanese Navy // General overview The Lebanese Armed Forces primary missions include maintaining security and stability in the country, guarding the countrys borders, port security, relief operations, rescue operations, fire fighting, and fighting drug smuggling. ... Israeli Security Zone - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Political results

In the voting in the Knesset on the war, only Hadash opposed the war (and even submitted a no-confidence motion against the government). Hadash Knesset member Meir Vilner, said in the Knesset plenary session that "The government is leading Israel to an abyss. It is doing something that in the course of time might lead to crying for generations". In response they were condemned and calls were heard, among others from the editor of Yediot Ahronoth to prosecute them for treason. Left-wing Knesset members, including Shulamit Aloni and Yossi Sarid were absent from the plenary for the vote. The Labour faction even voted in support. The newspapers, except Haaretz, also supported the war[citation needed]: optimistic articles were published (for instance, reports were made on a lessening in the number of theft in Gush Dan region, implying that there was a connection with the war). Type Unicameral Speaker of the Knesset Dalia Itzik, Kadima since May 4, 2006 Deputy Speaker Majalli Wahabi, Kadima since May 4, 2006 Members 120 Political groups Kadima Labour-Meimad Shas Likud Last elections March 28, 2006 Meeting place Knesset, Jerusalem, Israel Web site www. ... Hadash (חדש) is a far left wing, largely Arab [1], popular front group in Israel made up of the Communist Party of Israel and other left-leaning political groups. ... A motion of no confidence, also called a motion of non-confidence, a censure motion, or a no-confidence motion, is a parliamentary motion traditionally put before a parliament by the opposition in the hope of defeating or embarrassing a government. ... Meir Vilner (birth name: Ber Kovner; born October 13, 1918 in Vilnius, Lithuania (then Poland); died June 5, 2003) was an Israeli communist politician and Jewish leader of Arab Israeli Communist Party, also known as Maki, which consisted primarily of Arabs. ... Yedioth Ahronoth (Hebrew: ידיעות אחרונות, meaning latest news) is a major daily Israeli newspaper, written in Hebrew. ... Shulamit Aloni (born November 29, 1928) is a human rights activist, lawyer and former Israeli politician. ... Yossi Sarid (born October 24, 1940) is an Israeli left wing politician. ... Labour or Labor, (Hebrew: העבודה, ha-`Avōdāh) is a political party in Israel. ... Haaretz (Hebrew: (help· info), The Land) is an Israeli newspaper, founded in 1919. ... Gush Dan (Hebrew: גּוּשׁ דָּן, Standard Hebrew Guš Dan) is the name of the Tel Aviv metropolitan area including areas from both the Tel Aviv District and the Central District of Israel on the Mediterranean coast. ...


The most famous case of the cooperation between the media with the government was during the conquest of Beaufort. The Prime Minister of Israel reported that Beaufort was conquered "without losses", even though it was known that six soldiers of Sayeret Golani, including the commander of the Sayeret, Major Goni Hernik, fell during the fighting. The media itself reported the courage and bravery of the soldiers in the battle, but did not mention the losses.[citation needed] Only fastidious examination of the obituaries showed another picture: "on the death of Major Goni Hernik, in the time of the conquest of Beaufort, mourn Peace Now movement." Location of Beaufort Castle, Lebanon The Beaufort Castle (Arabic: ‎, Qalaat ash-Shqif, Hebrew: , Mivtsār hāBōfōr) is a Crusader fortress in Nabatiye Governorate, southern Lebanon, about 1 kilometer (0. ... The Prime Minister of Israel (Hebrew: ראש הממשלה, Rosh HaMemshala, lit. ... The Golani Brigade חטיבת גולני (aka. ...


But heavy Israeli casualties, alleged disinformation of government leaders and the public by military and political advocates of the campaign, and lack of clear goals, led to increasing disquiet among Israelis. This culminated in a large protester rally in Tel Aviv, organized by the Peace Now movement, following the 1982 Sabra and Shatila massacre. Organizers claimed 400,000 people participated in the rally, and it became known as the "400,000 rally", but actual figures are estimated to have been much lower.[9] Disinformation, in the context of espionage, military intelligence, and propaganda, is the spreading of deliberately false information to mislead an enemy as to ones position or course of action. ... Tel-Aviv was founded on empty dunes north of the existing city of Jaffa. ... Peace Now (Hebrew: שלום עכשיו - Shalom Achshav) is an extra-parliamental political movement in Israel, with the agenda of swaying popular opinion and convincing the Israeli government of the need and possibility for achieving a just peace and an historic conciliation with the Palestinian people and neighboring Arab countries; this in exchange... Combatants Lebanese Phalangist No combatants Commanders Elie Hobeika No commander Strength 150 irregulars Unarmed civilian population Casualties 2 700 - 3,500 civilians (see below) The Sabra and Shatila massacre (or Sabra and Chatila massacre; Arabic: مذبحة صبرا وشاتيلا) was carried out in September 1982 by a Lebanese Forces militia group against Palestinian refugee...


In addition, it has been noted that the US Embassy bombing on April 18 1983 and the bombing of the United States Marine barracks in Lebanon on October 23 1983 were forerunners of the kinds of asymmetrical warfare experienced with increasing frequency in later decades. Such attacks revealed the limited utility of overwhelming superiority of conventional forces in providing immunity from highly visible losses when the attackers are willing and able to operate anonymously from the midst of noncombatant populations which the leadership of those conventional forces are unwilling to destroy. The April 18, 1983, suicide bombing of the United States Embassy in Beirut, Lebanon was the deadliest attack on a US displomatic mission to that time, and is seen by some as marking the beginning of anti-US attacks by Islamic groups. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The 1983 Beirut barracks bombing was a major incident during the Lebanese Civil War. ... is the 296th day of the year (297th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Asymmetric warfare is a military term to describe warfare in which the two belligerents are mismatched in their military capabilities or accustomed methods of engagement such that the militarily diasadvantaged power must press its special advantages or effectively exploit its enemys particular weaknesses if they are to have any...


Israel finally withdrew from the security zone to behind the Blue Line in 2000, during the Prime Ministership of Ehud Barak. Lebanon and Hezbollah continue to claim a small area called Shebaa Farms as Lebanese territory, but Israel insists that it is captured Syrian territory with the same status as the Golan Heights. The United Nations has determined that Shebaa Farms is not part of Lebanon. The UN Secretary-General had concluded that, as of 16 June 2000, Israel had withdrawn its forces from Lebanon in accordance with UN Security Council Resolution 425 of 1978, bringing closure to the 1982 invasion as far as the UN was concerned.[10] Israeli Security Zone - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The Blue Line is a border demarcation between Lebanon and Israel, drawn by the United Nations for the purposes of determining whether Israel had withdrawn from Lebanon. ... Ehud Barak (Hebrew: אֵהוּד בָּרָק) (born Ehud Brog on February 12, 1942) is an Israeli politician, former Prime Minster, and current Minister of Defense and leader of Israels Labor Party. ... Map of the Shebaa Farms. ... The Golan Heights (‎ Ramat HaGolan, Arabic: Habat al-ūlān) or Golan is a mountainous area in northeastern Israel[1] on the border of Syria, Lebanon, and Jordan. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 425 was adopted on March 19, 1978, establishing the United Nations Interim Forces In Lebanon (UNIFIL). ...


Consequences

  • From the standpoint of the Israeli Military, the invasion was a limited success, removing PLO presence from Southern Lebanon and destruction of its infrastructure, as well as increasing deterrence on other Arab anti-Israeli militant organizations. The Syrian military was weakened by combat losses, especially in the air.
  • The elimination of any opportunity of cross-border attacks for the PLO forced it eventually to seek a political solution of the conflict with Israel.
  • Increased erosion of the sacred cow status of the military in Israeli public opinion and disillusionment with its leadership, a process which is commonly held to be rooted in the aftermath of the Yom Kippur War.
  • The invasion is popularly held to be the major catalyst for the creation of the Iranian and Syrian supported Hezbollah organization, which by 1991 was the sole armed militia in Lebanon not supported by Israel and by 2000 had completely replaced the vanquished PLO in Southern Lebanon.
  • The Lebanese Council for Development and Reconstruction estimated the cost of the damage from the invasion at 7,622,774,000 Lebanese pounds, equivalent to US$2 billion at the time. [11]
  • Osama bin Laden said in a videotape released on the eve of the 2004 U.S. presidential elections that he was inspired to attack the buildings of the United States by the 1982 Israeli invasion of Lebanon in which towers and buildings in Beirut were destroyed in the siege of the capital.[12]

The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the... This article is about Hinduism. ... Combatants  Israel  Egypt,  Syria, br/>  Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul... For other uses, see Hezbollah (disambiguation). ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the... The Council for Development and Reconstruction (CDR) is a Lebanese governmental organisation that was established after the Lebanese civil war in order to rebuild the damaged infrastructure of the country. ... Osama bin Muhammad bin Awad bin Laden (Arabic: ‎; born March 10, 1957[1]), most often mentioned as Osama bin Laden or Usama bin Laden, is a Saudi Arabian militant Islamist and is widely believed to be one of the founders of the organization called al-Qaeda. ...

Notes

  1. ^ The Middle East conflict, USA Today (sourced guardian.co.uk, Facts on File, AP) "Israel invades Lebanon in response to terrorist attacks by PLO guerrillas based there."
  2. ^ Mark C. Carnes, John A. Garraty (2006). The American Nation. USA: Pearson Education, Inc., 903. ISBN 0-321-42606-1. 
  3. ^ Time (2006). The Year in Review. 1271 Avenue of the Americs, New York, NY 10020: Time Books. ISSN: 1097-5721.  "For decades now, Arab terrorists operating out of southern Lebanon have staged raids and fired mortar shells into northern Israel, denying the Israelis peace of mind. In the early 1980s, the terrorists operating out of Lebanon were controlled by Yasser Arafat's Palestine Liberation Organization (P.L.O.). After Israel's ambassador to Britain, Shlomo Argov, was shot in cold blood and seriously wounded by the Palestinian terror group Abu Nidal in London in 1982, fed-up Israelis sent tanks and troops rolling into Lebanon to disperse the guerrillas." (pg. 44-45)
  4. ^ "The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) had been launching guerrilla attacks against Israel since the 1960s (see Palestine Liberation Organization). After the PLO was driven from Jordan in 1971, the organization established bases in southern Lebanon, from which it continued to attack Israel. In 1981 heavy PLO rocket fire on Israeli settlements led Israel to conduct air strikes in Lebanon. The Israelis also destroyed Iraq's nuclear reactor at Daura near Baghdad. In an attempt to destroy the PLO forces, Israel began bombing southern Lebanon and Beirut on June 5, 1982. "Israel :: War in Lebanon." Britannica Student Encyclopedia. 2007. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 13 Apr. 2007
  5. ^ Black September in Jordan 1970-1971. Armed Conflict Events Database (December 2000). Retrieved on 15 September, 2006.
  6. ^ a b c d e Flashback: Sabra and Shatila massacres, BBC
  7. ^ What happened at the Sabra and Shatila refugee camps in 1982?
  8. ^ Belgian judge opens Sharon investigation, Reuters

USA Today is a national American daily newspaper published by the Gannett Company. ... Time (whose trademark is capitalized TIME) is a weekly American newsmagazine, similar to Newsweek and U.S. News & World Report. ... The British Broadcasting Corporation, which is usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion. ...

Bibliography

  • "Arab-Israeli Conflict." The Continuum Political Encyclopedia of the Middle East. Ed. Avraham Sela. New York: Continuum, 2002. pp. 58-121.
  • Bregman, Ahron (2002). Israel's Wars: A History Since 1947. London: Routledge. ISBN 0-415-28716-2
  • Brzoska, M., & Pearson, F. S. (1994). Arms and Warfare: Escalation, De-Escalation, and Negotiation. University of South Carolina Press. ISBN 0-87249-982-0
  • Chomsky, N. (1999). Fateful Triangle: The United States, Israel and the Palestinians. London, Pluto Press. ISBN 0-89608-601-1
  • Cobban, H. (1984). The Palestinian Liberation Organization: People, Power and Politics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-27216-5
  • Gilbert, M. (1998). Israel: A History. London, Black Swan. ISBN 0-688-12362-7
  • Harkabi, Y. (1989). Israel's Fateful Hour. New York, NY: Harper & Row. ISBN 0-06-091613-3
  • Sayigh, Y. (1999). Armed Struggle and the Search for State: The Palestinian National Movement, 1949-1993. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-829643-6
  • Schiff, Z. & Ya'ari, E. (1984). Israel's Lebanon War. New York, NY: Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-47991-1

Avraham Sela is an Israeli authority on the politics of the Middle East and international relations. ...

See also

Israel, with the West Bank, Gaza Strip and Golan Heights The Israeli-Palestinian conflict, which is often claimed to be at the heart of the Arab-Israeli conflict, is an ongoing dispute between two peoples, Jewish Israelis and Arab Palestinians, who both claim the right to sovereignty over the Land... Combatants Lebanese Phalangist No combatants Commanders Elie Hobeika No commander Strength 150 irregulars Unarmed civilian population Casualties 2 700 - 3,500 civilians (see below) The Sabra and Shatila massacre (or Sabra and Chatila massacre; Arabic: مذبحة صبرا وشاتيلا) was carried out in September 1982 by a Lebanese Forces militia group against Palestinian refugee... The Palestine Liberation Army, also known as the PLA, was a regular military force recruited from among Palestinians by the Syrians. ... Combatants Lebanese Front Syria LNM PLO Commanders Bachir Gemayel Dany Chamoun Kamal Jumblatt Yasser Arafat The Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990) was a multifaceted civil war whose antecedents trace back to the conflicts and political compromises reached after the end of Lebanons administration by the Ottoman Empire. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 425 was adopted on March 19, 1978, establishing the United Nations Interim Forces In Lebanon (UNIFIL). ... Combatants Israel Defense Forces Palestinian Liberation Organization Commanders Ariel Sharon Yasir Arafat Strength 30,000 15,000 Casualties 368 soldiers killed, 2,383 wounded 1000 PLO guerillas killed, 6000 captured. ... The Golan Heights Law is the Israeli Knessets law, ratified on December 14, 1981, which applies Israels laws to the Golan Heights. ... Combatants Hezbollah Lebanon Amal[2] LCP[3] PFLP-GC[4]  Israel Commanders Hassan Nasrallah Dan Halutz Moshe Kaplinsky[11] Udi Adam Strength 600-1,000 active fighters 3,000-10,000 reservists[5] Up to 10,000 ground troops. ...

External links

Ynetnews is an English language Israel news and content website operated by Yedioth Ahronoth, Israel’s most-read newspaper, and the Hebrew Israel news portal, Ynet. ... Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel and the United... Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel and the United... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Jordan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lebanon. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Palestine. ... Anthem: Biladi Capital Ramallah and Gaza de facto, as the current location of government institutions. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saudi_Arabia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Syria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Yemen. ... For other uses of Amal, see the disambiguation page. ... The al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades (كتائب شهداء الأقصى) are a Palestinian armed terrorist group closely linked to the Fatah party. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_League_of_Arab_States. ... Headquarters Cairo, Egypt1 Official languages Arabic Membership 22 Arab states 2 observer states Leaders  -  Secretary General Amr Moussa (since 2001)  -  Council of the Arab League Sudan  -  Speaker of the Arab Parliament Nabih Berri Establishment  -  Alexandria Protocol March 22, 1945  Area  -  Total 13,953,041 (Western Sahara Included) = 13,687,041... ALF symbol Arab Liberation Front (Arabic: جبهة التحرير العربية, jabha at-tahrir al-arabia) is a minor Palestinian political movement, politically tied to the Baath Party of Saddam Hussein. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Bath Party flag The Arab Socialist Bath Party (also spelled Baath or Baath; Arabic: حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي) was founded in 1945 as a radical, left-wing, secular Arab nationalist political party. ... Image File history File links DFLP_flag. ... The Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (DFLP) (Arabic: الجبهة الديموقراطية لتحرير فلسطين, transliterated Al-Jabha al-Dimuqratiya Li-Tahrir Filastin) is a Palestinian Marxist-Leninist, secular political and military organization. ... Fatah (Arabic: ); a reverse acronym from the Arabic name Harakat al-Tahrir al-Watani al-Filastini (literally: Palestinian National Liberation Movement) is a major secular Palestinian political party and the largest organization in the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), a generally secular multi-party confederation. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Lebanese Renewal Party. ... Image File history File links Hamas_flag2. ... Hamas (Arabic: ; acronym: Arabic: , or Harakat al-Muqawama al-Islamiyya or Islamic Resistance Movement,[1]) is a Palestinian Sunni Islamist organization. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hezbollah. ... For other uses, see Hezbollah (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Palestinian group. ... The Kataeb Party, better known in English-speaking countries as the Phalange, is a Lebanese political party that was first established as a Maronite nationalist youth movement in 1936 by Pierre Gemayel. ... Lebanese Forces (LF) (Arabic: القوات اللبنانية al-quwāt al-lubnāniyya) is a Lebanese political party and a former militia , which fought on the Christian side during the civil war that ravaged Lebanon from 1975 to 1990. ... The emblem of the Palestinian Islamic Jihad shows a map of the land they claim as Palestine (roughly, present-day Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza Strip) superimposed on the images of the Dome of the Rock, two fists and two rifles. ... The Palestine Liberation Front (PLF) (جبهة التحرير الفلسطينية) is a militant Palestinian group which is designated by the United States and European Union [1] as a terrorist organization. ... The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO) (Arabic Munazzamat al-Tahrir Filastiniyyah منظمة تحرير فلسطينية ) is a political and paramilitary organization of Palestinian Arabs dedicated to the establishment of an independent Palestinian state to consist of the... PPSF symbol The Palestinian Popular Struggle Front (PPSF, occasionally abbr. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Popular_Front_for_the_Liberation_of_Palestine. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine - General Command (الجبهة الشعبية لتحرير فلسطين - القيادة العامة) is a left-wing Palestinian nationalist organization, backed by Syria. ... Emblem of the Popular Resistance Committees The Popular Resistance Committees (PRC) are various Palestinian militant organizations which operate in the Gaza Strip and are regarded as terrorist organizations by Israel and the United States. ... As Saiqa can mean: Commando (military) forces of the various Arab military and para-military forces. ... The South Lebanon Army (SLA), also South Lebanese Army, (Arabic: جيش لبنان الجنوبي; transliterated: Jaysh Lubnān al-JanÅ«biyy. ... The Arab Higher Committee was the central political organ of the Arab community of Palestine, established in 1936. ... The Arab Liberation Army (Jaysh al-Inqadh al-Arabi, or Arab Salvation Army, also referred to in some accounts as the Arab Peoples Army) was an army of volunteers from Arab countries led by Iraqi soldier Fawzi al-Qawuqji. ... The Army of the Holy War or Holy War Army (Jaysh al-Jihad al-Muqaddas) was a force of Palestinian irregulars in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War led by Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni and Hasan Salama. ... Irgun emblem. ... For other uses, see Lehi. ... The Black Hand (Arabic: ‎) was an underground Islamist militant organization that operated in the British Mandate of Palestine. ... A Black September terrorist on a balcony in the Olympic Village in September 1972, during what became known as the Munich Massacre, in which 11 Israeli athletes were kidnapped and killed. ... Image File history File links Palestine-Mandate-Ensign-1927-1948. ... Flag Palestine and Transjordan were incorporated (under different legal and administrative arrangements) into the British Mandate of Palestine, issued by the League of Nations to Great Britain on 29 September, 1923 Capital Not specified Organizational structure League of Nations Mandate High Commissioner  - 1920 — 1925 Sir Herbert Louis Samuel  - 1945 — 1948... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Nations. ... The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_United_Arab_Republic. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel and the United... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Lester Bowles Pearson, often referred to as Mike, PC, OM, CC, OBE, MA, LL.D. (April 23, 1897 – December 27, 1972) was a Canadian statesman, diplomat and politician who was made a Nobel Laureate in 1957. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ... Abdel Hakim Amer (Arabic: عبد الحكيم عامر) ‎ (December 11, 1919– September 14, 1967) was an Egyptian military general and political leader. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ... Muhammad Hosni Said Mubarak (Arabic: محمد حسنى سيد مبارك Muḥammad ḤusnÄ« Mubārak), commonly known as Hosni Mubarak (Arabic: حسنى مبارك ḤusnÄ« Mubārak), has been the President of Egypt since 14 October 1981. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ... Gamal Abdel Nasser (Arabic: - ; Masri: جمال عبد الناصر - also transliterated as Jamal Abd al-Naser, Jamal Abd an-Nasser and other variants; January 15, 1918 – September 28, 1970) was the President of Egypt from 1954 until his death in 1970. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Egypt. ... Muhammad Anwar Al-Sadat (محمد أنورالسادات in Arabic) (December 25, 1918 – October 6, 1981) was an Egyptian politician and served as the third President of Egypt from September 28, 1970 until his assassination on October 6, 1981. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... Mahmoud Ahmadinejad[1] (born October 28, 1956)[2] is the 6th and current President of the Islamic Republic of Iran. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... Grand Âyatollâh   (Persian: آیت‌الله سید علی حسینی کس ننه ای Ä€yatollāh Seyyed `AlÄ« ḤoseynÄ« KhāmeneÄ«) (born 17 July 1939), also known as Seyyed Ali Khamenei,[1] is the current Supreme Leader of Iran and was the president of Iran from 1981 to 1989. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iran. ... Grand Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Musavi Khomeini ( ) (Persian: روح الله موسوی خمینی RÅ«ollāh MÅ«savÄ« KhomeynÄ« (September 21, 1902 [1]– June 04, 1989) was a senior Shi`i Muslim cleric, Islamic philosopher and marja (religious authority), and the political leader of the 1979 Iranian Revolution which saw the overthrow of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Iraq. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Ehud Barak (Hebrew: אֵהוּד בָּרָק) (born Ehud Brog on February 12, 1942) is an Israeli politician, former Prime Minster, and current Minister of Defense and leader of Israels Labor Party. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ...   (‎, August 16, 1913 – March 9, 1992) was a Polish-Jewish head of the Zionist underground group the Irgun, Nobel Peace Prize laureate and the first Likud Prime Minister of Israel. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ...   (October 16, 1886 – December 1, 1973; Hebrew: ) was the first Prime Minister of Israel. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Moshe Dayan (‎, born 20 May 1915, died 16 October 1981) was an Israeli military leader and politician. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... â–¶(?) (Hebrew לֵוִי אֶשְׁכּוֹל ) (Born Levi Skolnick) (Hebrew לֵוִי שְׁקוֹלְנִיק) (October 25, 1895 - February 26, 1969), was the third Prime Minister of Israel from 1963 until his death of a heart attack in 1969. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Golda Meir (‎, born Golda Mabovitz, May 3, 1898 - December 8, 1978), also known as Golda Myerson from 1917-1956, was one of the founders of the State of Israel. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ...   (Hebrew: בִּנְיָמִין נְתַנְיָהוּ (without niqqud: בנימין נתניהו), Hebrew transliteration written in English: Binyamin Netanyahu, nicknamed Bibi) (born October 21, 1949, Tel Aviv) was the 9th Prime Minister of Israel and is a leading figure in the Likud party. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Ehud Olmert (IPA ; Hebrew:אהוד אולמרט; born September 30, 1945) is the 12th and current Prime Minister of Israel. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... For other persons named Rabin, see Rabin (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ...   (Hebrew יִצְחָק שָׁמִיר) (born October 15, 1915) was Prime Minister of Israel from 1983 to 1984 and again from 1986 to 1992. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ...   (Hebrew: , also known by his diminutive Arik אָרִיק) (born February 27, 1928) is a former Israeli politician and general. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Chaim Azriel Weizmann (Hebrew: חיים עזריאל ויצמן) November 27, 1874 – November 9, 1952) was a chemist, statesman, President of the World Zionist Organization, first President of Israel (elected February 1, 1949, served 1949 - 1952) and founder of a research institute in Israel that eventually became the Weizmann Institute of Science. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Jordan. ... Abdullah I of Jordan King Abdullah I of Jordan (1882 – July 20, 1951) (Arabic: عبد الله الأول), also known as Abdullah bin Husayn (Arabic: عبد الله بن حسين), was, successively, Emir of Trans-Jordan (1921–1946) under a British Mandate, then King of Transjordan (May 25, 1946–1949), and finally King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan... Image File history File links Flag_of_Jordan. ... as-Sayyid Abdullah II bin al-Hussein al Hashimi, King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan (Arabic: ) (born January 30, 1962, in Amman, Jordan), has been the King of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan since February 7, 1999. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Jordan. ... Hussein I bin Talal, King of Jordan (Arabic: ‎ ; November 14, 1935 – February 7, 1999). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lebanon. ... Émile Lahoud General Émile Geamil Lahoud (Arabic: اميل لحود) (born January 12, 1936) is the current President of Lebanon. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lebanon. ... Hasan Nasrallah (Arabic: ) (b. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lebanon. ... Fouad Siniora (alternative spellings: Fouad Sanyoura, Fuad Siniora, Fouad Saniora, Fouad Seniora) (Arabic: ‎, Fuād As-SanyÅ«rah) is the Prime Minister of Lebanon, a position he assumed on 19 July 2005, succeeding Najib Mikati. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... Mona Juul is an official in the Norwegian Foreign Affairs Ministry. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... Johan Jørgen Holst Bust by Per Ung 1999 Johan Jørgen Holst (November 29, 1937 - January 13, 1994) was a Norwegian politician, best known for his involvement with the Oslo Accords. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... Terje Rød-Larsen (born November 22, 1947) is a Norwegian diplomat and sociologist. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Palestine. ... Mahmoud Abbas (Arabic: ) (born March 26, 1935), commonly known by the kunya Abu Mazen (ابو مازن), was elected President of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) on January 9, 2005, and took office on January 15, 2005. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Palestine. ... Not to be confused with Yasir Arafat (cricketer). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Palestine. ... Marwan Barghouti Marwan Bin Khatib Barghouti ( مروان البرغوثي born June 6, 1959) is a Palestinian leader from the West Bank and a leader of the Fatah movement. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Palestine. ... George Habash (Arabic جورج حبش) (born August 2, 1926 in Lod), sometimes known by his nom de guerre Al-Hakim, الحكيم, meaning the doctor, is a Palestinian politician, formerly a militant, and the founder and former Secretary-General of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Palestine. ... Ismail Haniya (more frequently Haniyeh) (born 1963) (Arabic: إسماعيل هنية) is the Prime Minister of the Palestinian National Authority. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Palestine. ... Mohammad Amin al-Husayni Mohammad Amin al-Husayni (ca. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Palestine. ... Khaled Mashal, also known as Khaled Mashaal (Arabic: خالد مشعل) (b. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Palestine. ... Dr. Abdel Aziz al-Rantissi (in the Arabic script عبدالعزيز الرنتيسي) (October 23, 1947 - April 17, 2004) was the co-founder of the Palestinian Islamist paramilitary and political organization Hamas. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Palestine. ... Ahmad Shukeiri (1908 - 1980), also Al-Shuqeiry, Shukeiry, etc. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Palestine. ... Sheikh Ahmed Ismail Yassin (1936 - 2004 (about 68 years old)) (Arabic: ) was the co-founder (with Abdel Aziz al-Rantissi) and the spiritual leader of the militant Palestinian Islamist organization of Hamas,[1] originally calling it the Palestinian Wing of the Muslim Brotherhood. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saudi_Arabia. ... `Abd al-`AzÄ«z Ä€l Sa`Å«d (?, 1876 – November 9, 1953) (Arabic: عبدالعزيز آل سعود) was the first monarch of Saudi Arabia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saudi_Arabia. ... The custodian of the Two Holy Mosques King Abdullah bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud (Arabic: , born August 1, 1924) [2] is the King of Saudi Arabia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saudi_Arabia. ... King Fahd bin Abdul Aziz Al Saud (Arabic: ‎, 1921 – August 1, 2005) was the king and prime minister of Saudi Arabia and leader of the House of Saud. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saudi_Arabia. ... Faisal ibn Abdelaziz Al Saud, King of Saudi Arabia (1324-1395 AH) (1903 or 1906—March 25, 1975) (Arabic: فيصل بن عبدالعزيز آل سعود) was King of Saudi Arabia from 1964 to 1975. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ... Count Folke Bernadotte of Wisborg (January 2, 1895 - September 17, 1948), or simply Count Bernadotte, was a Swedish diplomat noted for his negotiation of the release of 15,000 mostly Scandinavian prisoners [1] from the German concentration camps in World War II and for his assassination by members of a... Image File history File links Flag_of_Syria. ... Hafez al-Assad (Arabic: ) (October 6, 1930 – June 10, 2000) was president of Syria for three decades. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Syria. ... Dr Bashar al-Assad (Arabic: , ) (born 11 September 1965) is the President of the Syrian Arab Republic, Regional Secretary of the Baath Party, and the son of former President Hafez al-Assad. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Syria. ... Official portrait of Shukri al Quwatli when he assumed the Syrian Presidency in Aug 1947 at the age of 51 Shukri al-Quwatli (Born 1891, Damascus, Syria. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Syria. ... Salah Jadid (1926? - 1993) was a Syrian general and political figure. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Ernest Bevin (9 March 1881 - 14 April 1951) was a British labour leader, politician, and statesman best known for his time as Minister of Labour in the war-time coalition government, and as Foreign Secretary in the post-war Labour government. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Arthur James Balfour, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, 1st Earl Balfour, KG, OM, PC (25 July 1848 - 19 March 1930) was a British Conservative politician and statesman, and the Prime Minister from 1902 to 1905. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Richard Howard Stafford Crossman (15 December 1907 to April 1974) was a British politician and writer. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Madeleine Korbel Albright (born Marie Jana Korbelová, IPA: , on May 15, 1937) was the first woman to become United States Secretary of State. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Ralph Bunche, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1951 Ralph Johnson Bunche (August 7, 1904 – December 9, 1971) was an American political scientist and diplomat who received the 1950 Nobel Peace Prize for his mediation in Palestine in the late 1940s that led to an armistice agreement between the Israelis and... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Henry Alfred Kissinger (born Heinz Alfred Kissinger on May 27, 1923) is a German-born American diplomat, and 1973 Nobel Peace Prize laureate. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... “Reagan” redirects here. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Condoleezza Rice (born November 14, 1954) is the 66th United States Secretary of State, and the second in the administration of President George W. Bush to hold the office. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Ambassador Dennis Ross speaking at Emory University Dennis B. Ross is an American author and political figure who served as the director for policy planning in the State Department under President George H.W. Bush and special Middle East coordinator under President Bill Clinton. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... For the victim of Mt. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Cyrus Roberts Vance (March 27, 1917–January 12, 2002), was the United States Secretary of State under President Jimmy Carter from 1977 to 1980. ... Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel and the United... This article describes violent events in the Old City of Jerusalem from April 4-7, 1920. ... On May 1, 1921, a scuffle began in Tel Aviv-Jaffa between rival groups of Jewish Bolsheviks, carrying Yiddish banners demanding Soviet Palestine, and Socialists parading on May Day. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The 1936-1939 Arab revolt in Palestine was an uprising during the British mandate by Palestinian Arabs in Palestine which lasted from 1936 to 1939. ... The 1947 Jerusalem Riots occurred following the 1947 UN Partition Plan. ... Combatants Palestine Jews Palestine Arabs United Kingdom The 1948 Civil War in the British Mandate of Palestine lasted from 30 November 1947 to 14 May 1948. ... Combatants  Israel, Foreign Volunteers Egypt, Syria, Transjordan,  Lebanon, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Holy War Army, Arab Liberation Army Commanders Yaakov Dori, Yigael Yadin John Bagot Glubb, Abd al-Qadir al-Husayni, Hasan Salama, Fawzi Al-Qawuqji, Ahmed Ali al-Mwawi Strength  Israel: 29,677 initially rising to 115,000 by... Arab violence was rampant during wave of anti-Jewish riots in 1920-21, during the pogroms of 1929 (which included the massacre of the Jewish community in Hebron and Safed), during the Arab Revolt of 1936-39 (which included the massacre of Jewish community in Tiberias), and in many other... The Qibya (also spelt Kibya, Qibieh or Qibye) Massacre (also known as Qibya Raid or Qibya Operation was carried out in October 1953 by Israeli troops in a West Bank village. ... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA[1... Combatants Israel Egypt Syria Jordan Iraq Saudi Arabia Commanders Yitzhak Rabin, Moshe Dayan, Uzi Narkiss, Israel Tal, Mordechai Hod, Ariel Sharon Abdel Hakim Amer, Abdul Munim Riad, Zaid ibn Shaker, Hafez al-Assad Strength 264,000 (incl. ... Combatants Israel Egypt Soviet Union Strength unknown Egyptian: unknown Soviet advisors: 10,700–12,300 Casualties 594 soldiers and >127 civilians killed 2,000 soldiers and 700 civilians wounded[1][2] 15–16 aircraft lost[3] 10,000 Egyptian soldiers and civilians killed¹ 3 Soviet pilots killed 101–113 aircraft... The Munich massacre occurred during the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, West Germany, when members of the Israeli Olympic team were taken hostage by the Palestinian terrorist group Black September, a group with ties to Yasser Arafat’s Fatah organization. ... The operation was ordered in response to the massacre of 11 Israeli athletes at the 1972 Munich Olympics. ... Combatants Sayeret Matkal PLO Strength 25,000 unknown Casualties 2 KIA 12-100 KIA 3 civilian casualties The 1973 Israeli raid on Lebanon (code-named Operation Spring of Youth) took place on the night of April 9 and early morning of April 10, 1973 when Israel Defense Forces special forces... Combatants  Israel  Egypt,  Syria, br/>  Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul... Combatants Lebanese Front Syria LNM PLO Commanders Bachir Gemayel Dany Chamoun Kamal Jumblatt Yasser Arafat The Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990) was a multifaceted civil war whose antecedents trace back to the conflicts and political compromises reached after the end of Lebanons administration by the Ottoman Empire. ... Combatants  Israel  PFLP Revolutionäre Zellen  Uganda Commanders Yonatan Netanyahu† Wadie Haddad Wilfried Böse Idi Amin Strength 29 Commandos Unknown Casualties Yonatan Netanyahu killed three hostages killed five commandos wounded 6 hijackers killed 45 Ugandan soldiers killed Operation Entebbe, also known as the Entebbe incident and occasionally the Entebbe... Combatants Israel South Lebanon Army PLO Strength 25,000 10,000 Casualties 20 9,800 The 1978 South Lebanon conflict (code-named Operation Litani by Israel) was the name of the Israel Defense Forces 1978 invasion of Lebanon up to the Litani River. ... Combatants Israel Iraq Strength 8 F-16A fighters 6 F-15A fighters Unknown numbers of radar and Anti-aircraft artillery Casualties None 10 Iraqi soldiers and 1 French researcher killed Operation Opera (also known as Operation Babylon and Operation Ofra) was an Israeli air strike against the Iraqi Osirak nuclear... Combatants Hezbollah Israel South Lebanon Army Casualties 8000+ 1600+ During the 1982–2000 South Lebanon conflict Hezbollah waged a guerrilla campaign against Israeli forces occupying Southern Lebanon. ... Operation Wooden Leg was the October 1, 1985 Israeli Air Force raid on the Palestinian Liberation Organizations headquarters in Tunis, Tunisia. ... The First Intifada, or Palestinian uprising refers to a series of violent incidents between Palestinians and Israelis between 1987 and approximately 1990. ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... In July 1993, Israeli Forces launched a massive attack against Lebanon named Operation Accountability in Israel and Seven-Day War in Lebanon, in an attempt to displace the Lebanese and Palestinian refugee population, in order to pressure the Lebanese government and population to withdraw support for Hezbollah[1]. Israeli artillery... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Combatants Israel, South Lebanon Army Hezbollah Casualties 3 killed. ... For other uses, see al-Aqsa (disambiguation). ... Combatants  Israel (Israel Defense Forces) Fatah (Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades & Tanzim) Hamas Palestinian Islamic Jihad Palestinian security forces Commanders Aluf Itzhak Eitan (Central commander) Strength Golani Brigade, Nahal Brigade, Paratroopers Brigade, 5th Reserve Infantry Brigade, 408th Reserve Infantry Brigade, Jerusalem Brigade(reserve), Shayetet 13, Armor and Engineering forces. ... Combatants Israeli Air Force Syria Palestinian militants (Israeli claim) Strength Several F-16s Unknown Casualties 1 injured The Ain es Saheb airstrike occured on October 5, 2003 and was the first Israeli military operation in Syria since the 1973 Yom Kippur War. ... Operation Rainbow (In Hebrew, מבצע קשת בענן) is a controversial military operation which began on May 18, 2004 in the Gaza Strip. ... Combatants Israel Defense Forces Hamas Casualties 5 killed (3 Of them civilians) 104 - 133 killed (42 of them civilians) Operation Days of Penitence (In Hebrew, מבצע ימי תשובה) was the name used by Israel to describe an Israel Defense Forces operation in the northern Gaza Strip, conducted between September 30, 2004 and October... Combatants  Israel Defense Forces (Israeli Security Forces) Hamas Fatah (al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigades), Popular Resistance Committees Palestinian Islamic Jihad Palestinian Army of Islam Commanders Dan Halutz (Chief of Staff) Yoav Galant (Regional) Khaled Mashal (Leader of Hamas[1])Mohammed Deif (Leader of Hamas military wing) Strength 3,000 unknown possibly... Combatants Hezbollah Lebanon Amal[2] LCP[3] PFLP-GC[4]  Israel Commanders Hassan Nasrallah Dan Halutz Moshe Kaplinsky[11] Udi Adam Strength 600-1,000 active fighters 3,000-10,000 reservists[5] Up to 10,000 ground troops. ... Combatants  Israel (Israel Defense Forces) Hamas Popular Resistance Committees Palestinian Islamic Jihad Commanders Gabi Ashkenazi Khaled Meshaal Casualties 2 wounded 30 killed, 33 captured Palestinian civilians: 12 killed Israeli civilians: 2 killed Casualties source: Reuters The 2007 Israeli-Palestinian conflict refers to a series of battles between Palestinian militants and... Geneva Accord October 20, 2003 Road Map for Peace April 30, 2003 The Peoples Voice July 27, 2002 Elon Peace Plan 2002 ... Combatants Arab nations Israel Arab-Israeli conflict series History of the Arab-Israeli conflict Views of the Arab-Israeli conflict International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict Arab-Israeli conflict facts, figures, and statistics Participants Israeli-Palestinian conflict · Israel-Lebanon conflict · Arab League · Soviet Union / Russia · Israel and the United... The Damascus Protocol was a document defining the independent Arab territories in the Middle East after the conspired Arab Revolt had taken place. ... The Hussein-McMahon Correspondence during World War I was a 1915-1916 exchange of letters between the Hejazi (the Hejaz later became part of Saudi Arabia) leader Hussein ibn Ali, Sharif of Mecca, and Sir Henry McMahon, British High Commissioner in Egypt, concerning the future political status of the Arab... Zones of French and British influence and control established by the Sykes-Picot Agreement The Sykes-Picot Agreement of May 16, 1916 was a secret understanding between the governments of Britain and France defining their respective spheres of post-World War I influence and control in the Middle East (then... Arthur James Balfour. ... The Declaration to the Seven was a document written by Sir Mark Sykes and released by the British Government on 16 June 1918 in response to a memorandum issued anonymously by seven Syrian notables in Cairo who were members of the newly-formed Party of Syrian Unity, which had been... ANGLO-FRENCH DECLARATION November 7, 1918 The goal envisaged by France and Great Britain in prosecuting in the East the War let loose by German ambition is the complete and final liberation of the peoples who have for so long been oppressed by the Turks, and the setting up of... The Faisal-Weizmann Agreement was signed on January 3, 1919, by Emir Faisal (son of the King of Hejaz) and Chaim Weizmann (later President of the World Zionist Organization) as part of the Paris Peace Conference, 1919 settling disputes stemming from World War I. It was a short-lived agreement... The San Remo conference (19-26 April 1920, San Remo, Italy) of the post-World War I Allied Supreme Council determined the allocation of Class A League of Nations mandates for administration of the former Ottoman-ruled lands of the Middle East by the victorious powers. ... The Churchill White Paper of 3 June 1922 clarified how Britain viewed the Balfour Declaration, 1917. ... The White Paper of 1939, also known as the MacDonald White Paper after Malcolm MacDonald, the British Colonial Secretary who presided over it, was a policy paper issued by the British government under Neville Chamberlain in which the idea of partitioning the British Mandate of Palestine was abandoned in favour... Map showing the UN Partition Plan. ... David Ben Gurion (First Prime Minister of Israel) publicly pronouncing the Declaration of the State of Israel, May 14, 1948. ... United Nations General Assembly Resolution 194 [1] was passed on December 11, 1948, near the end of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. ... The 1949 Armistice Agreements are a set of agreements signed during 1949 between Israel and its neighbors Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria. ... The Palestinian National Covenant or Palestinian National Charter (Arabic: الميثاق الوطني الفلسطيني; transliterated: al-Mithaq al-Watani al-Filastini) is the charter or constitution of the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO). ... The Khartoum Resolution of September 1, 1967 was issued at the conclusion of a meeting between the leaders of eight Arab countries in the wake of the Six-Day War. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 242 (S/RES/242) was adopted unanimously by the UN Security Council on November 22, 1967 in the aftermath of the Six Day War. ... The three-line United Nations Security Council Resolution 338 (S/RES/338), approved on October 22, 1973, called for a cease fire in the Yom Kipur War in accordance with a joint proposal by the United States and the Soviet Union. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 339 (S/RES/339) was adopted on 23 October 1973 in order to bring a cease fire in the Yom Kippur War where Resolution 338 two days before had failed after Israeli forces broke the terms of the cease fire and made substantial military gains. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 350, adopted on 31 May 1974, established the United Nations Disengagement Observer Force, to monitor the ceasefire between Israel and Syria in the wake of the Yom Kippur War. ... On March 19, 1978, five days after the Israeli invasion of Lebanon, United Nations Security Council Resolution 425 was adopted, calling on Israel to immediately withdraw its forces from Lebanon and establishing the United Nations Interim Forces In Lebanon (UNIFIL). ... Celebrating the signing of the Camp David Accords (1978): Menachem Begin, Jimmy Carter, Anwar Sadat The Camp David Accords were signed by Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin on September 17, 1978, following twelve days of secret negotiations at Camp David. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 446 concerned the issue of Israeli settlements in the Arab territories occupied by Israel since 1967, including Jerusalem. This refers to the Palestinian territories of the West Bank including East Jerusalem, Gaza Strip and the Golan Heights. ... The Israel-Egypt peace treaty (Arabic: معاهدة السلام المصرية الإسرائيلية; transliterated: Muahadat as-Salam al-Masriyah al-Israyliyah) (Hebrew: הסכם שלום ישראל-מצרים; transliterated: Heskem Shalom Yisrael-Mizraim) was signed in Washington, DC, United States, on March 26, 1979, following the Camp David Accords (1978). ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 452 was on the issue of the Israeli settlements in the Palestinian territories of East Jerusalem, the West Bank, Gaza Strip and the Syrian Golan Heights. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 478 declared that the 1980 Knesset law (the Jerusalem Law) declaring Jerusalem as Israels eternal and indivisible capital was null and void and must be rescinded forthwith. This resolution, not taken under chapter VI or VII of the charter (the binding chapters), advised member... United Nations Security Council Resolution 497 calls on Israel to rescind its annexation of the Golan Heights. ... The 1983 May 17 Agreement was a failed U.S.-backed attempt to create peace between Lebanon and Israel during the Lebanese Civil War, after Israel invaded Lebanon and besieged Beirut in 1982. ... The Madrid Conference was hosted by the government of Spain and co-sponsored by the USA and the USSR. It convened on October 30, 1991 and lasted for three days. ... Yitzhak Rabin, Bill Clinton, and Yasser Arafat during the Oslo Accords on September 13, 1993. ... The Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace (full name: Treaty of Peace Between the State of Israel and the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan) (Hebrew:הסכם השלום בין ישראל לירדן; transliterated: HaSekhem Ha-Shalom beyn Yisrael Le-Yarden) (Arabic: معاهدة السلام الأردنية الإسرائيلية; transliterated: Muahadat as-Salam al-Orduniyah al-Israyliyah, and commonly referred to as Araba Valley... The Wye River Memorandum was a political agreement negotiated to implement the earlier Interim Agreement of 28 September, 1995 brokered by the United States between Israel and the Palestine Authority completed on October 23, 1998. ... The Middle East Peace Summit at Camp David of July 2000 took place between United States President Bill Clinton, Israeli Prime Minister Ehud Barak, and Palestinian Authority Chairman Yasser Arafat. ... The Taba summit (or: Taba Summit; Taba Talks; Taba Conference; Taba), also known as the permanent status talks at Taba between Israel and the Palestinian Authority, held from January 21 to January 27, 2001 at Taba in the Sinai peninsula, were peace talks aimed at reaching the final status negotiations... United Nations Security Council Resolution 1373 is a counter-terrorism measure adopted September 28, 2001 following the September 11 terrorist attacks on the United States. ... Israel and the Occupied West Bank and Gaza Strip are at the center of the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 1559 was a resolution adopted by the United Nations Security Council on September 2, 2004. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 1566 is an anti-terrorism resolution adopted on 8 October 2004. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 1583 calls on Lebanon to assert full control over its border with Israel (See: Hezbollah). ... The Sharm el-Sheikh Summit of 2005 took place on February 8, (2005), when four Middle Eastern leaders gathered at Sharm el-Sheikh, a town at the southern tip of the Sinai Peninsula, in order to declare their wish to work towards the end of the four-year Al-Aqsa... Israels unilateral disengagement plan (Hebrew: תוכנית ההתנתקות Tokhnit HaHitnatkut or תכנית ההינתקות Tokhnit HaHinatkut in the Disengagement Plan Implementation Law), also known as the Disengagement plan, Gaza Pull-Out plan, and Hitnatkut) was a proposal by Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon, adopted by the government and enacted in August 2005, to remove all... The Prisoners document is a document drawn up by Palestinian prisoners who are currently being held in Israeli jails. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 1701 is a resolution intended to resolve the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict. ... On 16 November 2006 France, Italy and Spain announced a new Middle East peace plan. ...


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1982 Lebanon War: Information from Answers.com (2361 words)
Another reason given for the invasion was as an intervention in the ongoing Lebanese Civil War to counteract Syrian influences in Lebanon, and possibly enable the establishment of a stable Lebanese leadership from the Christian population, which would strengthen a central Lebanese Army, restore security and agree to diplomatic relations with Israel.
The newspapers, except Haaretz, also supported the war: optimistic articles were published (for instance, reports were made on a lessening in the number of theft in Gush Dan region, implying that there was a connection with the war) and not one doubting voice was heard in these communications media.
The UN Secretary-General had concluded that, as of 16 June 2000, Israel had withdrawn its forces from Lebanon in accordance with UN Security Council Resolution 425 of 1978, bringing closure to the 1982 invasion as far as the UN was concerned.
1982 Lebanon War - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2310 words)
An agreement was reached later in 1982, and American, French and Italian peacekeepers, known as the Multinational Force in Lebanon, sent more than 14,000 PLO combatants out of the country in August and September.
Lebanon and Hezbollah continue to claim a small area called Shebaa Farms as Lebanese territory, but Israel insists that it is captured Syrian territory with the same status as the Golan Heights.
Osama bin Laden said in a videotape released on the eve of the 2004 U.S. presidential elections that he was inspired to attack the United States by the 1982 Israeli invasion of Lebanon in which towers and buildings in Beirut were destroyed in the siege of the capital.
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