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Encyclopedia > 1920 Kiev Offensive
Kiev Offensive (1920)
Part of Polish-Soviet War

Polish Breguet 14 operating from Kiev airfield
Date April-June, 1920
Location Ukraine
Result Soviet victory1
Combatants
Second Polish Republic,
Ukrainian People's Republic
Soviet Russia
Commanders
Józef Piłsudski,
Edward Rydz-Śmigły
Aleksandr Yegorov, Semyon Budyonny
Strength
8 infantry divisions, 1 cavalry division, 2 understrength Ukrainian divisions 8 infantry divisions, 2 cavalry divisions, later also 1st Cavalry Army
Polish-Soviet War
Target Vistula – Bereza Kartuska – Wilno – Minsk – Daugavpils – Koziatyn – Kiev – Volodarka – Mironówka – Olszanica – Żywotów – Miedwiedówka – Dziunków – Wasylkowce – Bystrzyk – Nowochwastów – Berezno – Spiczyniec – Boryspol – Zazime – Puchówka – Okuniew – Spiczyn – Lwów – Berezina – Nasielsk – Serock – Radzymin – Zadwórze – Warsaw – Komarów – Niemen – Zboiska – 2nd Minsk

The 1920 Kiev Offensive (or Kiev Operation) that is sometimes considered to have started the Soviet-Polish War[1] was an attempt by the newly re-emerged Poland, led by Józef Piłsudski, to seize central and eastern Ukraine,[1] torn in the warring among various factions, both domestic and foreign, from Bolshevist Russia. Combatants Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic Second Polish Republic Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Joseph Stalin Józef PiÅ‚sudski Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Strength 950,000 including reserves 5 million 360,000 including reserves 738,000 Casualties Unknown, dead estimated at 100,000 - 150,000 Unknown, dead estimated at... Image File history File links Polish Air Forces Breguet 14 stationed on the Kiev airfield during the Kiev Offensive in the Polish-Bolshevik War of 1920 Picture published in Polska lotnicza album, Warsaw, 1937 As such it falls under the 1926 copyright act, almost identical to the 1952 act. ... The Breguet 14 was a French biplane bomber and reconnaissance aircraft of World War I. It was built in very large numbers and production continued for many years after the end of the war. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 3 - Babe Ruth is traded by the Boston Red Sox to the New York Yankees for $125,000, the largest sum ever paid for a player at that time. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Poland. ... Second Polish Republic 1921-1939 The Second Polish Republic is an unofficial name applied to the Republic of Poland between World War I and World War II. When the borders of the state were fixed in 1921, it had an area of 388. ... Image File history File links UPR_flag. ... Ukrainian Peoples Republic (Ukrainian: ), also sometimes translated as Ukrainian National Republic, abbreviated UNR (УНР), was a republic in part of the territory of modern Ukraine after the Russian Revolution, eventually headed by Symon Petliura. ... Bolshevist Russia is a common term that refers to the Red side in the Russian government between the Bolsheviks October Revolution (November 7, 1917) and the constitution of the Soviet Union (December 30, 1922). ... Office Chief of State, Marshal of Poland Term of office from November 14, 1918 until December 9, 1922 Profession Polish Leader Political party none, see Sanacja for details Spouse Maria PiÅ‚sudska Aleksandra PiÅ‚sudska Date of birth December 5, 1867 Place of birth Zułów, in todays Lithuania... Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y (March 11, 1886 - December 2, 1941); nom de guerre ÅšmigÅ‚y, TarÅ‚owski, Adam Zawisza) was a Polish politician, an officer of the Polish Army, painter and poet. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Aleksandr Yegorov Aleksandr Ilyich Yegorov (Russian: Александр Ильич Егоров) (October 13, 1883–February 22, 1939), Soviet military commander, was a prominent victim of Stalins Great Purge of the late 1930s. ... Semyon Budyonny (also spelled Budennii, Budenny, Budyenny etc, Russian: Семён Михайлович Будённый) (April 25 [O.S. April 13] 1883 – October 26, 1973) was a Soviet military commander and an ally of Soviet leader Joseph Stalin. ... Combatants Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic Second Polish Republic Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Joseph Stalin Józef PiÅ‚sudski Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Strength 950,000 including reserves 5 million 360,000 including reserves 738,000 Casualties Unknown, dead estimated at 100,000 - 150,000 Unknown, dead estimated at... Combatants Poland RSFSR Commanders Józef PiÅ‚sudski Vladimir Lenin Strength ~100,000 troops >100,000 troops Casualties  ?  ? {{{notes}}} The Russian Westward offensive of 1918 — 1919 was part of general move of the Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic into the areas abandoned by the Ober-Ost garrisons, that were being... Battle of Bereza Kartuska (1919) Conflict Polish-Bolshevik War Date August, 1920 Place near Bereza Kartuska, near Brzesc, Belarus Result Polish victory Battle of Bereza Kartuska was one of the first conflicts between the organised forces of the Second Polish Republic and Soviet Russia and can be considered as one... Combatants Poland Bolshevist Russia Commanders Józef PiÅ‚sudski WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw Belina-Prażmowski Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Unknown Strength 9 cavalry squadrons 3 infantry battalions artillery support local population Unknown Casualties Unknown Unknown Operation Wilno refers to the Polish offensive and capture of Wilno (Vilnius) during the first... Battle of Daugavpils (otherwise known as the Battle of Dyneburg) was the final battle of the joint Polish and Latvian Operation Winter against the Red Army. ... Combatants Poland Soviet Russia Commanders Józef PiÅ‚sudski, Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Aleksandr Yegorov, Semyon Budionny Strength 8 Infantry Divisions, 1 Cavalry Division, 2 understrength Ukrainian divisions 8 Infantry Divisions, 2 Cavalry Divisions, later also 1st Cavalry Army Casualties ? ? The Kiev Offensive (or Kiev Operation) was an attempt by... Combatants Poland Bolshevik Russia Commanders Stefan Dab-Biernacki Aleksandr Yegorov Strength 2 infantry regiments, 1 cavalry regiment, 1 artillery group 4th Cavalry Division Casualties ? ? The Battle of WoÅ‚odarka was a clash between the Polish Army and Siemion Budionnyis First Cavalry Army. ... Combatants Poland Bolshevik Russia Commanders Strength at least two regiments 11th Cavalry Division Casualties {{{notes}}} Battle of Bystrzyk happened on May 31, 1920, near the village of Bystryk near Kiev. ... Combatants Poland Bolshevik Russia Commanders Strength 2 battalions (part of 1st Legions Infantry Regiment) 58th Rifle Division Casualties {{{notes}}} Battle of Boryspil happened on June 2, 1920, near the town of Boryspil near Kiev. ... During the Polish-Soviet War of 1920 the city of Lwów was attacked by the forces of Aleksandr Yegorov. ... Combatants Second Polish Republic Bolshevist Russia Commanders Strength Casualties The Battle of Nasielsk was fought on August 14 and August 15 of 1920 between Polish and Soviet forces. ... The Battle of Radzymin was part of the Battle of Warsaw during the Polish-Bolshevik War. ... Battle of Zadwórze (sometimes referred to as the Polish Thermopylae) was a battle of the Polish-Bolshevik War. ... The Battle of Warsaw (sometimes referred to as the Miracle at the Vistula, Polish Cud nad WisÅ‚Ä…) was the decisive battle of the Polish-Soviet War, the war that began soon after the end of World War I in 1918 and lasted until the Treaty of Riga in 1921. ... Combatants Poland Bolshevik Russia Commanders Juliusz Rómmel Semyon Budyonny Strength 6 regiments 17 500 men, 20 regiments Casualties 500 KIA, 700 horses Unknown. ... Combatants Russia Poland Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Józef PiÅ‚sudski Strength ~100,000 on the Western Front (September 1) 96,300 (September 15) Casualties uncertain, at least 40,000 POWs The Battle of the Niemen River was the second-greatest battle of the Polish-Soviet War. ... Combatants Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic Second Polish Republic Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Joseph Stalin Józef PiÅ‚sudski Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y Strength 950,000 including reserves 5 million 360,000 including reserves 738,000 Casualties Unknown, dead estimated at 100,000 - 150,000 Unknown, dead estimated at... Office Chief of State, Marshal of Poland Term of office from November 14, 1918 until December 9, 1922 Profession Polish Leader Political party none, see Sanacja for details Spouse Maria PiÅ‚sudska Aleksandra PiÅ‚sudska Date of birth December 5, 1867 Place of birth Zułów, in todays Lithuania... Bolshevist Russia is a common term that refers to the Red side in the Russian government between the Bolsheviks October Revolution (November 7, 1917) and the constitution of the Soviet Union (December 30, 1922). ...


The stated goal of the operation was to create a formally independent Ukraine dominated by Poland,[2] although much of Ukrainian population were ambivalent as many viewed the Polish advance as a new occupation[3] aimed at subbordinating Ukraine to under the Polish rule[4] while others greeted the Polish and allied Ukrainian forces as liberators.[5] With their loyalties divided, Ukrainian fought for both sides of the conflict.[6] Ukrainians (Ukrainian: Українці, Ukrayintsi) are an East Slavic ethnic group primarily living in Ukraine. ...


A major military operation, this campaign was conducted from April to June 1920 by the Polish Army in alliance with Ukrainian People's Republic forces under the exiled nationalist leader Symon Petliura, opposed by the Bolsheviks who claimed those territories for the Ukrainian SSR and whose Red Army also included numerous Ukrainians in its ranks. Initially successful for the Polish army, which captured Kiev on May 7, 1920, the campaign was dramatically reversed. The ambivalence of the Ukrainian population [7][8] prevented Piłsudski and Petliura from gaining the support they expected, and the allied Polish forces and Petlura's Ukrainians were forced to retreat under mounting pressure from a Red Army counteroffensive. 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 3 - Babe Ruth is traded by the Boston Red Sox to the New York Yankees for $125,000, the largest sum ever paid for a player at that time. ... Polish Army (Polish Wojsko Polskie) is the name applied to the military forces of Poland. ... Ukrainian Peoples Republic (Ukrainian: ), also sometimes translated as Ukrainian National Republic, abbreviated UNR (УНР), was a republic in part of the territory of modern Ukraine after the Russian Revolution, eventually headed by Symon Petliura. ... Nationalism is an ideology that creates and sustains a nation as a concept of a common identity for groups of humans. ... Symon Petlyura (Симон Петлюра; also spelled Simon, Semen, Semyen Petliura or Petlura, May 10, 1879 â€“ May 25, 1926) was a Ukrainian politician. ... Leaders of the Bolshevik Party and the Communist International, a painting by Malcolm McAllister on the Pathfinder Mural in New York City and on the cover of the book Lenin’s Final Fight published by Pathfinder. ... State motto: Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! Official language None. ... The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya), the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 3 - Babe Ruth is traded by the Boston Red Sox to the New York Yankees for $125,000, the largest sum ever paid for a player at that time. ...

Contents

Before the Battle

Polish General Listowski (left) and exiled Ukrainian leader Symon Petlura (second from left) following the Petlura's alliance with the Poles.
Polish General Listowski (left) and exiled Ukrainian leader Symon Petlura (second from left) following the Petlura's alliance with the Poles.
Soviet Ukraine's propaganda poster issued following the Petlura-Piłsudski alliance. The Ukrainian text reads: "Corrupt Petlura has sold Ukraine to the Polish landowners. Landowners burned and plundered Ukraine. Death to landowners and Petlurovites."
Soviet Ukraine's propaganda poster issued following the Petlura-Piłsudski alliance. The Ukrainian text reads: "Corrupt Petlura has sold Ukraine to the Polish landowners. Landowners burned and plundered Ukraine. Death to landowners and Petlurovites."

The Ukrainian People's Republic, with mounting attacks on its territory since early 1919, had the entire Ukrainian territory outside of its control as the latter was divided between a large group of disparate powers: the Denikin's Whites, Bolshevik forces, the Makhnovist Partisan Army claiming a significant territory along with various bands lacking any political ideology, as well as Romania in the south-west and Poland itself. The forces of the exiled Ukrainian nationalist leader Symon Petlura who formally represented the Ukrainian People's Republic only contolled a small sliver of land near the Polish border.[9] In such conditions, Piłsudski could not have any difficulty to convince Petlura to join the alliance with Poland despite many unresolved territorial conflicts between these two nations[2] and on April 21 they signed a Treaty of Warsaw. In exchange for agreeing to a border along the Zbruch River, recognizing the recent Polish territorial gains in western Ukraine obtained by the Poland's defeating the Ukrainian attempt to create another Ukrainian state in Volhynia and Galicia, largely Ukrainian populated but with significant Polish minority, Petlura was promised military help in regaining the control of Bolshevik-occupied territories with Kiev, where he would again assume the authority of the Ukrainian People's Republic. Following the formal restoration of Ukrainian independence, the Ukrainian republic was then supposed to subbordinate its military and economy to Warsaw[2] through joining the Polish-led "Międzymorze" federation of East-Central European states, as Piłsudski wanted Ukraine to be a buffer between Poland and Russia rather than seeing Ukraine again dominated by Russia right at the Polish border.[10][11] Separate provisions in the treaty guaranteed the rights of the Polish and Ukrainian minorities within both states and obliged each side not to conclude any international agreements against each other.[2][12][9] Image File history File links Petlyura_Lisowski. ... Image File history File links Petlyura_Lisowski. ... Antoni Listowski (1865-1927) was a Polish military officer. ... Symon Petlyura (Ukrainian: ; also spelled Simon, Semen, Semyen Petliura or Petlura, May 10, 1879 â€“ May 25, 1926) was a Ukrainian socialist politician and statesman, one of the leaders of Ukraines unsuccessful fight for independence following the Russian Revolution of 1917. ... Image File history File links Petlyura_Sold_UA.jpg‎ Soviet propaganda poster in Ukraine speaking against on the alliance of Petlyura and Pilsudski. ... Image File history File links Petlyura_Sold_UA.jpg‎ Soviet propaganda poster in Ukraine speaking against on the alliance of Petlyura and Pilsudski. ... State motto: Пролетарі всіх країн, єднайтеся! Official language None. ... Ukrainian Peoples Republic (Ukrainian: ), also sometimes translated as Ukrainian National Republic, abbreviated UNR (УНР), was a republic in part of the territory of modern Ukraine after the Russian Revolution, eventually headed by Symon Petliura. ... Anton Denikin on the day of his resignation in 1920 Anton Ivanovich Denikin (Анто́н Ива́нович Дени́кин) (December 16, 1872 - August 8, 1947) was a Russian army officer before and during... The White movement, whose military arm is known as the White Army (Белая Армия) or White Guard (Белая Гвардия, белогвардейцы) and whose members are known as Whites (Белые, or the derogatory Беляки) or White Russians (a term which has other meanings) comprised some of the Russian forces, both political and military, which opposed the Bolsheviks after the... Nestor Makhno in 1909 Nestor Ivanovich Makhno (October 27, 1889–July 25, 1934) was an anarchist Ukrainian revolutionary who refused to align with the Bolsheviks after the October Revolution. ... The Revolutionary Insurrectionary Army of Ukraine was am anarchist force under the command of the famous anarchist Nestor Makhno during the Russian civil war. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Symon Petlyura (Ukrainian: ; also spelled Simon, Semen, Semyen Petliura or Petlura, May 10, 1879 â€“ May 25, 1926) was a Ukrainian socialist politician and statesman, one of the leaders of Ukraines unsuccessful fight for independence following the Russian Revolution of 1917. ... Ukrainian Peoples Republic (Ukrainian: ), also sometimes translated as Ukrainian National Republic, abbreviated UNR (УНР), was a republic in part of the territory of modern Ukraine after the Russian Revolution, eventually headed by Symon Petliura. ... Office Chief of State Term of office from November 14, 1918 until December 9, 1922 Profession Statesman and military commander Political party none, see Sanacja for details Spouse Maria PiÅ‚sudska Date of birth December 5, 1867 Place of birth Zułów, in todays Lithuania Date of death May... April 21 is the 111th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (112th in leap years). ... Zbruch River (Ukrainian: Збруч) is a river in Western Ukraine (length: 247 km, basin: 3330 sq. ... Orlęta, a 1926 painting by Wojciech Kossak The Polish-Ukrainian War of 1918 and 1919 was a conflict between the forces of Poland and Western-Ukrainian Peoples Republic for the control over the Eastern Galicia after the dissolution of Austria-Hungary. ... The West Ukrainian National Republic (Ukrainian: ) was a short-lived republic that existed in late 1918 and early 1919 in eastern Galicia, Bukovina and Transcarpathia and included the cities of Lviv, Kolomyya, and Stanislav. ... Pochayiv Lavra, the spiritual heart of Volhynia Volhynia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , Russian: ; also called Volynia) comprises the historic region in western Ukraine located between the rivers Pripyat and Western Bug -- to the north of Galicia and of Podolia. ... Coat-of-arms of Galicia or Galicja Galicia (Ukrainian: , Polish: , German: , Hungarian: ) is an historical region in East Central Europe, currently divided between Poland and Ukraine. ... Ukrainian Peoples Republic (Ukrainian: ), also sometimes translated as Ukrainian National Republic, abbreviated UNR (УНР), was a republic in part of the territory of modern Ukraine after the Russian Revolution, eventually headed by Symon Petliura. ... MiÄ™dzymorze (Myen-dzih-MOH-zheh): name for Józef PiÅ‚sudskis proposed federation of Poland, Lithuania, Belarus and Ukraine. ...


The treaty was followed by a formal alliance signed by Petlura and Piłsudski on April 24. On the same day, Poland and UPR forces began the Kiev Operation, aimed at securing the Ukrainian territory for the Petlura's government thus creating a buffer for Poland that would separate it from Russia. Sixty-five thousand Polish and fifteen thousand Ukrainian soldiers [13] took part in the initial expedition whose main military goal was to outflank the Bolsheviks and destroy them in a single battle. After winning the battle in the South, the Polish General Staff planned a speedy withdrawal of the 3rd Army and strengthening of the northern front where Piłsudski expected the main battle with the Red Army to take place. The Polish southern flank was to be held by Polish-allied Ukrainian forces under a friendly government in Ukraine. On May 7, Polish and Ukrainians soldiers entered Kiev. April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (115th in leap years). ...


The campaign

Before the Polish advance. Central and Eastern Europe in December 1919
Before the Polish advance. Central and Eastern Europe in December 1919
Polish Kiev Offensive at its height. June 1920
Polish Kiev Offensive at its height. June 1920
Soviet offensive successes. Early August 1920
Soviet offensive successes. Early August 1920

Download high resolution version (2000x1534, 451 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2000x1534, 451 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2000x1534, 450 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2000x1534, 450 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2000x1534, 454 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (2000x1534, 454 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...

Polish-Ukrainian advance

Pilsudski's forces were divided into three armies. Arranged from north to south, they were the 3rd, 2nd and 6th, with Petliura's forces attached to the 6th army. Facing them were the Soviet 12th and 14th armies led by Alexander Yegorov. Pilsudski struck on April 25, and captured Zhytomyr the following day. Within a week, the Soviet 12th army was largely destroyed. In the south, the Polish 6th Army and Petliura's forces pushed the Soviet 14th army out of central Ukraine as they quickly marched eastward through Vinnytsia .[9] The combined Polish-Ukrainian forces entered Kiev on May 7, encountering only token resistance. On May 9th the Polish troops celebrated the capture of Kiev with the victory parade on Kreschatyk, the city's main street. However as the parading troops were Piłsudski's Poles instead of Petlura's Ukrainians, the Kievans watched this demonstration of force with great ambivalence, which looked to them just like another occupation army.[3] Following this parade, however, all Polish forces were withdrawn from the city and control was given to the Ukrainian 6th division under the control of Petlura's Ukrainian government. [14]. Marshal of the Soviet Union Alexander Yegorov, here shown wearing the insignia of Komandarm second class (2 ranks below Marshal Alexander Ilyich Yegorov (Russian: Александр Ильич Егоров) (October 13, 1883–February 22, 1939), Soviet military commander, was a prominent victim of Stalins Great Purge of the late 1930s. ... Zhytomyr (Ukrainian, Russian Житомир, Polish: Å»ytomierz) is the capital of the Zhytomyrska oblast in Ukraine. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Vinnytsia highlighted. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted. ... May 7 is the 127th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (128th in leap years). ... Victory Parade on Red Square, Moscow on June 24, 1945. ... Khreschatyk Khreschatyk (Ukrainian: , Russian: ) is the main and probably the best-known street in Kiev, the capital of Ukraine. ...


The success of the joint Polish-Ukrainian political campaign depended on the creation of a strong Ukrainian army capable of defeating the Soviets in Ukraine. While initially successful, the campaign ultimately failed. The local population was tired of hostilities after several years of war and the Ukrainian Army never exceeded two divisions largely due to the ambivalent attitude of Ukrainians towards the alliance. Petliura was only able to recruit 20,000 soldiers into his army, a number insufficient to hold back the Soviet forces. Motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Transliterated: Proletarii vsekh stran, soedinyaytes!) (Russian: Workers of the world, unite!) Anthem: The Internationale (1922-1944) Hymn of the Soviet Union (1944-1991) Capital (largest city) Moscow None; Russian de facto Government Federation of Soviet Republics  - Last President Mikhail Gorbachev  - Last Premier Ivan Silayev Establishment October Revolution   - Declared 30...


However the Bolshevik army, although having suffered some defeats, avoided total destruction. The Polish offensive stopped at Kiev and only a small bridgehead was established on the eastern bank of the Dnieper. This article is about the river. ...


Soviet counterattack

The Polish-Ukrainian military thrust soon met the Red Army counterattack. On May 24, 1920 the Polish-Ukrainian forces were engaged for the first time by Semyon Budionny and his famous First Cavalry Army. Two days later, Budionny's cavalry, with two major units from the Russian 12th Army, opened an assault on the Polish forces centered around Kiev. After a week of heavy fighting south of the city, the Russian assault was repulsed and the front line restored. On June 3, 1920 another Russian assault began north of the city. The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya), the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... May 24 is the 144th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (145th in leap years). ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 3 - Babe Ruth is traded by the Boston Red Sox to the New York Yankees for $125,000, the largest sum ever paid for a player at that time. ... Semyon Budyonny Semyon Mikhailovich Budyonny (also spelled Budennii, Budenny, Budyenny etc, Russian: Семён Михайлович Будённый) (April 25, 1883 - October 26, 1973), Soviet military commander, was a favourite of Soviet ruler... June 3 is the 154th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (155th in leap years), with 211 days remaining. ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 3 - Babe Ruth is traded by the Boston Red Sox to the New York Yankees for $125,000, the largest sum ever paid for a player at that time. ...


Meanwhile, Polish military intelligence was aware of Russian preparations for a counteroffensive, and Polish commander-in-chief Józef Piłsudski ordered the commander of Polish forces on the Ukrainian Front, General Antoni Listowski, to prepare for a strategic withdrawal. From the perspective of staff maps in Warsaw, it was clear that the recently-created Polish Army was too weak to withstand both the offensive in the southern, Ukrainian sector and the spring offensive being prepared by the Bolsheviks in Belarus and north of the Pripyat Marshes. However, the commander of the Polish 3rd Army in the vicinity of Kiev, General Edward Rydz-Śmigły, was seeking a way to repulse the upcoming Russian assault rather than withdraw, and even proposed to the General Staff regrouping all his forces at Kiev and defending there until relieved. His plan was turned down by Piłsudski, who knew that no relief force could be prepared any time soon. He repeated his order to withdraw the Polish 3rd and 6th Armies from the Kiev area. Military intelligence (abbreviated MI, int. ... Office Chief of State, Marshal of Poland Term of office from November 14, 1918 until December 9, 1922 Profession Polish Leader Political party none, see Sanacja for details Spouse Maria PiÅ‚sudska Aleksandra PiÅ‚sudska Date of birth December 5, 1867 Place of birth Zułów, in todays Lithuania... Antoni Listowski (1865-1927) was a Polish military officer. ... Warsaw (Polish: , , in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto StoÅ‚eczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ... Pinsk Marshes (Пинские болота) or Pripyat Marshes (Pripet Marshes, Припятские болота) is a vast territory of wetlands along the Pripyat River and its tributaries from... Edward Rydz-ÅšmigÅ‚y (March 11, 1886 - December 2, 1941); nom de guerre ÅšmigÅ‚y, TarÅ‚owski, Adam Zawisza) was a Polish politician, an officer of the Polish Army, painter and poet. ... A General Staff is a group of professional military officers who act in a staff or administrative role under the command of a general officer. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted. ...


General Rydz organized a series of tactical counter-attacks which resulted in victories[citation needed] in the areas of Bila Tserkva, where the Bolshevik 44th Rifle Division lost the entire staff and one of its brigades and the Battle of Wołodarka, which routed the Bolshevik 4th Cavalry Division and made one of its cossack regiments switch sides. Repeated attacks by the elite Budionny's cossack cavalry eventually broke the Polish Ukrainian front on June 5th and on June 10th Polish armies were retreating along the entire front. Despite counter-attacks and high morale,[citation needed] the Polish-Ukrainian forces only succeeded in slowing down the Red Army. On June 13 Kiev was evacuated and left to the Soviets. Bila Tserkva (Ukrainian Бiла Церква, literally White Church, Polish Biała Cerkiew, Russian Белая Церковь, Belaya Tserkov) is a city in Kyivska oblast of Ukraine. ... Combatants Poland Bolshevik Russia Commanders Stefan Dab-Biernacki Aleksandr Yegorov Strength 2 infantry regiments, 1 cavalry regiment, 1 artillery group 4th Cavalry Division Casualties ? ? The Battle of WoÅ‚odarka was a clash between the Polish Army and Siemion Budionnyis First Cavalry Army. ... Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Ottoman Empire. ... Reply of the Zaporozhian Cossacks to Sultan Mehmed IV of Ottoman Empire. ... June 5 is the 156th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (157th in leap years), with 209 days remaining. ... June 10 is the 161st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (162nd in leap years), with 204 days remaining. ... June 13 is the 164th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (165th in leap years), with 201 days remaining. ...


Before their withdrawal the Polish army destroyed both Kiev bridges across the Dnieper River. [15] Soviet propaganda claimed that Poles also destroyed much of Kiev's infrastructure, including the passenger and cargo railway stations, and other purely civilian objects crucial for the city functioning, such as the electric power station, the city sewerage and water supply systems. [16] The Poles denied that they committed any such acts of vandalism, claiming that the only deliberate damage they carried out during their evacuation was blowing up the bridges over the Dnieper, for strictly military reasons.[1] Recently one book, published by a Russian historian Mikhail Meltyukhov, made a charge that Poles committed the acts of vandalism in the city.[17] No confirmation of this can be found in modern sources devoted to the history of Kiev. [18] [19] [20] Kiev neighborhoods cover both banks of the Dnieper River whose distributary forms several islands as it flows through Kiev. ... Urban areas require some method for collection and disposal of sewage. ... A water supply system provides water to the locations that need it. ... Mikhail Ivanovich Meltyukhov (Russian: Мельтюхов Михаил Иванович) is a Russian military historian. ...


The Soviet advance into Ukraine was characterized by mass killing of civilians and the burning of entire villages, especially by Budyonny's cossacks, designed to instill a sense of fear in the Ukrainian population. Behind Polish lines, the Soviet forces destroyed railroads, hung suspected enemies on the spot,and cut telegraph wires.[21] Ultimately, in the pacification of Ukraine that began during the Soviet counteroffensive in 1920 and which would not end until 1922 the Soviets would take 10,000s of Ukrainian lives.[22] At the same time Isaac Babel, a war correspondent embedded with the Red Army, in his diary wrote down first-hand accounts of attrocities committed during their retreat by Polish troops and their allies (particularly notorious were the regiment of the Cossack defector Vadim Yakovlev who switched sides and became a Polish ally) instilled fear among the civilian population, especially the Jews who suffered from multiple pogroms commited by the Polish troops.[23] Semyon Budyonny Semyon Mikhailovich Budyonny (also spelled Budennii, Budenny, Budyenny etc, Russian: Семён Михайлович Будённый) ( April 25, 1883 - October 26, 1973) was a Soviet military commander and an ally of... Isaac Babel Isaac Emmanuilovich Babel, Russian: Исаак Эммануилович Бабель (13 July [O.S. 1 July] 1894 – January 27, 1940) was a Russian journalist, playwright, and short story writer. ... The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (in Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya), the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... Vadim Yakovlev was a Russian Cossack cavalry commander, in the rank of yesaul. ... Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centers. ...


As the withdrawal was started too late, the forces of Rydz found themselves in an extremely difficult situation. Russian Golikov's and Yakir's Groups, as well as the 1st Cavalry Army managed to capture several strategically important positions behind the Polish lines and the risk of the Polish armies being surrounded and defeated became high. However, mostly due to lack of reconnaissance, poor command and conflicts within the staff of the South-Western Front, the Polish-Ukrainian units managed to withdraw in order and relatively unscathed. Such an outcome of the operation was equally unexpected by both sides. Although the Poles withdrew to their initial positions, they remained tied down in Ukraine and lacked sufficient strength to support the Polish Northern Front and strengthen defenses at the Auta River during the decisive battle that was soon to take place there. On the other hand, the Bolshevik objectives were not accomplished either and the Russian forces had to remain in Ukraine and got tied down with heavy fighting for the area of the city of Lwów. Motto: Semper fidelis Oblast Lviv Oblast Municipal government City council (Львівська міська рада) Mayor City chairman Lyubomyr Bunyak Area 171,01 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 808,900 ? 4786/km² Founded City rights 13th century 1353 Latitude Longitude 49°51′ N 24°01′ E Area code +0322 Car plates  ? Twin towns Corning, Freiburg...


In the aftermath of the defeat in Ukraine, Polish government of Leopold Skulski resigned on the June 9, and a political crisis gripped Polish government for most of June. Bolshevik and later Soviet propaganda has used Kiev Operation to portray the Poles as an 'imperialist agressors'.[24] Leopold Skulski (1878-after 1939) was prime minister of Poland from 1919 to 1920. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Kiev Offensive (1920) Conflict Polish-Bolshevik War Date April-June, 1920 Place Ukraine Result inconclusive The Kiev Offensive (or Kiev Operation) was an important military operation, carried out by Polish Army and allied Ukrainian forces during the Polish-Bolshevik War, from April 1920 to June of the same year. ...


Opposing forces

The following is the Order of Battle of Polish and Bolshevik forces taking part in the struggles in Ukraine, as of April 25, 1920. It should be noted that the command structure of both sides changed during the operation. Also, the Russian forces were joined by Budennyi's 1st Cavalry Army in the latter part of the operation, while a large part of the Polish forces was withdrawn by then to Belarus. April 25 is the 115th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (116th in leap years). ... 1920 (MCMXX) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) // Events January January 3 - Babe Ruth is traded by the Boston Red Sox to the New York Yankees for $125,000, the largest sum ever paid for a player at that time. ... The 1st Cavalry Army (Russian: ) was the most famous Red Army сavalry formation also known as Budyonnys Cavalry Army or simply Konarmia. ...


Among Polish Airforce was the 7th Kościuszko Squadron. Flag of the Polish Air Force Polish Air Force (SiÅ‚y Powietrzne Rzeczypospolitej Polskiej, Sily Powietrzne RP) - the Air Force of Poland. ... Polish fighters of the KoÅ›ciuszko Squadron. ...


Poland/Ukrainian People's Republic

Polish Army Unit Polish name Commander Remarks
  General Command of the Polish Army - Gen. Józef Piłsudski
  supporting armies
6th Army
Wacław Iwaszkiewicz
5th Infantry 5. Dywizja Piechoty Waclaw Jędrzejewski
12th Infantry 12. Dywizja Piechoty Marian Żegota-Januszajtis
18th Infantry 18. Dywizja Piechoty Franciszek Krajowski
2nd Army
Antoni Listowski
13th Infantry 13. Dywizja Piechoty Franciszek Paulik
15th Infantry 15. Pomorska Dywizja Piechoty Antoni Jasieński
6th Ukrainian 6. Dywizja Piechoty Marko Bezruchko
  Assault Group - Józef Piłsudski
Assault Group
Józef Piłsudski
4th Infantry 4. Dywizja Piechoty Leonard Skierski
Cavalry Division Dywizja Jazdy Jan Romer
Rybak Operational Group
Józef Rybak
1st Mountain Bde 1. Brygada Górska Stanisław Wróblewski
7th Cavalry Bde 7. Brygada Kawalerii Aleksander Romanowicz
Rydz-Śmigły Operational Group
Edward Rydz-Śmigły
1st Legions 1. Dywizja Piechoty Legionów Edward Rydz-Śmigły
7th Infantry 7. Dywizja Piechoty Eugeniusz Pogorzelski
3rd Cavalry Bde 3. Brygada Kawalerii Jerzy Sawicki

Office Chief of State, Marshal of Poland Term of office from November 14, 1918 until December 9, 1922 Profession Polish Leader Political party none, see Sanacja for details Spouse Maria Piłsudska Aleksandra Piłsudska Date of birth December 5, 1867 Place of birth Zułów, in todays Lithuania... Antoni Listowski (1865-1927) was a Polish military officer. ... Marko Danylovych Bezruchko (1883-1944) was an Ukrainian military commander and a General of the Ukrainian National Republic. ... Office Chief of State, Marshal of Poland Term of office from November 14, 1918 until December 9, 1922 Profession Polish Leader Political party none, see Sanacja for details Spouse Maria Piłsudska Aleksandra Piłsudska Date of birth December 5, 1867 Place of birth Zułów, in todays Lithuania... Office Chief of State, Marshal of Poland Term of office from November 14, 1918 until December 9, 1922 Profession Polish Leader Political party none, see Sanacja for details Spouse Maria Piłsudska Aleksandra Piłsudska Date of birth December 5, 1867 Place of birth Zułów, in todays Lithuania... Operational Group (Polish Grupa Operacyjna, abbreviated GO) was the highest level of tactical division of the Polish Army before and during World War II and the Polish Defence War. ... Operational Group (Polish Grupa Operacyjna, abbreviated GO) was the highest level of tactical division of the Polish Army before and during World War II and the Polish Defence War. ... Edward Rydz-Śmigły (March 11, 1886 - December 2, 1941); nom de guerre Śmigły, Tarłowski, Adam Zawisza) was a Polish politician, an officer of the Polish Army, painter and poet. ... Polish 1st Legions Infantry Division () was a tactical unit of the Polish Army between the World Wars. ... Edward Rydz-Śmigły (March 11, 1886 - December 2, 1941); nom de guerre Śmigły, Tarłowski, Adam Zawisza) was a Polish politician, an officer of the Polish Army, painter and poet. ... The 7th Infantry Division (Polish: , 7 DP) was the name of several units of the Polish Army. ... Eugeniusz Pogorzelski (December 30, 1866 - March 18, 1934) was a Polish military officer. ...

Soviet Russia/Soviet Ukraine

Red Army Unit Russian name Commander Remarks
  South-Western Front - Gen. Aleksandr Yegorov
12th Army
Miezheninov
7th Rifle 7. стрелковая дивизия
44th Rifle 44. стрелковая дивизия
47th Rifle 47. стрелковая дивизия
58th Rifle 58. стрелковая дивизия
17th Cavalry Division 17. кавдивизия
14th Army
Ieronim Uborevich
21st Rifle 21. стрелковая дивизия
41st Rifle 41. стрелковая дивизия
45th Rifle 45. стрелковая дивизия
60th Rifle 60. стрелковая дивизия
8th Cavalry Division 8. кавдивизия
13th Army
unknown composition

Marshal of the Soviet Union Aleksandr Yegorov Aleksandr Ilyich Yegorov (Russian: Александр Ильич Егоров) (October 13, 1883–February 22, 1939), Soviet military commander, was a prominent victim of Stalins Great Purge of the late 1930s. ... Ieromin Uborevich Ieromin Uborevich (Russian: УБОРЕВИЧ, ИЕРОНИМ ПЕТРОВИЧ, Lithuanian: Jeronimas Uborevičius) (January 14, 1896-June 12, 1937) was a Soviet military commander during the Russian Civil War, and eventually attained the rank of Commander, 1st Rank of the Red Army, equivalent to a General of the Army after tsarist ranks were reintroduced. ...

Notes

  1.   The outcome of the Polish and Bolshevik operations in Ukraine is sometimes disputed. Neither the Poles nor the Russians forced their opponent to fight a major battle or outflanked his forces and destroyed them, which was the main military goal of operations for both sides. However, the Polish retreat from Kiev and Russian advance was a severe blow to Józef Piłsudski's political plans to uphold the UPR's independence, as part of the "Międzymorze federation.". As such, the operation may be viewed as a defeat for Piłsudski, as well as to Petliura.

Location Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted. ... Office Chief of State, Marshal of Poland Term of office from November 14, 1918 until December 9, 1922 Profession Polish Leader Political party none, see Sanacja for details Spouse Maria Piłsudska Aleksandra Piłsudska Date of birth December 5, 1867 Place of birth Zułów, in todays Lithuania... Międzymorze (Myen-dzih-MOH-zheh): name for Józef Piłsudskis proposed federation of Poland, Lithuania, Belarus and Ukraine. ...

See also

The Kiev Expedition was an episode in the internal struggle for power in the state of Rus between Sviatopolk I of Kiev and his brother Yaroslav I the Wise. ...

References

Inline
  1. ^ a b See, e.g. Russo-Polish War in Encyclopædia Britannica
    [This war was a] military conflict between Soviet Russia and Poland, which sought to seize Ukraine […]Although there had been hostilities between the two countries during 1919, the conflict began when the Polish head of state Józef Pilsudski formed an alliance with the Ukrainian nationalist leader Symon Petlura (April 21, 1920) and their combined forces began to overrun Ukraine, occupying Kiev on May 7.
  2. ^ a b c d "Although the [UNR] was unable to contribute real strength to the Polish offensive, it could offer a certain camouflage for the naked aggression involved. Warsaw had no difficulty in convincing the powerless Petliura to sign a treaty of alliance. In it he abandoned his claim of all territories [...] demanded by Pilsudki. In exchange the Poles recognized the souvereignty of the UNR on all territories which it claimed, including those within the Polish frontiers of 1772 - in other words, much of the area Poland demanded from Soviet Russia. Petlura also pledged not to conclude any international agreements against Poland and guaranteed full cultural rights to the Polish residents in Ukraine. Supplementary military and economic agreements subbordinate the Ukrainian army and economy to the control of Warsaw."
    Richard K Debo, Survival and Consolidation: The Foreign Policy of Soviet Russia, 1918-1921, pp. 210-211, McGill-Queen's Press, 1992, ISBN 0-7735-0828-7.
  3. ^ a b Tadeusz Machalski, then a captain, (the future Polish attache in Ankara) wrote in his diary: "Ukrainian people, who saw in their capital an alien general with the Polish army, instead of Petliura leading his own army, didn't view it as the act of liberation but as a variety of a new occupation. Therefore, the Ukrainians, instead of enthusiasm and joy, watched in gloomy silence and instead of rallying to arms to defend the freedom remained the passive speactators". Quoted from: "Figures of the 20th century. Józef Piłsudski: the Chief who Created a State for Himself," Zerkalo Nedeli (the Mirror Weekly), Feb. 3-9, 2001, available online in Russian and in Ukrainian.
  4. ^ "No less influential and popular than the concept of [national democrats] was the "federalist" program of Josef Pilsudski, a socialist and the most authoritative Polish politicial of the 20th century. The essence of that program was that after the ovethrowal of tsardom and the disintegration of the Russian empire, the large, strong and mighty Poland was to be created in Eastern Europe. It was the reincarnation of the Rzeczpospolita on "federative" principles. It was to include the Polish, Lithuanian, Belarusian and Ukrainian lands. The leading role, of course, was to be given to the Polish ethnic, political, economic and cultural element. Despite the program failed to address the question on what to do if the people would not want to join into the Rzeczpospolita, the socialists declared the voluntaraly entry into the future state. "
    Oleksandr Derhachov (editor), "Ukrainian Statehood in the Twentieth Century: Historical and Political Analysis", Chapter: "Ukraine in Polish concepts of the foreign policy", 1996, Kiev ISBN 966-543-040-8
  5. ^ Davies, Norman (1996). Europe: A History. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 935. ISBN 0198201710.
  6. ^ Peter Abbot. "Ukrainian Armies 1914-55", Chapter "Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, 1917-21", Osprey, 2004, ISBN 1-84176-668-2
  7. ^ "[I]n practice, [Pilsudski] was engaged in a process of conquest that was bitterly resisted by Lithuanians and Ukrainians (except the latter's defeat by the Bolsheviks left them with no one else to turn but Pilsudski)."
    Roshwald, Aviel (2001). Ethnic Nationalism and the Fall of Empires: Central Europe, the Middle East and Russia, 1914-1923. Routledge (UK). ISBN 0-415-24229-0.
  8. ^ "The Bolsheviks had flooded the Ukraine, forcing Ataman Semyon Petlura(a Ukrainian bookkeeper turned national hero) to sign an alliance with Pilsudski, securing Lwow for Poland and possibly Pilsudski's federation. On 7 May the Polish army liberated Kiev in the intention of giving it to Petlura in a Polish-Ukrainian-Federation. On 5 June the Bolsheviks were back in Kiev. The major problem which prevented Pilsudski from securing Kiev and creating his federation was the unwillingness of the inhabitants of Ukraine, to rush to the aid of Petlura and his Ukrainian nationalist forces. Most Ukrainians had no idea what Bolshevism was and were easily manipulated by the Russians. Besides, many of the Ukrainian peasants were very simple people who still had memories of serfdom, which was imposed on them by the Polish Szlachta (Nobility). They believed Pilsudski to be another Polish Magnate, as from the 18th century. Thus, Petlura could not foster more than 30,000 troops.". Marshal Jozef Pilsudski. Messiah and Central European Federalist. Polonica.net article by Patryk Dole
  9. ^ a b c Watt, Richard (1979). Bitter Glory: Poland and its Fate 1918-1939. New York: Simon and Schuster, 119. ISBN 0-671-22625-8.
  10. ^ "The newly found Polish state cared much more about the expansion of its borders to the east and south-east ("between the seas") that about helping the agonizing state of which Petlura was a de-facto dictator. ("A Belated Idealist." Zerkalo Nedeli (Mirror Weekly), May 22-28, 2004. Available online in Russian and in Ukrainian.)
    Piłsudski is quoted to have said: "After the Polish independence we will see about Poland's size". (ibid)
  11. ^ One moth before his death Pilsudski told his aide: "My life is lost. I failed to create the free from the Russians Ukraine"
    <(Russian)(Ukrainian) Oleksa Pidlutskyi, Postati XX stolittia, (Figures of the 20th century), Kiev, 2004, ISBN 966-8290-01-1, LCCN 20-04440333. Chapter "Józef Piłsudski: The Chief who Created Himself a State" reprinted in Zerkalo Nedeli (the Mirror Weekly), Kiev, February 3 - 9, 2001, in Russian and in Ukrainian.
  12. ^ Kubijovic, V. (1963). Ukraine: A Concise Encyclopedia. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
  13. ^ Subtelny, Orest (2000). “Twentieth Century Ukraine: The Ukrainian Revolution: Petlura's alliance with Poland”, Ukraine: A History. Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 375. ISBN 0802083900.
  14. ^ Kutrzeba, T. (1937). Wyprawa kijowska 1920 roku. Warsaw: Gebethner i Wolff.
  15. ^ "Fording the Dnipro. The past, present and future of Kyiv's bridges", The Ukrainian observer, issue 193.
  16. ^ Кузьмин Н.Ф. (1958). Крушение последнего похода Антанты, 64-65.
    (1961) Из истории гражданской войны. Т. 3., 266-269.
    Пшибыльский А. (1931). Войны польского империализма 1918—1921. Russian translation from Polish, 152-153.
    Likely original: Przybylski, Adam (1930). Wojna polska, 1918-1921. (in Polish). Warszawa: Wojskowy Instytut Naukowo-Wydawniczy. LCCN 55053688.
    above sources cited by Мельтюхов, Михаил Иванович (Mikhail Meltyukhov) (2001). Советско-польские войны. Военно-политическое противостояние 1918—1939 гг. (Soviet-Polish Wars. Politico-Military standoff of 1918-1939). Moscow: Вече (Veche). ISBN 5-699-07637-9.
  17. ^ ‘The failures of the Polish army only whipped up its vengeful vandalism. [...] The Polish troops leaving Kiev acted no less savagely. In the city, they damaged the electric power station, the sewerage system, both passenger and cargo railway stations. The governments of Soviet Russia and Ukraine, pointed out in the note of June 11 addressed to the Antanta countries that "the magnificent cathedral of St. Vladimir, this unique pearle of Russian religious architecture and the unique monument with the priceless frescoes by Vasnetsov, was destroyed by the Poles in their retreat only because they to avenge their rage on inanimate objects..."’
    from Meltyukhov, cited above
  18. ^ "Kievenergo".
  19. ^ "oldkyiv.org.ua".
  20. ^ "swrailway.gov.ua".
  21. ^ ‘Having burst through the front, Budyonny's cavalry would devesate the enemies rear - burning, killing and looting as they went. These Red cavalrymen inspired an almost numbing sense of fear in their opponents [...] the very names Budyonny and Cossack terrified the Ukrainian population, and they moved into a state of nuetrality or even hostility toward Petliura and the Poles..."’
    from Richard Watt, 1979. Bitter Glory: Poland and its fate 1918-1939. New York: Simon & Shuster. ISBN 0-671-22625-8
  22. ^ Courtois, Stephane; Werth, Nicolas; Panne, Jean-Louis; Paczkowki, Andrzej; Bartosek, Karel; Margolin, Jean-Louis (1999). The Black Book of Communism. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press. ISBN 0-674-07608-7
  23. ^ The war diary of Isaac Babel recently translated and published in English (1920 Diary, Yale, 2002, ISBN 0-300-09313-6) gives the first-hand witness account of those events
    "Zhitomir pogrom, organized by the Poles, continued, of course, by the Cossacks. When our advance troops appeared the Poles entered the town, stayed 3 days, there was a pogrom, they cut off beards, that's usual, assembled 45 Jews in the marketplace, led them to the slaughteryard, tortures, cut out tongues, wails heard all over the square. They set fire to 6 houses,[...] they machine-gunned those who tried to rescue people. The yardman, into whose arms a mother dropped a child from a burning window, was bayoneted, the priest put a ladder up against the back wall, they escaped that way." (p. 4)
    " [T]he Poles pillaged, then the others descended, whooping and yelling, carried off everything, all his wife's things." p. 7, p. 10
    "[A] pathetic, good-looking Jew [...] gray in the face with worry [...]. The Poles mocked and tormented him, he thiks that life will begin now, Cossacks, however, don't always behave well. p. 26
    "Dubno has changed hands several times... Now everybody's trembling again, and hatred of the Poles, who pluck their beards" p. 33
    "Berestechko... the town is steeped in the bloody history of the Polish-Jewish ghetto. hatred for the Poles is unanimous. They have looted, tortured, branded the pharmacist with a red-hot iron, put needles under his nails, pulled out his hair, all because somebody shot at a Polish officer. What idiocy. The Poles have gone mad, they are destroying themselves." p. 57
    "Rumor of atrocities. I walk into town. Indescribable terror and despair. They tell me all about it. Privately, indoors, they’re afraid the Poles may come back. Captain Yakovlev’s Cossacks were here yesterday. A pogrom. The family of David Zyz, in people’s homes, a naked, barely breathing prophet of an old man, and old woman butchered, a child with fingers chopped off, many people still breathing, stench of blood, everything turned upside down, chaos, a mother sitting over her sobered son, an old woman lying twisted up like a pretzel, four people in one hovel, filth, blood under a black beard, just lying there in their blood." (p. 84)
  24. ^ (Polish)Janusz Szczepański, KONTROWERSJE WOKÓŁ BITWY WARSZAWSKIEJ 1920 ROKU (Controversies surrounding the Battle of Warsaw in 1920). Mówią Wieki, online version.
General
  • Lech Wyszczelski (1999). Kijów 1920. Warsaw: Bellona. ISBN 83-11-08963-9.
  • Norman Davies (2003). White Eagle, Red Star: The Polish-Soviet War, 1919–20. London: Pimlico. ISBN 0-7126-0694-7.
  • Józef Piłsudski (1937–1991). Pisma zbiorowe (Collected Works). Warsaw: Krajowa Agencja Wydawnicza (reprint). ISBN 83-03-03059-0.
  • Mikhail Tukhachevski (1989). Lectures at Military Academy in Moscow, February 7–10, 1923 in: Pochód za Wisłę. Łódź: Wydawnictwo Łódzkie. ISBN 83-218-0777-1.
  • Subtelny, Orest (1988). Ukraine: A History. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. ISBN 0-8020-5809-6.
  • Janusz Cisek (1990). Sąsiedzi wobec wojny 1920 roku. Wybór dokumentów. (Neighbours Attitude Towards the War of 1920. A collection of documents, English summary). London: Polish Cultural Foundation Ltd. ISBN 0-85065-212-X.
  • Isaac Babel (2002). Red Cavalry.. New York: W.W. Norton & Company. ISBN 0-393-32423-0.

The Encyclopædia Britannica (properly spelled with the æ ligature) is a general encyclopedia published by the privately held Encyclopædia Britannica Inc. ... Tadeusz Machalski (1893-1987) was a Polish military officer and a diplomat. ... Zerkalo Nedeli (&#1044;&#1079;&#1077;&#1088;&#1082;&#1072;&#1083;&#1086; &#1090;&#1080;&#1078;&#1085;&#1103; - Dzerkal Tyzhnia Ukrainian: Weekly Mirror) is Ukraine&#8217;s most influential analytical weekly. ... Prof. ... The watt (symbol: W) is the SI derived unit of power, equal to one joule per second. ... Zerkalo Nedeli (&#1044;&#1079;&#1077;&#1088;&#1082;&#1072;&#1083;&#1086; &#1090;&#1080;&#1078;&#1085;&#1103; - Dzerkal Tyzhnia Ukrainian: Weekly Mirror) is Ukraine&#8217;s most influential analytical weekly. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted. ... The Library of Congress Control Number or LCCN is a serially based system of numbering books in the Library of Congress in the United States. ... Zerkalo Nedeli (&#1044;&#1079;&#1077;&#1088;&#1082;&#1072;&#1083;&#1086; &#1090;&#1080;&#1078;&#1085;&#1103; - Dzerkal Tyzhnia Ukrainian: Weekly Mirror) is Ukraine&#8217;s most influential analytical weekly. ... Location Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted. ... 2001: A Space Odyssey. ... Orest Subtelny - Ukrainian historian, professor at Department of History and Political Science, York University. ... Mikhail Ivanovich Meltyukhov (Russian: Мельтюхов Михаил Иванович) is a Russian military historian. ... Isaac Babel Isaac Emmanuilovich Babel, Russian: Исаак Эммануилович Бабель (13 July [O.S. 1 July] 1894 – January 27, 1940) was a Russian journalist, playwright, and short story writer. ... Lech Wyszczelski is a Polish military historian and author of books on Central European history of the 20th century. ... Prof. ... Office Chief of State, Marshal of Poland Term of office from November 14, 1918 until December 9, 1922 Profession Polish Leader Political party none, see Sanacja for details Spouse Maria Piłsudska Aleksandra Piłsudska Date of birth December 5, 1867 Place of birth Zułów, in todays Lithuania... Marshal of the Soviet Union Mikhail Tukhachevsky Mikhail Nikolayevich Tukhachevsky (also spelled Tukhachevski, Tukhachevskii, Russian: &#1052;&#1080;&#1093;&#1072;&#1080;&#1083; &#1053;&#1080;&#1082;&#1086;&#1083;&#1072;&#1077;&#1074;&#1080;&#1095; &#1058;&#1091;&#1093;&#1072;&#1095;&#1077;&#1074;&#1089;&#1082;&#1080;&#1081;) (February 16, 1893 - June 11, 1937), Soviet military... Orest Subtelny - Ukrainian historian, professor at Department of History and Political Science, York University. ... Isaac Babel Isaac Emmanuilovich Babel, Russian: Исаак Эммануилович Бабель (13 July [O.S. 1 July] 1894 – January 27, 1940) was a Russian journalist, playwright, and short story writer. ...

Online references


  Results from FactBites:
 
Wikipedia search result (4908 words)
Opinions vary as to the immediate derivation, but the first known mentioning in the Kiev Chronicle of 1187 probably uses the word in the meaning of ‘region’, ‘principality’, which might be defined as ‘land cut out for a Prince’ (maybe referring to the general feudal practice of a prince dividing land between his sons).
However, with the defeat of the latter in the Polish-Ukrainian War and the failure of the Polish Kiev Offensive (1920) of the Polish-Soviet War, the Peace of Riga concluded in March 1921 between Poland and Bolsheviks left Ukraine divided again.
In the encirclement battle of Kiev, the city was acclaimed by the Soviets as a "Hero City", for the fierce resistance of the Red Army and of the local population.
The Ultimate Kiev Dog Breeds Information Guide and Reference (2904 words)
Historically, Kiev is one of the most ancient (probably 1550 years old) and important cities of the region, the center of Rus civilization, survivor of numerous wars, purges and genocides.
Kiev was probably founded in the 5th century and functioned as a trading post between Constantinople and Scandinavia.
The church of Saint Sophia in Kiev, begun in 1037, was designed to emulate the splendor of Byzantine churches, reflecting the reception of Christianity from the Byzantine Empire.
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