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Encyclopedia > 1950s
Millennia: 2nd millennium
Centuries: 19th century - 20th century - 21st century
Decades: 1920s 1930s 1940s - 1950s - 1960s 1970s 1980s
Years: 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954
1955 1956 1957 1958 1959
Categories: Births - Deaths - Architecture
Establishments - Disestablishments

The 1950s decade refers to the years of 1950 to 1959 inclusive. The Fifties in the United States and much of Western Europe are generally considered conservative in contrast to the social revolution of the next decade. Mass suburban developments and nuclear family ideals serve as symbols of the era from the end of the Second World War in 1945 to the inauguration of United States President John F. Kennedy in 1961. Education grew explosively because of a very strong demand for high school and college education. The Cold War between the Soviet Union and the United States played out through the entire decade. The fifties also revolutionized entertainment with the mainstream introduction of television, rapid growth of the recording industry and new genres of music, and movies targeted at teenage audiences. Due to the conservative norms of the era and the sometimes violent suppression of social movements, seeds of rebellion grew and were manifested through Rock and Roll, movies emphasizing rebelliousness, expansion of the Civil Rights Movement, the so-called Beat Generation of poets and artists. All of these played significant roles in the Social Revolution of the Sixties (1960s). These pages contain the trends of millennia and centuries. ... On the Gregorian calendar, the 2nd millennium commenced on 1 January 1001, and ended at the end of 31 December 2000. ... These pages contain the trends of millennia and centuries. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... 20XX redirects here. ... This is a list of decades which have articles with more information about them. ... The 1920s is sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually when speaking about the United States. ... The 1930s were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the [[. In East Asia, the rise of militarism occurred. ... The 1940s decade ran from 1940 to 1949. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from the beginning of 1960 to the end of 1969. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... The 1980s was the decade spanning from 1980 to 1989, also called The Eighties. The decade saw social, economic and general upheaval as wealth, production and western culture migrated to new industrializing economies. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1954 (MCMLIV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1954 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1955 (MCMLV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1955 Gregorian calendar). ... A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1957 Gregorian calendar). ... Jan. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other senses of this word, see decade (disambiguation). ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... // The counterculture of the 1960s was a social revolution between the period of 1960 and 1973[1] that began in the United States as a reaction against the conservative social norms of the 1950s, the political conservatism (and perceived social repression) of the Cold War period, and the US government... “Suburbia” redirects here. ... The term nuclear family developed in the western world to distinguish the family group consisting of parents (usually a father and mother) and their children, from what is known as an extended family. ... For the pop band, see Presidents of the United States of America. ... John Kennedy and JFK redirect here. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... Historically, the civil rights movement was a concentrated period of time around the world of approximately twenty years (1960-1980) in which there was much worldwide civil unrest and popular rebellion. ... Beats redirects here. ...

Contents

Ascendancy of the United States

The 1950s in the U.S. were marked with a sharp rise in the economy for the first time in almost 30 years, and a return to the 1920s-type consumer society built on credit and boom-times, as well as the baby boom from returning GIs who went to college under the G.I. Bill and settled in suburban America. Most of the internal conflicts that had developed in earlier decades like women's rights, civil rights, and imperialism were relatively suppressed or neglected during this time as a world returning from the brink hoped to see a more consistent way of life as opposed to the radicalism of the 1930s and 1940s. The effect of suppressing social problems in the 1950s would have a significant impact on the rest of the twentieth century[citation needed]. Consumers refers to individuals or households that use goods and services generated within the economy. ... Young people interacting within an ethnically diverse society. ... A baby boom is any period of greatly increased birth rate during a certain period, and usually within certain geographical bounds. ... GI or G.I. is a term describing a member of the US armed forces or an item of their equipment. ... The G. I. Bill of Rights or Servicemens Readjustment Act of 1944 provided for college or vocational education for returning World War II veterans as well as one-year of unemployment compensation. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Suburb. ... The term women’s rights typically refers to freedoms inherently possessed by women and girls of all ages, which may be institutionalized or ignored and/or illegitimately suppressed by law or custom in a particular society. ... Civil rights or positive rights are those legal rights retained by citizens and protected by the government. ... For the computer game, see Imperialism (computer game). ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ...


Social and political movements

Trends

In the east, an American generation troubled by the Great Depression and World War II created a culture with emphasis on organization and suppression. African Americans took a generally different approach to a post-war society, aiming for a greater inclusiveness and social awareness after a global crisis in the preceding decades that many blamed on the failings of free market capitalism, and the fifties were marked by the establishment of a Welfare State in many countries in Europe. Teenagers had a significant impact on fashion trends in the 1950s For other uses, see The Great Depression (disambiguation). ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... A free market is an idealized market, where all economic decisions and actions by individuals regarding transfer of money, goods, and services are voluntary, and are therefore devoid of coercion and theft (some definitions of coercion are inclusive of theft). Colloquially and loosely, a free market economy is an economy... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... There are three main interpretations of the idea of a welfare state: the provision of welfare services by the state. ...


Korean War

The Korean War, lasted from June 25, 1950 until a cease-fire on July 27, 1953 (as of now, there has been no peace treaty signed), started as a civil war between communist North Korea and the Republic of South Korea. When it began, North and South Korea existed as provisional governments competing for control over the Korean peninsula, due to the division of Korea by outside powers. While originally a civil war, it quickly escalated into a proxy war between the capitalist powers of the United States and its allies and the Communist powers of the People's Republic of China and the Soviet Union. Belligerents United Nations: Republic of Korea Australia Belgium Canada Colombia Ethiopia France Greece Luxembourg Netherlands New Zealand Philippines South Africa Thailand Turkey United Kingdom United States Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs: Japan Medical staff: Denmark Italy Norway India Sweden DPR Korea PR China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... An armistice is the effective end of a war, when the warring parties agree to stop fighting. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the definition of the specific type of war. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Korean peninsula, first divided along the 38th parallel, later along the demarcation line The division of Korea into North Korea and South Korea stems from the 1945 Allied victory in World War II, ending Japans 35-year occupation of Korea. ... A proxy war is a war where two powers use third parties as a supplement or a substitute for fighting each other directly. ...


On September 15, General Douglas MacArthur planned a grand strategy to dissect North-Korean-occupied Korea at the city of Incheon (Song Do port) to cut off further invasion by the North Korean army. Within a few days, MacArthur's army took back Seoul (South Korea's capital). The plan succeeded which allowed American and South Korean forces to cut off further expansion by the North Koreans. The war continued until a cease-fire was agreed to by both sides on July 27, 1953. The war left 33,742 American soldiers dead, 92,134 wounded, and 51,000 MIA. is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the American general; for the municipality in the Philippines, see General MacArthur, Eastern Samar. ... This article is about the city. ... Short name Statistics Location map Map of location of Seoul. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... MIA is a three-letter acronym that is most commonly used to designate a combatant who is Missing In Action, and has not yet returned or otherwise been accounted for as either dead (KIA) or a prisoner of war (POW). ...


Suez Crisis

Israeli conquest of Sinai during the Suez Crisis
Israeli conquest of Sinai during the Suez Crisis

The Suez Crisis was a war fought on Egyptian territory in 1956. Following the nationalisation of the Suez Canal in 1956 by Gamal Abdel Nasser, the United Kingdom, France and Israel subsequently invaded. The operation was a military success, but after the USA and Soviet Union united in opposition to the invasion, the invaders were forced to withdraw. This was seen as a major humiliation, especially for the two European countries, and symbolises the beginning of the end of colonialism and weakening of European global importance. Download high resolution version (740x918, 131 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (740x918, 131 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Belligerents Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties and losses 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 1650... -1... Nasser redirects here. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized...


European Common Market

The European Community (or Common Market), the precursor of the European Union, was established with the Treaty of Rome in 1957 The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... The Treaty of Rome signing ceremony Signatures in the Treaty The Treaty of Rome, signed by France, West Germany, Italy and Benelux (Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg) on March 25, 1957, established the European Economic Community (EEC). ...


Civil rights

During this time, African-Americans were subject to racial segregation, but the Civil Rights Movement of the 1960s was brewing. Key figures like Martin Luther King, Malcolm X and Rosa Parks highlighted and challenged those who were against African-American rights and freedom. The Little Rock Nine integrated Central High School, which was a key event in the fight to end segregation in schools. “Martin Luther King” redirects here. ... Malcolm X, born Malcolm Little, also known as Detroit Red and Al-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz (Omaha, Nebraska, May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965 in New York City) was a Muslim Minister and National Spokesman for the Nation of Islam. ... Rosa Louise McCauley Parks (February 4, 1913 – October 24, 2005) was an African American civil rights activist and seamstress whom the U.S. Congress dubbed the Mother of the Modern-Day Civil Rights Movement. Parks is famous for her refusal on December 1, 1955 to obey bus driver James Blake...


Culture

  • Juvenile delinquency was said to be at unprecedented epidemic proportions in the United States, though some see this era as relatively low in crime compared to today.
  • Continuing poverty in some regions during recessions later on in this decade. The 1950s is often mistakenly painted as the pinnacle of American prosperity. To some, it also may be considered the peak of the modern American civilization[citation needed]. The '50s were supposed to be a time of the "Affluent Society".
  • The 1950s saw fairly high rates of unionization, government social spending, taxes, and the like in the United States and European countries. Most Western governments were liberal or moderate, though domestic politics were also affected by reactions to communism and the Cold War.
  • Beatniks, a culture of teenage and young adults who were seen as rebels and against the social norms, were popularized towards the end of the decade and criticised by older generations. They are seen as a predecessor for the counterculture and hippie movements.
  • Optimistic visions of a semi-utopian technological future, including such devices as the flying car, were popular.
  • The Day the Earth Stood Still hits movie theaters launching a cycle of Hollywood films in which Cold War fears are manifested through scenarios of alien invasion or mutation.
  • Considerable racial tension arose with military and school desegregation in mostly the southern part of the United States, though major controversy and uproar did not truly erupt until the 1960s.
  • Resurgence of evangelical Christianity including Youth for Christ (1943); the National Association of Evangelicals, the American Council of Christian Churches, the Billy Graham Evangelistic Association (1950), Conservative Baptist Association of America (1947); and the Campus Crusade for Christ (1951). Christianity Today was first published in 1956. 1956 also marked the beginning of Bethany Fellowship, a small press that would grow to be a leading evangelical press.
  • Carl Stuart Hamblen, a religious radio broadcaster, hosted the popular show "The Cowboy Church of the Air".
  • The Kinsey Reports were published. Hugh Hefner launched Playboy magazine. [1][2]

Juvenile delinquency refers to criminal acts performed by juveniles. ... A boy from Jakarta, Indonesia shows his find. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... “Moderates” redirects here. ... Beatnik can refer to two different things: A member of the Beat Generation An esoteric programming language This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... // The counterculture of the 1960s was a social revolution between the period of 1960 and 1973[1] that began in the United States as a reaction against the conservative social norms of the 1950s, the political conservatism (and perceived social repression) of the Cold War period, and the US government... For the British TV show, see Hippies (TV series). ... For the Kevin Smith film, see The Flying Car. ... Race relations is the area of sociology that studies the social, political, and economic relations between races at all different levels of society. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... For other persons named Billy Graham, see Billy Graham (disambiguation). ... The first organization of Conservative Baptists was the Conservative Baptist Foreign Mission Society (CBFMS), now called WorldVenture, formed in Chicago, Illinois in 1943. ... Christianity Today is an Evangelical Christian periodical based in Carol Stream, Illinois. ... Carl Stuart Hamblen (1908-1989), often called Stuart Hamblen, became radios firt singing cowboy in 1926. ... The 1948 first edition of Sexual Behavior in the Human Male, the first of the two Kinsey reports. ... Hugh Marston Hefner (born April 9, 1926 in Chicago, Illinois), also referred to colloquially as Hef, is the founder and editor-in-chief of Playboy magazine. ... For other uses, see Playboy (disambiguation). ...

Fashion

Flying in the face of continuity, logic, and erudite sociological predictions, fashion in the 1950s, far from being revolutionary and progressive, bore strong nostalgic echoes of the past. A whole society which, in the 1920s and '30s, had greatly believed in progress, was now much more circumspect. Despite the fact that women had the right to vote, to work, and to drive their own cars, they chose to wear dresses made of opulent materials, with corseted waists and swirling skirts to mid-calf. As fashion looked to the past, haute couture experienced something of a revival and spawned a myriad of star designers who profited hugely from the rapid growth of the media. Throughout the 1950s, although it would be for the last time, women around the world continued to submit to the trends of Parisian haute couture. Three of the most prominent of the Parisian couturiers of the time were Cristobal Balenciaga, Hubert de Givenchy, and Pierre Balmain. Also notable is the return of Coco Chanel (who detested the New Look) to the fashion world. After the war, the American look (which consisted of broad shoulders, floral ties, straight-legged pants, and shirts with long pointed collars, often worn hanging out rather than tucked in) became very popular among men in Europe. The designers of Hollywood created a particular type of glamour for the stars of American film, and outfits worn by the likes of Marilyn Monroe, Lauren Bacall, or Grace Kelly were widely copied. By the end of the decade mass-manufactured, off-the-peg clothing had become much more popular than in the past, granting the general public unprecedented access to fashionable styles. Teen fashion in America favored blue jeans, penny loafers and bobby sox, saddle shoes, poodle skirts, letterman sweaters and varsity jackets, T-shirts and black leather motorcycle jackets made popular by the Marlon Brando film The Wild One, and, for boys, the greaser hairstyle known as the D.A. or Duck's Ass. The hairstyle became a stereotypical feature of rebels and nonconformists, and was adopted by Hollywood to represent the wild youth of the era. Brylcreem and other hair tonics had a period of popularity. Cristóbal Balenciaga (January 21, 1895 - March 23, 1972) was a fashion designer from Spain. ... Count Hubert James Marcel Taffin de Givenchy (born February 21, 1927) is a French aristocrat and fashion designer who founded the The House of Givenchy in 1952. ... Pierre Balmain and Ruth Ford, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1947 Pierre Alexandre Claudius Balmain (May 18, 1914-June 29, 1982) was French fashion designer. ... Gabrielle Bonheur Coco Chanel (August 19, 1883 – January 10, 1971)[1] was a pioneering French fashion designer whose modernist philosophy, menswear-inspired fashions, and pursuit of expensive simplicity made her arguably the most important figure in the history of 20th-century fashion. ... For other uses, see New Look (disambiguation). ... ... Marilyn Monroe (born Norma Jeane Mortenson;[1] baptised Norma Jeane Baker June 1, 1926 – August 5, 1962), was a Golden Globe-winning,[2] critically-acclaimed[3][4][5] American actress, singer, model, Hollywood icon,[6] cultural icon, fashion icon,[7] pop icon,[8] film executive[9] and sex symbol. ... Bacall redirects here. ... For the Mika song, see Grace Kelly (song). ... Blue Jeans Jeans are trousers traditionally made from denim, but may also be made from a variety of fabrics including cotton and corduroy. ... Penny loafers are low, leather step-in shoes whose tops resemble a moccasin, but have broad flat heels. ... Saddle shoes are formal two-toned leather footwear, the normal coloration is white and black, although other colorations are frequently sold. ... A poodle skirt is a wide swing skirt worn with layers of petticoats underneath, often on its own (worn with a cardigan) or sometimes as part of a dress. ... T-Shirt A T-shirt (or tee shirt) is a shirt with short or long sleeves, a round neck, put on over the head, without pockets. ... Marlon Brando, Jr. ... The Wild One is a 1953 outlaw biker film. ... A Greaser is a type of person that is familiar with the greasyness of of human culture. ... Note the curled feathers The Ducks Ass was a haircut style popular during the 1950s. ... Original Brylcreem Brylcreem (pronounced brill-cream) is a brand name of mens hair groom. ...


Popular music

See also: Timeline of musical events#1950s

Popular music up to the early 1950s was mainly bebop and jazz variants. Jazz stars included Charlie Parker, Dizzy Gillespie, Miles Davis, John Coltrane, and Thelonious Monk. Rock and roll emerged as the teen music of choice with Little Richard, Chuck Berry and Buddy Holly being notable exponents. Elvis Presley was the musical superstar of the period with rock, rockabilly, gospel, and romantic balladeering being his signatures. Bill Haley, Jerry Lee Lewis and Johnny Cash were rockabilly musicians. Doo Wop was another popular genre at the time. Calypso enjoyed popularity with Jamaican Harry Belafonte being dubbed the "King of Calypso". The Kingston Trio was instrumental in launching the folk music revival of the fifties and sixties. On March 14, 1958, the RIAA certified crooner Perry Como's single, "Catch A Falling Star" its first ever Gold Record. For the music genre, see Pop music. ... This article is about the genre of music, for the Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles character see Bebop and Rocksteady. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... For other persons of the same name, see Charles Parker. ... For the Australian cricketer nicknamed Dizzy, see Jason Gillespie. ... Miles Dewey Davis III (May 26, 1926 – September 28, 1991) was an American jazz musician, widely considered to be one of the most influential of the 20th century. ... Coltrane redirects here. ... Thelonious Sphere Monk (October 10, 1917 – February 17, 1982) was a jazz pianist and composer. ... Richard Wayne Penniman (born December 5, 1932), better known by the stage name Little Richard, is an African-American singer, songwriter, and pianist, who began performing in the 1940s and was a key figure in the transition from rhythm & blues to rock and roll in the mid-1950s. ... Charles Edward Anderson Chuck Berry (born October 18, 1926 in St. ... For the Weezer song, see Buddy Holly (song). ... Elvis redirects here. ... Bill Haley, with his band, the Comets, was one of the first rock and roll acts to tour the United Kingdom. ... Jerry Lee Lewis (born September 29, 1935), also known by the nickname The Killer, is an American rock and roll and country music singer, songwriter, and pianist. ... For the song of the same name, recorded by Tracy Byrd and later by Jason Aldean, see Johnny Cash (song). ... For the Lauryn Hill single, see Doo Wop (That Thing). ... Calypso might refer to one of several things: Calypso is the name of a sea nymph in Greek mythology; Calypso music is a style of Caribbean folk music; Calypso is the name of an album sung by Harry Belafonte; Calypso is the name of a moon of Saturn; 53 Kalypso... Harold George Belafonte, Jr. ... The Kingston Trio is an American folk group, perhaps the single most prominent one. ... The RIAA Logo. ... Pierino Ronald Perry Como (May 18, 1912 – May 12, 2001) was an Italian-American singer and television personality. ... The description Gold Album is applied to recorded music albums that have sold a minimum number of copies (in the US, currently 500,000 sales). ...


Drama and musical theater

Dramas included William Inge's Come Back, Little Sheba (1950), the Pulitzer Prize-winning Picnic (1953), Bus Stop (1955) and The Dark at the Top of the Stairs (1957). Tennessee Williams won a Tony Award for The Rose Tattoo (1952) and the Pulitzer Prize for Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (1955). Arthur Miller followed his 1949 success Death of a Salesman with The Crucible (1953) and A View from the Bridge (1955). Eugene O'Neill's Long Day's Journey Into Night, written 1941, was first performed 1956 and A Touch of the Poet, completed in 1942, was first performed 1958. William Motter Inge (May 3, 1913 – June 10, 1973) was an American playwright and novelist, whose works feature solitary protagonists encumbered with strained sexual relations. ... Come Back, Little Sheba is a play written by American playwright William Inge. ... Picnic is a 1953 play by William Inge. ... Bus Stop is a 1955 play by William Inge. ... Thomas Lanier Williams III (March 26, 1911 – February 25, 1983), better known as Tennessee Williams, was a major American playwright who received many of the top theatrical awards. ... The Antoinette Perry Awards for Excellence in Theatre, more commonly known as the Tony Awards, recognize achievement in live American theatre and are presented by the American Theatre Wing and The Broadway League [1] at an annual ceremony in New York City. ... The Rose Tattoo is a Tennessee Williams play. ... This article is about the play. ... Arthur Bob Miller (October 17, 1915 – February 10, 2005) was an American playwright and essayist. ... For other uses, see Death of a Salesman (disambiguation). ... For the 1996 film, see The Crucible (1996 film). ... A View from the Bridge is a play by Arthur Miller originally produced as a one-act verse drama on Broadway in 1955. ... Eugene Gladstone ONeill (October 16, 1888 – November 27, 1953) was a Nobel- and four-time Pulitzer Prize-winning American playwright. ... Long Days Journey Into Night is a dramatic play in four acts by Eugene ONeill, widely considered to be his masterwork. ... A Touch of the Poet is a 1942 play by Eugene ONeill. ...


Musicals of the period included Guys and Dolls (1950), Rogers and Hammerstein's The King and I (1951), The Pajama Game (1954), Peter Pan (1954), Damn Yankees (1955), Lerner and Loewe's My Fair Lady (1956), Meredith Wilson's The Music Man (1957), Leonard Bernstein's West Side Story (1957), Lerner and Loewe's musical film adaptation of the stage play Gigi (1958), and Rogers and Hammerstein's The Sound of Music (1959). Guys and Dolls is a musical, with the music and lyrics written by Frank Loesser and book by Jo Swerling and Abe Burrows, based on The Idyll Of Miss Sarah Brown, a short story by Damon Runyon. ... Rodgers and Hammerstein is the songwriting team consisting of Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II. Rodgers had previously been in a successful partnership with Lorenz Hart (see Rodgers and Hart). ... The King and I is a musical by Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II. Its script is based on the book Anna and the King of Siam by Margaret Landon. ... The Pajama Game is a musical based on the novel 7-1/2 Cents by Richard Bissell. ... Damn Yankees is a musical comedy, a modern retelling of the Faust legend set during the 1950s (when the New York Yankees dominated Major League Baseball), in Washington, D.C., with a script by George Abbott and Douglass Wallop and music and lyrics by Richard Adler and Jerry Ross. ... Lerner and Loewe is a designation for the musical comedy writing team of lyricist and librettist Alan Jay Lerner and composer Frederick Loewe. ... My Fair Lady is a musical with a book and lyrics by Alan Jay Lerner and music by Frederick Loewe, based on George Bernard Shaws Pygmalion. ... The Music Man is a musical with book, music, and lyrics by Meredith Willson. ... Leonard Bernstein in 1971 Leonard Bernstein (IPA pronunciation: )[1] (August 25, 1918 – October 14, 1990) was an American conductor, composer, and pianist. ... For other uses, see West Side Story (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Gigi (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see The Sound of Music (disambiguation). ...


Film

See also: 1950s in film

With television's rapidly growing popularity producing a marked decline in fifties movie-going, Hollywood was prompted to seek ways to draw its former audience back to the theaters. New film techniques were developed (Cinemascope, VistaVision, Cinerama, and 3-D film) that were ideally suited for the big budget sword and sandal epics The Robe, Demetrius and the Gladiators, The Ten Commandments, Ben-Hur and Cleopatra (1963). Hercules (1958) and its follow-up Hercules Unchained launched internationally popular low budget epics with bodybuilders Steve Reeves, Gordon Scott, and others cast as the heroes of Greco-Roman mythology. The decade of the 1950s in film involved many significant films. ... A Fox logo used to promote the CinemaScope process. ... A VistaVision 35 mm horizontal camera film frame. ... Cinerama is the trademarked name for a widescreen process which works by simultaneously projecting images from three synchronized 35 mm projectors onto a huge, deeply-curved screen, subtending 146° of arc, and for the corporation which was formed to market it. ... In film, the term 3-D (or 3D) is used to describe any visual presentation system that attempts to maintain or recreate moving images of the third dimension, the illusion of depth as seen by the viewer. ... D. W. Griffith set out to depict the splendor of ancient Babylon in Intolerance. ... The Robe, a 1942 historical novel featuring the Crucifixion, written by Lloyd C. Douglas. ... Demetrius and the Gladiators was a 1954 drama film that was a sequel to The Robe. ... The Ten Commandments is a 1956 motion picture dramatizing the Biblical story of Moses, an Egyptian prince-turned deliverer of the Hebrew slaves. ... Ben-Hur is a 1959 epic film directed by William Wyler, and is the third film version of Lew Wallaces novel Ben-Hur: A Tale of the Christ (1880). ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Steve Reeves as Hercules Hercules was the name of the English release of the 1958 Italian film Le Fatiche di Ercole starring the bodybuilder Steve Reeves. ... Hercules Unchained is the sequel to the 1950s block buster Hercules that inspired the popularity of the 1960s sword and sandal craze. ... Stephen L. Reeves (January 21, 1926 – May 5, 2000), was a bodybuilder, actor, and author. ... Classical mythology usually refers to the religious legends and practices of classical antiquity: Greek mythology; Roman mythology; Greek religion; and Roman religion. ...


The spectacle approach to film-making, Cold War paranoia, public fascination with Outer Space, and a renewed interest in science sparked by the atom bomb lent itself well to science fiction films. Martians and other alien menaces were metaphors for Communism, foreign ideologies, and the misfits threatening democracy and the American way of life. The Day the Earth Stood Still, Invaders from Mars, Them!, The War of the Worlds, The Time Machine, It Came from Outer Space, Creature from the Black Lagoon, The Day the Earth Stood Still, The Thing from Another World, This Island Earth, Earth vs. the Flying Saucers, and Forbidden Planet were popular. Queen of Outer Space (1958) with Zsa Zsa Gabor brought sex to the genre. There were also Earth-based subjects, such as 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea (1954) and When Worlds Collide (1951). Companies such as American International Pictures, Japan's Toho, and Britain's Hammer Film Productions were created to solely produce films of the fantastique genres. Japanese films included Godzilla (1954), Godzilla Raids Again (1955), and Rodan (1956), and Battle in Outer Space (1959). For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Layers of Atmosphere - not to scale (NOAA)[1] Outer space, sometimes simply called space, refers to the relatively empty regions of the universe outside the atmospheres of celestial bodies. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 lifted nuclear fallout some 18 km (60,000 feet) above the epicenter. ... Poster for The Day the Earth Stood Still, an archetypal science fiction film. ... The Day the Earth Stood Still is a 1951 black-and-white science fiction film that tells the story of a humanoid alien who comes to Earth to warn its leaders not to take their conflicts into space, or they will face devastating consequences. ... Invaders from Mars is a 1953 science fiction motion picture. ... Categories: Movie stubs | 1954 films | Science fiction films ... The War of the Worlds (1898), by H. G. Wells, is an early science fiction novel which describes an invasion of England by aliens from Mars. ... The Time Machine is a novel by H. G. Wells, first published in 1895, later made into two films of the same title. ... It Came from Outer Space is a 1953 Science Fiction 3-D film directed by Jack Arnold, and starring Richard Carlson, Barbara Rush, and Charles Drake. ... Creature from the Black Lagoon is a 1954 monster film directed by Jack Arnold, and starring Richard Carlson, Julia Adams, Richard Denning, Antonio Moreno, and Whit Bissell. ... The Day the Earth Stood Still is a 1951 black-and-white science fiction film that tells the story of a humanoid alien who comes to Earth to warn its leaders not to take their conflicts into space, or they will face devastating consequences. ... The Thing from Another World is a 1951 science fiction film which tells the story of an Air Force crew and scientists at a remote Arctic research outpost who fight a malevolent alien being. ... For the novel by Raymond F. Jones, see This Island Earth (novel). ... DVD Earth vs. ... This article is about the 1956 film. ... Queen of Outer Space is a science fiction movie filmed in 1958 starring Zsa Zsa Gabor as Talleah, the Venusian leader of the resistance to overthrow cruel Queen Yllana of Venus. ... Zsa Zsa Gábor (born Sári Gábor on February 6, 1917)) is a Hungarian-American actress and socialite. ... Front page of Vingt Mille Lieues Sous les Mers 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea (or Twenty Thousand Leagues Under the Sea) is a classic science fiction novel by Jules Verne, published in 1870 under the title Vingt mille lieues sous les mers. ... When Worlds Collide Book Cover published by Lippincott This article is about the 1932 novel. ... The early AIP logo. ... The English-language version of Tohos famous logo, used from the early 1960s to the late 1990s. ... New company logo as introduced in May 2007 A poster for Dracula: Prince of Darkness (1966). ... This article is about the character itself. ... Godzilla no Gyakushū , lit. ... Rodan ), is a fictional monster, introduced in Rodan, a 1956 release from Toho Studios, the company responsible for the Godzilla series. ... Battle in Outer Space (宇宙大戦争 - Uchu daisenso), is a tokusatsu film produced and released by Toho Studios in 1960. ...

Original poster
Original poster

Teen films came into their own during the decade. MGM's Blackboard Jungle (1955) examined race and class dynamics in an inner-city high school, and is regarded by some as the spark that lit the Rock and Roll revolution by featuring Bill Haley & His Comets's Rock Around the Clock over the opening credits. Screenings of the film occasionally led to teen violence and vandalism, and, for some, the film marks the start of visible teen rebellion in the 20th century. Rebel Without a Cause (1955) thrust its angst-ridden star James Dean to international stardom, and, unlike Blackboard Jungle, told its story from the viewpoint of its teen characters. Gidget (1959) set off a tsunami of light-hearted teen beach party and surfing movies that flirted with sex but respected fifties morality, conformism, and traditional values. Love, sex, marriage, divorce, alcoholism, dysfunctional families, and adultery were themes of A Summer Place featuring Sandra Dee and Troy Donahue as teen lovers and Dorothy McGuire and Richard Egan as their adulterous parents. Low budget teen films punctuated with rock and roll soundtracks were produced through the decade with provocative titles such as High School Hellcats, High School Confidential, Girls in the Night, Girls Town, Hound-Dog Man, Lost, Lonely, and Vicious, Running Wild, Hot Rod Girl, Juvenile Jungle, Teenage Devil Dolls, and the Ed Wood-scripted The Violent Years. Teen and sci-fi genres were wedded in B-film The Blob with Steve McQueen in his first starring role while teen horror flick I Was a Teenage Werewolf launched Michael Landon's Hollywood career. Image File history File links I_Was_A_Teenage_Werewolf. ... Image File history File links I_Was_A_Teenage_Werewolf. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... MGM logo Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer or MGM, is a large media company, involved primarily in the production and distribution of cinema and television programs. ... Blackboard Jungle is a 1955 social commentary film about teachers in an inner-city school. ... Rock and roll (also spelled Rock n Roll, especially in its first decade), also called rock, is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Rock Around the Clock is a rock n roll song from 1952, written by Max C. Freedman and James E. Myers (the latter under the pseudonym Jimmy De Knight). Although first recorded by Sonny Dae & the Knights, the more famous version by Bill Haley & His Comets is not, strictly speaking... Rebel Without a Cause is a 1955 film directed by Nicholas Ray that tells the story of a rebellious teenager who comes to a new town, meets a girl, defies his parents, and faces the local high school bullies. ... For other uses, see Angst (disambiguation). ... For the film, see James Dean (film). ... Gidget was an American film starring 1950s teen icon Sandra Dee, released in 1959. ... Surf culture is the people, language, fashion and sporting life surrounding the sport of modern surfing. ... A Summer Place is the title of a 1959 film based on the novel of the same name by Sloan Wilson. ... Sandra Dee (April 23, 1942 - February 20, 2005) was an American film actress best known for her role as Gidget. // Alexandra Zuck was born to John and Mary Zuck, of Rusyn ancestry, in Bayonne, New Jersey, Dee was a professional model by the age of four. ... Troy Donahue Troy Donahue (January 27, 1936 – September 2, 2001) was an American actor, known for being a teen idol. ... Dorothy McGuire and Kent Smith in The Spiral Staircase Dorothy Hackett McGuire (June 14, 1916 – September 13, 2001) was an American actress. ... Richard Egan is: Richard Egan (actor) - American film actor Richard Egan (businessman) - American businessman, Ambassador This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... High School Confendential is the third gold disc for pianorocker Jerry Lee Lewis in 1958, featured in the movie from the same title. ... Ed Wood can refer to: The movie director Ed Wood, Jr. ... The Violent Years is a 1956 film starring Playboy Playmate Jean Moorhead as a high school student who gets involved in crime. ... For other meanings of this term, see Blob. ... For other uses, see Steve McQueen (disambiguation). ... I Was a Teenage Werewolf is a 1957 horror film starring Michael Landon as a troubled teenager and Whit Bissell as the primary adult. ... Michael Landon (October 31, 1936 - July 1, 1991) was an American actor, writer, director, and producer, who starred in three popular NBC TV series that spanned three decades. ...


The Walt Disney Studios enjoyed a decade of prosperity with animated feature-length films Cinderella, Alice in Wonderland, Peter Pan, Lady and the Tramp (Disney's first wide-screen animated film), and Sleeping Beauty. The studio began producing live-action period and historical films such as The Sword and the Rose, Davy Crockett, King of the Wild Frontier, Johnny Tremain, Old Yeller, Light in the Forest, Tonka, and Darby O'Gill and the Little People. The studio produced its first live-action contemporary comedy The Shaggy Dog in 1959 with Disney teen stars Annette Funicello and Tommy Kirk. The Walt Disney Studios refers to several different entities and locations associated with The Walt Disney Company: The Walt Disney Studios is one of the media empires four main operating units. ... Cinderella is a 1950 animated feature produced by Walt Disney, and released to theaters on February 15, 1950 by RKO Radio Pictures. ... Alice in Wonderland is a 1951 animated feature film produced by Walt Disney and originally premiered in London, England on July 26, 1951 by RKO Radio Pictures. ... Peter Pan is an animated feature film produced by Walt Disney based on the play Peter Pan, or The Boy Who Wouldnt Grow Up by J. M. Barrie. ... Lady and the Tramp is a 1955 animated feature film produced by Walt Disney, and originally released to theaters on June 16, 1955 by Buena Vista Distribution. ... “Princess Aurora” redirects here. ... This is a list of live-action films produced by Walt Disney Productions and its successor label, Walt Disney Pictures. ... ddfdds ... This article is about the 1957 Disney film. ... Old Yeller is a classic 1957 film directed by Robert Stevenson, produced by Walt Disney Productions, and released to theaters by Buena Vista Distribution. ... Darby OGill and the Little People is a Disney film released in 1959, set in rural Ireland at the beginning of the 20th century. ... The Shaggy Dog is the title of two films, The Shaggy Dog (1959 film) The Shaggy Dog (1994 film) The Shaggy Dog (2006 film). ... Annette Joanne Funicello (born October 22, 1942) is an American singer and actress. ... Tommy Kirk (born December 10, 1941 in Louisville, Kentucky) is a former American child actor, and later a businessman and adult actor. ...


Established stars appeared in films that have come to be regarded as classics such as Sunset Boulevard (Gloria Swanson), All About Eve (Bette Davis), Some Like It Hot (Marilyn Monroe, Tony Curtis, and Jack Lemmon), High Noon (Gary Cooper and Grace Kelly), The Searchers (John Wayne), North by Northwest (Cary Grant), The Bridge on the River Kwai (Alec Guinness), Singin' in the Rain (Gene Kelly and Donald O'Connor), White Christmas (Bing Crosby), and Ben-Hur (Charlton Heston), a film which holds (with Titanic and Lord of the Rings: The Return of the King) a record for most Academy Awards. The Stanislavski method's natural approach to acting was exemplified in screen stars Marlon Brando and Paul Newman. Brando's performances in The Wild One and A Streetcar Named Desire influenced sales of T-shirts and motorcycles. It has been suggested that Norma Desmond be merged into this article or section. ... Gloria Swanson (March 27, 1899 – April 4, 1983) was an Academy Award-nominated, Golden Globe-winning American Hollywood actress. ... For other uses, see All About Eve (disambiguation). ... This article is about the actress. ... Some Like It Hot is a 1959 comedy film directed by Billy Wilder. ... Marilyn Monroe (born Norma Jeane Mortenson;[1] baptised Norma Jeane Baker June 1, 1926 – August 5, 1962), was a Golden Globe-winning,[2] critically-acclaimed[3][4][5] American actress, singer, model, Hollywood icon,[6] cultural icon, fashion icon,[7] pop icon,[8] film executive[9] and sex symbol. ... For other persons named Tony Curtis, see Tony Curtis (disambiguation). ... John Uhler Lemmon III (February 8, 1925 – June 27, 2001), better known as Jack Lemmon, was a two-time Academy Award and Cannes Award-winning American actor and comedian. ... High Noon is a 1952 western film which tells the story of a town marshal who is forced to face a gang of killers by himself. ... Gary Cooper (born Frank James Cooper May 7, 1901 – May 13, 1961) was a two-time Academy Award-winning American film actor of English heritage. ... For the Mika song, see Grace Kelly (song). ... The Searchers is a 1956 epic Western film directed by John Ford, which tells the story of Ethan Edwards, a bitter, middle-aged loner and Civil War veteran played by John Wayne, who spends years looking for his abducted niece. ... For other persons named John Wayne, see John Wayne (disambiguation). ... This article is about the film. ... This article is about the actor. ... This article is about the film. ... Sir Alec Guinness CH, CBE (2 April 1914 – 5 August 2000) was an Academy Award and Tony Award-winning English actor. ... For other uses, see Singin in the Rain. ... For the similarly-named American actress, see Jean Kelly. ... Donald David Dixon Ronald O’Connor (August 28, 1925 – September 27, 2003) was an American dancer, singer, and actor who came to fame in a series of movies in which he co-starred alternately with Gloria Jean, Peggy Ryan, and Francis the Talking Mule. ... White Christmas is a 1954 movie starring Bing Crosby and Danny Kaye that featured the songs of Irving Berlin, including the titular White Christmas. ... Harry Lillis “Bing” Crosby (May 3, 1903 – October 14, 1977) was an American popular singer and Academy Award-winning actor whose career lasted from 1926 until his death in 1977. ... Ben-Hur is a 1959 epic film directed by William Wyler, and is the third film version of Lew Wallaces novel Ben-Hur: A Tale of the Christ (1880). ... Charlton Heston (born October 4, 1924) is an US-american film actor, known for playing larger-than-life heroic roles such as Moses in The Ten Commandments, Colonel George Taylor in Planet of the Apes, and Judah Ben-Hur in Ben-Hur. ... Look up titanic, Titanic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Konstantin (Constantin) Stanislavski (Константи́н Серге́евич Станисла́вский / Алексе́ев) (January 5, 1863 - August 7, 1938) was a Russian theatre and acting innovator. ... Marlon Brando, Jr. ... This article is about the American actor and race team owner. ... The Wild One is a 1953 outlaw biker film. ... A Streetcar Named Desire is an Academy Award-winning 1951 film adaptation of the Pulitzer Prize-winning play of the same name by Tennessee Williams. ...


European cinema experienced a renaissance in the fifties following the deprivations of World War II. Italian director Federico Fellini won the first foreign language film Academy Award with La strada and garnered another Academy Award with Nights of Cabiria. In 1955, Swedish director Ingmar Bergman earned a Jury Prize at the Cannes Film Festival with Smiles of a Summer Night and followed the film with masterpieces The Seventh Seal and Wild Strawberries. Jean Cocteau's Orphée, a film central to his Orphic Trilogy, starred Jean Marais and was released in 1950. French director Claude Chabrol's Le Beau Serge is now widely considered the first film of the French New Wave. Notable European film stars of the period include Brigitte Bardot, Sophia Loren, Marcello Mastroianni, Max von Sydow, and Jean-Paul Belmondo. Japanese cinema reached its zenith with films from director Akira Kurosawa including Rashomon, Ikiru, Seven Samurai, Throne of Blood, and The Hidden Fortress. Other distinguished Japanese directors of the period were Yasujiro Ozu and Kenji Mizoguchi. Russian fantasy director Aleksandr Ptushko's mythological epics Sadko, Ilya Muromets, and Sampo were internationally acclaimed. European cinema is the cinema of Europe. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Languages Italian, Sicilian, Neapolitan, Corsican, Sardinian, Emiliano-Romagnolo, Ligurian, Lombard, Piedmontese, Venetian, Ladin, Friulian Religions predominantly Roman Catholic      The Italians are a Southern European ethnic group found primarily in Italy and in a wide-ranging diaspora throughout Western Europe, the Americas and Australia. ... Federico Fellini (January 20, 1920 – October 31, 1993) was one of the most influential and widely revered film-makers of the 20th century. ... As a Special Award 1947 Shoeshine (Sciuscià) (Italy) - Societa Co-operativa Alfa Cinematografica - Paolo William Tamburella producer - Vittorio De Sica director 1948 Monsieur Vincent (France) - E. D. I. C., Union Général Cinématographique - George de la Grandiere producer - Maurice Cloche director 1949 The Bicycle Thief (Ladri di biciclette) (Italy) - Mayer - Vittorio... Although he never won an Oscar for any of his movie performances, the comedian Bob Hope received two honorary Oscars for his contributions to cinema. ... La Strada is a 1954 Italian motion picture produced by Dino De Laurentiis and Carlo Ponti and directed by Federico Fellini. ... Le Notte di Cabiria or Nights of Cabiria is a 1957 film directed by Federico Fellini. ...   (IPA: in Swedish; usually IPA: in English) (July 14, 1918 – July 30, 2007) was a Swedish film, stage, and opera director. ... The Cannes Film Festival (French: le Festival de Cannes), founded in 1939, is one of the worlds oldest, most influential and prestigious film festivals. ... Sommarnattens leende (Smiles of a Summer Night) is a 1955 film directed by Ingmar Bergman. ... The Seventh Seal (Swedish: Det sjunde inseglet) is an existential 1957 Swedish film directed by Ingmar Bergman about the journey of a medieval knight (Max von Sydow) across a plague-ridden landscape. ... Wild Strawberries a 1957 film written and directed by Ingmar Bergman. ... Jean Maurice Eugène Clément Cocteau (5 July 1889 – 11 October 1963) was a French poet, novelist, dramatist, designer, boxing manager and filmmaker. ... Orpheus (French: Orphée) is a 1950 French film directed by Jean Cocteau and starring Jean Marais. ... Jean Marais photo taken by Carl Van Vechten, 1947 Jean Marais, born Jean-Alfred Villain-Marais (December 11, 1913 - November 8, 1998) was a French actor, and the lover of Jean Cocteau. ... Claude Chabrol (French IPA: ) (born June 24, 1930, Paris) is a French film director and has become well-known since his first film, Le Beau Serge (1958) for his chilling tales of murder, including Le Boucher (1970). ... Le Beau Serge is a French film directed by Claude Chabrol, released in 1958 Synopsis Francois returns to his village after a long absence. ... The New Wave (French: La Nouvelle Vague) was a blanket term coined by critics for a group of French filmmakers of the late 1950s and 1960s, influenced (in part) by Italian Neorealism. ... Brigitte Bardot (French IPA: ) (born September 28, 1934) is a BAFTA Awards-nominated French actress, former fashion model, singer, known nationalist, animal rights activist, and considered the embodiment of the 1950s and 1960s sex kitten. ... Sophia Loren (born September 20, 1934) is an Academy Award winning Italian film actress. ... Marcello Mastroianni in 1958 Marcello Vincenzo Domenico Mastroianni (September 28, 1924 – December 19, 1996) was an Italian film actor. ...  , (born April 10, 1929) is an Academy-Award nominated Swedish actor, known in particular for his collaboration with filmmaker Ingmar Bergman. ... Jean-Paul Belmondo (nicknamed Bébel) (born April 9, 1933 in Neuilly-sur-Seine, west of Paris), is a French actor. ... Cinema has a history in Japan that spans more than 100 years. ... Kurosawa redirects here. ... This page is about the 1950 film. ... Ikiru (生きる) is a 1952 black and white movie written and directed by the acclaimed Japanese filmmaker Akira Kurosawa and inspired by Leo Tolstoys The Death of Ivan Ilyich. ... For other uses, see Seven Samurai (disambiguation). ... Throne of Blood , literally Spider Web Castle) is a black and white 1957 film directed by Akira Kurosawa, which transposes the plot of William Shakespeares play Macbeth to medieval Japan. ... The Hidden Fortress (Japanese: 隠し砦の三悪人, Kakushi toride no san akunin) is a 1958 film by Akira Kurosawa and starring Toshirō Mifune as General Rokurota Makabe and Misa Uehara as Princess Yuki. ... Yasujiro Ozu (小津 安二郎 Ozu Yasujirō) (December 12, 1903 - December 12, 1963) was an influential Japanese film director. ... Kenji Mizoguchi Kenji Mizoguchi (溝口 健二 Mizoguchi Kenji; May 16, 1898 – August 24, 1956) was a Japanese film director and screenwriter. ... Aleksandr Ptushko (April 19, 1900 in Lugansk, Ukraine--March 6, 1973 in Moscow, Russia) was a Soviet animation and film director. ... Sadko, Palekh painting Sadko (Russian: ) was a legendary hero of a Russian bylina (epic tale) with the same name, a merchant and gusli musician from Novgorod. ... For the Russian bomber Ilya Muromets, see Ilya Muromets. ... In Finnish mythology, the Sampo was a magical artifact constructed by Ilmarinen that brought good fortune to its holder; nobody knows exactly what it was supposed to be. ...


Television

Sales of television sets boomed in the fifties. Shows aired monochromatically. Popular programs included Your Show of Shows, a live 90-minute weekly sketch comedy television series (1950-1954) with Sid Caesar and Imogene Coca, and Producers' Showcase (1954-1957), a 37-episode, multi-Emmy Award-winning, 90-minute NBC anthology series that featured A-list talent such as Margot Fonteyn in The Sleeping Beauty Ballet, Helen Hayes in The Skin of Our Teeth, and The Fourposter with original Broadway cast members Hume Cronyn and Jessica Tandy. Other anthology series included Lux Video Theatre, Fireside Theater. and Kraft Television Theater. Your Show of Shows was a live sketch comedy television series appearing weekly in the United States, from 1950 until June 5, 1954, featuring Sid Caesar and Imogene Coca. ... Sid Caesar (born September 8, 1922) is an Emmy-winning American comic actor and writer, best known as the leading man on the 1950s television series Your Show of Shows, and to younger generations as Coach Calhoun in Grease and Grease 2. ... Imogene Coca (November 18, 1908 - June 2, 2001) was an American comic actress. ... An anthology series is a television series that features different stories, with a different cast of characters in every episode. ... Margot Fonteyn in 1948. ... The Sleeping Beauty (Russian: , Spyashchaya Krasavitsa) is a ballet in a prologue and three acts, Opus 66, by Pyotr Tchaikovsky. ... Helen Hayes (October 10, 1900 – March 17, 1993) was a two-time Academy Award-winning American actress whose successful and award-winning career spanned almost 70 years. ... // The Skin of Our Teeth is a Pulitzer Prize for Drama-winning play by Thornton Wilder. ... Publicity photo for the Broadway production of The Four Poster with, from left to right, director José Ferrer, stars Jessica Tandy and Hume Cronyn, and playwright Jan de Hartog The Fourposter is a play by Jan de Hartog. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Jessie Alice Tandy (June 7, 1909 – September 11, 1994) was a noted Academy Award-winning English/American theatre, film and TV actress. ... Lux Video Theatre was a weekly television series, produced from 1950 until 1959. ... Left to right: Phil Proctor, Peter Bergman, Phil Austin, and David Ossman in 2001 The Firesign Theatre is a comedy troupe consisting of Phil Austin, Peter Bergman, David Ossman, and Philip Proctor. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Kraft Television Theatre. ...


Sitcoms offered a paternalistic, conservative vision of idealized middle class American life with The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet (1952-1966), Father Knows Best (1954-1960), and ABC's The Donna Reed Show (1958-1966) exemplifying the genre. Emmy-winning comedy I Love Lucy (1952-1957) starred husband and wife Desi Arnaz and Lucille Ball and enjoyed such popularity that some businesses closed early on Monday nights in order to allow employees to hurry home for the show. In Life of Riley (1953-1958), blue collar Chester A. Riley (William Bendix) became the protype for a long line of bumbling television patriarchs that included Fred Flintstone and Archie Bunker. The show's first incarnation for the DuMont Television Network lasted a season (1949-1950) and won television's first Emmy. The Honeymooners (1955-1956) followed bus driver Ralph Kramden (Jackie Gleason) and his sewer-working sidekick Ed Norton (Art Carney) while archetypal suburban life was limned in Leave It to Beaver (1957-1963), purportedly the first sitcom to be told from a child's point of view and the first to strike a blow for television realism by displaying a toilet in an early episode. Genre series were popular with Dragnet (1952) starring Jack Webb representing police procedural drama, British syndicated series The Adventures of Robin Hood (1955) starring Richard Greene representing historical drama, and Gunsmoke (1955) with James Arness and Amanda Blake representing the western. Mid-decade, Warner Bros. produced a clutch of five westerns with Maverick starring James Garner and Cheyenne starring Clint Walker leading the group in popularity. A sitcom or situation comedy is a genre of comedy performance originally devised for radio but today typically found on television. ... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ... The Nelson family The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet, an American radio and television series, was once the longest-running, live-action situation comedy on American television, having aired on ABC from 1952 to 1966 after a ten-year run on radio. ... Robert Young and Jean Vander Pyl on NBC Radios Father Knows Best Father Knows Best, a popular American TV and radio sitcom of the 1950s and 1960s, portrayed an idealized vision of middle-class American life of the era. ... The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) is an American television network. ... The Donna Reed Show was a situation comedy which aired on ABC from 1958 to 1966. ... An Emmy Award. ... I Love Lucy is a popular American situation comedy, starring Lucille Ball, Desi Arnaz, Vivian Vance and William Frawley. ... Desi Arnaz (born Desiderio Alberto Arnaz y de Acha III) (March 2, 1917 – December 2, 1986) was a Cuban American musician, actor and television producer. ... Lucille Désirée Ball (August 6, 1911 – April 26, 1989) was an iconic American comedienne, film, television, stage and radio actress, glamour girl and star of the landmark sitcoms I Love Lucy, The Lucy-Desi Comedy Hour, The Lucy Show and Heres Lucy. ... The Life of Riley was an American situation comedy that appeared on both radio and television in the 1940s and 1950s. ... William Bendix (January 14, 1906 - December 14, 1964) was an American film actor. ... Information Nickname(s) Twinkletoes Aliases Frederick F. Flintstone Species Human Gender Male Age Mid 30s Occupation Crane Operator Family Ed Flintstone (father), Edna Flintstone (mother), Rocksy Rubble (granddaughter), Chip Rubble (grandson), Bamm-Bamm Rubble (son-in-law) Spouse(s) Wilma Flintstone Children Pebbles Flintstone Portrayed by Alan Reed, Henry... Archibald Archie Bunker was a fictional character in the long-running and top-rated American television sitcom All in the Family and its spin-off Archie Bunkers Place. ... The DuMont Television Network was the worlds first commercial television network, beginning operation in the United States in 1946. ... For the 2005 film, see The Honeymooners (film). ... Herbert Walton Gleason, Jr. ... Arthur William Matthew Carney (November 4, 1918 – November 9, 2003) was an Academy Award-winning American actor in film, stage, television, and radio. ... For other uses, see Leave It to Beaver (disambiguation). ... A sitcom or situation comedy is a genre of comedy performance originally devised for radio but today typically found on television. ... Dragnet was a long-running radio and television police procedural drama about the cases of a dedicated Los Angeles police detective, Sergeant Joe Friday, and his partners. ... John Randolph Jack Webb (April 2, 1920 – December 23, 1982) was an American actor, television producer, director, and writer who is most famous for his role as Sergeant Joe Friday in the radio and television series Dragnet. ... In the television industry (as in radio), syndication is the sale of the right to broadcast programs to multiple stations, without going through a broadcast network. ... The Adventures of Robin Hood was a popular, long-running British television series (143 half-hour, black and white episodes, 1955–1960) starring Richard Greene as Robin Hood. ... Richard Marius Joseph Greene (25 August 1918 in Plymouth - 1 June 1985 in Norfolk) - some sources list his birthdate as 1914 - was a noted English movie and television actor. ... This article is about the radio and television series. ... This biographical article needs additional references for verification. ... Amanda Blake (February 20, 1929 - August 16, 1989), was an American actress best known for the role of the red-haired Miss Kitty on the longest-running television drama, CBSs Gunsmoke series (1955-1975). ... Look up maverick in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see James Garner (disambiguation). ... Norman Eugene Clint Walker (born May 30, 1927) is an American actor best known for his cowboy role as Cheyenne Bodie in the TV Western series, Cheyenne. ...


Musical programs distinguished the decade. Gian Carlo Menotti's Amahl and the Night Visitors, the first opera written for television, was performed on December 24, 1951 at the NBC studios in New York City, where it was telecast as the debut production of the Hallmark Hall of Fame. The opera was performed live on or near Christmas Eve annually until the mid-sixties when a production starring Teresa Stratas was filmed and telecast for several years. The Broadway musical Peter Pan was televised in 1955 on NBC with Mary Martin and Cyril Ritchard in their original roles as Peter Pan and Captain Hook. The telecast drew the largest ratings for a single television program up to that time, and was restaged in 1956 and 1960. On September 9, 1956, Elvis Presley made his first televised appearance on The Ed Sullivan Show, while, the same year, musical film The Wizard of Oz starring Judy Garland saw its first telecast on November 3 on CBS. Rogers and Hammerstein's Cinderella was written for a live television broadcast in 1957 and starred Julie Andrews. Gian Carlo Menotti, photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1944 Gian Carlo Menotti (July 7, 1911 – February 1, 2007) was an Italian-born American composer and librettist who wrote the classic Christmas opera Amahl and the Night Visitors among about two dozen other operas intended to appeal to popular taste. ... Amahl and the Night Visitors is an opera in one act by Gian Carlo Menotti on an original English libretto by the composer. ... For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the television network. ... Hallmark Hall of Fame is a long running anthology program on American television. ... Nativity of the Lord redirects here. ... Teresa Stratas (b. ... For other uses of Broadway, see Broadway. ... Mary Virginia Martin (b. ... Cyril Ritchard was born December 1, 1897 in Sydney, Australia and died December 18, 1977 in Chicago, Illinois. ... Elvis redirects here. ... The Ed Sullivan Show was an American television variety show that ran from June 20, 1948 to June 6, 1971, and was hosted by former entertainment columnist Ed Sullivan. ... The Wizard of Oz is the title of several films based on the L. Frank Baum book, The Wonderful Wizard of Oz: (1921), director unknown (1925), directed by Larry Semon (1939), directed by Victor Fleming, Richard Thorpe and King Vidor. ... Judy Garland (born Frances Ethel Gumm; June 10, 1922 - June 22, 1969) was an Academy Award-nominated American film actress and singer, best known for her role as Dorothy Gale in The Wizard of Oz (1939). ... is the 307th day of the year (308th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Rodgers and Hammerstein is the songwriting team consisting of Richard Rodgers and Oscar Hammerstein II. Rodgers had previously been in a successful partnership with Lorenz Hart (see Rodgers and Hart). ... Dame Julie Elizabeth Andrews, DBE (born Julia Elizabeth Wells[1] on 1 October 1935[2]) is an award-winning English actress, singer, author and cultural icon. ...


Children's programs included the 19-season, Emmy-winning CBS dramatic series Lassie (1954-1973), sci-fi series Adventures of Superman (1952), variety show The Mickey Mouse Club (1955), anthology series Disneyland (1955), and live-action fairy tale anthology series Shirley Temple's Storybook (1958). Bozo the Clown enjoyed widespread franchising in early television, making him the best-known clown character in the United States. Ding Dong School (1952), Captain Kangaroo (1955) and Romper Room were aimed at pre-schoolers. Howdy Doody (1947-1960) was a pioneer in early color production during the period. Fury, Sky King, The Roy Rogers Show, Heckle and Jeckle, Mighty Mouse and similar live-action and animated half-hour shows held sway on Saturday mornings. This article is about the broadcast network. ... Lassie was a American television series which originally aired from 1954 to 1974. ... Adventures of Superman is a series produced by DC Comics. ... Mouseketeers redirects here. ... The first incarnation of the Disney anthology television series, commonly called The Wonderful World of Disney, premiered on ABC on October 27, 1954 under the name Disneyland. ... A fairy tale is a story, either told to children or as if told to children, concerning the adventures of mythical characters such as fairies, goblins, elves, trolls, giants, and others. ... In 1958-61, Shirley Temple made a brief return to show business with two television series. ... Bozo the Clown (also known as Bozo) is the name of a clown whose widespread franchising in early television made him the best-known clown character in the United States. ... Captain Kangaroo was a childrens television series which aired weekday mornings on the American television network CBS from 1955 until 1984, then moved to the American Program Service (now American Public Television, Boston) to air syndicated reruns of past episodes in 1992. ... Romper Room was a childrens television series which ran in the United States from 1953 to 1994 as well as at various times in Canada, Australia, Northern Ireland, Great Britain, Puerto Rico and Japan. ... Howdy Doody was a childrens television program (with a decidedly frontier/western theme, although other themes also colored the show) that aired on NBC in the United States from 1947 until 1960. ... Fury was an American television program. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Roy Rogers Show was a black and white American television series that ran for 6 seasons from December 30, 1951 to June 9, 1957 on NBC. With a total of 100 episodes. ... Heckle and Jeckle in Taming the Cat Heckle and Jeckle was a theatrical cartoon series created by Paul Terry, and released by his own studio, Terrytoons. ... This article is about the fictional character. ...


Quiz and panel shows included The $64,000 Question, What's My Line, I've Got a Secret, The Price is Right, Beat the Clock, Truth or Consequences, Queen for a Day, and Name That Tune. The quiz show scandals of the period rocked the nation and were the result of the revelation that contestants were secretly given assistance by the producers to arrange the outcome of a supposedly fair competition. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Whats My Line? was a weekly panel game show produced by Mark Goodson and Bill Todman for CBS television. ... Ive Got a Secret (abbreviated as IGAS) was a weekly panel game show produced by Mark Goodson and Bill Todman for CBS television and was created by Allan Sherman as essentially a knockoff of Whats My Line?. The original version of the show premiered in June 19, 1952... The Price Is Rights US 36th season logo. ... For other uses, see Beat the Clock (disambiguation). ... Action Comics #127 (December 1948), featuring Superman appearing on the show with Ralph Edwards Truth or Consequences was an American quiz show, originally hosted on radio by Ralph Edwards from 1940 to 1957, and later on television by Edwards himself from 1950 to 1951, Jack Bailey from 1954 to 1955... Queen for a Day was an American Radio and TV show. ... Name That Tune was a television game show that put two contestants against each other to test their knowledge of songs. ... The American quiz show scandals of the 1950s were the result of the revelation that contestants of several popular television quiz shows were secretly given assistance by the producers to arrange the outcome of a supposedly fair competition. ...


Newscasting and journalism were distinguished by NBC's Chet Huntley and David Brinkley, and CBS's Walter Cronkite. On July 7, 1952, the term "anchor" was coined to describe Cronkite's role at both the Democratic and Republican National Conventions, which marked the first nationally-televised convention coverage. Talk shows had their genesis in the decade with NBC's Today creating the much-sopied genre format. The Tonight Show debuted in 1954 with Steve Allen as host. The coronation of Elizabeth II was televised on June 2, 1953, highlighting the start of pan-European cooperation with regards to the exchange of TV programs. The Academy Awards show was first televised in 1953 on NBC, and the show holds the distinction of having won the most Emmys in history, with 38 wins and 167 nominations. Chester Robert Huntley (December 10, 1911 - March 20, 1974), more popularly known as Chet Huntley, was an American television newscaster. ... David Brinkley David McClure Brinkley (July 10, 1920 – June 11, 2003) was a popular American television newscaster for two different USA television networks, NBC, and later, ABC. From 1956 through 1970 he co-anchored NBCs top rated nightly news program, The Huntley–Brinkley Report with Chet Huntley. ... Walter Leland Cronkite, Jr. ... A talk show (U.S.) or chat show (Brit. ... This article is about the television network. ... The Today Show, officially known as Today, is an American morning news and talk show airing weekday mornings on NBC. Debuting on January 14, 1952, it was the first of its genre, spawning similar morning news and entertainment television programs across the United States and around the world. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Steve Allen on the cover of Steve Allen on the Bible, Religion, and Morality Stephen Valentine Patrick William Allen (December 26, 1921 – October 30, 2000) was an American musician, comedian, and writer who was instrumental in innovating the concept of the television talk show. ... A asses is a ceremony marking the investment of a monarch with regal power through, amongst other symbolic acts, the placement of a crown upon his or her head. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary [1]; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, and their respective overseas territories and dependencies. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ... An Emmy Award. ...


Comics

See also: 1950s in comics

Comic book audiences grew during and after World War II, with young adult males and returning GIs preferring material depicting sex and violence. Newspaper comic strip reprint books such as Ace Comics and King Comics ended their decade-long runs while caped crimefighters and superheroes declined in popularity. Attempts to bring out single character comic strip reprints, such as Flash Gordon, Steve Canyon, and Terry and the Pirates were unsuccessful. The Golden Age of Comic Books gave way to the Silver Age with romance comics, horror comics, western comics, science fiction comics, and crime comics in demand. See also: 1940s in comics, other events of the 1950s, 1960s in comics and the list of years in comics Publications: 1950 - 1951 - 1952 - 1953 - 1954 - 1955 - 1956 - 1957 - 1958 - 1959 Publications This is an incomplete list. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Ace Comics // History Ace Comics is a comics book series from the Pre-Golden age Era and the Golden-age Era which was published by David McKay Publications. ... King Comics was a short-lived comic book imprint of King Features Syndicate, and an attempt by King to publish comics of their own characters, rather then thru other publishers. ... For other uses, see Flash Gordon (disambiguation). ... Steve Canyon was a long-running American adventure comic strip by writer-artist Milton Caniff, published from January 13, 1947, after Caniff had retired from a popular previous strip Terry and the Pirates, through June 4, 1988, shortly after Caniffs death. ... Terry and the Pirates is the title of: a comic strip created by Milton Caniff; see: Terry and the Pirates (comic strip) a radio serial, based on the comic strip; see: Terry and the Pirates (radio serial) a television series, also based on the comic strip; see: Terry and the... Superman, catalyst of the Golden Age: Superman #14 (Feb. ... Showcase #4 (Oct. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: it is patent nonsense. ... Crime comics are a genre of American comic books popular in the 1940s and 1950s. ...


Romance comics kicked-off in 1947 with Joe Simon and Jack Kirby's Young Romance and its companion title Young Love. While both titles generally featured innocuous stories about youthful relationships, other romance comics of the period ventured into grim tales of alcoholic spouses, two-timing, and wife-beating. The genre was hugely successful with more than 150 series published during the early 1950s. Good girl comics of the period depicted the exploits of voluptuous women in bosom-hugging sweaters or jungle heroines clad in animal skin bikinis. 'Headlight' covers featured young women bound with ropes or chains, their ample breasts swelling against torn clothing. Joe Simon (born 1915) was a comic book author and cartoonist who created or co-created many memorable characters in the Golden Age. ... Jack Kirby (born Jacob Kurtzberg, August 28, 1917 – February 6, 1994) was one of the most influential, recognizable, and prolific artists in American comic books, and the co-creator of such enduring characters and popular culture icons as the Fantastic Four, the X-Men, the Hulk, Captain America, and hundreds... Rangers Comics #26: “Angels from Hell” Good girl art (GGA) is a type of art (usually drawings or paintings) depicting attractive women. ... A model in bondage cuffs with a leg spreader In the context of BDSM, bondage involves people being tied up or otherwise restrained for pleasure. ...


Horror comics enjoyed a heyday during the same period. While superheroes had been menaced by warlocks, zombies, and vampires in the employ of Nazis and the Japanese through the war years, it wasn't until 1947 that the horror genre was established with Avon Periodicals' Eerie Comics, the first out-and-out horror comic. Marvel, Harvey Comics, and American Comics Group hopped aboard with the latter's Adventures Into the Unknown (1948) enjoying a twenty year run. In 1950, EC Comics published The Haunt of Fear, Tales from the Crypt, and The Vault of Horror with characters meeting gruesomely violent ends. Horror titles numbered in the dozens in the early years of the decade, most crudely scripted and drawn. Casper the Friendly Ghost in Theres Good Boos To-Night (1948). ... Entertaining Comics was headed by William Gaines but is better known by its publishing name of EC Comics. ... Graham Ingels illustrated the origin of the Old Witch in Haunt of Fear 14 (1952) The Haunt of Fear was part of the EC Comics line in the early 1950s. ... Tales from the Crypt can refer to: the television series Tales from the Crypt the film Tales from the Crypt the comic book Tales from the Crypt, published by EC Comics during the 1950s. ... The Vault of Horror was part of Bill Gaines EC Comics line during the early 1950s. ...


Western comics were fueled by popular television westerns. Dell Comics published a large number of western comics, dedicated to celebrities such as Roy Rogers, Gabby Hayes, The Lone Ranger, and Gene Autry. The Lone Ranger's pal, Tonto, had his own title. Dell also published titles based on popular television shows and films such as I Love Lucy and Davy Crockett, King of the Wild Frontier. DC published several western titles while Marvel saw fifty different titles including The Rawhide Kid, The Arizona Kid, Kid Colt, and The Ringo Kid. Dell Comics was the comic book publishing arm of Dell Publications, which got its start in pulp magazines. ... Dale Evans and Roy Rogers at the 61st Academy Awards Leonard Franklin Slye (November 5, 1911 – July 6, 1998), who became famous as Roy Rogers, was a singer and cowboy actor. ... George Francis Gabby Hayes (May 7, 1885–February 9, 1969) was an American actor. ... The Lone Ranger. ... Orvon Gene Autry (September 29, 1907 – October 2, 1998) was an American performer who gained fame as The Singing Cowboy on the radio, in movies and on television. ... I Love Lucy is a popular American situation comedy, starring Lucille Ball, Desi Arnaz, Vivian Vance and William Frawley. ... ddfdds ...


Science fiction comics were published in abundance. DC Comics picked-up on the public's interest in science and Outer Space with Strange Adventures and Mystery in Space. EC Comics published Weird Science and Weird Fantasy. DC Comics is an American comic book and related media company. ... Layers of Atmosphere - not to scale (NOAA)[1] Outer space, sometimes simply called space, refers to the relatively empty regions of the universe outside the atmospheres of celestial bodies. ... Strange Adventures was an American comic book published by DC Comics. ... Mystery in Space was a science fiction comic book published by DC Comics from 1951 to 1966, and later in 1980/81 (issues #111-117). ... Entertaining Comics was headed by William Gaines but is better known by its publishing name of EC Comics. ... Weird Science (1985) is a movie written and directed by John Hughes. ... Cover for Weird Fantasy 21 by Al Williamson and Frank Frazetta Weird Fantasy was part of the EC Comics line in the early 1950s. ...


Public disapproval and the 1954 Senate subcommittee hearings

The Cold War era seemed to encourage witch-hunting and comics found themselves blamed for the alarming increase in juvenile deliquency and other social ills. In 1948, American children across the country piled their comic book collections in schoolyards, and, encouraged by parents, teachers, and clergymen, set them ablaze. In the same year, the media began kicking comic books around. John Mason Brown of the Saturday Review of Literature described comics as the "marijuana of the nursery; the bane of the bassinet; the horror of the house; the curse of kids, and a threat to the future." Dr. Fredric Wertham's book Seduction of the Innocent rallied opposition to violence, gore, and sex in comics, arguing that it was harmful to the children who made up a large segment of the comic book audience. First U.S. printing, 1954 First U.K. printing, 1954 Seduction of the Innocent was a book by Dr. Fredric Wertham, published in 1954, that warned that comic books were a bad form of popular literature and a serious cause of juvenile delinquency. ...


The Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency hearings in April and June of 1954, focused specifically on graphic crime and horror comic books. When publisher William Gaines contended that he sold only comic books of good taste, one of Gaines' comics cover was entered into evidence which showed an axe-wielding man holding aloft a severed woman's head. When asked if he considered the cover in "good taste", Gaines replied: "Yes, I do -- for the cover of a horror comic." The Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency was convened during the early 1950s to investigate the influence on youth by violence and sex in mass media and, in particular, comic books. ...


Because of the unfavorable press coverage resulting from the hearings, the comic book industry adopted the Comics Code Authority (CCA), a self-regulatory ratings code that is still used by some publishers today in a modified form. In the immediate aftermath of the hearings, several publishers were forced to revamp their schedules and drastically censor or even cancel many popular long-standing comic series. The seal of the Comics Code Authority, which appears on the covers of approved comic books. ...


Comics trivia
  • Charles Schulz's Peanuts appeared for the first time on October 2, 1950 in seven US newspapers.
  • Superman's sweetheart Lois Lane received her own title.
  • Classics Illustrated continued its literary adaptations, ending its run in the early 1970s after 169 titles. In 1953, Classics Illustrated Junior debuted with fairy tale adaptations for the younger set.

Charles Monroe Schulz (November 26, 1922 - February 12, 2000) was a 20th-century American cartoonist best known for his Peanuts comic strip. ... For other uses, see Peanut (disambiguation). ... is the 275th day of the year (276th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Dutch girl group, see Loïs Lane. ... Classics Illustrated were comic book adaptations from classic literature, a series that Russian-born Albert Lewis Kanter (1897-1973) began in 1941 for Elliot Publishing. ...

Toys

Barbie, 1959
Barbie, 1959

Popular toys of the period included Wham-O's Hula Hoop and its flying disc Frisbee, both introduced in 1957. Kids got around on Schwinn bicycles and Radio Flyer wagons. Nomura's 9" tall, tin, remote-controlled Robbie the Robot walked, moved his arms, and sported moving lighted pistols. Girls wanted Ohio Art Company's tin lithographed tea sets and Little Chefs Stoves, Ideal Toy Company's diaper-wetting Betsy Wetsy, and Mattel's 1959 adult-bodied fashion doll Barbie. Boys wanted Daisy BB guns, Lincoln Logs, and miniature Matchbox vehicles. In 1955, Walt Disney's Davy Crockett, King of the Wild Frontier saw the production of 'coonskin caps' and other frontier-themed toys. View-Masters, Silly Putty, and Slinky were bestsellers. Mr. Potato Head, a toy of plastic face parts that could be stuck into a potato, was the first toy to be advertised on network television, and in its first year of production (1952) made over $4 million. Television shows and films generated show-related toys and books. Popular board games included Milton Bradley's Candyland (1949), Chutes and Ladders, and Careers (1955). Wham-O Inc. ... Children playing with hula hoops. ... A Wham-O Professional Frisbee For the amusement ride, see Frisbee (ride). ... The Schwinn Bicycle Company was founded in Chicago in 1895 by Ignaz Schwinn, and grew to become the dominant manufacturer of American bicycles through most of the 20th century. ... Radio Flyer can refer to: A toy company, see Radio Flyer (company) A 1992 movie, see Radio Flyer (film) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... A film poster for Forbidden Planet showing Robby. ... The Ohio Art Company is a childrens toy company. ... Ideal Toy Company was founded as Ideal Novelty and Toy Company in New York in 1907 by Morris and Rose Michtom after they had invented the teddy bear in 1903. ... Betsy Wetsy was a doll created by the Ideal Toy Company of New York, starting in the 1950s. ... Mattel headquarters in El Segundo Mattel Inc. ... Information Occupation See: Barbies careers Family See: List of Barbies friends and family Created by Ruth Handler Barbie is a best-selling fashion doll launched in 1959. ... Steel BBs BB guns are a type of air gun designed to fire usually spherical projectiles, called BBs after the Birdshot pellet of approximately the same size. ... A farm made from Lincoln Logs. ... Matchbox Models of Yesteryear Y-2 (A) 1911 B-Type Bus, released 1956 Matchbox 1-75 models typical of the modern (Mattel) era 1960s box for model #30 (B), Magirus-Deutz Crane, from the 1-75 series Matchbox is a die cast toy brand currently owned by Mattel, Inc. ... ddfdds ... View-Master reels from a German Karl May-movie. ... Silly putty dripping through a hole Silly Putty shown as a solid cube Silly Putty (originally called nutty putty, and also known as Potty Putty) is a silicone plastic, marketed today as a toy for children, but originally created as an accident during the course of research into potential rubber... Metal Slinky Rainbow-colored plastic Slinky A Slinky, or Lazy-Spring, is a coil-shaped toy invented by mechanical engineer Richard James in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. ... Healthy Mr. ... Milton Bradley (1836 - 1911) was a game pioneer, credited by many with launching the game industry in North America. ... Gwen Stefani is working on a follow up album containing leftover songs from her first solo album (Love Angel Music Baby) and some new songs. ... Chutes and Ladders, sometimes called Snakes and Ladders, is a classic childrens board game played between 2 or more players on a playing board with numbered grid squares. ... Careers is a board game first manufactured by Parker Brothers in 1955, which has been reprinted from time to time up to the present day. ...


Literature

See also: List of years in literature#1950s

Beatniks and the beat generation, an anti-materialistic literary movement that began with Jack Kerouac in 1948 and stretched on into the early-mid 1960s, was at its zenith in the 1950s. Such groundbreaking literature as William S. Burroughs's Naked Lunch, Allen Ginsberg's Howl, William Golding's Lord of the Flies, Jack Kerouac's On the Road, and J.D. Salinger's The Catcher in the Rye were published. Also published in this decade was J. R. R. Tolkien's epic The Lord of the Rings as well as C.S. Lewis's The Chronicles of Narnia. This decade is also marked by some of the most famous works of science fiction by science fiction writers Isaac Asimov, Arthur C. Clarke, Theodore Sturgeon, A. E. van Vogt, and Robert A. Heinlein. Other significant literary works included James Jones' From Here to Eternity, Ernest Hemingway's The Old Man and the Sea, John Cheever's The Wapshot Chronicle, Tennessee Williams' Cat on a Hot Tin Roof, Arthur Miller's The Crucible, Lorraine Hansberry's A Raisin in the Sun, Ralph Ellison's Invisible Man, Saul Bellow's The Adventures of Augie March, Ray Bradbury's Fahrenheit 451, Richard Matheson's I Am Legend, John Knowles' A Separate Peace, Ayn Rand's Atlas Shrugged, Vladimir Nabokov's Lolita, Grace Metalious' Peyton Place, and Boris Pasternak's Doctor Zhivago. This page indexes the individual year in literature pages. ... For other uses, see Beatnik (disambiguation). ... Beats redirects here. ... Jack Kerouac (pronounced ) (March 12, 1922 – October 21, 1969) was an American novelist, writer, poet, and artist from Lowell, Massachusetts. ... Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: William S. Burroughs William Seward Burroughs II (February 5, 1914) — August 2, 1997; pronounced ), more commonly known as William S. Burroughs, was an American novelist, essayist, social critic, painter and spoken word performer. ... Naked Lunch is a novel by William S. Burroughs. ... Irwin Allen Ginsberg (IPA: ) (June 3, 1926 – April 5, 1997) was an American poet. ... Howl and Other Poems was published in the fall of 1956 as number four in the Pocket Poets Series from City Lights Books This article is about the poem by Allen Ginsberg. ... Sir William Gerald Golding (19 September 1911 – 19 June 1993) was a British novelist, poet and Nobel Prize for Literature laureate best known for his novel Lord of the Flies. ... For other uses, see Lord of the Flies (disambiguation). ... This article is about the novel On the Road. ... Jerome David Salinger (born January 1, 1919) is an American author best known for The Catcher in the Rye, a classic coming-of-age story that has enjoyed enduring popularity since its publication in 1951. ... The Catcher in the Rye is a novel by J. D. Salinger. ... J. R. R. Tolkien in 1916. ... This article is about the novel. ... Clive Staples Lewis (November 29, 1898 – November 22, 1963), commonly referred to as C. S. Lewis, was an author and scholar. ... Narnia redirects here. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... Isaac Asimov (January 2?, 1920?[1] – April 6, 1992), pronounced , originally Исаак Озимов but now transcribed into Russian as Айзек Азимов [1], was a Russian-born American author and professor of biochemistry, a highly successful writer, best known for his works of science fiction and for his popular science books. ... Sri Lankabhimanya Sir Arthur Charles Clarke, CBE (16 December 1917–19 March 2008), was a British science fiction author, inventor, and futurist, most famous for the novel 2001: A Space Odyssey, written in collaboration with director Stanley Kubrick, a collaboration which led also to the film of the same name... Theodore Sturgeon (February 26, 1918 Staten Island, New York – May 8, 1985) was an American science fiction author. ... Alfred Elton van Vogt (April 26, 1912 – January 26, 2000) was a Canadian-born science fiction author who was one of the most prolific, yet complex, writers of the mid-twentieth century Golden Age of the genre. ... Robert Anson Heinlein (July 7, 1907 – May 8, 1988) was one of the most popular, influential, and controversial authors of hard science fiction. ... James Jones (November 6, 1921 – May 9, 1977) is an American author most famous for his explorations of World War II and its aftermath. ... From Here to Eternity is a 1953 movie based on a James Jones novel in which characters work through ordinary bouts of intimidation and infidelity on a military base in the days preceding the attack on Pearl Harbor. ... Ernest Miller Hemingway (July 21, 1899 — July 2, 1961) was an American novelist, short-story writer, and journalist. ... The Old Man and the Sea is a novella (just over 100 pages in length) by Ernest Hemingway written in Cuba in 1951 and published in 1952. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Wapshot Chronicle is a 1957 novel by John Cheever about an eccentric family who live a Massachusetts fishing village. ... Thomas Lanier Williams III (March 26, 1911 – February 25, 1983), better known as Tennessee Williams, was a major American playwright who received many of the top theatrical awards. ... This article is about the play. ... Arthur Bob Miller (October 17, 1915 – February 10, 2005) was an American playwright and essayist. ... For the 1996 film, see The Crucible (1996 film). ... Lorraine Hansberry (May 19, 1930 - January 12, 1965) was an American playwright and litigant in the United States Supreme Court case, Hansberry v. ... For the 1961 film, see A Raisin in the Sun (film). ... Ralph Ellison (March 1, 1913[1] – April 16, 1994) was a scholar and writer. ... For the H.G. Wells novel, see The Invisible Man. ... Saul Bellow, born Solomon Bellows, (Lachine, Quebec, Canada, June 10, 1915 – April 5, 2005 in Brookline, Massachusetts) was an acclaimed Canadian-born American writer. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Ray Douglas Bradbury (born August 22, 1920) is an American literary, fantasy, horror, science fiction, and mystery writer best known for The Martian Chronicles, a 1950 book which has been described both as a short story collection and a novel, and his 1953 dystopian novel Fahrenheit 451. ... This article is about the novel. ... Richard Matheson (born February 20, 1926) is an American author and screenwriter, typically of fantasy, horror, or science fiction. ... This article is about Richard Mathesons novel. ... John Knowles (September 16, 1926 - November 29, 2001), b. ... A Separate Peace is John Knowles first published novel, released in 1959. ... Ayn Rand (IPA: , February 2 [O.S. January 20] 1905 – March 6, 1982), born Alisa Zinovyevna Rosenbaum (Russian: ), was a Russian-born American novelist and philosopher. ... For the film, see Atlas Shrugged (film). ... This page is about the novelist. ... This article is about the novel by Vladimir Nabokov. ... Grace Metalious (1924 - 1964) was an American author, best known for the controversial novel Peyton Place. ... Cover of the Modern Classics edition of the novel and its sequel Peyton Place is a 1956 novel by Grace Metalious. ... Boris Leonidovich Pasternak (Russian: ) (February 10 [O.S. January 29] 1890 – May 30, 1960) was a Nobel Prize-winning Russian poet and writer, in the West best known for his epic novel Doctor Zhivago. ... For other uses, see Doctor Zhivago (disambiguation). ...


Art Movements

Abstract expressionism, the first art movement specifically American to gain worldwide influence, was responsible for putting New York City in the centre on the artistic world, a place previously owned by Paris, France. This movement acquired its name for combining the German expressionism's emotional intensity with the anti-figurative aesthetic of the European abstract schools such as Futurism, Bauhaus and Synthetic Cubism. Jackson Pollock was one of the most influential painters of this movement, creating famous works such as No. 5, 1948. Jackson Pollock, No. ... An art movement is a tendency or style in art with a specific common philosophy or goal, followed by a group of artists during a restricted period of time, or, at least, with the heyday of the movement more or less strictly so restricted (usually a few months, years or... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The Eiffel Tower has become the symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Futurism (or Futurist) may refer to: Futures studies, the philosophical or academic study of the medium to long-term future (also known as futurology). ... For information about British rock band, see Bauhaus (band). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Cubism. ... Controversy swirls over the alleged sale of No. ... No. ...


Color Field painting and Hard-edge painting followed close on the heels of Abstract expressionism, and became the idiom for new abstraction in painting during the late 1950s. The term second generation was applied to many abstract artists who were related to but following different painterly directions than the earliest abstract expressionists. In the early 1950s Jackson Pollock and Willem de Kooning were enormously influential. However by the late 1950s Barnett Newman and Mark Rothko's paintings became more in focus to the next generation. Color Field painting is an abstract style that emerged in the 1950s after Abstract Expressionism and is largely characterized by abstract canvases painted primarily with large areas of solid color. ... The Hard-edge painting style can be considered a subdivision of Post-Painterly Abstraction, which in turn emerged from Color Field painting. ... Jackson Pollock, No. ... Controversy swirls over the alleged sale of No. ... Willem de Koonings Woman V (1952-53), National Gallery of Australia Willem de Kooning (April 24, 1904 – March 19, 1997) was an abstract expressionist painter, born in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. ... Barnett Newman (January 29, 1905 – July 4, 1970) was an American artist. ... Mark Rothkos painting 1957 # 20 (1957) Mark Rothko born Marcus Rothkowitz (September 25, 1903–February 25, 1970) was a Russian-born American painter and printmaker who is classified as an abstract expressionist, although he rejected not only the label but even being an abstract painter. ...


Pop art, with its roots in dadaism started to take form towards the end of the 1950s when some artists, after studying symbols and products of the world of propaganda in the United States, started to make them the main subject of their artistic work. That way, they used the most ostensive components of popular culture, with powerful influence in the daily life of the second half of the 20th century. It was the return of a figurative art, in opposition to the abstract expressionism that dominated the aesthetic scene since the end of World War II. Pop art used iconography of television, photography, comics, cinema and advertising. Andy Warhol was the most known artist of this movement, and in spite of it having initiated in the 50s, its most famous works date of the later decade. Just What Is It That Makes Today’s Homes So Different, So Appealing? (1956) is one of the earliest works to be considered pop art. ... Cover of the first edition of the publication, Dada. ... For other uses, see Propaganda (disambiguation). ... Popular culture (or pop culture) is the widespread cultural elements in any given society that are perpetuated through that societys vernacular language or lingua franca. ... The Creation of Adam, a figurative work by Michelangelo Figurative art describes artwork - particularly paintings - which are clearly derived from real object sources, and are therefore by definition representational. ... Look up Iconography in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Andrew Warhola (August 6, 1928 — February 22, 1987), better known as Andy Warhol, was an American artist who was a central figure in the movement known as Pop art. ...


Science and technology

The experiment The Miller-Urey experiment (or Urey-Miller experiment) was an experiment that simulated hypothetical conditions present on the early Earth and tested for the occurrence of chemical evolution. ... Francis Harry Compton Crick OM FRS (8 June 1916 – 28 July 2004), (Ph. ... For other people named James Watson, see James Watson (disambiguation). ... Rosalind Elsie Franklin (25 July 1920 Kensington, London – 16 April 1958 Chelsea, London) was an English biophysicist and X-ray crystallographer who made important contributions to the understanding of the fine structures of DNA, viruses, coal and graphite. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Plaque, at old site Entrance, old site, Free School Lane The Cavendish Laboratory is the University of Cambridges Department of Physics, and is part of the universitys School of Physical Sciences. ... The University of Cambridge (often Cambridge University), located in Cambridge, England, is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world and has a reputation as one of the most prestigious universities in the world. ... Bruce C. Heezen (1924 - June 21, 1977) was a geologist. ... Courtesy USGS The ridge was central in the breakup of Pangaea that began some 180 million years ago. ... Two polio vaccines are used throughout the world to combat polio. ... Transplant redirects here. ... Boston redirects here. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... AI redirects here. ... John McCarthy (born September 4, 1927, in Boston, Massachusetts, sometimes known affectionately as Uncle John McCarthy), is a prominent computer scientist who received the Turing Award in 1971 for his major contributions to the field of Artificial Intelligence. ... Sputnik 1 (Russian: , Satellite-1, or literally Co-traveler-1 byname ПС-1 (PS-1, i. ... After technical problems with the Comet, BOAC resumed jet service with imported Boeing 707s. ... This article is about the de Havilland Comet jet airliner. ... Fortran (previously FORTRAN[1]) is a general-purpose[2], procedural,[3] imperative programming language that is especially suited to numeric computation and scientific computing. ...

Prizes

Albert Schweitzer is awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1952. In 1953 Churchill is given the Nobel Prize for literature. In 1955 Laxness is awarded the Nobel Prize for literature for his work with Icelandic literature. Pulitzer Prize Albert Schweitzer, M.D., OM, (January 14, 1875 – September 4, 1965) was an Alsatian theologian, musician, philosopher, and physician. ... The Nobel Peace Prize (Swedish, Danish and Norwegian: Nobels fredspris) is the name of one of five Nobel Prizes bequeathed by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... The Nobel Prize (Swedish: ) was established in Alfred Nobels will in 1895, and it was first awarded in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace in 1901. ... Halldór Laxness Halldór Kiljan Laxness (IPA: ) (born Halldór Guðjónsson) (April 23, 1902 – February 8, 1998) was a 20th century Icelandic author of such novels as Independent People, The Atom Station, Paradise Reclaimed, Icelands Bell, The Fish Can Sing and World Light. ... The Pulitzer Prize is an American award regarded as the highest national honor in print journalism, literary achievements, and musical composition. ...


Sports

Paavo Nurmi and the Olympic Flame in the opening ceremony of the 1952 Summer Olympics.
Paavo Nurmi and the Olympic Flame in the opening ceremony of the 1952 Summer Olympics.

Image File history File links Paavo_Nurmi_sytyttää_olympiatulen_1952. ... Image File history File links Paavo_Nurmi_sytyttää_olympiatulen_1952. ... Paavo Johannes Nurmi ( ) (June 13, 1897 Turku – October 2, 1973 Helsinki) was a Finnish runner. ... The flame at the 2002 Winter Olympics The Olympic Flame, Olympic Fire, Olympic Torch, Olympic Light, Olympic Eye, and Olympic Sun are all names for an important marketing promotion and symbol of the Olympic Games. ... The 1952 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XV Olympiad, were held in 1952 in Helsinki, Finland. ... Alberto Ascari (July 13, 1918 – May 26, 1955) was one of Formula Ones first stars, the first great Ferrari driver and one of only two Italian World Champions in the history of the sport. ... Auto racing (also known as automobile racing or autosport) is a sport involving racing automobiles. ... Bannister was chosen as the first Sports Illustrated Sportsman of the Year for his accomplishments in 1954. ... A womens 400 m hurdles race on a typical outdoor red urethane track in the Helsinki Olympic Stadium in Finland. ... Lawrence Peter Yogi Berra (born May 12, 1925 in St. ... This article is about the sport. ... Maureen Catherine Connolly (Little Mo) (17 September 1934-21 June 1969) was an American professional tennis player She was born in San Diego, California, United States. ... For other uses, see Tennis (disambiguation). ... Michael Colin Cowdrey, Baron Cowdrey of Tonbridge CBE (December 24, 1932 - December 4, 2000) was an English cricketer, born in Ootacamund (India). ... Juan Manuel Fangio driving a Mercedes-Benz W196 in the 1986 Oldtimer Grand Prix at the Nürburgring Juan Manuel Fangio (June 24, 1911 - July 17, 1995) was a legendary race car driver. ... Auto racing (also known as automobile racing or autosport) is a sport involving racing automobiles. ... Sir Thomas Finney, OBE (born 5 April 1922, Preston) is a former English footballer, famous for his loyalty to his league club, Preston North End, and for his performances in the English national side. ... Association may refer to: A voluntary association (also sometimes called an association) is a group of individuals who voluntarily enter into an agreement, explicit or implicit, to form or act as a body (or organization) to accomplish a purpose. ... Robert Neil Harvey MBE (born 8 October 1928) is a former Australian cricketer who represented the Australian cricket team between 1948 and 1963. ... Gordon Gordie Howe, OC (born March 31, 1928 in Floral, Saskatchewan) is a former professional ice hockey player from Canada who played for the Detroit Red Wings and Hartford Whalers of the National Hockey League, and the Houston Aeros and New England Whalers in the WHA. He is often referred... Ice hockey, known simply as hockey in areas where it is more common than field hockey, is a team sport played on ice. ... For more coverage of cricket, go to the Cricket portal. ... Mickey Charles Mantle (October 20, 1931 – August 13, 1995) was an American baseball player who was inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame in 1974. ... This article is about the sport. ... Rocky Marciano (September 1, 1923 – August 31, 1969), born Rocco Francis Marchegiano, was the heavyweight champion of the world from 1952 to 1956. ... For other meanings of these words, see boxing (disambiguation) or boxer. ... Sir Stanley Matthews, CBE (February 1, 1915 - February 23, 2000) was a football player. ... Association may refer to: A voluntary association (also sometimes called an association) is a group of individuals who voluntarily enter into an agreement, explicit or implicit, to form or act as a body (or organization) to accomplish a purpose. ... Willie Howard Mays, Jr. ... This article is about the sport. ... Ferenc Puskás (April 2, 1927–November 17, 2006) (Hungarian: Puskás Ferenc, nickname Puskás Öcsi, Spanish: Ferenc Puskas Biro), was a legendary Hungarian football forward and coach. ... Association may refer to: A voluntary association (also sometimes called an association) is a group of individuals who voluntarily enter into an agreement, explicit or implicit, to form or act as a body (or organization) to accomplish a purpose. ... Alfredo Di Stéfano (born July 4, 1926 in Barracas, Buenos Aires) is an Argentine-born former footballer and coach. ... Association may refer to: A voluntary association (also sometimes called an association) is a group of individuals who voluntarily enter into an agreement, explicit or implicit, to form or act as a body (or organization) to accomplish a purpose. ... Real Madrid Club de Fútbol is a Spanish sports club most widely known for its professional football team based in Madrid. ... Joseph-Henri-Maurice Rocket Richard PC, CC, OQ (August 4, 1921 – May 27, 2000) was a professional ice hockey player who played for the Montreal Canadiens from 1942 to 1960. ... Ice hockey, known simply as hockey in areas where it is more common than field hockey, is a team sport played on ice. ... Sugar Ray Robinson (born Walker Smith Jr. ... For other meanings of these words, see boxing (disambiguation) or boxer. ... William Fenton Russell (born February 12, 1934) is a former American basketball player remembered for his central role in the Boston Celtics dynasty that won 11 championships in the 13 seasons that he played. ... This article is about the sport. ... Sir Garfield St Aubrun Sobers (born July 28, 1936 in Barbados), better known as Garry Sobers, was a West Indies cricket player. ... (John) Brian Statham (born June 17, 1930, Manchester; died June 10, 2000, Stockport, Cheshire) was one of the finest bowlers in the history of cricket. ... Eduard Streltsov (Эдуард Анатольевич Стрельцов, born July 21, 1937; died July 20, 1990) is a former Soviet football (soccer) player, who was nicknamed Russian Pelé. Streltsov played for Torpedo Moscow in the Soviet Elite League. ... Association may refer to: A voluntary association (also sometimes called an association) is a group of individuals who voluntarily enter into an agreement, explicit or implicit, to form or act as a body (or organization) to accomplish a purpose. ... Frank Holmes Tyson (born 6 June 1930 in Farnworth, Bolton, Lancashire) was an England cricketer of the mid-1950s. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Sir Frank Mortimer Maglinne Worrell (born 1 August 1924, Bridgetown Barbados, died 13 March 1967, Kingston, Jamaica) was a West Indian cricketer and Jamaican senator. ... Billy Wright, CBE (6 February 1924 – 3 September 1994) was an English footballer for Wolverhampton Wanderers. ... Association may refer to: A voluntary association (also sometimes called an association) is a group of individuals who voluntarily enter into an agreement, explicit or implicit, to form or act as a body (or organization) to accomplish a purpose. ... Lev Ivanovich Yashin (Russian: ) (October 22, 1929 – March 20, 1990) was a Russian Soviet football goalkeeper, known for his supreme athleticism in goal, imposing stature (he was 6 3, 189 cm) and amazing reflex saves. ... Association may refer to: A voluntary association (also sometimes called an association) is a group of individuals who voluntarily enter into an agreement, explicit or implicit, to form or act as a body (or organization) to accomplish a purpose. ... Jack Roosevelt Jackie Robinson (January 31, 1919 – October 24, 1972) became the first African-American major league baseball player of the modern era in 1947. ... This article is about the sport. ... Helmut Rahn, known as Der Boss (The Boss), (born 16th August 1929 in Essen; died 14th August 2003) was a German football player. ... Association may refer to: A voluntary association (also sometimes called an association) is a group of individuals who voluntarily enter into an agreement, explicit or implicit, to form or act as a body (or organization) to accomplish a purpose. ... Josef (Sepp) Herberger (28 March 1897 in Mannheim, Germany — 20 April 1977 in Weinheim-Hohensachsen, Germany) was a German football player and manager. ... Association may refer to: A voluntary association (also sometimes called an association) is a group of individuals who voluntarily enter into an agreement, explicit or implicit, to form or act as a body (or organization) to accomplish a purpose. ... Pele redirects here. ... Association may refer to: A voluntary association (also sometimes called an association) is a group of individuals who voluntarily enter into an agreement, explicit or implicit, to form or act as a body (or organization) to accomplish a purpose. ... Manuel Francisco dos Santos (October 28, 1933 – January 20, 1983), known by the nickname Garrincha (little bird),[3] was a Brazilian football right winger and forward who helped the Brazil national team win the World Cups of 1958 and 1962, and played the majority of his professional career for Brazilian... Association may refer to: A voluntary association (also sometimes called an association) is a group of individuals who voluntarily enter into an agreement, explicit or implicit, to form or act as a body (or organization) to accomplish a purpose. ... Association may refer to: A voluntary association (also sometimes called an association) is a group of individuals who voluntarily enter into an agreement, explicit or implicit, to form or act as a body (or organization) to accomplish a purpose. ...

Olympics

The 1952 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XV Olympiad, were held in 1952 in Helsinki, Finland. ... Location of Helsinki in Northern Europe Coordinates: , Country Province Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki Charter 1550 Capital city 1812 Government  - Mayor Jussi Pajunen Area  - Total 187. ... The 1952 Winter Olympics, officially known as the VI Olympic Winter Games, were celebrated in 1952 in Oslo, Norway. ... This article is about the capital of Norway. ... The 1956 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the XVI Olympiad, were held in 1956 in Melbourne, Australia, although the equestrian events could not be held in Australia due to quarantine regulations. ... This article is about the Australian city; the name may also refer to City of Melbourne or Melbourne city centre (also known as The CBD). ... The VII Olympic Winter Games were held in 1956 in Cortina dAmpezzo, Italy. ... Cortina dAmpezzo is a town and municipality in the province of Belluno, Veneto, northern Italy. ...

International issues

Middle East

Most of the countries of the Middle East continued in the national divisions created by former European empires. However, with the growing importance of their abundance of oil, the otherwise mostly impoverished states experienced an increase of wealth to mostly the elite aristocratic or later theocratic regimes. Synthetic motor oil being poured. ... For the business meaning, see Wealth (economics). ... For other uses, see Elite (disambiguation). ...


The growth of the state of Israel continued.


Mahmoud Abbas became involved in Palestinian politics in Qatar. Mahmoud Abbas (Arabic: ) (born March 26, 1935), also known by the kunya Abu Mazen (ابو مازن), was elected President of the Palestinian National Authority (PNA) on January 9, 2005, and took office on January 15, 2005. ...


In 1958 American troops enter Lebanon on a peacekeeping mission.


Africa

Decolonization was occurring in Africa in the 1950s. In 1956 Sudan, Tunisia, and Morocco became independent. In 1954 guerrillas started the Algerian War of Independence. Colonialism in 1945 Decolonization refers to the undoing of colonialism, the establishment of governance or authority through the creation of settlements by another country or jurisdiction. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Combatants FLN (1954-62) MNA (1954-62) France (1954-62) FAF (1960-61) OAS (1961-62) Commanders Mostefa Benboulaïd Ferhat Abbas Hocine Aït Ahmed Ahmed Ben Bella Krim Belkacem Larbi Ben MHidi Rabah Bitat Mohamed Boudiaf Messali Hadj General Jacques Massu General Maurice Challe Bachaga Said Boualam...


The Mau Mau began their terrorist attacks against the British in Kenya. This led to concentration camps in Kenya, the retreat of the British, and the election of former terrorist Kenyatta as leader of Kenya. The Mau Mau Uprising was an insurgency by Kenyan rebels against the British colonial administration from 1952 to 1960. ... A concentration camp is a large detention centre created for political opponents, aliens, specific ethnic or religious groups, civilians of a critical war-zone, or other groups of people, often during a war. ... Jomo Kenyatta (October 20, 1892?–August 22, 1978) was an African politician, the first Prime Minister (1963–1964) and President (1964–1978) of an independent Kenya. ...


Africa experienced the beginning of large-scale top-down economic interventions in the 1950s that failed to cause improvement and led to charitable exhaustion by the West as the century went on. The widespread corruption was not dealt with and war, disease, and famine continue to be constant problems in this region. See: Intervention (counseling) - an orchestrated attempt by family and friends to get a family member to get help for addiction or other similar problem. ... Occident redirects here. ...


Asia

The nations of the People's Republic of China and Indonesia began their history after their establishment in the late 1940s. Mao Zedong began to rise in prominence in China as he helped lead a revolution against the Nationalist government. In 1953 the French occupiers of Indochina tried to contain a growing communist insurgency against their rule led by Ho Chi Minh. After their defeat at Dien Bien Phu in 1954 they were forced to cede independence the nations of Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam. Vietnam however was divided between the communist north and American-influence south, and conflict continued. By 1953 the three-year war between North Korea, supported by the USSR and China (PRC), and South Korea, supported by the United States, had ended. This war resulted in a permanent border between the north and south sections of this country. Mao redirects here. ... Indochina 1886 Indochina, or the Indochinese Peninsula, is a region in Southeast Asia. ... For the city named after him, see Ho Chi Minh City. ... Dien Bien Phu (Điện Biên Phủ) is a small town in northwestern Vietnam in the province of Điện Biên. ...


After World War II the United States occupied Japan and assisted in its rebuilding. Social changes took place, including democratic elections and universal suffrage. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Latin America

In the 1950s Latin America was the center of covert and overt conflict between the CIA and the KGB. Their varying collusion with national, populist, and elitist interests destabilized the region. The United States CIA orchestrated the overthrow of the Guatemalan government in 1952. In 1957 the military dictatorship of Venezuela was overthrown. This continued a pattern of regional revolution and warfare making extensive use of ground forces. Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... Former president Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán on the cover of TIME magazine in June 1954 after his overthrow Operation PBSUCCESS was a CIA-organized covert operation that overthrew the democratically-elected President of Guatemala, Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán in 1954. ... A nations army is its military, or more specifically, all of its land forces. ...


Europe

Post-war reconstruction succeeded, thanks to mostly the return of free-market capitalism in West Germany and elsewhere, combined with the facets of the West's post-war boom, while the non-corrupt implementation of the Marshall Plan slowed economic recovery with Keynesian-policy welfare states. Europe continued to be divided into Western and Soviet bloc countries. The geographical point of this division came to be called the Iron Curtain. It divided Germany into East and West Germany. In 1955 West Germany joined NATO. In 1956 Soviet troops marched into Hungary. Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... For the fall of the Iron Curtain, see Revolutions of 1989. ... “East Germany” redirects here. ... This article is about the military alliance. ...


In 1957 the Treaty of Rome was part of the beginning of the process that led to the European Union. The Treaty of Rome signing ceremony Signatures in the Treaty The Treaty of Rome, signed by France, West Germany, Italy and Benelux (Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg) on March 25, 1957, established the European Economic Community (EEC). ...


Soviet Union and the Eastern Bloc

The Soviet Union continued its domination of the territories it conquered during World War II. Life was economically harsh. (See the Black Book of Communism.) In 1953 Joseph Stalin, the leader of the Soviet Union, died and in the resulting power struggle head of the KGB Lavrenti Beria was denounced and executed. Popular rebellions in East Germany in 1953 and Hungary in 1956 were brutally put down. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression is a controversial book edited by doctor Stéphane Courtois which attempts to catalog various crimes (deaths, torture, deportations, etc. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ... Lavrenty Beria Lavrenty Pavlovich Beria (Russian: Лавре́нтий Па́влович Бе́рия) (29 March 1899 - 23 December 1953), Soviet politician and police chief, is remembered chiefly as the executor of Joseph Stalins Great Purge of the 1930s, although in fact he presided only over the closing stages of the Purge. ... This article is about the state which existed from 1949 to 1990. ...


Caribbean

In 1957, Dr. François Duvalier came to power in an election in Haiti. He later declared himself president for life, and ruled until his death in 1971. Dr. François Duvalier, known as Papa Doc (April 14, 1907 – April 21, 1971[1]), was the President of Haiti from 1957 and later dictator (President for Life) from 1964 until his death. ...


In 1959 Fidel Castro overthrew the corrupt Batista regime in Cuba, initiating widespread social reform on the island. The romance and popularity of the revolution, and such leader as the Argentinian Che Guevara gave it global appeal and recognition. The United States was, however, now unable to meddle with either its social or economic development and was angered when Castro redistributed land that had been owned by American companies. It would thus become involved in an embargo and clumsy attempts to overthrow Castro, with Cuba as a result moving closer to the Soviet Union. Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz (born on August 13, 1926) is the current President of Cuba but on indefinite medical hiatus. ... Ernesto Guevara de la Serna Lynch (May 14, 1928 – October 9, 1967), commonly known as Che Guevara, el Che, or simply Che, was an Argentine Marxist revolutionary, political figure, author, military theorist, and leader of Cuban and internationalist guerrillas. ... For delayed access after publication, see Embargo (academic publishing). ...


People

Entertainers

Actors: Montgomery Clift, Dorothy Dandridge, James Dean, Sandra Dee, Troy Donahue, Audrey Hepburn, Charlton Heston, Rock Hudson, Grace Kelly, Jerry Lewis, Sophia Loren, Sal Mineo, Jayne Mansfield, Jerry Mathers, Hayley Mills, Marilyn Monroe, Paul Newman, Kim Novak, Jon Provost, Debbie Reynolds, George Reeves, Steve Reeves, Edward Montgomery Clift (October 17, 1920–July 23, 1966) was a four-time Oscar-nominated American film actor. ... Dorothy Jean Dandridge (November 9, 1922–September 8, 1965) was an American actress. ... For the film, see James Dean (film). ... Sandra Dee (April 23, 1942 - February 20, 2005) was an American film actress best known for her role as Gidget. // Alexandra Zuck was born to John and Mary Zuck, of Rusyn ancestry, in Bayonne, New Jersey, Dee was a professional model by the age of four. ... Troy Donahue Troy Donahue (January 27, 1936 – September 2, 2001) was an American actor, known for being a teen idol. ... Audrey Hepburn (May 4, 1929) – January 20, 1993) was an English Academy Award-, Tony Award-, Grammy Award-, and Emmy Award-winning film and stage actress, fashion icon, and humanitarian. ... Charlton Heston (born October 4, 1924) is an US-american film actor, known for playing larger-than-life heroic roles such as Moses in The Ten Commandments, Colonel George Taylor in Planet of the Apes, and Judah Ben-Hur in Ben-Hur. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... For the Mika song, see Grace Kelly (song). ... For other persons named Jerry Lewis, see Jerry Lewis (disambiguation). ... Sophia Loren (born September 20, 1934) is an Academy Award winning Italian film actress. ... Salvatore Sal Mineo, Jr. ... Jayne Mansfield (born Vera Jayne Palmer; April 19, 1933—29 June 1967) was an American actress working both on Broadway and in Hollywood. ... Jerry Mathers (born June 2, 1948 in Sioux City, Iowa) is an American television, film and stage actor. ... Hayley Catherine Rose Vivien Mills (born April 18, 1946) is an English actress. ... Marilyn Monroe (born Norma Jeane Mortenson;[1] baptised Norma Jeane Baker June 1, 1926 – August 5, 1962), was a Golden Globe-winning,[2] critically-acclaimed[3][4][5] American actress, singer, model, Hollywood icon,[6] cultural icon, fashion icon,[7] pop icon,[8] film executive[9] and sex symbol. ... This article is about the American actor and race team owner. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Jon Provost (b. ... For other persons named Debbie Reynolds, see Deborah Reynolds (disambiguation). ... George Reeves (January 5,[1] 1914 – June 16, 1959) was an American actor, best known for his role as Superman in the 1950s television program Adventures of Superman and his controversial death at the age of 45. ... Stephen L. Reeves (January 21, 1926 – May 5, 2000), was a bodybuilder, actor, and author. ...


Musicians: Perry Como, Paul Anka, Maria Callas, Bo Diddley, Ella Fitzgerald, Buddy Holly, Little Richard, Jerry Lee Lewis, Thelonious Monk, Elvis Presley, Joan Sutherland, Pierino Ronald Perry Como (May 18, 1912 – May 12, 2001) was an Italian-American singer and television personality. ... Paul Albert Anka, OC (born 30 July 1941, in Ottawa, Ontario) is a Canadian-born American singer, songwriter, and actor of Assyrian origin. ... Maria Callas in a casual moment, 1960s Maria Callas (Greek: Μαρία Κάλλας) (December 2, 1923 – September 16, 1977) was an American born, Greek dramatic coloratura soprano and perhaps the best-known opera singer of the post-World War II period. ... Bo Diddley (born December 30, 1928) aka The Originator, is an influential American rock and roll singer, songwriter, and guitarist. ... Ella Jane Fitzgerald (April 25, 1917 – June 15, 1996), also known as Lady Ella and the First Lady of Song, is considered one of the most influential jazz vocalists of the 20th Century. ... For the Weezer song, see Buddy Holly (song). ... Richard Wayne Penniman (born December 5, 1932), better known by the stage name Little Richard, is an African-American singer, songwriter, and pianist, who began performing in the 1940s and was a key figure in the transition from rhythm & blues to rock and roll in the mid-1950s. ... Jerry Lee Lewis (born September 29, 1935), also known by the nickname The Killer, is an American rock and roll and country music singer, songwriter, and pianist. ... Thelonious Sphere Monk (October 10, 1917 – February 17, 1982) was a jazz pianist and composer. ... Elvis redirects here. ... Dame Joan Sutherland OM, AC, DBE (born November 7, 1926) is an Australian dramatic coloratura soprano noted for her contribution to the bel canto revival of the 1950s and 1960s. ...


Others: Hugh Hefner (publisher), film directors Jacques Tati and Raj Kapoor, comics Ernie Kovacs and Steve Allen, television personalities Jack Paar, Dave Garroway, Gary Moore, and Johnny Carson, Hugh Marston Hefner (born April 9, 1926 in Chicago, Illinois), also referred to colloquially as Hef, is the founder and editor-in-chief of Playboy magazine. ... Jacques Tati as Monsieur Hulot. ... Raj Kapoor (Hindi: राज कपूर, , Urdu: راج کپور, Rāj Kapūr, December 14, 1924 - June 2, 1988) was a legendary Indian actor, producer and director of Bollywood movies. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Steve Allen on the cover of Steve Allen on the Bible, Religion, and Morality Stephen Valentine Patrick William Allen (December 26, 1921 – October 30, 2000) was an American musician, comedian, and writer who was instrumental in innovating the concept of the television talk show. ... Jack Parr redirects here. ... David Cunningham Garroway (July 13, 1913 – July 21, 1982, suicide) was the founding host of NBCs Today from 1952 to 1961, whose easygoing, relaxed and relaxing style belied a battle with depression that may have contributed to the end of his days as a television bigtimer and, in due... For the former TV host, see Garry Moore. ... For other persons named John Carson, see John Carson (disambiguation). ...

Desi Arnaz (born Desiderio Alberto Arnaz y de Acha III) (March 2, 1917 – December 2, 1986) was a Cuban American musician, actor and television producer. ... Lucille Désirée Ball (August 6, 1911 – April 26, 1989) was an iconic American comedienne, film, television, stage and radio actress, glamour girl and star of the landmark sitcoms I Love Lucy, The Lucy-Desi Comedy Hour, The Lucy Show and Heres Lucy. ... Jack Benny (February 14, 1894 in Chicago, Illinois – December 26, 1974 in Beverly Hills, California), born Benjamin Kubelsky, was an American comedian, vaudeville performer, and radio, television, and film actor. ... Charles Edward Anderson Chuck Berry (born October 18, 1926 in St. ... Charles Eugene Patrick Pat Boone (born June 1, 1934) is a singer whose smooth style made him a popular performer of the 1950s. ... Marlon Brando, Jr. ... Yul Brynner (July 11, 1920[1] – October 10, 1985) was a Russian-born Broadway and Academy Award-winning Hollywood actor. ... Valerie June Carter Cash (June 23, 1929 – May 15, 2003) was a singer, songwriter, actress and comedian and was a member of the Carter Family, and the second wife of singer Johnny Cash. ... For the song of the same name, recorded by Tracy Byrd and later by Jason Aldean, see Johnny Cash (song). ... Clay Cole is a former host and disk jockey, best known for his eponymous television dance program, The Clay Cole Show, which aired in New York City on WNTA and WPIX-TV from 1959 to 1968. ... Coltrane redirects here. ... For other persons named Tony Curtis, see Tony Curtis (disambiguation). ... Peter Wilton Cushing, OBE, (26 May 1913 - 11 August 1994) was an English actor, known for his many appearances in Hammer Films, in which he played Baron Frankenstein and Dr. Van Helsing, amongst many other roles, often appearing opposite his close friend Christopher Lee. ... It has been suggested that Olympia 74 be merged into this article or section. ... Miles Dewey Davis III (May 26, 1926 – September 28, 1991) was an American jazz musician, widely considered to be one of the most influential of the 20th century. ... Diana Dors (October 23, 1931 – May 4, 1984) was an English actress and sex symbol. ... Kirk Douglas (born Issur Danielovitch[1] on December 9, 1916) is an iconic Academy Award-winning American actor and film producer known for his cleft chin, his gravelly voice and his recurring roles as the kinds of characters Douglas himself once described as sons of bitches. He is also father... Ava Lavinia Gardner (December 24, 1922 – January 25, 1990) was an Academy Award-nominated American actress. ... John Gregson (15 March 1919 - 8 January 1975) was a British actor. ... For the Australian cricketer nicknamed Dizzy, see Jason Gillespie. ... The Goons are a small internet community. ... Lionel Hampton with George W. Bush Lionel Leo Hampton (April 20, 1908, Louisville, Kentucky – August 31, 2002 New York City), was a jazz bandleader and percussionist. ... Biography published in 1978 (1983 paperback reprint shown) Anthony John Hancock (12 May 1924 – 24 June 1968) was a major figure in British television and radio comedy in the 1950s and 1960s, known as Tony Hancock. ... William Holden (April 17, 1918 – ca. ... Dean Martin (born Dino Paul Crocetti; June 7, 1917 – December 25, 1995) was an American singer, film actor, television personality, and comedian. ... Charles Mingus (April 22, 1922 – January 5, 1979) was an American jazz bassist, composer, bandleader, and occasional pianist. ... For other persons of the same name, see Charles Parker. ... Patti Page (born Clara Ann Fowler on November 8, 1927 in Claremore, Oklahoma) is one of the best-known female singers in traditional pop music. ... Arthur Edward Pepper, Jr. ... For other persons named Carl Perkins, see Carl Perkins (disambiguation). ... James Frederick Rodgers (born September 18, 1933 in Camas, Washington) is sometimes classed as a rock and roll singer, but his style was more typical of traditional pop music. ... Josephine Owaissa Cottle (born April 5, 1922), better known as Gale Storm, is an American actress/singer. ... John Randolph Jack Webb (April 2, 1920 – December 23, 1982) was an American actor, television producer, director, and writer who is most famous for his role as Sergeant Joe Friday in the radio and television series Dragnet. ...

World leaders

Sir Robert Gordon Menzies, KT, AK, CH, FRS, QC (20 December 1894 – 15 May 1978), Australian politician, was the twelfth and longest-serving Prime Minister of Australia, serving eighteen and a half years. ... Getúlio Dornelles Vargas (pron. ... Juscelino Kubitschek and his wife Juscelino Kubitschek de Oliveira (JK) (September 12, 1902-August 22, 1976) was a prominent Brazilian politician who was President of Brazil from 1956 to 1961. ... Louis Stephen St. ... John George Diefenbaker, CH, PC, QC, BA, MA, LL.B, LL.D, DCL, FRSC, FRSA, D.Litt, DSL, (18 September 1895 – 16 August 1979) was the 13th Prime Minister of Canada (1957 – 1963). ... Mao redirects here. ... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was the Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... George VI (Albert Frederick Arthur George; 14 December 1895 – 6 February 1952) was King of the United Kingdom and the British Dominions from 11 December 1936 until his death. ... The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the sixteen sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that recognise Elizabeth II as their respective monarch. ... Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary Windsor; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of sixteen sovereign states, holding each crown and title equally. ... The Commonwealth Realms, shown in pink A Commonwealth Realm is any one of the sixteen sovereign states within the Commonwealth of Nations that recognise Elizabeth II as their respective monarch. ... Nasser redirects here. ... Haile Selassie Haile Selassie (Power of Trinity) (July 23, 1892 – August 27, 1975) was the last Emperor (1930–1936; 1941–1974) of Ethiopia, and is a religious symbol in the Rastafarian movement. ... Jules-Vincent Auriol (August 27, 1884 – January 1, 1966) was a French politician who served as the first President of the Fourth Republic from 1947 to 1954. ... Categories: Stub | 1882 births | 1962 deaths | Presidents of France ... This article is about the person. ... Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru (Hindi: , IPA: (November 14, 1889 – May 27, 1964) was a major political leader of the Congress Party, a pivotal figure in the Indian independence movement and the first Prime Minister of independent India. ... Ben Gurion redirects here. ... For the member of Seanad Éireann from 1963–65, see John Costelloe John Aloysius Costello (20 June 1891 – 5 January 1976), a successful barrister, was one of the main legal advisors to the government of the Irish Free State after independence, Attorney General of Ireland from 1926–1932 and Taoiseach... Éamon de Valera[1][2] (IPA: ) (Irish: ) (born Edward George de Valera 14 October 1882 – 29 August 1975) was one of the dominant political figures in 20th century Ireland. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Emperor Shōwa ) (April 29, 1901 – January 7, 1989) was the 124th Emperor of Japan according to the traditional order reigning from December 25, 1926 until his death in 1989. ... George Borg Olivier (5 July 1911 - 29 October 1980) was three times the Prime Minister of Malta (1950 to 1955 and 1962 to 1971). ... António de Oliveira Salazar, GColIH, GCTE, GCSE, pron. ... Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde (December 4, 1892 - November 20, 1975), commonly known as Francisco Franco (pronounced ) or Francisco Franco y Bahamonde was leader of Spain from October 1936, as regent of Kingdom of Spain from 1947 until his death in 1975. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... Khrushchev redirects here. ... Celal Bayar Mahmut Celal Bayar (May 16, 1883 - August 22, 1986) was a Turkish politician, statesman and the third President of Turkey. ... Menderes greets his supporters Ali Adnan Ertekin Menderes (1899 - September 17, 1961) was a Turkish statesman and prime minister between 1950–1960. ... Churchill redirects here. ... For the eponymous hat, see Anthony Eden hat. ... Maurice Harold Macmillan, 1st Earl of Stockton, OM, PC (10 February 1894 – 29 December 1986), was a British Conservative politician and Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1957 to 1963. ... For other persons named Harry Truman, see Harry Truman (disambiguation). ... Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... Pius XIIs signature Pope Pius XII (Latin: ), born Eugenio Maria Giuseppe Giovanni Pacelli (March 2, 1876 – October 9, 1958), reigned as the 260th pope, the human head of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City, from March 2, 1939 until his death in 1958. ... See also: 15th-century Antipope John XXIII. Pope John XXIII (Latin: ; Italian: ), born Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli (November 25, 1881 – June 3, 1963), known as Blessed John XXIII since his beatification, was elected as the 261st Pope of the Roman Catholic Church and sovereign of Vatican City on October 28, 1958. ... For other uses, see Konrad Adenauer (disambiguation). ... Tito redirects here. ... Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ...

External links

The Victoria and Albert Museum (often abbreviated as the V&A) in London is the worlds largest and finest museum of decorative arts and design, housing a permanent collection of over 4. ...

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