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Encyclopedia > 1981 Springbok Tour

The 1981 Springbok Tour (still known by many in New Zealand as The Tour) was a controversial tour of New Zealand by the South African Springbok rugby union team. South Africa's policy of racial apartheid had made the nation an international pariah, and other countries were strongly discouraged from having sporting contacts with it. However, rugby union was (and is) an extremely popular sport in New Zealand, and the Springboks were considered to be New Zealand's most formidable opponents. There was therefore major division in New Zealand as to whether politics should interfere with sport and therefore whether the Springboks should be allowed to tour. First international South Africa 4 - 0 British Isles (30 July 1891) Largest win South Africa  134 - 3  Uruguay (11 June 2005) Worst defeat  England 53 - 3 South Africa  (23rd November, 2002) World Cup Appearances 4 (First in 1995) Best result Champions, 1995 and 2007 Springboks redirects here. ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... Look up Pariah in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ...


The decision to allow the Tour was made by the New Zealand Rugby Football Union, but could have been negated by the government of Prime Minister Robert Muldoon, whose public position was that politics should not interfere with sport. Major protests ensued, aiming to make clear many New Zealanders' opposition to apartheid and, if possible, to stop the matches taking place. This was successful in one case, but also had the effect of creating a 'law and order issue'. For many people the issue was one of whether a group of protesters would be allowed to prevent a lawful activity taking place. The dispute was similar to that involving Peter Hain in the United Kingdom in the early 1970s, when Hain's Stop the Tour campaign clashed with the more conservative 'Freedom Under Law' movement championed by barrister Francis Bennion. Although the protests were some of the most violent in New Zealand's history, no deaths resulted. The New Zealand Rugby Football Union (NZRFU) (also known as the New Zealand Rugby Union (NZRU)) is the governing body of rugby union in New Zealand. ... The Prime Minister of New Zealand is New Zealands head of government and is the leader of the party or coalition with majority support in the Parliament of New Zealand. ... For the fictional character in Jurassic Park, see List of characters in Jurassic Park. ... Peter Gerald Hain PC MP (born February 16, 1950, Nairobi, Kenya) is a British, Left-wing Labour Party politician and Secretary of State for Work and Pensions (he is also Secretary of State for Wales). ... Francis Alan Roscoe Bennion (born 2 January 1923) is a leading barrister in the United Kingdom. ...


After the Tour, no official sporting contact took place between New Zealand and South Africa until the early 1990s, when apartheid had been repealed. The Tour lead to a decline in the popularity of Rugby Union in New Zealand, until the 1987 Rugby World Cup. During this decline, rugby league enjoyed a period of growth. The first Rugby World Cup took place in New Zealand and Australia in 1987, and was won by New Zealand. ... Rugby league football (usually shortened to rugby league, football, league) is a full-contact team sport played with a prolate spheroid-shaped ball by two teams of thirteen on a rectangular grass field. ...

Contents

Background

A poster advertising a meeting of the Citizens' All Black Tour Association to protest racially selected All Blacks teams touring South Africa.
A poster advertising a meeting of the Citizens' All Black Tour Association to protest racially selected All Blacks teams touring South Africa.

The Springboks and New Zealand's national rugby team, the All Blacks, have a long tradition of intense and friendly sporting rivalry.[1] From the 1920s to the 1960s, the South African apartheid policies had an impact on team selection for the All Blacks: the selectors passed over Māori players for some All Black tours to South Africa.[2] Opposition to sending race based teams to South Africa grew throughout the 1950s and 60s. Prior to the All Blacks' tour of South Africa in 1960, 150,000 New Zealanders signed a petition supporting a policy of "No Maoris, No Tour".[2] The tour occurred however, and in 1969 Halt All Racist Tours (HART) was formed.[3] During the 1970s public protests and political pressure forced on the New Zealand Rugby Union (NZRU) the choice of either fielding a team not selected by race, or not touring the Republic.[2] However, South African rugby authorities continued to select Springbok players by race.[1] As a result, the Norman Kirk Labour Government prevented the Springboks from touring during 1973.[3] In response, the NZRU protested about the involvement of "politics in sport". Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... First international  Australia 3 - 22 New Zealand  (15 August 1903) Largest win  New Zealand 145 - 17 Japan  (4 June 1995) Worst defeat  Australia 28 - 7 New Zealand  (28 August 1999) World Cup Appearances 6 (First in 1987) Best result Champions, 1987 The All Blacks are New Zealands national rugby... The 1920s is sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... This article is about the Māori people of New Zealand. ... For other uses, see Race (disambiguation). ... The 1950s decade refers to the years 1950 to 1959 inclusive. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from 1960 to 1969. ... Halt All Racist Tours was a group set up in New Zealand in 1969 to protest rugby union tours to and from Apartheid South Africa. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... The New Zealand Rugby Football Union (NZRFU) (also known as the New Zealand Rugby Union (NZRU)) is the governing body of rugby union in New Zealand. ... Norman Eric Kirk served as Prime Minister of New Zealand from 1972 until his sudden death in 1974 and led the New Zealand Labour Party from 1965 to 1972. ...


In 1976 the All Blacks toured South Africa, with the blessing of the then newly-elected New Zealand Prime Minister, Robert Muldoon.[4] Twenty-five African nations protested against this by boycotting the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal.[5] In their view the All Black tour gave tacit support to the apartheid regime in South Africa. The All Blacks again failed to win a series in South Africa (they would not do so until 1996, after the fall of apartheid). The 1976 Tour contributed to the Gleneagles Agreement being adopted by the Commonwealth Heads of State in 1977.[6] Year 1976 Pick up sticks(MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Prime Minister of New Zealand is New Zealands head of government and is the leader of the party or coalition with majority support in the Parliament of New Zealand. ... For the fictional character in Jurassic Park, see List of characters in Jurassic Park. ... The 1976 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXI Olympiad, were held in 1976 in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - Total 365. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... The Gleneagles Agreement was unanimously approved by the Commonwealth of Nations at a meeting at Gleneagles, Auchterarder, Scotland. ...


The Tour

By the early 1980s the pressure from other African countries as well as from protest groups in New Zealand, such as HART, reached a head when the New Zealand Rugby Union proposed a Springbok tour for 1981. This became a topic of political contention due to the issue of the sports boycott by the other African nations. Activists asked the government (headed by Prime Minister Robert Muldoon) to cancel the tour, but he permitted the South African team to come to New Zealand and they arrived on 19 July 1981. Since 1977 Muldoon's government had been a party to the Gleneagles Agreement, in which the countries of the Commonwealth accepted that it was: Look up Boycott in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For the fictional character in Jurassic Park, see List of characters in Jurassic Park. ... is the 200th day of the year (201st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... For the fictional character in Jurassic Park, see List of characters in Jurassic Park. ... The Gleneagles Agreement was unanimously approved by the Commonwealth of Nations at a meeting at Gleneagles, Auchterarder, Scotland. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2006 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Don McKinnon (since 1 April 2000) Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total...

"the urgent duty of each of their Governments vigorously to combat the evil of apartheid by withholding any form of support for, and by taking every practical step to discourage contact or competition by their nationals with sporting organisations, teams or sportsmen from South Africa or from any other country where sports are organised on the basis of race, colour or ethnic origin."

Despite this, Muldoon argued that New Zealand was a free and democratic country, and that "politics should stay out of sport."


Some rugby supporters echoed the separation of politics and sport. Others argued that if the tour were canceled, there would be no reporting of the widespread criticism against apartheid in New Zealand in the controlled South African media. Muldoon's critics, on the other hand, felt that he allowed the tour to go ahead in order for his National Party to secure the votes of rural and provincial conservatives in the general election later in the year. Muldoon won the 1981 election. The New Zealand National Party (National or the Nats) currently forms the second-largest (in terms of seats) political party represented in the New Zealand Parliament, and thus functions as the core of the parliamentary Opposition. ... The 1981 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament. ...


The ensuing public protests polarised the New Zealand population. While rugby fans filled the football grounds, protest crowds filled the surrounding streets, and on one occasion succeeded in invading the pitch and stopping the game.

A protester confronts police during the Tour.
A protester confronts police during the Tour.

To begin with the anti-tour movement committed themselves, by and large, to a programme of non-violent civil disobedience, demonstration, and direct action. In anticipation of this and as protection for the touring Springboks, the police created two special riot squads, the Red and Blue Squads. These police were, controversially, the first in New Zealand to be issued with visored riot helmets and with what was then referred to as the long baton (more commonly the side-handled baton or tonfa). Some protesters were intimidated and interpreted this initial police fire power as overkill and heavy handed tactics. After early disruptions, police began to require that all spectators assemble in sports grounds at least an hour before kickoff Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Civil disobedience (disambiguation). ... For the Canadian urban guerrilla group Direct Action, see Squamish Five. ... A Wooden Tonfa The tonfa, also known as tong fa or tuifa, is a traditional Okinawan weapon from which the modern side-handled police baton is derived. ...


At Gisborne, protesters managed to break through a fence, but quick action by rugby spectators and ground security prevented the game being disrupted. Some protesters were injured by police batons.


At Lancaster Park, Christchurch, some protesters managed to break through a security cordon and a number managed to invade the pitch. They were quickly removed and forcibly ejected from the stadium by security staff and spectators. However, a large, well co-ordinated street demonstration managed to occupy the streets immediately outside the ground and confront the riot police. Rugby spectators were kept in the ground until the protestors dispersed. AMI Stadium, formerly Jade Stadium and Lancaster Park, is a sports stadium situated in Christchurch, New Zealand. ...


At Rugby Park, Hamilton (the site of today's Waikato Stadium), about 350 protesters invaded the pitch after pulling down a fence using bolt cutters. The police arrested about 50 of them over a period of an hour, but were concerned that they could not control the rugby crowd. Following reports that a light plane piloted by an inmate from a mental institution was approaching the stadium, police cancelled the match. The protesters were ushered from the ground advised by protest marshals to remove any anti-tour insignia from their atire, with enraged rugby spectators lashing out at them. Gang youths of rugby supporters waited outside the Hamiltion police station for arrested protesters to be processed and released, and assaulted protesters making their way into Victoria Street. The aftermath of this game, followed by the bloody dispersal of a sit-down protest in Wellington's Molesworth Street in the following week, in which police allegedly batoned bare-headed, sitting protesters, led to the radicalization of the protest movement as a whole. A small number of the protesters saw the opportunity to force a confrontation with authority. Many protesters came to protests wearing motorcycle helmets, as a way of protecting themselves from injury. Hamilton (Kirikiriroa in Māori) is the centre of New Zealands fourth largest urban area, and is the countrys seventh largest city. ... Waikato Stadium, NZ Māori v Lions, 2005 Waikato Stadium is a major rugby union and soccer venue in Hamilton, New Zealand with a total capacity, seated and standing, of 26,350. ... Alternative meanings at Wellington (disambiguation) A view of Wellington from the top of Mount Victoria. ...


The authorities too were forced to make concessions to the protest movement, strengthening security at public facilities after protesters disrupted telecommunications services by damaging a waveguide on a telecommunications microwave station, disrupting telephone and data services, though TV transmissions continued as they were carried by another waveguide on the tower. Army engineers were also deployed, and the remaining grounds were surrounded with razor wire and shipping container barricades to decrease the chances of another pitch invasion.

Test Programme for the third Springboks' Test at Eden Park in Auckland

During the final test match at Eden Park, Auckland, a low-flying light plane disrupted the final game of the tour by dropping flour-bombs on the pitch. "Patches" of criminal gangs, such as traditional rivals Black Power and the Mongrel Mob, were also evident (interestingly enough, the Mongrel Mob were Muldoon supporters). Footage was also shown of police beating unarmed clowns with batons. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... First international South Africa 4 - 0 British Isles (30 July 1891) Largest win South Africa  134 - 3  Uruguay (11 June 2005) Worst defeat  England 53 - 3 South Africa  (23rd November, 2002) World Cup Appearances 4 (First in 1995) Best result Champions, 1995 and 2007 Springboks redirects here. ... Eden Park is the main sports ground in Auckland, New Zealand for both rugby union during winter, and cricket in summer. ... For other uses, see Auckland (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Rugby (disambiguation). ... Eden Park is the main sports ground in Auckland, New Zealand for both rugby union during winter, and cricket in summer. ... For other uses, see Auckland (disambiguation). ... Black Power is a prominent gang in New Zealand. ... The Mongrel Mob is a New Zealand gang formed and organised in Petone near Wellington, New Zealand. ... Clowning redirects here. ...


There were, in fact, many peaceful protests around the country, but sporadic violence attracted the press and led to the impression of a nation at war with itself. The police, on the other hand, prevented the release of 'provocative' images (such as an officer on fire after being hit by a molotov cocktail).[citation needed] These images were, however, shown to policemen to 'motivate' them before the Auckland test. Perhaps because of this, the tour remained a bizarrely civilised breakdown of order. Neither side used firearms or tear gas. There were no deaths, and no serious injuries. Some of the more violent policemen were quietly disciplined. Protesters who might, in another country, have faced charges of attempted murder or treason, were charged and convicted of relatively minor and unimportant disorder offences — or acquitted after defence by pro bono lawyers. Leaders of both sides went on to fill important roles in public life. Molotov cocktail is the generic name for a variety of crude incendiary weapons. ...


Some of the protest had the dual purpose of linking alleged racial discrimination against Māori in New Zealand to apartheid in South Africa. Some of the protesters, particularly young Māori, were frustrated by the image of New Zealand as being a paradise for racial unity. Thus it was seen as being useful by many opponents of what they saw as racism in New Zealand in the early 1980s to use the protests against South Africa as a vehicle for wider social action. There were as many Maoris who supported “The Tour” and attended games, as apposed it. Others felt that legal favouring of Maori in New Zealand law (though there was little at the time) simply repeated the very apatheid New Zealanders professed to oppose.


The Rugby

Schedule of matches [7]
Date Venue Team Result
22 July Gisborne Poverty Bay SA 24-6
25 July Hamilton Waikato Match cancelled
29 July New Plymouth Taranaki SA 34-9
1 August Palmerston North Manawatu SA 31-19
5 August Wanganui Wanganui SA 45-9
8 August Invercargill Southland SA 22-6
11 August Dunedin Otago SA 17-13
15 August Christchurch New Zealand (1st Test) NZ 9-14
19 August Timaru South Canterbury Match cancelled
22 August Nelson Nelson Bays SA 83-0
25 August Napier NZ Maori 12-12
29 August Wellington New Zealand (2nd Test) SA 24-12
2 September Rotorua Bay of Plenty SA 29-24
5 September Auckland Auckland SA 39-12
8 September Whangarei North Auckland SA 19-10
12 September Auckland New Zealand (3rd Test) NZ 22-25

is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses of Gisborne see Gisborne (disambiguation). ... The Poverty Bay Rugby Football Union was formed in 1890. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Hamilton (Kirikiriroa in Māori) is the centre of New Zealands fourth largest urban area, and is the countrys seventh largest city. ... The Waikato Rugby Union is the official governing body of rugby union in the region of Waikato on the North Island of New Zealand. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The 45 metre high Wind Wand on the New Plymouth waterfront New Plymouth is the port and main city in the Taranaki region on the west coast of the North Island of New Zealand. ... Taranaki Rugby Football Union (TRFU) is the governing body of Rugby in the New Zealand province of Taranaki. ... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Palmerston North (Māori: ) is the main city of the Manawatu-Wanganui region of the North Island of New Zealand. ... Manawatu Rugby Union (MRU) is the governing body of Rugby in the Manawatu rugby province. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Wanganui   is an urban area and district on the west coast of the North Island of New Zealand. ... The Wanganui Rugby Football Union was formed in 1888. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Cnr of Esk and Dee Streets, looking up Esk st, one of the main shopping streets of Invercargill. ... The Southland Stags rugby team represents the Southland province in the Air New Zealand Cup, also known as the Premier Division of the National Provincial Championship. ... is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Dunedin (ÅŒtepoti in Maori) is the second-largest city in the South Island of New Zealand, and the principal city of the region of Otago. ... ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Christchurch (disambiguation). ... Test cricket is the longest form of the sport of cricket. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Timaru is a major port city in the southern Canterbury region of New Zealand, located 160 kilometres south of Christchurch and about 200 kilometres north of Dunedin on the eastern Pacific coast of the South Island. ... // The South Canterbury Rugby Football Union (SCRFU) was formed in 1888 when it broke away from the Canterbury Rugby Football Union. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The City of Nelson is situated very close to the centre of New Zealand. ... The Tasman Rugby Union is New Zealands newest provincial union. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The T & G Building (Atkin & Mitchell, Wellington, 1936) Napier (Ahuriri in Māori) is an important port city in Hawkes Bay, New Zealand. ... First international Ireland 4 - 13 New Zealand Māori (as the New Zealand Natives) (1888-12-01) Largest win United States 6 - 74 New Zealand Māori (2006-06-07) Worst defeat New Zealand Māori 6 - 31 Australia (1936-09-23) ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the first Duke of Wellington, see Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Rotorua Museum today. ... The Bay of Plenty Rugby Union is the official governing body of rugby union in the region of Bay of Plenty on the North Island of New Zealand. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Auckland (disambiguation). ... The Auckland Rugby Football Union is the governing body of rugby union in the Auckland isthmus territorial authority in the North Island in New Zealand. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Whangarei, pronounced [] in Maori and [] in English (fang-a-ray; the initial consonant is pronounced /f/ in English), is the northernmost city in New Zealand and the regional capital of Northland Region. ... The Northland Rugby Union is the governing body of rugby union in the Northland region of New Zealand. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Aftermath

Although the Muldoon government was re-elected in the 1981 election its majority was reduced from four seats to just one and, as in 1978, Muldoon's National Party received fewer votes than the opposition Labour Party. Whether this decline in popularity was a consequence of Muldoon's support of the tour or part of a larger trend away from his government's paternalistic conservatism is still a matter for debate. The 1981 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to determine the shape of the New Zealand Parliament. ... The 1978 New Zealand general election was a nationwide vote to elect the 39th New Zealand Parliament. ...


The NZRFU constitution contained much high-minded wording about promoting the image of rugby and New Zealand, and generally being a benefit to society. In 1985 the NZRFU proposed an All Black tour of South Africa. Two lawyers successfully sued the NZRFU, claiming such a tour would breach the NZRFU's constitution. The High Court stopped the All Black tour. The 1981 Springbok tour of New Zealand could arguably have been stopped by the courts: it is interesting that protest groups did not attempt such a remedy within the "system" in 1981. The All Blacks did not tour South Africa until after the fall of the apartheid régime (1990 - 1994), although after the official 1985 tour was cancelled an unofficial tour did take place in 1986 by a team including some but not the majority of All Blacks players. These were known both inside and outside the Republic as the New Zealand Cavaliers, but often advertised inside South Africa as the All Blacks or alternatively depicted with the Silver Fern. A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... The Cavaliers was the name given to the unofficial New Zealand rugby union team which toured South Africa in 1986. ...


Some considered that for the first time in history, rugby in New Zealand had become a source of embarrassment rather than pride. Six years later, however, the team won the Rugby World Cup, in 1987.[8] For the rugby league competition, see Rugby League World Cup. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ...


The role of the police also became more controversial as a result of the tour.


The Tour in New Zealand Culture

  • Prominent artist Ralph Hotere painted a Black Union Jack series of paintings in protest of the tour.
  • Merata Mita's documentary film Patu! tells the tale of the tour from a left-wing perspective.
  • John Broughton wrote a stage play, 1981 examining the way The Tour divided a family.
  • Music popularly associated with the Tour included the punk band RIOT 111, and the songs "Riot Squad" by the Newmatics and "There Is No Depression In New Zealand" by Blam Blam Blam.
  • Ross Meurant, commander of the police "Red Squad", published Red Squad Story in 1982, giving a defensive conservative view. ISBN 0-908630-06-9
  • In 1984 Geoff Chapple published 1981: The Tour, a book chronicling the events from the protesters' perspective. ISBN 0-589-01534-6
  • In 1999 Glenn Wood's biography "Cop Out" covered the tour from the perspective of a frontline policeman. ISBN 0-908704-89-5
  • David Hill, New Zealand author, has written a book, The Name of the Game , which is as story of a schoolboy's personal struggles during the tour. ISBN 0-908783-63-9
  • New Zealand leftist Tom Newnham's book By Batons And Barbed Wire is one of the largest collections of photos and general information of the protest movement during the tour itself. ISBN 0-473-00253-1 (hardback). ISBN 0-473-00112-8 (paperback)
  • The documentary, 1981: A Country At War, chronicled the Tour from various perspectives. [1]

Hone Papita Raukura (Ralph) Hotere is a New Zealand artist of Maori descent (Aupouri iwi). ... John Broughton is an Australian astronomer. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Ross Meurant, a New Zealand public figure, has at various times gained public attention as a police officer, a businessman, a politician, and a political lobbyist. ... Red Squads are U.S. police intelligence units that specialize in infiltrating, harassing, and gathering intelligence on political and social groups. ... Tom Newnham is a New Zealand political activist and former educationalist. ...

See also

The 1971 Springbok tour was a controversial six-week rugby union tour by the South African national team to Australia. ... First international  Australia 3 - 22 New Zealand  (15 August 1903) Largest win  New Zealand 145 - 17 Japan  (4 June 1995) Worst defeat  Australia 28 - 7 New Zealand  (28 August 1999) World Cup Appearances 6 (First in 1987) Best result Champions, 1987 The All Blacks are New Zealands national rugby... For the legal definition of apartheid, see the crime of apartheid. ... For the fictional character in Jurassic Park, see List of characters in Jurassic Park. ... Pansy Wong is a New Zealand politician. ...

Notes and references

  1. ^ a b Watters, Steve. A long tradition of rugby rivalry. nzhistory.net.nz. Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
  2. ^ a b c Watters, Steve. 'Politics and sport don't mix'. nzhistory.net.nz. Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
  3. ^ a b Watters, Steve. Stopping the 1973 tour. nzhistory.net.nz. Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
  4. ^ Fortuin, Gregory. "It's time to close the final chapter", The New Zealand Herald, 2006-07-20. 
  5. ^ On This Day 17 July 1976. bbc.co.uk. Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
  6. ^ Watters, Steve. From Montreal to Gleneagles. nzhistory.net.nz. Retrieved on 2007-01-17.
  7. ^ http://www.nzhistory.net.nz/node/2297
  8. ^ McMurran, Alister. "'87 Cup healed '81 tour's wounds", Otago Daily Times, 2005-11-18. 

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 322nd day of the year (323rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Bibliography

  • Chapple, Geoff (1984). 1981: The Tour. Wellington: A H & A W Reed. ISBN 0-589-01534-6. 

External links

  • Posters at Christchurch City Libraries
  • Online account
  • A time line and references
  • The 1981 Springbok Tour
  • The 1981 Springbok Tour, including history, images and video (NZHistory)
  • Letters solicited from the New Zealand public after the 1981 Springbok Tour

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