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Encyclopedia > 1970s
Millennia: 2nd millennium
Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century
Decades: 1940s 1950s 1960s - 1970s - 1980s 1990s 2000s
Years: 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974
1975 1976 1977 1978 1979
Categories: Births - Deaths - Architecture
Establishments - Disestablishments

The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979; it is commonly called The Seventies. In Western cities primarily, the focus shifted from the social activism of the Sixties to social activities for one's own pleasure: drug use, all-night dancing at discotheques and swinging parties. The seventies were considered by Tom Wolfe as the "Me Decade." A notable exception was the tremendous growth in environmentalism. These pages contain the trends of millennia and centuries. ... On the Gregorian calendar, the 2nd millennium commenced on 1 January 1001, and ended at the end of 31 December 2000. ... These pages contain the trends of millennia and centuries. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... 20XX redirects here. ... This is a list of decades which have articles with more information about them. ... The 1940s decade ran from 1940 to 1949. ... The 1950s decade refers to the years of 1950 to 1959 inclusive. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969. ... The 1980s was the decade spanning from 1980 to 1989, also called The Eighties. The decade saw social, economic and general upheaval as wealth, production and western culture migrated to new industrializing economies. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... This article is about the decade of 2000-2009. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... For other senses of this word, see decade (disambiguation). ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Activism, in a general sense, can be described as intentional action or inaction to bring about social or political change. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969. ... A discothèque (or discoteque) (pronounced disko-tek) is an entertainment venue or club with recorded music, played by Discaires (Disk jockeys), rather than an on-stage band. ... This article is about the subcultural sexual lifestyle. ... For the early 20th century American novelist, see Thomas Wolfe. ... The historic Blue Marble photograph, which helped bring environmentalism to the public eye. ...


The perception of the established institutions of nuclear family, religion and trust in one's government continued to lose ground during this time. Major developments of the sexual revolution included the awareness of the impact of contraceptive pills on social-interactional relationships, and an increase in divorce rates, single parent households, and unprotected sex. By the end of the decade, the feminist movement had helped change women's working conditions. The hippie culture, which started in the 1960s, peaked in the early 1970s and carried on through the end of the decade. The United States' withdrawal from its extensive military involvement in Vietnam and the resignation of Richard Nixon helped bring about a sense of malaise which continued through the Jimmy Carter Presidency and mistrust in political authority. The term nuclear family developed in the western world to distinguish the family group consisting of parents (usually a father and mother) and their children, from what is known as an extended family. ... For the Macy Gray song, see Sexual Revolution (song). ... The Pill redirects here. ... Divorce or dissolution of marriage is the ending of a marriage before the death of either spouse. ... It has been suggested that Baby mama be merged into this article or section. ... Unprotected sex refers to any act of sexual intercourse in which the participants use no forms of protection from sexually transmitted diseases. ... Feminist Suffrage Parade in New York City, May 6, 1912. ... For the British TV show, see Hippies (TV series). ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969. ... Nixon redirects here. ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ...


The United States experienced an economic recession, but the economy of Japan prospered. The economies of many third world countries continued to make steady progress in the early 1970s, because of the green revolution. They might have thrived and become stable in the way that Europe recovered after the war through the Marshall Plan; however, their economic growth was slowed by the oil crisis. A recession is usually defined in macroeconomics as a fall of a countrys Gross National Product in two successive quarters. ... For the Jamaican reggae band, see Third World (band). ... The Green Revolution was the worldwide transformation of agriculture that led to significant increases in agricultural production between the 1940s and 1960s. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... The 1973 oil crisis began on October 17, 1973, when the members of Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC, consisting of the Arab members of OPEC plus Egypt and Syria) announced, as a result of the ongoing Yom Kippur War, that they would no longer ship oil to nations...

Contents

Worldwide trends

The first ethos of the 1970s emerged from a transition of the global social structure. It reflected the transition from the decline of colonial imperialism since the end of World War II to globalization and the rise of a new middle class in the developing world. Ethos (ἦθος) (plurals: ethe, ethea) is a Greek word originally meaning the place of living that can be translated into English in different ways. ... It has been suggested that Benign colonialism be merged into this article or section. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Economic globalization has had an impact on the worldwide integration of different cultures. ...


Globally, the 1970s had several features that were similar and definitive across economic levels and regions. Some defining points of the 1970s were the Arab-Israeli war of 1973 and the subsequent oil shock of 1973, the economic strain caused by the rapid increase in the price of oil and its influence on the Bretton Woods system of international economic stabilisation, and the effect of the contraceptive pill on social dynamics. Combatants  Israel  Egypt,  Syria,  Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul Munim... The 1973 oil crisis began on October 17, 1973, when the members of Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC, consisting of the Arab members of OPEC plus Egypt and Syria) announced, as a result of the ongoing Yom Kippur War, that they would no longer ship oil to nations... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Pill redirects here. ...


Developing nations that were rich in oil experienced economic growth; others, not so endowed, saw the economic strain of oil price hikes lead to economic decline, particularly in Africa where a number of moderately democratic states became dictatorial regimes. Many Middle Eastern democracies crumbled into chaotic regimes with pseudo-democratic governments. Several Asian countries also saw the rise of dictators, including South Korea, Malaysia and Indonesia. A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ...


As well, people were influenced by the rapid pace of societal change and the aspiration for a more egalitarian society in cultures that were long colonised and have an even longer history of hierarchical social structure. See Social structure of the United States for an explanation of concepts exsistance within US society. ...


The first face lifts were attempted in the 1970s. A facelift, technically known as a rhytidectomy (literally, surgical removal of wrinkles), is a procedure used in plastic surgery to give a more youthful appearance. ...


The green revolution of the late 1960s brought about self sufficiency in food in many developing economies. At the same time an increasing number of people began to seek urban prosperity over agrarian life. This consequently saw the duality of transition of diverse interaction across social communities amid increasing information blockade across social class. The Green Revolution was the worldwide transformation of agriculture that led to significant increases in agricultural production between the 1940s and 1960s. ... Agrarian has two meanings: It can mean pertaining to Agriculture It can also refer to the ideology of Agrarianism and Agrarian parties. ... Community is a set of people (or agents in a more abstract sense) with some shared element. ... Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ...


Other common global ethos of the seventies world include: increasingly flexible and varied gender roles for women in industrialised societies. More women could enter the work force. However, the gender role of men remained as that of a bread-winner. The period also saw the socioeconomic effect of an ever-increasing number of women entering the non-agrarian economic workforce. The Iranian revolution also affected global attitudes to and among those of the Muslim faith toward the end of the 1970s. This article is about the 1979 revolution in Iran. ...


The global experience of the cultural transition of the 1970s and an experience of a global zeitgeist revealed the interdependence of economies since World War II, in a world increasingly polarised between the United States and the Soviet Union. This article is about the German word. ...


Economy

The 1970s were perhaps the worst decade of Western and American economic performance since the Great Depression. Although there was no severe economic depression as witnessed in the 1930s, economic growth rates were considerably lower than previous decades. As a result, the 1970s adversely distinguished itself from the prosperous postwar period between 1945 and 1973. Then, the world economy was buoyed by the Marshall Plan and the robust American economy. However, the high standing enjoyed by the American economy gradually became discomposed by years of loose domestic spending (particularly the Great Society campaign) and funding for the Vietnam war. The oil shocks of 1973 and 1979 added to the existing ailments and conjured high inflation throughout much of the world for the rest of the decade. Soaring oil prices compelled most American businesses to raise their prices as well, with inflationary results. Occident redirects here. ... For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... In economics, a depression is a term commonly used for a sustained downturn in the economy. ... The 1930s were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the [[. In East Asia, the rise of militarism occurred. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... The Great Society was also a 1960s band featuring Grace Slick, and a 1914 book by English social theorist Graham Wallas. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... An Energy Crisis is any great shortfall (or price rise) in the supply of energy to an economy. ... This article or section should be merged with 1973 energy crisis On October 16th, 1973, as part of the political strategy that included the Yom Kippur War, OPEC cut production of oil, and placed an embargo on shipments of crude oil to the West, with the Netherlands, specifically targetted. ... Line at a gas station, June 15, 1979. ...


The average annual inflation rate from 1900 to 1970 was approximately 2.5 percent. From 1970, however, the average rate hit about 6 percent, topping out at 13.3 percent by 1979. This period is also known for "stagflation", a phenomenon in which inflation and unemployment steadily increased, therefore leading to double-digit interest rates that rose to unprecedented levels (above 12% per year). The prime rate hit 21.5 in December 1980, the highest in history. By the time of 1980, when U.S. President Jimmy Carter was running for re-election against Ronald Reagan, the misery index (the sum of the unemployment rate and the inflation rate) had reached an all-time high of 21.98 percent. Stagflation, a portmanteau of the words stagnation and inflation, is a term in general use within modern macroeconomics used to describe a period of out-of-control price inflation combined with slow-to-no output growth, rising unemployment, and eventually recession. ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... Reagan redirects here. ... Misery index is an economic indicator created by Chicago Economist Robert Barro in the 1970s. ... Addition is one of the basic operations of arithmetic. ...


In Eastern Europe, Soviet-style command economies began showing signs of stagnation, in which successes were persistently dogged by setbacks. The oil shock increased East European, particularly Soviet, exports, but a growing inability to increase agricultural output caused growing concern to the governments of the COMECON block, and a growing dependence on food imported from Western nations. A Soviet poster reading COMECON: Unity of Goals, Unity of Action The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON / Comecon / CMEA / CEMA), 1949 – 1991, was an economic organization of communist states and a kind of Eastern Bloc equivalent to—but more inclusive than—the European Economic Community. ...


Oil crisis

Economically, the seventies were marked by the energy crisis which peaked in 1973 and 1979 (see 1973 oil crisis and 1979 oil crisis). After the first oil shock in 1973, gasoline was rationed in many countries. Europe particularly depended on the Middle East for oil; the U.S. was also affected even though it had its own oil reserves. Many European countries introduced car-free days and weekends. In the U.S., customers with a license plate ending in an odd number were only allowed to buy gasoline on odd-numbered days, while even-numbered plate-holders could only purchase gasoline on even-numbered days. The experience that oil reserves were not endless and technological development was not sustainable without harming the environment ended the age of modernism. As a result, ecological awareness rose substantially. The 1973 oil crisis began on October 17, 1973, when the members of Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC, consisting of the Arab members of OPEC plus Egypt and Syria) announced, as a result of the ongoing Yom Kippur War, that they would no longer ship oil to nations... (Redirected from 1979 oil crisis) The 1979 (or second) energy crisis occurred in the wake of the Iranian Revolution. ... Petrol redirects here. ... Sustainable development is a pattern of resource use that aims to meet human needs while preserving the environment so that these needs can be met not only in the present, but in the indefinite future. ... For Christian theological modernism, see Liberal Christianity and Modernism (Roman Catholicism). ... The historic Blue Marble photograph, which helped bring environmentalism to the public eye. ...


Social movements

Environmentalism

The 1970s started a mainstream affirmation of the environmental issues early activists from the 1960s, such as Rachel Carson and Murray Bookchin had warned of. The moon landing that had occurred at the end of the previous decade transmitted back concrete images of the Earth as an integrated, life-supporting system and shaped a public willingness to preserve nature. On April 22, 1970, the United States celebrated its first Earth Day in which over two thousand colleges and universities and roughly ten thousand primary and secondary schools participated. The historic Blue Marble photograph, which helped bring environmentalism to the public eye. ... Rachel Louise Carson (May 27, 1907 – April 14, 1964) was an American marine biologist and nature writer whose writings are often credited with launching the global environmental movement. ... Murray Bookchin[1] (born January 14, 1921) is an American libertarian socialist speaker and writer, and founder of the Social Ecology school of anarchist and ecological thought. ... Still frame from the video transmission of Neil Armstrong stepping onto the surface of the Moon on 20 July 1969. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Unofficial Earth Day flag, by John McConnell, including a NASA photo. ...


Feminism

Main article: Second-wave feminism

Feminism in the United States got its start in the 1960s, but began to take flight starting in 1970, with the fiftieth anniversary of the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution (which legalized female suffrage). A Womens Lib march in Washington, D.C. in 1970 Second-wave feminism refers to a period of feminist activity which began during the 1960s and lasted through the late 1970s. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Amendment XIX in the National Archives The Nineteenth Amendment (Amendment XIX) to the United States Constitution provides that neither any individual state or the federal government may deny a citizen the right to vote because of that citizens sex. ...


With the anthology Sisterhood is Powerful and other works being published at the start of the decade, feminism started to reach a larger audience than ever before. Sisterhood is Powerful (ISBN 0394705394), published in 1970, was one of the first widely available anthologies of early Second Wave radical feminist writings. ...


No-Fault divorce laws paved the way for increased divorce rates, as depicted in the movie Irreconcilable Differences, and divorce became widely acceptable in western countries. No-fault divorce is the dissolution of a marriage, upon petition to the court by either party, without the requirement that the petitioner show fault on the part of the other party. ... Irreconcilable differences are one possible grounds for a divorce in the United States; often they are used as justification for a no-fault divorce. ...


Science and technology

Main articles: 1970s in science and 1970s in technology
Voyager spacecraft and space explorations

The 1970s witnessed an explosion in the understanding of solid-state physics, driven by the development of the integrated circuit, and the laser. The CERN super-collider was constructed, and Stephen Hawking developed his theories of black holes and the boundary-condition of the universe at this period. The biological sciences greatly advanced, with molecular biology, bacteriology, virology, and genetics achieving their modern forms in this decade. Biodiversity became a cause of major concern as habitat destruction, and Stephen Jay Gould's theory of punctuated equilibrium revolutionized evolutionary thought. Space exploration reached its zenith in the 1970s with the ambitious Voyager program aimed at outer planets in the solar system, though Apollo lunar flights terminated in 1972. The Soviet Union developed vital involving long-term human life in free-fall on the Salyut and later Mir space stations. Download high resolution version (932x721, 79 KB)Photo of the Voyager spacecraft (large version). ... Download high resolution version (932x721, 79 KB)Photo of the Voyager spacecraft (large version). ... Integrated circuit of Atmel Diopsis 740 System on Chip showing memory blocks, logic and input/output pads around the periphery Microchips (EPROM memory) with a transparent window, showing the integrated circuit inside. ... For other uses, see Laser (disambiguation). ... CERN logo The European Organization for Nuclear Research (French: ), commonly known as CERN (see Naming), pronounced (or in French), is the worlds largest particle physics laboratory, situated just northwest of Geneva on the border between France and Switzerland. ... Stephen William Hawking, CH, CBE, FRS, FRSA, (born 8 January 1942) is a British theoretical physicist. ... This article is about the astronomical body. ... Stephen Jay Gould (September 10, 1941 – May 20, 2002) was an American paleontologist, evolutionary biologist, and historian of science. ... Punctuated equilibrium (or punctuated equilibria) is a theory in evolutionary biology which states that most sexually reproducing species will show little to no evolutionary change throughout their history. ... Voyager Project redirects here. ... This article is about the Solar System. ... Description Role: Earth and Lunar Orbit Crew: 3; CDR, CM pilot, LM pilot Dimensions Height: 36. ... The Salyut (Russian: Салют, Salute or Firework) program was a series of space stations launched by the Soviet Union in the 1970s. ... For other uses, see Mir (disambiguation). ...


The birth of modern computing was in the 1970s, which saw the development of the world's first general microprocessor, the C programming language, rudimentary personal computers, pocket calculators, the first supercomputer, and consumer video games. The 1970s were also the start of fiber optics, which transformed the communications industry. In automotive technology, United States and especially Europe turned toward more lightweight, fuel efficient vehicles. Automotive historians have also described the period as 'the era of poor quality control', though the integration of the computer and robot, particularly in Japan, allowed unprecedented improvements in mass production. In consumer goods, microwave ovens and Cassette tapes surged in popularity, and the first consumer videocassette recorders became available. Genetic engineering became a commercially viable technology. The Intel 4004 is a 4-bit central processing unit (CPU) released by Intel Corporation in 1971. ... C is a general-purpose, block structured, procedural, imperative computer programming language developed in 1972 by Dennis Ritchie at the Bell Telephone Laboratories for use with the Unix operating system. ... A basic arithmetic calculator. ... CRAY-1 at the EPFL in Switzerland. ... This article is about computer and video games. ... Fiber Optic strands An optical fiber in American English or fibre in British English is a transparent thin fiber for transmitting light. ... Microwave oven A microwave oven, or microwave, is a kitchen appliance employing microwave radiation primarily to cook or heat food. ... Typical 60-minute Compact Cassette. ... The videocassette recorder (or VCR, more commonly known in the UK and Ireland as the video recorder), is a type of video tape recorder that uses removable videotape cassettes containing magnetic tape to record audio and video from a television broadcast so it can be played back later. ...


Culture

In North America especially, Universities became friendlier and less authoritarian towards students. This was part of a broader change in social hierarchy that was also reflected in the corporate culture of the 1970s, where the hierarchy between supervisor and subordinates became increasingly flattened. This influenced social interaction and family relationships as well. The nuclear family began to lose its prominence in the industrialised world, and the role of women in families took radical shift from those of earlier generations. In particular, the easing of laws regarding divorce led to the rise of new family structures. With the changing family structures and liberal attitudes towards social structures came new perspectives to child rearing and education. The '70s saw a decline in attendance at private boarding schools and a rise of privately-owned local day schools, as well as the creation of large consolidated schools in rural areas, and in the USA, the integration of black and white students in schools. Social norms and laws were increasingly framed in favour of women. A university is an institution of higher education and of research, which grants academic degrees. ... Organizational Culture refers to the values, beliefs and customs of an organization. ... A hierarchy (in Greek: , derived from — hieros, sacred, and — arkho, rule) is a system of ranking and organizing things or people, where each element of the system (except for the top element) is a subordinate to a single other element. ... This article is about the Atlas Supervisor computer program. ... A hierarchy (in Greek hieros = sacred, arkho = rule) is a system of ranking and organizing things. ... For other uses, see Family (disambiguation). ... The term nuclear family developed in the western world to distinguish the family group consisting of parents (usually a father and mother) and their children, from what is known as an extended family. ... Image of a woman on the Pioneer plaque sent to outer space. ... A boarding school is usually a fee-charging school where some or all pupils not only study, but also live during term time, with their fellow students and possibly teachers. ... A day school is an institution where children are given educational instruction only during the day and after which children return to their homes. ...


Music

Main article: 1970s in music

The early 1970s saw the rise of popular soft rock music, with such legendary recording artists as Elton John, James Taylor, John Denver, The Eagles, America, Chicago, and The Doobie Brothers as well as the further rise of such popular, influential rhythm and blues (R&B) artists as multi-instrumentalist Stevie Wonder and the popular quintet The Jackson 5. The mid-1970s saw the rise of disco music, which dominated popular music during the last half of the decade. In response to this, rock music became increasingly hard edged with artists such as Led Zeppelin. Minimalism also emerged, lead by composers such as Philip Glass, Steve Reich and Michael Nyman. This was a break from the intellectual serial music of the tradition of Schoenberg which lasted from the early 1900s to 1960s.-1... Soft rock, also referred to as light rock or easy rock, is a style of music which uses the techniques of rock and roll to compose a softer, supposedly more ear-pleasing sound for listening, often at work or when driving. ... Sir Elton Hercules[1] John CBE[2] (born Reginald Kenneth Dwight on 25 March 1947) is a five-time Grammy and one-time Academy Award-winning English pop/rock singer, composer and pianist. ... James Vernon Taylor (born March 12, 1948) is an American singer-songwriter and guitarist, born in Belmont, Massachusetts. ... John Denver (December 31, 1943 â€“ October 12, 1997), born Henry John Deutschendorf, Jr. ... The Eagles are an American rock music group that originally came together in Los Angeles, California in the early 1970s. ... This article is about the rock band America. For other uses, see America (disambiguation). ... This article is about the American pop-rock-jazz band. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... R&B redirects here. ... Stevie Wonder (born Stevland Hardaway Judkins on May 13, 1950, name later changed to Stevland Hardaway Morris)[1] is an American singer-songwriter, multi-instrumentalist, and record producer. ... The Jackson 5 (also spelled The Jackson Five or The Jackson 5ive, abbreviated as J5, and later known as The Jacksons) was an American popular music quintet (and briefly a sextet and quartet) from Gary, Indiana. ... This article is about the music genre. ... For the bands 1969 eponymous debut album, see Led Zeppelin (album). ... For other uses, see Minimalism (disambiguation). ... Philip Glass (born January 31, 1937) is a three-times Academy Award-nominated American composer. ... Stephen Michael Reich (born October 3, 1936) is an American composer. ... This article is about the composer/musician Michael Nyman. ... Arnold Schoenberg, Los Angeles, 1948 Arnold Schoenberg (pronounced [ˈaːrnÉ”lt ˈʃøːnbÉ›rk]) (13 September 1874 – 13 July 1951) was an Austrian and later American composer, associated with the expressionist movement in German poetry and art, and leader of the Second Viennese School. ... This article is about the decade starting in 1900 and ending in 1909. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969. ...


Experimental classical music influenced both art rock and progressive rock as well as the punk rock and New Wave genres. Hard rock also emerged among British bands Deep Purple, Uriah Heep, Led Zeppelin, Judas Priest and Black Sabbath. In Europe, there was a surge of popularity in the early decade for glam rock. The mid-seventies saw the rise of punk music from its protopunk/garage band roots in the 1960s and early 1970s. Major acts include the Ramones, Blondie, Patti Smith, the Sex Pistols, and The Clash. The highest-selling album was Pink Floyd's Dark Side of The Moon (1973). It remained on the Billboard Top 200 Albums Chart for 741 weeks. The rise of Disco music occurred in the late 1970s; however, the first half of the 1970s saw many jazz musicians from the Miles Davis school achieve cross-over success through jazz-rock fusion. In Germany, Manfred Eicher started the ECM label, which quickly made a name for 'chamber jazz'. Towards the end of the decade, Jamaican reggae music, already popular in the Caribbean and Africa since the early 1970s, became very popular in the U.S. and in Europe, mostly because of reggae superstar and legend Bob Marley. The late '70s also saw the beginning of hip hop music with the song "Rapper's Delight" by Sugarhill Gang. Country music remained very popular in the U.S. In 1977 it became more mainstream after Kenny Rogers became a solo singer and scored many hits on both the country and pop charts. Art rock is a term used to describe a subgenre of rock music with experimental or avant-garde influences that emphasizes novel sonic texture. ... For the Swedish political music movement, see progg. ... Punk rock is an anti-establishment music movement beginning around 1976 (although precursors can be found several years earlier), exemplified and popularised by The Ramones, the Sex Pistols, The Clash and The Damned. ... The New Wave was a movement in American, Australian and British popular music, in the late 1970s and early 1980s, growing out of the New York City musical scene centered around the club CBGB. The term itself is a source of much confusion. ... Hard Rock redirects here. ... This article is about the rock band. ... Uriah Heep can refer to: Uriah Heep (David Copperfield), a character in the Charles Dickens novel David Copperfield Uriah Heep (band), a British rock band active since 1969 This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... For the bands 1969 eponymous debut album, see Led Zeppelin (album). ... For other uses, see Judas priest (curse). ... For other uses, see Black Sabbath (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Glam rock (also known as glitter rock), is a rock music style that developed in the UK in the post-hippie early 1970s which was performed by singers and musicians wearing outrageous clothes, makeup, hairstyles, and platform-soled boots. ... Punk Rock is an anti-establishment music movement that began about 1976 (although precursors can be found several years earlier), exemplified by The Ramones,the Misfits, the Sex Pistols, The Clash and The Damned. ... Protopunk is a term used to describe a number of performers who were important precursors of punk rock, or who have been cited by early punk rockers as influential. ... The term garage band has several meanings, all related in someway to music. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969. ... This article is about the band. ... For other uses, see Blondie. ... For the lead singer of the band Scandal, see Patty Smyth. ... Sex Pistols are an iconic and highly influential English punk rock band, formed in London in 1975. ... This article is about the English punk rock band. ... This article is about the Pink Floyd album. ... The Billboard 200 is a listing of the 200 highest selling music albums in the United States, published weekly in Billboard magazine. ... This article is about the music genre. ... Miles Dewey Davis III (May 26, 1926 – September 28, 1991) was an American jazz musician, widely considered to be one of the most influential of the 20th century. ... Jazz fusion or jazz rock is a musical genre that merges jazz with elements of other styles of music, particularly funk, rock, R&B, ska, electronic, and world music, but also pop, classical, and folk music, or sometimes even metal, reggae, country, hip hop, etc. ... ECM (Editions of Contemporary Music) is a record label founded in Munich, Germany in 1969 by Manfred Eicher, who has continued to take an active interest in the music released by the label, acting as producer on most of its recordings. ... ECM (Edition of Contemporary Music) is a record label founded in Munich, Germany in 1969 by Manfred Eicher. ... West Indies redirects here. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... This article is about the reggae musician. ... The Sugarhill Gang is an American hip hop group, known mostly for one hit, Rappers Delight, the first hip hop single to become a Top 40 hit. ... Country music is a blend of popular musical forms originally found in the Southern United States and the Appalachian Mountains. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Kenneth Ray[2] Kenny Rogers (born August 21, 1938, in Houston, Texas) is a prolific American country music singer, photographer, producer, songwriter, actor and businessman. ...


Cinema

Main article: 1970s in film

In 1970s European cinema, the failure of the Prague Spring brought about nostalgic motion pictures such as István Szabó's Szerelmesfilm (1970). German New Wave and Rainer Fassbinder's existential movies characterized film-making in Germany. The movies of the Swedish director Ingmar Bergman reached a new level of expression in motion pictures like Cries and Whispers (1973). The decade of the 1970s in film involved many significant films. ... European cinema is the cinema of Europe. ... People in a café watch Soviet tanks roll past The Prague Spring (Czech: Pražské jaro, Slovak: Pražská jar, Russian: пражская весна) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia starting January 5, 1968 when Alexander Dubček came to power, and running until August 20 of that year when the... István Szabó, 2004 István Szabó (born February 18, 1938 in Budapest) is both the best-known and one of the most critically acclaimed Hungarian film director of the past few decades. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... When the film industry first flowered in the period from 1900 to 1915, it took hold in Europe as well as America. ... Fassbinder 1977 Rainer Werner Fassbinder (May 31, 1945 - June 10, 1982), German movie director and actor, was one of the most important representatives of the New German Cinema. ...   (IPA: in Swedish; usually IPA: in English) (July 14, 1918 – July 30, 2007) was a Swedish film, stage, and opera director. ... Cries and Whispers (original title Viskningar och rop) is a 1973 Swedish film which tells the story of two sisters who watch over their third sisters deathbed, both afraid she might die, but hoping she does. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ...


Asian cinema of the 1970s catered to the rising middle class fantasies and struggles. In the Bollywood cinema of India, this was epitomised by the movies of Bollywood superhero Amitabh Bachchan. Another Asian touchstone beginning in the early '70s was traditional Hong Kong martial arts film which sparked a greater interest in Chinese martial arts to the West. Martial arts film reached the peak of its popularity largely in part due to its greatest icon, Bruce Lee. For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... Bollywood (Hindi: , Urdu: ) is the informal term popularly used for Mumbai-based Hindi-language film industry in India. ... Bachchan redirects here. ... Hong Kong action cinema is the principal source of the Hong Kong film industrys global fame. ... Martial arts film is a film genre that originated in the Pacific Rim. ... Bruce Lee (traditional Chinese: ; simplified Chinese: ; Pinyin: Lǐ Xiǎolóng; Cantonese Yale: Léih Síulùhng; November 27, 1940 – July 20, 1973) was a Chinese-American martial artist, philosopher, instructor, and martial arts actor widely regarded as the most influential martial artist of the 20th century and a...


Hollywood emerged from its early 1970s slump with young film-makers taking greater risks and exploring more adult subject matter in movies such as A Clockwork Orange and The Godfather. The nostalgic Love Story was a huge commercial and critical hit. The 1970s saw a rebirth of the action film with movies like The French Connection. Airport was hugely successful and launched a series of disaster-related films, such as Earthquake. Throughout the seventies, the horror film developed into a lucrative genre of film; notable examples include The Exorcist, The Omen, Halloween, and The Texas Chain Saw Massacre. Blaxploitation also emerged as a genre. Top-grossing Jaws(1975) ushered in the blockbuster era of film-making, though it was eclipsed two years later by the science-fiction epic Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope (1977). This article is about the film. ... This article is about the 1972 film. ... Love Story is a 1970 romantic drama film written by Erich Segal based on his 1970 best-selling novel, and directed by Arthur Hiller. ... The French Connection is a 1971 Hollywood crime film directed by William Friedkin. ... Earthquake is a 1974 action adventure/disaster/thriller film that achieved huge box-office success, continuing the disaster film genre of the 1970s where recognizable all-star casts attempt to survive life or death situations. ... The Exorcist is a horror novel written by William Peter Blatty first published in 1971. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the holiday. ... This article is about the 1974 film. ... Shaft (1971) Blaxploitation is a film genre that emerged in the United States in the early 1970s when many exploitation films were made that targeted the urban black audience; the word itself is a portmanteau of the words “black” and “exploitation. ... Jaws is a 1975 thriller/horror film directed by Steven Spielberg, based on Peter Benchleys best-selling novel inspired by the Jersey Shore shark attacks of 1916. ... Blockbuster, as applied to film or theater, denotes a very popular and/or successful production. ... This movie poster for Star Wars depicts many of the films important elements, such as Luke Skywalker, Princess Leia, Han Solo, X-Wing and Y-Wing fighters Star Wars, retitled Star Wars Episode IV: A New Hope in 1981 (see note at Title,) is the original (and in chronological...


Television

Main article: 1970s in television

In the United Kingdom, color channels were now available; three stations had begun broadcasting in color between 1967 and 1969. Notable UK dramas included Play for Today and Pennies From Heaven. The science fiction show Doctor Who reached its peak. Many popular British situation comedies (sit-coms) were gentle, innocent, unchallenging comedies of middle-class life; typical examples were Terry and June, Sykes, and The Good Life. A more diverse view of society was offered by series like Porridge and Rising Damp. In police dramas there was a move towards increasing realism; popular shows included Dixon of Dock Green, Softly, Softly, and The Sweeney. This page indexes the individual year in television pages. ... The Play for Today logo, seen here in the opening title sequence from 1976. ... The opening title sequence to the first episode of Pennies from Heaven. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... This article is about the television series. ... This article is about a genre of comedy. ... June Whitfield and Terry Scott on Terry and June Terry and June was a popular British sitcom, broadcast on the BBC from 1979 to 1987. ... Sykes was a long-running BBC television sitcom of the 1960s and 1970s, starring Eric Sykes and Hattie Jacques. ... Porridge was a British BBC television sitcom (1974–1977), written by Dick Clement and Ian La Frenais and starring Ronnie Barker and Richard Beckinsale. ... Rising Damp was a UK television sitcom produced by Yorkshire Television for ITV, first broadcast from 1974 to 1978. ... Dixon of Dock Green was a popular BBC television series, which ran from 1955 to 1976, and later a radio series. ... Softly, Softly was a British television drama series, produced by the BBC and screened on BBC One. ... This article is about the television series. ...


In the United States, long-standing trends were declining. The Red Skelton Show and The Ed Sullivan Show, long-revered American institutions, were canceled. The "family sitcom" saw its last breath at the start of the new decade with The Brady Bunch. Television was transformed by what became termed as "social consciousness" programming such as All in the Family, which broke down television barriers. The television western, which had been very popular in the 1960s, slowly died out during the 1970s, with The High Chaparral, The Virginian, and Gunsmoke ending their runs. By the mid- to late 1970s, "jiggle television"--programs centred around sexual gratification and bawdy humor and situations such as Charlie's Angels and Three's Company--became popular. Soap operas expanded their audience beyond housewives with the rise of All My Children and As the World Turns. Game shows such as The Hollywood Squares and Family Feud were also popular daytime television. Another influential genre was the television newscast, which built on its initial widespread success in the 1960s. Finally, the variety show received its last hurrah during this decade, with shows such as The Sonny & Cher Comedy Hour and Donny & Marie. The Red Skelton Show was a staple of American television for almost two decades, from the early 1950s through the early 1970s. ... The Ed Sullivan Show was an American television variety show that ran from June 20, 1948 to June 6, 1971, and was hosted by former entertainment columnist Ed Sullivan. ... The Brady Bunch is an American television situation comedy, based around a large blended family. ... For other uses, see All in the Family (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969. ... The High Chaparral was a Western-themed television series which aired on NBC from 1967 to 1971. ... The Virginian was a Western-themed television series which aired on NBC from 1962 to 1971. ... This article is about the radio and television series. ... This article is about the television series. ... Threes Company is an American sitcom that ran from 1977 to 1984 on ABC. It is a remake of the British sitcom Man About the House. ... The first TIME magazine cover devoted to soap operas, dated January 12, 1976. ... Housewives may refer to: Desperate Housewives, American television series Homemaker, American feminist phrase for a person whose prime occupation is to care for their family and/or home Stereotypes of Housewives, sociological concept Category: ... All My Children (AMC) is a popular American soap opera that has been broadcast Monday through Friday on the ABC TV network since January 5, 1970. ... As the World Turns (ATWT) is the second longest-running American television soap opera (the first being Guiding Light),[1] airing each weekday on CBS. Set in the fictional town of Oakdale, Illinois, the show debuted on Monday, April 2, 1956[2] at 1:30pm EST. Before this show (and... A game show is a radio or television program involving members of the public or celebrities, sometimes as part of a team, playing a game, perhaps involving answering quiz questions, for points or prizes. ... Hollywood Squares is a American television comedy and game show in which two contestants play tic-tac-toe to win money and prizes. ... This article is about the American game show. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969. ... A variety show is a show with a variety of acts, often including music and comedy skits, especially on television. ... The Sonny & Cher Comedy Hour was a variety show that ran on CBS in the United States from August 1971 until May 1974. ... For the talk show, see Donny & Marie (1998 TV series). ...


Literature

Main article: 1970s in literature

Fiction in the early '70s brought a return to old-fashioned storytelling, especially with Erich Segal's Love Story. The seventies also saw the decline of previously well-respected writers, such as Saul Bellow and Peter De Vries, who both released poorly received novels at the start of the decade. Racism remained a key literary subject. John Updike emerged as a major literary figure. Reflections of the 1960s experience also found roots in the literature of the decade through the works of Joyce Carol Oates and Morris Wright. With the rising cost of hard-cover books and the increasing readership of "genre fiction," the paperback became a popular medium. Criminal non-fiction also became a popular topic. Irreverence and satire, typified in Kurt Vonnegut's Breakfast of Champions, were common literary elements. The horror genre also emerged, and by the late seventies Stephen King had become one of the most popular genre novelists. Erich Wolf Segal (born June 16, 1937 in Brooklyn, New York) is an American author, screenwriter, and educator. ... Love Story is a 1970 romantic drama film written by Erich Segal based on his 1970 best-selling novel, and directed by Arthur Hiller. ... Saul Bellow, born Solomon Bellows, (Lachine, Quebec, Canada, June 10, 1915 – April 5, 2005 in Brookline, Massachusetts) was an acclaimed Canadian-born American writer. ... Peter De Vries (February 27, 1910 - September 28, 1993) was an American editor and comic novelist known for his satiric wit. ... John Hoyer Updike (born March 18, 1932 in Shillington, Pennsylvania) is an American novelist, poet, short story writer and literary critic. ... Joyce Carol Oates (born June 16, 1938) is an American author and the Roger S. Berlind 52 Professor in the Humanities with the Program in Creative Writing at Princeton University, where she has taught since 1978. ... Morris Wright (January 6, 1910 - April 25, 1998) was an American writer who wrote such novels as Love Among the Cannibals, Fire Sermon and Plains Song. ... Genre fiction is a term for fictional works (novels, short stories) written with the intent of fitting into a specific literary genre in order to appeal to the fans of that genre. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Kurt Vonnegut, Jr. ... For the breakfast cereal, see Wheaties. ... For other persons named Stephen King, see Stephen King (disambiguation). ...


In nonfiction, several books related to Nixon and the Watergate scandal topped the best-selling lists. 1977 brought many high-profile biographical works of literary figures, such as those of Virginia Woolf, Agatha Christie, and J.R.R. Tolkien. Books discussing sex such as Everything You Wanted to Know About Sex but Were Afraid to Ask were popular as authors took advantage of the lifted censorship laws on literature in the sixties. Exposés such as All the President's Men were also popular. Self-help and diet books replaced the cookbooks and home fix-it manuals that topped the sixties's charts. Watergate redirects here. ... (Adeline) Virginia Woolf (née Stephen; 25 January 1882 – 28 March 1941) was an English novelist and essayist regarded as one of the foremost modernist literary figures of the twentieth century. ... Agatha Mary Clarissa, Lady Mallowan, DBE (15 September 1890 – 12 January 1976), commonly known as Agatha Christie, was an English crime writer of novels, short stories and plays. ... J. R. R. Tolkien in 1916. ... All the Presidents Men is a 1974 non-fiction book by Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward, the two journalists investigating the Watergate first break-in and ensuing Watergate scandal for the Washington Post. ...


Architecture

The Sears Tower became the world's tallest building when completed in 1973.
The Sears Tower became the world's tallest building when completed in 1973.

Architecture in the 1970s began as a the continuation of styles created by such architects as Frank Lloyd Wright and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. Early in the decade, several architects competed to build the tallest building in the world. Of these buildings, the most notable are the John Hancock Center and Sears Tower in Chicago, both designed by Bruce Graham and Fazlur Khan and the World Trade Center towers that were in New York by Japanese architect Minoru Yamasaki. The decade also brought experimentation in geometric design, pop-art, postmodernism and early deconstructivism. Download high resolution version (542x1324, 272 KB)orthogonal, based on image:SearsTower. ... Download high resolution version (542x1324, 272 KB)orthogonal, based on image:SearsTower. ... The Sears Tower is a skyscraper in Chicago, Illinois. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Frank Lloyd Wright (June 8, 1867 – April 9, 1959) was an American architect, interior designer, writer, educator, and philosopher who designed more than 1,000 projects, of which more than 500 resulted in completed works. ... Ludwig Mies van der Rohe born Maria Ludwig Michael Mies (March 27, 1886 – August 17, 1969) was a German architect. ... For the tower in Boston, see John Hancock Tower. ... The Sears Tower is a skyscraper in Chicago, Illinois. ... For other uses, see Chicago (disambiguation). ... Bruce Graham is an American architect. ... Image:Fazlur Khan. ... For other uses, see World Trade Center (disambiguation). ... Minoru Yamasaki (December 1, 1912 – February 6, 1986) was an American architect best known for his design of the World Trade Center. ... Just What Is It That Makes Today’s Homes So Different, So Appealing? (1956) is one of the earliest works to be considered pop art. ... Postmodernism (sometimes abbreviated Po-mo[1]) is a term originating in architecture, literally after the modern, denoting a style that is more ornamental than modernism, and which borrows from previous architectural styles, often in a playful or ironic fashion. ... Libeskinds Imperial War Museum North in Manchester comprises three apparently intersecting curved volumes. ...


In 1974, Louis Kahn's last and arguably most famous building, the National Assembly Building of Dhaka, Bangladesh was completed. The building's use of open spaces and groundbreaking geometry brought rare attention to the small southeast Asian country. Hugh Stubbins' Citicorp Center revolutionized the incorporation of solar panels in office buildings. The seventies brought further experimentation in glass and steel construction and geometric design. Chinese architect I. M. Pei's John Hancock Tower in Boston, Massachusetts is an example, although like many buildings of the time, the experimentation was flawed and glass panes fell from the façade. In 1976, the completed CN Tower in Toronto was the world's tallest free-standing structure on land until 2007. The fact that no other tower built between the construction of the CN Tower and the Burj Dubai shows how innovative and unsurpassed the architecture and engineering of the structure truly was. Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Salk Institute, La Jolla, California Louis Isadore Kahn (February 20, 1901/1902 – March 17, 1974) was a world-renowned architect who practiced in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... Dhaka (previously Dacca; Bengali: Ḍhākā; IPA: ) is the capital of Bangladesh and the principal city of Dhaka District. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ... The Citicorp Center is a skyscraper at 500 West Madison (between Clinton and Canal) in Chicago, Illinois. ... Ieoh Ming Pei (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; b. ... John Hancock Tower, 200 Clarendon St. ... Boston redirects here. ... Year 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the CN Tower in Toronto. ... Burj Dubai (Arabic: ‎ Dubai Tower) is a skyscraper under construction in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, and is the tallest man-made structure on Earth. ...


But modern architecture was increasingly criticized, both from the point of view of postmodern architects such as Philip Johnson, Charles Moore and Michael Graves who advocated a return to pre-modern styles of architecture and the incorporation of pop elements as a means of communicating with a broader public. Other architects, such as Peter Eisenman of the New York Five advocated the pursuit of form for the sake of form and drew on semiotics theory for support. 1933 Portrait of Philip Johnson by Carl Van Vechten Philip Cortelyou Johnson (July 8, 1906 – January 25, 2005) was an influential American architect. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... -1... Installation art by Peter Eisenman in the courtyard of Castelvecchio Museum in Verona, Italy, Entitled: Il giardino dei passi perduti, (The garden of the lost steps) Peter Eisenman (born August 11, 1932 in Newark, New Jersey) is one of the foremost practitioners of deconstructivism in American architecture. ... The New York Five refers to a group of five New York City architects (Peter Eisenman, Michael Graves, Charles Gwathmey, John Hejduk and Richard Meier) whose work appeared in a Museum of Modern Art exhibition organized by Arthur Drexler in 1967, and the subsequent book Five Architects in 1972 . ...


"High Tech" architecture moved forward as Buckminster Fuller continued his experiments in geodesic domes while the George Pompidou Center, designed by Renzo Piano and Richard Rogers, which opened in 1977, was a prominent example. As the decade drew to a close, Frank Gehry broke out in new direction with his own house in Santa Monica, a highly complex structure half-excavated out of an existing bungalow and half cheaply-built construction using materials such as chicken wire fencing. Richard Buckminster “Bucky” Fuller (July 12, 1895 – July 1, 1983)[1] was an American visionary, designer, architect, poet, author, and inventor. ... The American Pavilion of Expo 67, by R. Buckminster Fuller, now the Biosphère, on Île Sainte-Hélène, Montreal A geodesic dome(IPA: jiədɛzɪk/jiədizɪk dəʊm) is an almost spherical structure based on a network of struts arranged on great circles (geodesics... Centre Georges Pompidou (constructed 1971–1977 and known as the Pompidou Centre in English) is a complex in the Beaubourg area of the IVe arrondissement of Paris, near Les Halles and the Marais. ... The Padre Pio Pilgrimage Church in San Giovanni Rotondo. ... For the American composer, see Richard Rodgers. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Frank Owen Gehry, CC (born Ephraim Owen Goldberg, February 28, 1929) is a Pritzker Prize winning architect based in Los Angeles, California. ...


Social science

Social science intersected with hard science in the works in natural language processing by Terry Winograd (1973) and the establishment of the first cognitive sciences department in the world at MIT in 1979. The fields of generative linguistics and cognitive psychology went through a renewed vigour with symbolic modeling of semantic knowledge while the final devastation of the long standing tradition of behaviorism came about through the severe criticism of B.F. Skinner's work in 1971 by the cognitive scientist Noam Chomsky. Natural language processing (NLP) is a subfield of artificial intelligence and computational linguistics. ... Terry A. Winograd Terry Allen Winograd (born February 24, 1946) is a professor of computer science at Stanford University. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... Cognitive science is usually defined as the scientific study either of mind or of intelligence (e. ... Mapúa Institute of Technology (MIT, MapúaTech or simply Mapúa) is a private, non-sectarian, Filipino tertiary institute located in Intramuros, Manila. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Generative linguistics is a school of thought within linguistics that makes use of the concept of a generative grammar. ... Cognitive Psychology is the school of psychology that examines internal mental processes such as problem solving, memory, and language. ... Behaviorism (also called learning perspective) is a philosophy of psychology based on the proposition that all things which organisms do — including acting, thinking and feeling—can and should be regarded as behaviors. ... Burrhus Frederic Skinner (March 20, 1904 _ August 18, 1990) was an American psychologist and author. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, political activist, author and lecturer. ...


Sports

Main article: 1970s in sports

In the 1970s, the renegade sports leagues of the American Basketball Association (founded in 1967), the World Hockey Association (lasting from 1972 through 1979), and the World Series Cricket (lasting from 1977 to 1979) challenged older, established organizations. The "Battle of the Sexes" tennis match between Billie Jean King and Bobby Riggs, who proclaimed the women's game to be inferior, was a turning point in sports during the decade; after King's victory, the match was heralded as a major victory for women in athletics. The 1970s marked a boom in the popularity of distance running, especially in the United States. The 1972 Summer Olympics were marred by terrorism and Cold War-related international controversy. Among the competition's highlights was the performance of swimmer Mark Spitz, who set seven World Records to win a record seven gold medals in one Olympics, bringing his total to nine. The 1976 Summer Olympics were highlighted by the legendary performance of Romanian female gymnast Nadia Comaneci and the strong U.S. boxing team. This page indexes the individual year in sports pages. ... For the league that began in 1999, see American Basketball Association (2000-). The American Basketball Association (ABA) was a professional basketball league founded in 1967, and eventually merged, in part, with the National Basketball Association (NBA). ... WHA redirects here. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... The WSC logo. ... For other uses, see Tennis (disambiguation). ... Billie Jean Moffitt King (born November 22, 1943 in Long Beach, California) is a retired tennis player from the United States. ... Bobby Riggs on the cover of Sports Illustrated just before his match with Billie Jean King in 1973 Riggs at Wimbledon in 1939 Robert Larimore (Bobby) Riggs (February 25, 1918 – October 25, 1995) was a 1930s–40s tennis player who was the World No. ... Man Running - Edward Muybridge Horse Running - Edward Muybridge Running is by definition the fastest means for an animal to move on foot. ... The 1972 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XX Olympiad, were celebrated in Munich, in what was then West Germany, from 26 August to 11 September 1972. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Mark Andrew Spitz (born February 10, 1950, in Modesto, California) is a former American swimmer. ... The 1976 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XXI Olympiad, were celebrated in 1976 in Montreal, Quebec. ... Nadia Elena Comaneci (originally Comăneci ) (born November 12, 1961) is a Romanian gymnast, winner of five Olympic gold medals, and the first to be awarded a perfect score of 10 in an Olympic gymnastic event. ... For other meanings of these words, see boxing (disambiguation) or boxer. ...


Regional issues

Middle East

Further information: Yom Kippur War
Further information: Camp David Accords

Political authoritarianism in Arab and Middle Eastern states, combined with the occupation of the West Bank by Israel after a military victory in Israel's Six-Day-War war of 1967, led to a major increase in Palestinian suicide attacks against Israeli civilians. The Palestinian terror group Black September was involved in aircraft hijackings and a deadly hostage incident at the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich, Germany. Combatants  Israel  Egypt,  Syria,  Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul Munim... Celebrating the signing of the Camp David Accords: Menachem Begin, Jimmy Carter, Anwar Al Sadat. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      This article applies to political and organizational ideologies. ... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... A suicide attack is an attack on a military or civilian target, in which an attacker intends to kill others, knowing that he or she will either certainly or most likely die in the process (see suicide). ... A Black September terrorist on a balcony in the Olympic Village in September 1972, during what became known as the Munich Massacre, in which 11 Israeli athletes were kidnapped and killed. ... Hijackers inside flightdeck of TWA Flight 847 Aircraft hijacking (also known as skyjacking and aircraft piracy) is the take-over of an aircraft, by a person or group, usually armed. ... For other uses, see Hostage (disambiguation). ... The 1972 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XX Olympiad, were celebrated in Munich, in what was then West Germany, from 26 August to 11 September 1972. ... Munich: Frauenkirche and Town Hall steeple Munich (German: München pronunciation) is the state capital of the German Bundesland of Bavaria. ...


On September 6, 1970 the world witnessed the beginnings of modern rebellious fighting in what is today called as Skyjack Sunday. Palestinian terrorists hijacked four airliners and took over 300 people on board as hostage. Later the hostages were released but the planes exploded in front of world wide media coverage. is the 249th day of the year (250th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... In the Dawsons Field hijackings (September 6, 1970) four jet aircraft bound for New York City were hijacked by members of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. ... An Airbus A340 airliner operated by Air Jamaica An airliner is a large fixed-wing aircraft with the primary function of transporting paying passengers. ...


The relationship between Egypt and Israel changed dramatically throughout the 1970s. In 1975, tensions between Christian and Muslim factions in Lebanon brought that country to civil war, which would continue sporadically for 20 years. Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Belligerents Lebanese Front Syria LNM PLO Amal Israel Commanders Bachir Gemayel Dany Chamoun Kamal Jumblatt Yasser Arafat Ariel Sharon The Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990) was a multifaceted civil war whose antecedents trace back to the conflicts and political compromises reached after the end of Lebanons administration by the...


The Iranian Revolution of 1979 transformed Iran from an autocratic pro-west monarchy under Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi to an Islamic, theocratic government under the leadership of Ayatollah Khomeini. Distrust between the revolutionaries and Western powers led to the Iran hostage crisis on November 4, 1979 where 66 diplomats, mainly from the U.S., were held captive. In Iraq, Saddam Hussein began to rise to power by helping to modernize the country. One major initiative was removing the western monopoly on oil which later during the high prices of 1973 oil crisis would help Hussein's ambitious plans. On July 16, 1979 he assumed the presidency cementing his rise to power. His presidency led to the breaking off of a Syrian-Iraqi unification, which had been sought under Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr and would later lead to the Iran-Iraq War starting in the 1980s. This article is about the 1979 revolution in Iran. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, Shah of Iran, GCB (Persian: ) (October 26, 1919, Tehran – July 27, 1980, Cairo), styled His Imperial Majesty, and holding the imperial titles of Shahanshah (King of Kings), and Aryamehr (Light of the Aryans) until his overthrow by the Islamic Revolution, was the monarch of Iran from September... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      For other uses, see Theocracy (disambiguation). ... Ayatollah Khomeini founded the first modern Islamic republic Ayatollah Seyyed Ruhollah Khomeini (آیت‌الله روح‌الله خمینی in Persian) (May 17, 1900 – June 3, 1989) was an Iranian Shia cleric and the political and spiritual leader of the 1979 revolution that overthrew Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the then Shah of Iran. ... Iranian militants escort a blindfolded U.S. hostage to the media. ... is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... Petro redirects here. ... The 1973 oil crisis began on October 17, 1973, when the members of Organization of Arab Petroleum Exporting Countries (OAPEC, consisting of the Arab members of OPEC plus Egypt and Syria) announced, as a result of the ongoing Yom Kippur War, that they would no longer ship oil to nations... is the 197th day of the year (198th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... The President of Iraq is Iraqs head of state. ... General Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr (Arabic أحمد حسن البكر ) (July 1, 1914 - October 4, 1982), was President of Iraq from 1968 to 1979. ... Belligerents Iran Patriotic Union of Kurdistan Iraq Peoples Mujahedin of Iran Soldiers and volunteers from different Arab countries. ... The 1980s was the decade spanning from 1980 to 1989, also called The Eighties. The decade saw social, economic and general upheaval as wealth, production and western culture migrated to new industrializing economies. ...


Africa

Idi Amin became infamous in the seventies for his brutal regime in Uganda. The seventies also witnessed the fall of Haile Selassie and Jean-Bedel Bokassa, and the continuation of apartheid in South Africa (and the death of Steve Biko). Idi Amin Dada (mid-1920s[1]–16 August 2003) was an army officer and president of Uganda. ... Haile Selassie Haile Selassie (Power of Trinity) (July 23, 1892 – August 27, 1975) was the last Emperor (1930–1936; 1941–1974) of Ethiopia, and is a religious symbol in the Rastafarian movement. ... Jean-B del Bokassa (February 22, 1921 – November 3, 1996) was the military ruler of the Central African Republic from January 1, 1966 until his overthrow as Emperor on September 20, 1979. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... Stephen Bantu Biko (18 December 1946 – 12 September 1977)[1] was a noted anti-apartheid activist in South Africa in the 1960s and early 1970s. ...


Asia

Indo-Pakistani War of 1971/Bangladesh Liberation War/Concert for Bangladesh (relates back to culture), Indian Emergency 1975–1977 Martial law was declared in the Philippines on September 21, 1972 by Pres. Ferdinand Marcos. Belligerents India Pakistan Commanders Sam Manekshaw J.S. Aurora G.G Bewoor K. P. Candeth Gul Hassan Khan Abdul Hamid Khan Tikka Khan A. A. K. Niazi # Strength 500,000+ troops 100,000 Mukti BahiniRebels 400,000+ troops Casualties and losses 3,843 killed[1] 9,851 wounded[1] Unknown... Combatants Mukti Bahini India Pakistan Commanders Col. ... The Concert For Bangladesh was the event title for two concerts held on the afternoon and evening of August 1, 1971, playing to a total of 40,000 people at Madison Square Garden in New York. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Battlespace Weapons Tactics Strategy Organization Logistics Lists War Portal         For other uses, see Martial law (disambiguation). ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The President is the head of state and of the government of the Republic of the Philippines. ... Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralín Marcos (September 11, 1917 – September 28, 1989) was President of the Philippines from 1966 to 1986. ...


The Vietnam War came to a close in the early Seventies with the Paris Peace Accords. Opposition had increased in the United States which led to U.S. withdrawal in the early part of 1973. However, in 1975 North Vietamese forces invaded the South and quickly took over the government breaking the treaty. Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... The Paris Peace Accords were signed in 1973 by the governments of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV or North Vietnam), the Republic of Vietnam (RVN or South Vietnam), and the United States, as well as the Provisional Revolutionary Government (PRG) that represented indigenous South Vietnamese revolutionaries. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ...


In Cambodia the communist leader Pol Pot led a revolution against the American backed government of Lon Nol. On April 17 1975 his forces captured Phnom Penh the capitol, two years after America had halted the bombings of their positions. His communist government, the Khmer Rouge, moved the citizens into communal housing which led to starvation. The estimated death toll in the genocide ranges between 800,000 and 2.3 million. Vietnam invaded the country in 1979 which led to a long ensuing war between the nations. Saloth Sar (May 19, 1925 – April 15, 1998), aliases Pol, Pouk, Hay, Grand-Uncle, First Brother, 87, Phem, 99, and best known as Pol Pot[1], was the leader of the communist movement called Khmer Rouge and the Prime Minister of Cambodia (officially renamed the Democratic Kampuchea during his rule... Lon Nol (លន់នល់ in Khmer) (​November 13, 1913 - November 17, 1985) was a Cambodian politician and soldier who served as Prime Minister of Cambodia twice as well as serving repeatedly as Defense Minister. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nickname: Location of Phnom Penh, Cambodia Coordinates: , Country Province Settled 1372 Became Capital 1865 Government  - Type Municipality  - Mayor & Governor H.E. Keb Chutema (Khmer: )  - Vice Governors H.E. Than Sina, H.E. Map Sarin, H.E. Seng Tong Area  - Total 376 km² (145. ... Flag of Democratic Kampuchea The Khmer Rouge (Khmer: ) was the ruling political party of Cambodia—which it renamed the Democratic Kampuchea—from 1975 to 1979. ... For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ...


Cultural Revolution also came to the end with the death of Mao Zedong and the arrest of Gang of Four in 1976 This article is about the Peoples Republic of China. ... Mao redirects here. ... The Gang of Four (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ) was a group of Communist Party of China leaders in the Peoples Republic of China who were arrested and removed from their positions in 1976, following the death of Mao Zedong, and were primarily blamed for the events of...


Japan

The first World's Fair held in Japan, Expo '70 in Osaka showcased the ideal of "progress and harmony for mankind".

Japan's economic growth surpassed the rest of the world in the Seventies. The country expanded on the economic growth it received from elaborate building and job growth as a result of the 1964 Summer Olympics, which were held in Tokyo. National Geographic profiled the Japanese work ethic in a March 1974 cover story entitled "Those Successful Japanese!" Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 268 KB) Description: 大阪万博のシンボル・太陽の塔。岡本太郎作。 Symbol of Expo 1970 Osaka, Tower of Sun, by Okamoto Taro. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x768, 268 KB) Description: 大阪万博のシンボル・太陽の塔。岡本太郎作。 Symbol of Expo 1970 Osaka, Tower of Sun, by Okamoto Taro. ... Worlds Fair is any of various large expositions held since the mid-19th century. ... Tower of the Sun Expo 70 (ja. ... The 1964 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVIII Olympiad, were held in 1964 in Tokyo, Japan. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... The National Geographic Society was founded in the USA on January 27, 1888, by 33 men interested in organizing a society for the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ...


With a rise in technology and a more urgent need to commute for salaried jobs, the Shinkansen became an efficient tool for people to travel cross-country in a rather inexpensive and quick manner. The first "bullet train" was opened between Tokyo and Osaka in 1964, with further extension to Fukuoka in 1975. The Tokyo-Osaka line was key in transporting visitors to Expo '70 in Osaka, where Japan showcased its newest technological achievements. For the record label, see Shinkansen Records. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Osaka (disambiguation). ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... This article is about a city in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Tower of the Sun Expo 70 (ja. ...


In 1969, Prime Minister Eisaku Sato negotiated with President Richard Nixon to hand over the island of Okinawa on May 15, 1972. The compromise for the handover was that the United States Armed Forces were still allowed to maintain military bases on the island after Okinawa officially became part of Japan. To celebrate the handover, Expo '75 was held at Okinawa, with an oceanographic theme: "The Sea We Would Like to See". Also: 1969 (number) 1969 (movie) 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... This article or section needs to be updated. ... Nixon redirects here. ... This article is about the prefecture. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The armed forces of the United States of America consist of the United States Army United States Navy United States Air Force United States Marine Corps United States Coast Guard Note: The United States Coast Guard has both military and law enforcement functions. ... Expo 75 (Japanese: 沖縄国際海洋博覧会, Okinawa kokusai kaiyou hakurankai) was a Worlds Fair held on the island of Okinawa in Japan from July 20, 1975 to January 18, 1976. ... Thermohaline circulation Oceanographic frontal systems on the southern hemisphere Oceanography (from the greek words Ωκεανός meaning Ocean and γράφω meaning to write), also called oceanology or marine science, is the branch of Earth Sciences that studies the Earths oceans and seas. ...


In 1972, Sato, who was Prime Minister since 1964, decided not to run for a fourth three-year term. He was succeeded by Kakuei Tanaka, whose term as Prime Minister would become one of the most infamous in Japan's modern era. Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Kakuei Tanaka (田中 角栄 Tanaka Kakuei May 4, 1918–December 16, 1993) was a Japanese politician and the 64th and 65th Prime Minister of Japan from July 7, 1972 to December 22, 1972 and from December 22, 1972 to December 9, 1974 respectively. ...

Two embattled leaders: Kakuei Tanaka meets Richard Nixon in Washington, 1973.

Just as Richard Nixon was resigning from office in the United States, Tanaka was facing a scandal of his own. The Diet was concerned about his business practices (specifically, he used the name of a geisha he frequented on land deeds). The first witness to be called was his secretary, with whom he had a romantic affair. To save face, he resigned his post late in 1974, and was replaced by Takeo Miki. When news of Tanaka's embezzlement of the Lockheed Corporation's funds reached Japan in 1976, Prime Minister Miki pushed for Tanaka's arrest. Tanaka, who had become a Diet member, responded in kind by removing support from his government, causing him to lose his spot as Prime Minister. Tanaka would spend the rest of the decade endorsing and later removing support from Prime Ministers when he felt his best interests were not served. Japanese prime minister Tanaka and U.S. president Nixon at the White House, July 31, 1973. ... Japanese prime minister Tanaka and U.S. president Nixon at the White House, July 31, 1973. ... Typical nape make-up Geisha ) or Geigi ) are traditional, female Japanese entertainers, whose skills include performing various Japanese arts, such as classical music and dance. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Takeo Miki (三木 武夫 Miki Takeo March 17, 1907–November 4, 1988) was a Japanese politician and the 66th Prime Minister of Japan. ... The Lockheed SR-71 was remarkably advanced for its time and remains unsurpassed in many areas of performance. ... Year 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The emperor and the rest of his family were not well-received when they made public their intentions of their first ever state visit to Europe in the autumn of 1971. When he arrived in London in October, he was granted an audience with Queen Elizabeth, and in a semi-public appearance, Hirohito stopped short of a full apology for Japan's role during World War II. Instead, he pledged solidarity with the United Kingdom in the new era. The reason Hirohito did not fully apologize was due to factions of opposition in Japan, who believed the nation should become feudal once more and close its borders to the West. Emperor Shōwa ) (April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989) was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order reigning from December 25, 1926 until his death in 1989. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste Feudalism, a term first used in the late modern period (17th century), in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval European political system comprised of a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the...


After the ritual suicide of writer Yukio Mishima in November 1970, a vocal opposition emerged, shaking Japan's ruling post-war elite. Therefore, it was in Hirohito's best interests not to make a full apology, which would have been the only solution that would have appeased hostile opinion against Japan in Europe. Hirohito's statement was subsequently seen as a slap in the face by many war veterans. Hirohito received an equally unfavorable response when he visited Queen Juliana in Amsterdam in November. Hara-kiri redirects here. ... Yukio Mishima ) was the public name of Kimitake Hiraoka , January 14, 1925–November 25, 1970), a Japanese author and playwright, famous for both his highly notable nihilistic post-war writings and the circumstances of his ritual suicide by seppuku. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Juliana Queen of the Netherlands Queen Juliana of the Netherlands (Juliana Emma Louise Wilhelmina van Oranje-Nassau) (April 30, 1909 – March 20, 2004), Princess of Orange-Nassau, Duchess of Mecklenburg, Princess of Lippe-Biesterfeld, was Queen of the Netherlands from her mothers abdication in 1948 to her own abdication... For other uses, see Amsterdam (disambiguation). ...


Latin America

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Soviet Union/ Eastern Bloc

The Seventies in the Soviet Union were in a distinct cultural and economic era known as the Brezhnev era, named after the Communist Party Secretary at the time, Leonid Brezhnev, who had been at the helm in the USSR since 1964. The Soviet Union became the world's leading producer in steel, and oil. During this period wages were doubled which led to more focusing on personal lives rather than the traditional "Communist ideal". Despite this growth, inflation continued to grow for the second straight decade, and production consistently fell short of demand in agriculture and manufacturing. The USSR began to import grain from the United States, which expanded production "fence row to fence row". Consumer goods remained hard to get. // See also: Nikita Khrushchev After Stalin had died in March 1953, he was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev as First Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party and Georgi Malenkov as Premier of the Soviet Union. ... Joseph Stalin, first General Secretary The General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (First Secretary in 1953-1966) was the title synonymous with leader of the Soviet Union after Vladimir Lenins death in 1924. ... Brezhnev redirects here. ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... For other uses, see Steel (disambiguation). ... Petro redirects here. ...


In People's Republic of Poland, the seventies were the Gierek decade, when under the leadership of Edward Gierek massive loans were channeled into raising the people's standard of living. On 16 October 1978 an event that would shape not only Poland's fate but that of the entire world took place: Karol Wojtyła, a Polish cardinal, was elected Pope, becoming Pope John Paul II. Anthem Mazurek DÄ…browskiego Capital Warsaw Language(s) Polish Government Socialist republic Head of State  - 1944-1952 (first) BolesÅ‚aw Bierut  - 1981-1989 (last) Wojciech Jaruzelski Prime Minister  - 1944-1947 (first) Edward Osóbka-Morawski  - 1989 (last) Tadeusz Mazowiecki History  - Established July 21, 1944  - Constitution July 22, 1952  - Abolished July... Main article: Peoples Republic of Poland The History of Poland from 1945 to 1989 was shaped primarily by the influence of Soviet communism. ... Edward Gierek Edward Gierek (January 6, 1913 - July 29, 2001) was a Polish Communist leader. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... John Paul II (Latin: , Italian: , Polish: ) born   IPA: ; 18 May 1920 – 2 April 2005) reigned as the 264th Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and Sovereign of the State of the Vatican City from 16 October 1978, until his death, almost 27 years later. ...


In 1971, Erich Honecker was chosen to lead the German Democratic Republic, a role he would fill for the whole of the 1970s and 1980s. The mid-1970s were a time of extreme recession for East Germany, and as a result of the country's higher debts, consumer goods became more and more scarce. If East Germans had enough money to procure a television set, a telephone, or a Trabant automobile, they were placed on waiting lists which caused them to wait as much as a decade for the item in question. Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... Erich Honecker (August 25, 1912 – May 29, 1994) was a German Communist politician who led the German Democratic Republic (East Germany) from 1971 until 1989. ... This article is about the state which existed from 1949 to 1990. ... This article is about the automobile. ...


Enver Hoxha's rule in Albania was characterized in the 1970s by growing isolation, first from a very public schism with the Soviet Union the decade before, and then by a split in friendly relations with China in 1978. Albania normalized relations with Marshal Tito's Yugoslavia in 1971, and attempted trade agreements with other European nations, but was met with vocal disapproval by the governments in Washington, D.C. and London. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Sino-Albanian split in 1978 saw the parting of the Peoples Republic of China and Albania (the only Eastern European nation to side with China in the Sino-Soviet split of the early 1960s). ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... Tito redirects here. ... General location of the political entities known as Yugoslavia. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


United States

Richard Nixon enjoyed high public support in the early Seventies. Nixon meets a highly receptive crowd during his reelection bid in 1972.
Richard Nixon enjoyed high public support in the early Seventies. Nixon meets a highly receptive crowd during his reelection bid in 1972.

At the start of the decade, President Richard Nixon proved to be popular with the American people, in that he sent the last American troops from Vietnam, and took the first steps to normalizing relations with China and the Soviet Union, both of which he visited in 1972. Nixon started the process known as détente when he joined the SALT I talks and eventually signed the treaty with Leonid Brezhnev. His high approval ratings led him to be overwhelmingly re-elected in the 1972 election against George McGovern. However, the Watergate scandal erupted soon after which put the entire Nixon administration in jeopardy. Nixon became the first President to resign his post, in 1974, and received a pardon for his involvement in the scandal by new President Gerald Ford later that year, a move which was seen by many as unfavorable. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Nixon redirects here. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Détente is a French term, meaning a relaxing or easing; the term has been used in international politics since the early 1970s. ... SALT I is the common name for the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks. ... Brezhnev redirects here. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ... George McGovern on May 8, 1972 cover of Time Magazine George Stanley McGovern, (born July 19, 1922) is a former United States Representative, Senator, and Democratic presidential nominee. ... Watergate redirects here. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... For the Breton religious festivals, see Pardon (ceremony). ... For other persons named Gerald Ford, see Gerald Ford (disambiguation). ...

Jimmy Carter and Gerald Ford in the infamous debate that may have very well cost Ford the election.
Jimmy Carter and Gerald Ford in the infamous debate that may have very well cost Ford the election.

Ford's pardoning of Nixon, coupled with economic troubles felt by nearly every segment of the American population, cost him the 1976 election, in which he was soundly beaten by Jimmy Carter, a peanut farmer and former Governor of Georgia. One of the key events that turned the tide in Carter's favor was an embarrassing blunder on Ford's part, in which he said during a live, televised presidential debate, that Eastern Europe was not under the domination of the Soviet Union. Carter's more personable style resonated with the majority of voters. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 513 pixel Image in higher resolution (6000 × 3847 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 513 pixel Image in higher resolution (6000 × 3847 pixel, file size: 2. ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ... This is a list of Governors of the state of Georgia, including governors of the British colony of Georgia. ... John F. Kennedy and Richard Nixon debate in 1960 Every presidential election in the United States, the two main candidates (almost always the candidates of the two main parties, the Democratic Party and the Republican Party) engage in a debate. ... Eastern Europe is a concept that lacks one precise definition. ...


Carter did not have any more luck than Ford had in curbing stagflation, as economists had termed it. Carter tried to address the price of imported oil and the subsequent energy dilemmas by creating the United States Department of Energy, but his efforts were largely unsuccessful, leading to the 1979 energy crisis, which was also felt in other parts of the world. Carter's leadership was also challenged abroad, with the aforementioned Iran hostage crisis, arguably the biggest blow to Carter's administration. The hostages were only released when Ronald Reagan took the oath of office on January 20, 1981, succeeding Carter. Stagflation, a portmanteau of the words stagnation and inflation, is a term in general use within modern macroeconomics used to describe a period of out-of-control price inflation combined with slow-to-no output growth, rising unemployment, and eventually recession. ... The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government responsible for energy policy and nuclear safety. ... Line at a gas station, June 15, 1979. ... Reagan redirects here. ... is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... AUGUST 25 1981 US Marine Sean Vance is Born on the 25th of August {ear nav|1981}} Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ...


The continuing rise of inner-city poverty and crime rates, the Watergate scandal, defeatism in the aftermath of the Vietnam War, stagflation, the hardships of economic recession, the oil shocks of 1973 and 1979, and the Iran Hostage Crisis of 1979, were just some of the several problems that plagued America in the 1970s. As the economy slipped, the use of recreational drugs increased and mistrust in the American government among blue collar workers grew. In addition, many began to fear purported cults such as the Children of God. An inner city is the central area of a major city. ... A boy from Jakarta, Indonesia shows his find. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Stagflation, a portmanteau of the words stagnation and inflation, is a term in general use within modern macroeconomics used to describe a period of out-of-control price inflation combined with slow-to-no output growth, rising unemployment, and eventually recession. ... A recession is usually defined in macroeconomics as a fall of a countrys Gross National Product in two successive quarters. ... An Energy Crisis is any great shortfall (or price rise) in the supply of energy to an economy. ... This article or section should be merged with 1973 energy crisis On October 16th, 1973, as part of the political strategy that included the Yom Kippur War, OPEC cut production of oil, and placed an embargo on shipments of crude oil to the West, with the Netherlands, specifically targetted. ... Line at a gas station, June 15, 1979. ... Iranian militants escort a blindfolded U.S. hostage to the media. ... Recreational drug use is the use of psychoactive drugs for recreational rather than medical or spiritual purposes, although the distinction is not always clear. ... The U.S. Constitution, adopted in 1789 by a constitutional convention, sets down the basic framework of American government in its seven articles. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Cult typically refers to a cohesive social group devoted to beliefs or practices that the surrounding culture considers outside the mainstream, with a notably positive or negative popular perception. ... The Children of God (COG), later known as the Family of Love, the Family, and now the Family International (TFI), is a new religious movement, widely referred to as a cult by the media and some government organizations, that started in 1968 in Huntington Beach, California, United States. ...


United Kingdom

Margaret Thatcher's rise to the top of the Tories in 1975 was the first time a woman had been chosen to lead a political party in the United Kingdom.
Margaret Thatcher's rise to the top of the Tories in 1975 was the first time a woman had been chosen to lead a political party in the United Kingdom.

In 1970, the Conservative Party was brought to power under the leadership of Edward Heath. Heath's term was plagued with a number of strikes by nearly every profession (in 1972 alone, nearly 24 million working days were lost due to strikes). His plan to ration electricity for businesses and factories to three days in the week, starting in January 1974, proved unpopular. In February, miners, with the support of the rail and power unions, went out on strike. Heath called a general election to gauge support, which led to his narrow defeat in a hung parliament. During Heath's administration, the UK had seen decimalisation of its currency finally take place (in February 1971) and an important change in economic relations begin with its entry to the European Economic Community ('Common Market') on 1 January 1973. Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Conservative Party, officially though less commonly known as the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... For other persons named Edward Heath, see Edward Heath (disambiguation). ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... In Parliamentary systems, a hung parliament is one in which no one political party has an outright majority. ... For the system of library classification, see Dewey Decimal Classification. ... Year 1971 (MCMLXXI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1971 Gregorian calendar. ... The European Community (EC), most important of three European Communities, was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ...


Labour won most seats in the February election under Harold Wilson, who had been Prime Minister from 1964 to 1970, but lacked a majority. Wilson led a minority administration for seven months before calling (and winning) a second general election in October. In early 1975 Heath was challenged, and unexpectedly defeated as leader, by Margaret Thatcher, who became the first female leader of the opposition. 1975 also saw the the UK holding its only national referendum (to date) over its continued membership of the EEC; the result being a two-to-one 'yes' vote in favour of remaining a member. The Labour Party is a political party in the United Kingdom. ... For other persons named Harold Wilson, see Harold Wilson (disambiguation). ... Also Nintendo emulator: 1964 (emulator). ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1975 (MCMLXXV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher, LG, OM, PC, FRS (née Roberts; born 13 October 1925) served as British Prime Minister from 1979 to 1990 and leader of the Conservative Party from 1975 until 1990, being the first and only woman to hold either post. ... The Leader of the Opposition is a title traditionally held by the leader of the largest party not in government in a Westminster System of parliamentary government. ... The United Kingdom referendum of 1975 was a post-legislative referendum held on 5 June 1975 in the whole of the United Kingdom over whether there was support for it to stay in the European Economic Community, which it had entered in 1973, under the Conservative government of Edward Heath. ...


When Wilson retired, unexpectedly, from the post in 1976, former Chancellor of the Exchequer James Callaghan became Prime Minister. However, failure of an agreed social and incomes policy with unions to deal adequately with the twin inherited problems of inflation and unemployment, coupled with balance of payments difficulties leading to the reluctant adoption of monetarist policies, lead to unrest and subsequent breakdown of relations with the unions, which paved the way for a Tory election win in 1979, under Margaret Thatcher. The world first took notice of Thatcher in 1975; she was subsequently featured on the cover of TIME magazine. Thatcher's rise to Prime Minister, at the tail end of the Seventies, ushered in a new era of change that would become the trademark of what the Eighties represented throughout the world. Year 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British Cabinet minister responsible for all economic and financial matters. ... Leonard James Callaghan, Baron Callaghan of Cardiff, KG, PC (27 March 1912 – 26 March 2005), was Labour Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1976 to 1979. ... In economics, incomes policies are wage and price controls, most commonly instituted as a response to inflation. ... Monetarism is a set of views concerning the determination of national income and monetary economics. ... The Winter of Discontent is a nickname given to the British winter of 1978–79, during which there were widespread strikes by Trade unions demanding larger pay rises for their members. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... This article is about the concept of time. ...


During the Seventies, support for the British royal family was thought to have dwindled, but the Silver Jubilee year of 1977 assuaged the family's fears of being irrelevant in a more modern Britain. Elaborate parades and street parties were thrown in the Queen's honour, and the Queen met with millions of her subjects on a tour throughout the Commonwealth. In spite of such widespread support, an emerging class of people voiced opposition to the monarchy, epitomized in the Sex Pistols' song "God Save the Queen". Throughout the decade, the long-lasting Troubles in Northern Ireland were their most intense and violent, particularly in the first few years, and about two thousand people died as a result[1]. The overwhelming majority of those killed were in Northern Ireland itself, but significant casualties (and heightened public concern) were also caused by an IRA campaign of pub bombings in Guildford, Aldershot and Birmingham on the British mainland. Members of the Royal Family, during the lifetime of the late Queen Mother, on the balcony of Buckingham Palace after the Trooping the Colour ceremony. ... Elizabeth IIs Silver Jubilee and her domestic and international visits proved very popular with her subjects. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ... Sex Pistols are an iconic and highly influential English punk rock band, formed in London in 1975. ... God Save the Queen (B-side Did You No Wrong) was the second single released by the punk rock band Sex Pistols. ... For other uses, see Troubles (disambiguation) and Trouble. ... Masked IRA volunteers at a rally at Casement Park, August 1979. ... , For other places with the same name, see Guildford (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Aldershot (disambiguation). ... This article is about the British city. ...


Commonwealth

Hong Kong stepped on its way to evolving into an international financial centre in the 1970s. During this period, the promotion of social welfare improved the living standard of Hong Kong people, at the same time attracting foreign investments into this city.


In Australia, the seventies was a defining decade. After 23 years of rule under various Coalition Prime Ministers, the Labor Party under Gough Whitlam was elected under the slogan "It's Time", a group of people singing for the end of the Coalition government. Whitlam brought sweeping education reforms including free University places, and Medibank (later Medicare), the first fully public hospital system. The Whitlam government was also pro-multicultural and supported greater immigration during their term. The Coalition in Australian politics refers to the grouping of two political parties that has existed in the form of a coalition agreement since 1922, with only brief breaks (e. ... The Prime Minister of Australia is the head of government of the Commonwealth of Australia, holding office on commission from the Governor-General. ... Edward Gough Whitlam, AC, QC (born 11 July 1916), known as Gough Whitlam (pronounced goff), is an Australian former politician and 21st Prime Minister of Australia. ... Medicare is Australias publicly-funded, universal health scheme, providing affordable treatment by doctors and in public hospitals for all citizens and permanent residents (as well as visitors from countries which have reciprocal arrangements with Australia). ...


However, after all of Whitlam's social reforms, the government was nearly broke. The Coalition under Malcolm Fraser took advantage of a newly-acquired majority in the Senate and drove the public service to near bankruptcy by refusing to allow the passage of money bills through the Senate. In response, Whitlam was controversially dismissed as Prime Minister by the Governor-General Sir John Kerr during the 1975 Australian constitutional crisis. This article is about the former prime minister of Australia; for the Western Australian public servant, see Malcolm Fraser (surveyor). ... The Prime Minister of Australia is the head of government of the Commonwealth of Australia, holding office on commission from the Governor-General. ... The Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia is the representative of Queen Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia. ... Sir John Robert Kerr, AK, GCMG, GCVO (24 September 1914 – 24 March 1991), 13th Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of New South Wales and 18th Governor-General of Australia, dismissed the Labor government of Gough Whitlam on 11 November 1975, marking the climax of one of the most significant... Gough Whitlam speaking on the steps of Parliament House, Canberra, following his dismissal. ...


Despite these moves, Fraser toed a not too dissimilar line of politics, despite predictions of the conservative Murdoch press and his party. He did make cuts to public spending to reign in inflation and the deficits caused by the Whitlam government. He also formed Medibank Private to reduce the strain in the public hospital system. However, he introduced Special Broadcasting Service to ensure a multicultural representation on TV, and supported the end of Apartheid in South Africa. Keith Rupert Murdoch AC, KCSG (born 11 March 1931) is an Australian born United States citizen who is a global media executive and is the controlling shareholder, chairman and managing director of News Corporation, based in New York. ... Medibank Private is an Australian Government owned private health insurer, established under the Fraser government in 1976 through the Health Insurance Commission. ... The Special Broadcasting Service (SBS) is one of two government funded Australian public broadcasting radio and television networks, the other being the Australian Broadcasting Corporation (ABC). ...


Timeline of military invasions in the 1970s

  • 1974: Turkish invasion of Cyprus.
  • 1978: Israel invades Lebanon to push PLO forces north of the Litani River.
  • 1979: USSR invades Afghanistan

Combatants  Turkey  Cyprus  Greece On the 20th of July 1974, Turkey launched a military invasion by air, land and sea against Cyprus purportedly to restore constitutional order following an Athens orchestrated coup by the Cypriot National Guard against the President of Cyprus, Makarios III. Though Turkey had consistently refused to...

See also

Decade nostalgia, is nostalgia for certain aspects of a past decade, in contemporary popular culture. ... That 70s Show is an American television sitcom that centered on the lives of a group of teenagers living in the fictional town of Point Place, Wisconsin, from May 17, 1976 to December 31, 1979. ... I Love the 70s is a television mini-series originally produced by the BBC, and later for American audiences by VH-1. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... VH1 (VH-1: Video Hits One until 1994 and VH1: Music First until 2003) is an American digital television channel that was created in January 1985 by Warner-Amex Satellite Entertainment, at the time a division of Warner Communications and owners of MTV. VH1 and sister channel MTV are currently... A television program (US), television programme (UK) or simply television show is a segment of programming in television broadcasting. ... Host, Dawn MTVs The 70s House was a reality television show created by MTV. The show premiered July 5, 2005 and ended September 6, 2005. ... This article is about the music genre. ...

References

  • Burrows, Terry. ITV's Visual History of the Twentieth Century. London: Carlton Books Ltd., 1999. 350–419.
  • Crosby, Alfred W. (1995). "The Past and Present of Environmental History". The American Historical Review 100 (4), 1177–1189

External links


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