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Encyclopedia > 1968 Democratic National Convention

The 1968 National Convention of the U.S. Democratic Party was held at International Amphitheatre in Chicago, Illinois, from August 26 to August 29, 1968, for the purposes of choosing the Democratic nominee for the 1968 U.S. presidential election.[1] Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized... The Democratic Party is one of two major contemporary political parties in the United States; the other being the Republican Party. ... The International Amphitheatre was an indoor arena located in Chicago, Illinois. ... Nickname: The Windy City, The Second City, Chi Town, City of the Big Shoulders, The 312, The City that Works Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in Chicagoland and Illinois Coordinates: Country United States State Illinois County Cook & DuPage Incorporated March 4, 1837  - Mayor... August 26 is the 238th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (239th in leap years). ... August 29 is the 241st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (242nd in leap years), with 124 days remaining. ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ...


1968 already had been a tumultuous year for the United States, with the assassinations of Martin Luther King, Jr. and Senator Robert F. Kennedy (D-N.Y.), and widespread protests of the Vietnam War. The convention achieved notoriety due to clashes between protesters and police, and due to the generally chaotic atmosphere of the event. The turmoil was widely publicized by the mass media on-hand for the convention, resulting in a nationwide debate about the convention and leading to a flood of articles and books about the event. Martin Luther King, Jr. ... Robert Francis Bobby Kennedy (November 20, 1925 – June 6, 1968), also called RFK, was one of two younger brothers of U.S. President John F. Kennedy and served as United States Attorney General from 1961 to 1964. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Mass media is a term used to denote, as a class, that section of the media specifically conceived and designed to reach a very large audience such as the population of a nation state. ...


The keynote speaker was Senator Daniel Inouye.[2] Daniel Ken Inouye (born September 7, 1924) is a recipient of the Medal of Honor and currently serves as the senior United States Senator from Hawaiʻi. ...

Contents

Nomination

The decision of a Presidential nominee was particularly difficult for the Democrats that year, due to the split in the party over the Vietnam War, and Kennedy's assassination. On one side, Senator Eugene McCarthy, D-MN, put forward a decidedly anti-war campaign, calling for the immediate withdrawal from the region. On the other side, Vice President Hubert Humphrey called for a policy more in line with President Lyndon B. Johnson's policy, which focused on making any reduction of force contingent on concessions extracted in the Paris Peace Talks. Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Eugene Joseph Gene McCarthy (March 29, 1916 – December 10, 2005) was an American politician and a longtime member of the U.S. Congress. ... Hubert Horatio Humphrey, Jr. ... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908 - January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was the 36th President of the United States (1963-1969). ... To set the stage, there were about 500,000 American troops in Vietnam, in 1967. ...


The Democrats eventually settled on Humphrey, but would lose the election to Richard M. Nixon. The confusion of the convention, and the unhappiness of many liberals with the outcome, led the Democrats to begin reforms of their nominating process, increasing the role of primaries and decreasing the power of party delegates in the selection process. Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ...

The Final Ballot
Presidential tally Vice Presidential tally:
Hubert Humphrey 1759.25 Edmund S. Muskie 1942.5
Eugene McCarthy 601 Not Voting 604.25
George S. McGovern 146.5 Julian Bond 48.5
Channing Phillips 67.5 David Hoeh 4
Daniel K. Moore 17.5 Edward M. Kennedy 3.5
Edward M. Kennedy 30.25 Others 19.25

[Source for roll call votes: Richard C. Bain and Judith H. Parris, Convention Decisions and Voting Records Washington DC: Brookings Institution, 1973.] Hubert Horatio Humphrey, Jr. ... Edmund Muskie Edmund Sixtus Muskie (Edmund Marciszewski) (March 28, 1914–March 26, 1996) was a Polish-American politician from Maine. ... Eugene Joseph Gene McCarthy (March 29, 1916 – December 10, 2005) was an American politician and a longtime member of the U.S. Congress. ... George Stanley McGovern (born July 19, 1922 in Avon, South Dakota) was a United States Congressman, Senator, and Democratic presidential candidate most noted for his opposition to the Vietnam War. ... Julian Bond (2004) Horace Julian Bond (born January 14, 1940 in Nashville, Tennessee) is an American leader of the American Civil Rights Movement. ... Daniel Killian Moore (2 April 1906 - 7 September 1986) was the Democratic governor of the state of North Carolina from 1965 to 1969. ... Edward Kennedy Edward Moore Ted Kennedy, (born February 22, 1932, in Brookline, Massachusetts) is a Democratic U.S. senator from Massachusetts. ... Edward Kennedy Edward Moore Ted Kennedy, (born February 22, 1932, in Brookline, Massachusetts) is a Democratic U.S. senator from Massachusetts. ...


Protests and police response

Expecting protests, Chicago Mayor Richard J. Daley repeatedly announced "Law and order will be maintained", and an 11 p.m. curfew was implemented. [1] Richard Joseph Daley (May 15, 1902 – December 20, 1976) was the longest-serving mayor of Chicago. ... A curfew can be one of the following: An order by the government for certain persons to return home daily before a certain time. ...


The mob scene was agitated by various speeches and a raucous electric performance from the rock band The MC5, as well as the 'nomination' of Pigasus for president. Though many musicians were scheduled to perform, the MC5 were the only band to play at the convention, and turned in a legendary eight-hour gig. The MC5 was a rock music band that came out of Detroit, USA in 1966, and was an important precursor of and influence on punk rock (see protopunk). ... Pigasus was a pig which the Yippies, led by Abbie Hoffman and Jerry Rubin, ran as their satiric candidate for President of the United States during the massive protests at the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago. ...


Anti-war demonstrators protested throughout the convention. Initially the protests were uneventful, but tempers gradually heated, and soon police and protestors were clashing all around the convention center, the Chicago International Amphitheater (in the streets, as well in Lincoln Park and Grant Park). Daley took a particularly hard line against the protesters, refusing permits for rallies and marches, and calling for whatever use of force necessary to subdue the crowds. A 1968 Time article noted that "demonstrators constantly taunted the police and in some cases deliberately disobeyed reasonable orders."[2] The International Amphitheatre was an indoor arena located in Chicago, Illinois. ... A concert in Lincoln Park circa 1907. ... The Taste of Chicago is held in Grant Park annually around Independence Day. ...


Despite the poor behavior of some protestors, there was widespread criticism that the Chicago police and National Guard used excessive force: a 1968 Time article declared that "With billy clubs, tear gas and Mace, the blue-shirted, blue-helmeted cops violated the civil rights of countless innocent citizens and contravened every accepted code of professional police discipline ... No one could accuse the Chicago cops of discrimination. They savagely attacked hippies, yippies, New Leftists, revolutionaries, dissident Democrats, newsmen, photographers, passers-by, clergymen and at least one cripple. Winston Churchill's journalist grandson got roughed up. Playboy's Hugh Hefner took a whack on the backside. The police even victimized a member of the British Parliament, Mrs. Anne Kerr, a vacationing Laborite who was Maced outside the Conrad Hilton and hustled off to the lockup.[3] In 1968, Jo Freeman wrote, "Over three dozen newsmen were injured in their attempts to cover the action."[4] The United States National Guard is a component of the United States Army (the Army National Guard) and the United States Air Force (the Air National Guard). ... David Kirkwood on the ground after being struck by police batons Police brutality is a term used to describe the excessive use of physical force, assault, verbal attacks, and threats by police officers and other law enforcement officers. ... Singer at contemporary Russian Rainbow gathering Hippie, often spelled hippy outside the United States, refers to a subgroup of the 1960s and early 1970s counterculture that began in the United States, becoming an established social group by 1965 before declining during the mid-1970s. ... The Youth International Party (whose adherents were known as Yippies, a variant on Hippies) was a highly theatrical political party established in the United States in 1967. ... Churchill redirects here. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Anne Patricia Kerr (24 March 1925–29 July 1973) was a British Labour Party politician who was elected for two successive terms as a Member of Parliament. ... Jo Freeman (a. ...


In trying to explain his decision to quell the protests, Daley uttered one of the most famous quotes of the era: "The policeman isn't there to create disorder, the policeman is there to preserve disorder."[5]


This hard line was also seen on the convention floor itself. In 1968, Terry Southern described the convention hall as "exactly like approaching a military installation; barbed-wire, checkpoints, the whole bit".[6] Inside the convention, journalists such as Mike Wallace and Dan Rather were roughed up by security; both these events were broadcast live on television. When Senator Abraham Ribicoff (D-Conn) delivered a speech nominating George McGovern for President, he infuriated Daley by saying, "with George McGovern as President of the United States, we wouldn't have Gestapo tactics in the streets of Chicago."[7] Daley responded by shaking his fist at Ribicoff, and shouting a phrase that was inaudible, and which has generated much speculation. An uncredited author for CNN wrote, "Most reports of the event also say Daley yelled an off-color epithet beginning with an "F," but according to CNN executive producer Jack Smith, others close to Daley insist he shouted 'Faker,' meaning Ribicoff was not a man of his word, the lowest name one can be called in Chicago's Irish politics."[8] Terry Southern (May 1, 1924 - October 29, 1995) was a highly influential American short story writer, novelist, essayist, screenwriter and university lecturer. ... Mike Wallace can refer to: Mike Wallace, the long-time television correspondent for CBS. Mike Wallace, the historian. ... Daniel Irvin Rather, Jr. ... Abraham Ribicoff Abraham Alexander Ribicoff (April 9, 1910–February 22, 1998) was an American politician. ... George McGovern on May 8, 1972 cover of Time Magazine George Stanley McGovern, Ph. ... The   (contraction of Geheime Staatspolizei; Secret State Police) was the official secret police of Nazi Germany. ... Fuck, a word connected to sexual intercourse, is among the strongest and most controversial vulgarisms in the modern English language. ...


Subsequently, the Walker Report to the National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence assigned blame for the mayhem in the streets to the police force, calling the violence a "police riot". The National [Advisory] Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence (NCCPV) was formed, in 1968, by US President Lyndon B. Johnson. ... Police riot is a pejorative term that became increasingly more common through the late 20th century, implying the wrongful, disproportionate, unlawful and illegitimate use of force by a group of police against a group of civilians. ...


The Chicago Eight

Main article: Chicago Seven

Eight of the protesters — Abbie Hoffman, Tom Hayden, Dave Dellinger, Rennie Davis, John Froines, Jerry Rubin, Lee Weiner, and Black Panther Bobby Seale — were charged with conspiracy in connection with the violence at the convention. They were known collectively as the "Chicago Eight"; however, Seale was tried separately after a mistrial was declared in his case, thus the larger group became known as the "Chicago Seven". The Chicago Seven were seven (originally eight, at which point they were known as the Chicago Eight) defendants charged with conspiracy, inciting to riot, and other charges related to violent protests that took place in Chicago, Illinois on the occasion of the 1968 Democratic National Convention. ... Abbott Howard Abbie Hoffman (November 30, 1936 – April 12, 1989) was a social and political activist in the United States, co-founder of the Youth International Party (Yippies), and later, a fugitive from the law, who lived under an alias following a conviction for dealing cocaine. ... Tom Hayden outside the 2004 Democratic National Convention Thomas Emmett Tom Hayden (born December 11, 1939) is an American social and political activist and politician, most famous for his involvement in the anti-war and civil rights movements of the 1960s. ... David Dellinger after his arrest for failing to report for his World War II draft physical David Dellinger (August 22, 1915 – May 25, 2004) was a renowned pacifist and activist for nonviolent social change, and one of most influential American radicals in 20th century. ... Rennard Cordon Davis (born 1941) was a prominent American anti-Vietnam War protest leader of the 1960s. ... John Froines is a chemist and anti-war activist. ... Jerry Rubin (July 14, 1938 – November 28, 1994) was a high-profile American social activist during the 1960s and 1970s. ... Lee Weiner, a member of the Chicago Seven, was charged with conspiracy and making incendiary devices for his part in the demonstrations that surrounded the 1968 Democratic National Convention. ... A melanistic black jaguar, or black panther The black panther is the common name for a black specimen (a melanistic variant) of any of several species of cats. ... Bobby Seale Bobby Seale (born October 22, 1936) is an American civil rights activist, who along with Dr. Huey P. Newton co-founded the Black Panther Party For Self Defense in 1966. ... In the criminal law, a conspiracy is an agreement between two or more natural persons to break the law at some time in the future, and, in some cases, with at least one overt act in furtherance of that agreement. ... In legal parlance, a trial is an event in which parties to a dispute present information (in the form of evidence) in a formal setting, usually a court, before a judge, jury, or other designated finder of fact, in order to achieve a resolution to their dispute. ... The Chicago Seven were seven (originally eight, at which point they were known as the Chicago Eight) defendants charged with conspiracy, inciting to riot, and other charges related to violent protests that took place in Chicago, Illinois on the occasion of the 1968 Democratic National Convention. ...


On February 18, 1970, all seven defendants were acquitted on the charge of conspiring to incite a riot, but five were convicted of incitement as individuals. However, all of the convictions were eventually overturned by an appellate court. February 18 is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1970 calendar). ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... In English criminal law, incitement is an anticipatory common law offence and is the act of persuading, encouraging, instigating, pressuring, or threatening so as to cause another to commit a crime. ... Court of Appeals is the title of certain appellate courts in various jurisdictions. ...


Lyndon B. Johnson

One person who did not attend the convention was President Lyndon Johnson, who several months earlier had announced that he would neither seek nor accept the nomination for the presidency. Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908 - January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was the 36th President of the United States (1963-1969). ...


On August 27, the second day of the convention, he turned 60. Delegates at the convention were hoping to see him so that they could celebrate his 60th birthday with him. Instead, he celebrated it privately with his family at his ranch in Texas, possibly to avoid the violence at the convention. [citation needed]


Convention in popular culture

  • The 1969 film Medium Cool, directed by Haskell Wexler, although centered on a fictional story and employing actors in the principal roles, includes substantial footage of the riots, filmed during the convention.
  • Graham Nash wrote the song "Chicago", recorded by Crosby, Stills, Nash and Young, which is about both the convention and the Chicago Eight trial that followed a year later.[9]
  • Phil Ochs was present at the demonstrations, and he talks of his experiences during his concert There and Now: Live in Vancouver 1968, which includes the song "Where Were You In Chicago?"
  • Bassist Charlie Haden was inspired to write his 1969 song "Circus '68 '69" after watching the convention on television. The piece reflects the incident which happened after the minority plank on Vietnam was defeated. After the vote on the convention floor, the California and New York delegations spontaneously began singing "We Shall Overcome" in protest. In an effort to regain control, the rostrum told the convention orchestra to begin playing to drown out the singing; Haden emulated this by orchestrating his group to play both songs at once; see the notes of Haden's Liberation Music Orchestra for more information.
  • The band Chicago Transit Authority (later called Chicago) wrote a song on the events of the 1968 Democratic Convention. The 10th track of their debut self-titled album is called "Prologue, August 29, 1968." This song, written by the band's producer, James William Guercio, samples the chant "The Whole World Is Watching," which became famous during the convention riots. The next track was titled "Someday (August 29, 1968)." It is written by James Pankow, the band's trombonist, and Robert Lamm, their keyboardist/vocalist.
  • In November, 1968, Cat Mother & The All Night Newsboys released "What I Did Last Summer" on their first album, The Street Giveth...And The Street Taketh Away (co-produced by Jimi Hendrix). The chorus starts "Did you go to Chicago?/Did you see what they did there?"[3]
  • The line, "Blood on the streets in the town of Chicago" from the Doors song Peace Frog is reportedly about this convention.
  • Gonzo journalist Hunter S Thompson recounts his experiences during the riots in his book Kingdom of Fear.

// Cannes Film Festival opens, but closes in support of a French general strike without awarding any prizes. ... Medium Cool is a 1969 film directed by Haskell Wexler and starring Robert Forster. ... Haskell Wexler (born February 6, 1926 in Chicago, Illinois) is an award-winning American cinematographer and director. ... Graham Nash on cover of his recording, Wild Tales, 1973 Graham William Nash (born February 2, 1942) is an English-born singer-songwriter known for his light tenor vocals and songwriting contributions in pop group The Hollies and folk-rock band Crosby, Stills, Nash & Young, and as a photography collector... Chicago is a song written by Graham Nash. ... Crosby, Stills, & Nash (sometimes known as Crosby, Stills, Nash, & Young) is a pioneering folk rock/rock supergroup that formed out of the remnants of three 1960s bands the Buffalo Springfield, the Byrds, and the Hollies. ... The Chicago Seven were seven (originally eight, at which point they were known as the Chicago Eight) defendants charged with conspiracy, inciting to riot, and other charges related to violent protests that took place in Chicago, Illinois on the occasion of the 1968 Democratic National Convention. ... Philip David Ochs (December 19, 1940 – April 9, 1976) was a U.S. protest singer (or, as he preferred, a topical singer), songwriter, musician and recording artist who was known for his sharp wit, sardonic humor, earnest humanism, political activism, insightful and alliterative lyrics, and haunting voice. ... Charlie Haden, Pescara Italy 1990 Charles Edward Haden (born August 6, 1937) is a jazz double bassist, probably best known for his long association with saxophonist Ornette Coleman. ... We Shall Overcome is a protest song that became a key anthem of the US civil rights movement. ... Chicago is a rock band that was formed in 1967 in Chicago, Illinois. ... James William Guercio (born in 1945 in Chicago, Illinois) is an American music producer, musician and songwriter (occasionally credited as Jim Guercio), and is probably best known for his work as the producer of Chicagos early albums. ... James Carter Pankow (born August 20, 1947 in St. ... Robert William Lamm (born October 13, 1944 in Brooklyn, New York) is an American keyboardist, singer and songwriter. ... Cat Mother & the All Night Newsboys was an American musical group from New York City. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Peace Frog is a 1970 song by The Doors which appears their album, Morrison Hotel. ... Hunter S. Thompson Hunter Stockton Thompson (born Louisville, Kentucky July 18, 1937) is an American journalist and author. ... Kingdom of Fear; Loathsome Secrets of a Star-Crossed Child In the Final Days of the American Century was the last published book of Hunter S. Thompson. ...

Further reading

  • Miami and the Siege of Chicago, by Norman Mailer; New York: New American Library, 1968.

Norman Mailer, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1948 Norman Kingsley Mailer (born January 31, 1923) is an American novelist, journalist, playwright, screenwriter and film director. ...

See also

Featured at the Democratic National Convention are speeches by prominent party figures. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/library/politics/camp/whouse/convention-ra.html#1968
  2. ^ Associated Press (Chicago), "Keynoter Knows Sting of Bias, Poverty". St. Petersburg Times, August 27, 1968.
  3. ^ The Street Giveth...and the Street Taketh Away, (1969), Cat Mother & The All Night Newsboys, notes from: Cover. Polydor, USA: 24-4001.

August 27 is the 239th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (240th in leap years), with 126 days remaining. ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday. ... For the Stargate SG-1 episode, see 1969 (Stargate SG-1). ... Cat Mother & the All Night Newsboys was an American musical group from New York City. ...

External links

Preceded by
1964
Democratic National Conventions Succeeded by
1972

 
 

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