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Encyclopedia > 1906 San Francisco Earthquake
1906 San Francisco earthquake
Date April 18, 1906
Magnitude 7.8 Mw
Depth: 80 Kilometers
Epicenter location: San Francisco
Countries/
regions affected
United States (San Francisco Bay Area)
Casualties: 3,000 killed
Stockton Street from Union Square, looking toward Market Street
Stockton Street from Union Square, looking toward Market Street

The San Francisco earthquake of 1906 was a major earthquake that struck San Francisco, California and the coast of Northern California at 5:12 A.M. on Wednesday, April 18, 1906.[1] The most widely accepted estimate for the magnitude of the earthquake is a moment magnitude (Mw) of 7.8; however, other values have been proposed from 7.7 to as high as 8.3.[2] The main shock epicenter occurred offshore about 2 miles (3 km) from the city, near Mussel Rock. It ruptured along the San Andreas Fault both northward and southward for a total length of 296 miles (477 km).[3] Shaking was felt from Oregon to Los Angeles, and inland as far as central Nevada. The earthquake and resulting fire is remembered as one of the worst natural disasters in the history of the United States. The death toll from the earthquake and resulting fire, estimated to be above 3,000,[4] represents the greatest loss of life from a natural disaster in California's history. The economic impact has been compared with the more recent Hurricane Katrina disaster.[5] The Loma Prieta earthquake was a major earthquake that struck the San Francisco Bay Area of California on October 17, 1989 at 5:04 p. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 596 pixels Full resolution (2369 × 1764 pixel, file size: 500 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: San Francisco Earthquake of 1906: Ruins in vicinity of Post and Grant Avenue. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The moment magnitude scale was introduced in 1979 by Thomas C. Hanks and Hiroo Kanamori as a successor to the Richter scale and is used by seismologists to compare the energy released by earthquakes. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Bay Area redirects here. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 774 × 599 pixels Full resolution (2337 × 1810 pixel, file size: 423 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: San Francisco Earthquake of 1906: Stockton Street from Union Square, looking toward Market Street Source: US Archiv ARCWEB ARC Identifier: 524403 NARA National Archives... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 774 × 599 pixels Full resolution (2337 × 1810 pixel, file size: 423 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: San Francisco Earthquake of 1906: Stockton Street from Union Square, looking toward Market Street Source: US Archiv ARCWEB ARC Identifier: 524403 NARA National Archives... This article is about the natural seismic phenomenon. ... San Francisco redirects here. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... For other uses, see Coast (disambiguation). ... Northern California, sometimes referred to as NorCal, is the northern portion of the U.S. state of California. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The moment magnitude scale (a successor to the Richter Scale), was introduced in 1979 by Tom Hanks and Hiroo Kanamori and is used by seismologists to compare the energy released by earthquakes. ... For other uses, see Epicenter (disambiguation). ... Mussel Rock is a physical feature on the coast of San Mateo County, California, offshore from the city of Daly City. ... View of the San Andreas Fault on the Carrizo Plain in central California, 35°07N, 119°39W The San Andreas Fault is a geological fault that runs a length of roughly 800 miles (1300 kilometres) through western and southern California in the United States. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Los Angeles and L.A. redirect here. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Nevada. ... This article is about the human activity. ... This article is about the Atlantic hurricane of 2005. ...

Contents

Geology

The 1906 San Francisco earthquake was caused by a rupture on the San Andreas Fault. This fault runs the length of California from the Salton Sea in the south to Cape Mendocino to the north, a distance of about 800 miles (1,300 km). The earthquake ruptured the northern third of the fault for a distance of 296 miles (477 km). The maximum observed surface displacement was about 20 feet (6 m); however, geodetic measurements show displacements of up to 28 feet (8.5 m).[6] View of the San Andreas Fault on the Carrizo Plain in central California, 35°07N, 119°39W The San Andreas Fault is a geological fault that runs a length of roughly 800 miles (1300 kilometres) through western and southern California in the United States. ... There are various types of faults: In document ISO/CD 10303-226, a fault is defined as an abnormal condition or defect at the component, equipment, or sub-system level which may lead to a failure. ... For the film, see The Salton Sea. ... Cape Mendocino in Humboldt County, California, USA, is the westernmost point on the coast of California. ... An old geodetic pillar (1855) at Ostend, Belgium A Munich archive with lithography plates of maps of Bavaria Geodesy (pronounced [1]), also called geodetics, a branch of earth sciences, is the scientific discipline that deals with the measurement and representation of the Earth, including its gravity field, in a three...


A strong foreshock preceded the mainshock by about 20 to 25 seconds. The strong shaking of the main shock lasted about 42 seconds. The shaking intensity as described on the Modified Mercalli intensity scale reached VIII in San Francisco and up to IX in areas to the north like Santa Rosa where destruction was almost complete. A foreshock is a small earthquake occurring before a main earthquake. ... The Mercalli intensity scale is a scale used for measuring the intensity of an earthquake. ... Location in Sonoma County and the state of California Country State County Sonoma Area  - City 40. ...


There were decades of minor earthquakes - more than at any other time in the historical record for northern California - before the 1906 quake. Widely previously interpreted as precursory activity to the 1906 earthquake, they have been found to have a strong seasonal pattern and were found to be due to large seasonal sediment loads in coastal bays that overlie faults as a result of the erosion caused by "hydraulic mining" in the later years of the California Gold Rush.[7] The California Gold Rush (1848–1855) began shortly after January 24, 1848 (when gold was discovered at Sutters Mill in Coloma). ...


Subsequent fires

Burning of San Francisco, Mission District
Burning of San Francisco, Mission District

As damaging as the earthquake and its aftershocks were, the fires that burned out of control afterward were much more destructive.[8] It has been estimated that as much as 90% of the total destruction was a result from the subsequent fires.[citation needed] Due to the nearly universal practice of insurers to indemnify San Francisco properties from fire but not earthquake damage, most damage within the city was blamed on the fires. It is probable, due to the extreme magnitude of the earthquake and the poor buildings standards of the time, that a majority of structures destroyed that day were initially destroyed from the movement of the earth before succumbing to fire.[citation needed] Fires broke out in many parts of town, some initially fueled by natural gas mains broken by the quake. Other fires were the result of arson and campfires set by evacuees. Worst of all, many were set when firefighters untrained in the use of dynamite attempted to dynamite buildings to create firebreaks, which resulted in the destruction of more than half of buildings that would have otherwise survived.[9] The fire chief, who would have been responsible, had died in the initial quake. The dynamited buildings themselves often caught fire. The fires lasted for four days and nights. Some property owners set fire to their damaged buildings because most insurance policies covered fire losses while prohibiting payment if the building had only sustained earthquake damage. This effort was futile, as wealthier citizens of the city were burdened with the cost of repairing an estimated 80% of the city. Captain Leonard D. Wildman of the U.S. Army Signal Corps[10] reported that he "was stopped by a fireman who told me that people in that neighborhood were firing their houses... They were told that they would not get their insurance on buildings damaged by the earthquake unless they were damaged by fire."[11] Aftershocks are earthquakes in the same region of the mainshock (generally within a few rupture length) but of smaller magnitude and which occur with a pattern that follows Omoris law. ... The Metropolitan Life Insurance Company is one of the largest New York based life insurance companies Insurance, in law and economics, is a form of risk management primarily used to hedge against the risk of a contingent loss. ... For other uses, see Natural gas (disambiguation). ... The Skyline Parkway Motel in Afton, Virginia after an arson fire on July 9, 2004. ... San Francisco Fire Department provides fire and emergency services to the City of San Francisco in San Franciso County. ... This article is about a high explosive. ... A firebreak is a usually-man-made gap in vegetation that is expected to slow or stop the progress of wildfires. ... Branch insignia of the U.S. Army Signal Corps, representing Myers Wigwag The U.S. Army Signal Corps was founded in 1861 by United States Army Major Albert J. Myer, a physician by training. ...


As water mains were also broken, the city fire department had few resources with which to fight the fires. Several fires in the downtown area merged to become one giant inferno. One journalist at the time wrote that readers elsewhere should understand that it was not a fire in San Francisco, but rather a fire of San Francisco.[citation needed] The fire ultimately destroyed over 500 city blocks of the downtown core from Van Ness Avenue, an extra-wide arterial thoroughfare that bisects the center of the city, to the docks on San Francisco Bay.[citation needed] It was erroneously reported that Mayor Eugene Schmitz and General Frederick Funston declared martial law. Schmitz did, however, issue an edict allowing police, vigilante patrols, and military troops to shoot looters on sight, and some 500 people were shot and killed.[citation needed] Funston tried to bring the fire under control by detonating blocks of buildings around the fire to create firebreaks with all sorts of means, ranging from black powder and dynamite to even artillery barrages. Often the explosions set the ruins on fire or helped spread it. Despite their shortcomings, these strategies did eventually prove effective in stopping the fire from spreading westward (beyond the extra-wide Van Ness Avenue) to the remaining half of the city.[citation needed] San Francisco Bay, San Pablo Bay, and the Golden Gate San Francisco Bay is a shallow, productive estuary through which water draining approximately forty percent of California, flowing in the Sacramento and San Joaquin rivers from the Sierra Nevada mountains, enters the Pacific Ocean. ... Born 1864 in San Francisco, he was the mayor of his hometown when the famous 1906 San Francisco Earthquake and subsequant fire destroyed a prodigious amount of the city. ... Frederick N. Funston (11 September 1865 – 19 February 1917) also known as Fred Funston, was a General in the United States Army, best known for his role in the Spanish-American War and the Philippine-American War. ... Battlespace Weapons Tactics Strategy Organization Logistics Lists War Portal         For other uses, see Martial law (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Vigilante (disambiguation). ... Black powder was the original gunpowder and practically the only known propellant and explosive until the middle of the 19th century. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ...


One landmark building lost in the fire was the Palace Hotel, subsequently rebuilt, which had many famous visitors, including royalty and celebrated performers. It was constructed in 1875 primarily financed by Bank of California co-founder William Ralston, the "man who built San Francisco". In April 1906, the world's greatest tenor, Enrico Caruso, and members of the Metropolitan Opera Company came to San Francisco to give a series of performances at the Tivoli Opera House. The night after Caruso's performance in Carmen, the tenor was awakened in the early morning in his Palace Hotel suite by a strong jolt. Clutching an autographed photo of President Theodore Roosevelt, Caruso made an effort to get out of the city, first by boat and then by train, and vowed never to return to San Francisco. He kept his word. The Metropolitan Opera Company lost all of the sets and costumes it had brought to the earthquake and ensuing fires.[citation needed] The Palace Hotel is an historic hotel in San Francisco, California, dating from 1875. ... 1875 (MDCCCLXXV) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... William Billy Chapman Ralston (1826-1875), was a San Francisco, California businessman and financier, and was the founder of the Bank of California. ... For the song Caruso by Lucio Dalla, see Caruso (song). ... The Metropolitan Opera is located at Lincoln Center in New York, New York. ... For other uses, see Carmen (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Theodore Roosevelt, see Theodore Roosevelt (disambiguation). ...


Some of the greatest losses from fire were in scientific laboratories. Alice Eastwood, the Curator of Botany at the California Academy of Sciences in San Francisco, is credited with saving nearly 1,500 specimens, including the entire type specimen collection for a newly discovered and extremely rare species, before the remainder of the largest botanical collection in the western United States was consumed by fire.[12][13] The entire laboratory and all the records of Benjamin R. Jacobs, a biochemist who was researching the nutrition of everyday foods, was lost.[14] Another treasure lost in the fires was the original California flag used in the 1846 Bear Flag Revolt at Sonoma, which at the time was being stored in a state building in San Francisco.[citation needed] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Alice Eastwood (1859-1953) was born in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, but is considered an American botanist, since her life after age 14 was in the USA. From age 20 to 30 she was a teacher in Denver, Colorado and taught herself botany. ... Pinguicula grandiflora commonly known as a Butterwort Example of a cross section of a stem [1] Botany is the scientific study of plant life. ... The California Academy of Sciences is one of the ten largest natural history museums in the world. ... Benjamin Ricardo Jacobs, Ph. ... Wöhler observes the synthesis of urea. ... The Nutrition Facts table indicates the amounts of nutrients which experts recommend you limit or consume in adequate amounts. ...


The army's role in the aftermath

As fires raged through San Francisco, soldiers unload one of many civilian wagons pressed into service during the emergency.
As fires raged through San Francisco, soldiers unload one of many civilian wagons pressed into service during the emergency.

The city interim fire chief (the original one was killed when the earthquake first struck) sent an urgent request to the Presidio, an Army post on the edge of the stricken city, for dynamite. Brigadier General Frederick Funston, commander of the Department of California and a resident of San Francisco, had already decided the situation required the use of troops. Collaring a policeman, he sent word to Mayor Schmitz of his decision to assist, and then ordered Army troops from as far away as Angel Island to mobilize and come into the City. Explosives were ferried across the Bay from the California Powder Works in what is now Hercules. Martial law was never declared, however, and troops took guidance from the City's civilian administrators.[15] Image File history File links Thank_God_For_The_Soldiers. ... Image File history File links Thank_God_For_The_Soldiers. ... San Francisco Fire Department provides fire and emergency services to the City of San Francisco in San Franciso County. ... The Parade Grounds at the Presidio of San Francisco. ... This article is about a high explosive. ... Frederick N. Funston (11 September 1865 – 19 February 1917) also known as Fred Funston, was a General in the United States Army, best known for his role in the Spanish-American War and the Philippine-American War. ... Aerial view of Angel Island. ... Hercules is a city located in Contra Costa County, California. ... Battlespace Weapons Tactics Strategy Organization Logistics Lists War Portal         For other uses, see Martial law (disambiguation). ...


During the first few days, soldiers provided valuable services patrolling streets to discourage looting and guarding buildings such as the US Mint, post office, and county jail. They aided the fire department in dynamiting to demolish buildings in the path of the fires. The Army also became responsible for feeding, sheltering, and clothing the tens of thousands of displaced residents of the city. This support prompted many citizens to exclaim, "Thank God for the soldiers!"[citation needed] Under the command of Funston's superior, Major General Adolphus Greely, Commanding Officer, Pacific Division, over 4,000 troops saw service during the emergency. On July 1, 1906, civil authorities assumed responsibility for relief efforts, and the Army withdrew from the city. The San Francisco Mint is a branch of the United States Mint, and was opened in 1854 to serve the gold mines of the California Gold Rush. ... Adolphus Washington Greely (1844 - 1935) was an American Polar explorer. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

Soldiers looting during the fire
Soldiers looting during the fire

On April 18, in response to riots among evacuees and looting, Mayor Schmitz issued and ordered posted a proclamation that "The Federal Troops, the members of the Regular Police Force and all Special Police Officers have been authorized by me to KILL any and all persons found engaged in Looting or in the Commission of Any Other Crime." It is estimated that as many as 500 people were shot dead in the city, many of whom, it has been suggested, were not looting at all, but were attempting to save their own possessions from the advancing fire.[16] In addition, accusations of soldiers themselves engaging in looting also surfaced.[17] is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The San Francisco Police Department or S.F.P.D., is responsible for policing in the City and County of San Francisco. ...

Displaced victims of the earthquake, in front of a temporary tent shelter. Other tents can be seen in the background at right.
Displaced victims of the earthquake, in front of a temporary tent shelter. Other tents can be seen in the background at right.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 768 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1381 × 1078 pixel, file size: 894 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Displaced victims of the SF earthquake, in front of a temporary tent shelter. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 768 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (1381 × 1078 pixel, file size: 894 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Displaced victims of the SF earthquake, in front of a temporary tent shelter. ...

Relocation and housing of displaced

The Army built 5,610 redwood and fir "relief houses" to accommodate 20,000 displaced people. The houses were designed by John McLaren, and were grouped in eleven camps, packed close to each other and rented to people for two dollars per month until rebuilding was completed. They were painted olive drab, partly to blend in with the site, and partly because the military had large quantities of olive drab paint on hand. The camps had a peak population of 16,448 people, but by 1907 most people had moved out. The camps were then re-used as garages, storage spaces or shops. The cottages cost on average $100-741 to put up. The $2 monthly rents went towards the full purchase price of $50. Most of the shacks have been destroyed, but a small number survived. One of the modest 720 sq ft homes was recently purchased for more than $600,000.[18] This article is about the species commonly called Coast Redwood. For the species commonly called Giant Sequoia, see Sequoiadendron. ... FIR may stand for: finite impulse response (a property of some digital filters) far infrared, i. ... John McLaren (1846 – 1943) served as superintendent of the Golden Gate Park in San Francisco, CA for 53 years. ...

One of the eleven refugee camps in 1906
One of the eleven refugee camps in 1906

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (588x740, 206 KB)Earthquake shacks, 1906, San Fran, File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (588x740, 206 KB)Earthquake shacks, 1906, San Fran, File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Aftermath and reconstruction

Property losses from the disaster have been estimated to be more than $400 million.[19] An insurance industry source tallies insured losses at $235 million (equivalent to $5.59 billion in 2007 dollars[20]).


Political and business leaders strongly downplayed the effects of the earthquake, fearing loss of outside investment in the city. In his first public statement, California governor George C. Pardee emphasized the need to rebuild quickly: "this is not the first time that San Francisco has been destroyed by fire, I have not the slightest doubt that the City by the Golden Gate will be speedily rebuilt, and will, almost before we know it, resume her former great activity."[21] The earthquake itself is not even mentioned in the statement. Fatality and monetary damage estimates were manipulated.[22] In one of the most blatant attempts to cover up the realities of the earthquake, one of the photographs circulated around the country has been shown by forensic image analyst George Reid to have been altered as much as 30% to downplay the damage.[citation needed] George C. Pardee 21st Governor of California George Cooper Pardee (July 25, 1857 – September 1, 1941) was a medical doctor and was known as the Earthquake Governor of California, holding office from January 6, 1903 to January 8, 1907. ...


In the rush to rebuild the city, building standards were in fact lowered instead of strengthened "by upwards of 50%" according to historian Robert Hansen. Part of the rush to rebuild was the desire to be ready for an international exposition set to be hosted in 1915, and indeed by that year there was almost no visible damage to be seen in the city. The total disregard to earthquake safety plagues the city today, as a majority of buildings standing in the city today were built in the first half of the 20th century. Incredibly, it has been suggested that building standards did not reach even 1906 levels until the 1950s. A detailed analysis of the city today estimates that an earthquake even less powerful than the 1906 quake would completely destroy many sections of the city and result in thousands of deaths.[citation needed] The Palace of Fine Arts from the Exposition The Panama-Pacific International Exposition was a worlds fair held in San Francisco, California between February 20 and December 4 in 1915. ...

A row of refugee shacks in 1907

Almost immediately after the quake (and even during the disaster), planning and reconstruction plans were hatched to quickly rebuild the city. One of the more famous and ambitious plans came from famed urban planner Daniel Burnham. His bold plan called for, among other proposals, Haussmann-style avenues, boulevards, arterial thoroughfares that radiated across the city, a massive civic center complex with classical structures, and what would have been the largest urban park in the world, stretching from Twin Peaks to Lake Merced with a large atheneum at its peak. But this plan was dismissed at the time as impractical and unrealistic. For example, real estate investors and other land owners were against the idea due to the large amount of land the city would have to purchase to realize such proposals.[citation needed] Image File history File links Row_of_refugee_shacks. ... Image File history File links Row_of_refugee_shacks. ... Daniel H. Burnham. ... Haussmann, circa 1865 Georges-Eugène Haussmann (March 27, 1809 – January 11, 1891), who called himself Baron Haussmann, was a French civic planner whose name is associated with the rebuilding of Paris. ... The Twin Peaks. ... Lake Merced Lake Merced is a freshwater lake located in the southwest corner of San Francisco, California. ... Athenaeum can refer to any of: Athenaeum—a rock band from Greensboro, North Carolina—and their eponymous album. ...

Bird's-eye view, surrounding Ferry Building. Looking west on Market Street. Photographed from tower.
Bird's-eye view, surrounding Ferry Building. Looking west on Market Street. Photographed from tower.

While the original street grid was restored, many of Burnham's proposals inadvertently saw the light of day, such as a neoclassical civic center complex, wider streets, a preference of arterial thoroughfares, a subway under Market Street, a more people-friendly Fisherman's Wharf, and a monument to the city on Telegraph Hill, Coit Tower. Furthermore, plans to move Chinatown and the poor away from the city center failed, as Chinatown was rebuilt in the newer, modern, Western form that exists today. In fact, the destruction of City Hall and the Hall of Records enabled thousands of Chinese immigrants to claim residency and citizenship, and bring in their relatives from China.[23] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 769 × 599 pixels Full resolution (2369 × 1846 pixel, file size: 554 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: San Francisco Earthquake of 1906: Birds-eye view, surrounding Ferry Building. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 769 × 599 pixels Full resolution (2369 × 1846 pixel, file size: 554 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: San Francisco Earthquake of 1906: Birds-eye view, surrounding Ferry Building. ... The Cathedral of Vilnius (1783), by Laurynas Gucevičius. ... The Market Street Subway is a subway tunnel in San Francisco, California, United States. ... Fishermans Wharf sign Fishermans Wharf is a neighborhood in San Francisco, California, U.S. It is mainly a tourist attraction, known for being the location of Pier 39, San Francisco Maritime National Historical Park, Ghirardelli Square, Ripleys Believe it or Not, ferry rides to Alcatraz and restaurants... A view of Telegraph Hill from a boat in the San Francisco Bay. ... Coit Tower with statue of Columbus in foreground Coit Tower was built atop Telegraph Hill in 1933 at the bequest of Lillie Hitchcock Coit to beautify the City of San Francisco. ... Looking north from Grant Avenue and Sacramento Street in Chinatown, San Francisco. ...


The earthquake was also responsible for the development of the Pacific Heights neighborhood. The immense power of the earthquake had destroyed almost all of the mansions on Nob Hill except for the Flood Mansion. As a result, the wealthy looked westward where the land was cheap and relatively undeveloped, and where there were better views and a consistently warmer climate. In the years after the war, the "money" on Nob Hill migrated to Pacific Heights, where it has remained to this day. The sidewalk on Fillmore Street, looking north from Bush Street. ... View of Powell Street heading north from Nob Hill, toward San Francisco Bay and Marin County Nob Hill refers to a small district in San Francisco, California adjacent to the intersection of California and Powell streets (and the respective cable car lines). ...


Reconstruction was swift, and largely completed by 1915, in time for the Panama-Pacific Exposition which celebrated the reconstruction of the city and its "rise from the ashes". Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...


Since 1915, the city has officially commemorated the disaster each year by gathering the remaining survivors at Lotta's Fountain, a fountain in the city's financial district that served as a meeting point during the disaster for people to look for loved ones and exchange information. Lottas fountain was dedicated in 1875 at the intersection of Market Street where Geary and Kearny Streets connect in downtown San Francisco, California. ... The Financial District and the Transamerica Pyramid as seen from Coit Tower. ...

Panorama of San Francisco in ruins from Lawrence Captive Airship, 2,000 feet (610 m) above San Francisco Bay overlooking water front. Sunset over Golden Gate. May 1906 by George R. Lawrence
Panorama of San Francisco in ruins from Lawrence Captive Airship, 2,000 feet (610 m) above San Francisco Bay overlooking water front. Sunset over Golden Gate. May 1906 by George R. Lawrence

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (7000x2748, 4424 KB) Temporary file, edit for FPC This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or less. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (7000x2748, 4424 KB) Temporary file, edit for FPC This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years or less. ... George R. Lawrence (1869 - 1938) was a commercial photographer of northern Illinois. ...

International assistance and insurance payments

During the first few days after news of the disaster reached the rest of the world, relief efforts reached over $5,000,000.[citation needed] London, England, had raised hundreds of thousands of dollars. Individual citizens and businesses donated large sums of money for the relief effort: Standard Oil gave $100,000; Andrew Carnegie gave $100,000; the Dominion of Canada made a special appropriation of $100,000 and even the Bank of Canada in Toronto gave $25,000.[citation needed] The US government quickly voted for one million dollars in supplies which were immediately rushed to the area.[citation needed] These relief efforts, however, were not nearly enough to get families on their feet again, and consequently the burden was placed on wealthier members of the city, who were reluctant to assist in the rebuilding of homes they were not responsible for. Additional funds were taken from racial minorities in the city, who were to be deported in the near future.[citation needed] This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Standard Oil was a predominant integrated oil producing, transporting, refining, and marketing company. ... Andrew Carnegie (properly pronounced , but commonly or )[1] (November 25, 1835 – August 11, 1919) was a Scottish industrialist, businessman, a major philanthropist, and the founder of the Carnegie Corporation of New York, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, Carnegie Mellon University, and Pittsburghs Carnegie Steel Company, which was later merged... For the defunct commercial bank, see Bank of Canada (commercial). ...


Insurance companies, faced with staggering claims of $250 million,[24] paid out between $235 million and $265 million on policyholders' claims, chiefly for fire damage, since shake damage from earthquakes was excluded from coverage under most policies.[25] At least 137 insurance companies were directly involved and another 17 as reinsurers.[26] Many insurance companies launched public relations campaigns right after the earthquake, claiming that they had paid all policyholder claims without discount - which was nothing else than their legal obligation. Some companies continue this to this day. For instance, Lloyds of London maintains having paid more than $50 million in claims[27] (about $1.19 billion in present-day terms[20]), an assertion which still needs full historical proof. Lloyds of London is a British insurance market. ...


The earthquake was the worst single incident for the insurance industry before the September 11, 2001 attacks. After the 1906 earthquake, a global discussion arose concerning a legally flawless exclusion of the earthquake hazard from fire insurance contracts. It was pressed ahead mainly by re-insurers. Their aim was the globally uniform solution of the problem of earthquake hazard in fire insurance contracts. Until 1910, a few countries, especially in Europe, followed the call for an exclusion of the earthquake hazard from all fire insurance contracts. In the US, however, the question was discussed differently. But the traumatized public reacted with fierce opposition. On August 1, 1909, the California Senate enacted the California Standard Form of Fire Insurance Policy, which did not contain any earthquake clause. Thus the state decided that insurers would have to pay again if another earthquake was followed by fires. Other earthquake-endangered countries followed the California example.[28] The insurance payments heavily affected the international financial system. Gold transfers from European insurance companies to policyholders in San Francisco led to a rise in interest rates, subsequently to a lack of available loans and finally to the Knickerbocker Crisis of October 1907 and a recession of the US economy.[29] A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1909 (MCMIX) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The California State Senate is the upper house of the California State Legislature. ...


Centennial commemorations

The 1906 Centennial Alliance[30] was set up as a clearing-house for various centennial events commemorating the earthquake. Award presentations, religious services, a National Geographic TV movie,[31] a projection of fire onto the Coit Tower,[32] memorials, and lectures were part of the commemorations. The USGS Earthquake Hazards Program issued a series of Internet documents,[33] and the tourism industry promoted the 100th anniversary as well.[34] The United States Geological Survey (USGS) is a scientific agency of the United States government. ...


Analysis

The San Andreas Fault runs in a northwest-southeast line along the coast. The numbers on the fault line indicate how far the ground surface slipped (in feet) at that location as a result of the 1906 earthquake.
The San Andreas Fault runs in a northwest-southeast line along the coast. The numbers on the fault line indicate how far the ground surface slipped (in feet) at that location as a result of the 1906 earthquake.

For a number of years, the epicenter of the quake was assumed to be near the town of Olema, in the Point Reyes area of Marin County, because of evidence of the degree of local earth displacement. In the 1960s, a seismologist at UC Berkeley proposed that the epicenter was more likely offshore of San Francisco, to the northwest of the Golden Gate. However, the most recent analysis by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) shows that the most likely epicenter was very near Mussel Rock on the coast of Daly City, an adjacent suburb just south of San Francisco.[35] Image File history File links Sfbay_srt_1906108. ... Image File history File links Sfbay_srt_1906108. ... View of the San Andreas Fault on the Carrizo Plain in central California, 35°07N, 119°39W The San Andreas Fault is a geological fault that runs a length of roughly 800 miles (1300 kilometres) through western and southern California in the United States. ... Olema is a census-designated place located in Marin County, California. ... Point Reyes Point Reyes is a prominent cape on the Pacific coast of northern California in the United States. ... Marin County (pronounced muh-RIN) is a county located in the North San Francisco Bay Area of the U.S. state of California, across the Golden Gate Bridge from San Francisco. ... Sather Tower (the Campanile) looking out over the San Francisco Bay and Mount Tamalpais. ... The Golden Gate The Golden Gate, looking south towards San Francisco. ... InsertSLUTTY WHORES≤ non-formatted text here{| class=toccolours border=1 cellpadding=4 style=float: right; margin: 0 0 1em 1em; width: 20em; border-collapse: collapse; font-size: 95%; clear: right; |+ United States Geological Survey |- |style= align=center colspan=2| [[Image:USGS logo. ... Mussel Rock is a physical feature on the coast of San Mateo County, California, offshore from the city of Daly City. ... Daly City is a city in San Mateo County, California, United States with a 2000 population of 103,621. ...


The most important characteristic of the shaking intensity noted in Lawson's (1908) report was the clear correlation of intensity with underlying geologic conditions. Areas situated in sediment-filled valleys sustained stronger shaking than nearby bedrock sites, and the strongest shaking occurred in areas of Bay where landfill failed in the earthquake (earthquake liquefaction). Modern seismic-zonation practice accounts for the differences in seismic hazard posed by varying geologic conditions.[citation needed] Several sets of (x, y) points, with the correlation coefficient of x and y for each set. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... Earthquake liquefaction, often referred to simply as liquefaction, is the process by which saturated, unconsolidated soil or sand is converted into a suspension during an earthquake. ...


An analysis of the displacements and strain in the surrounding crust led Reid (1910) to formulate his elastic-rebound theory of the earthquake source, which remains today the principal model of the earthquake cycle.[citation needed] Elastic rebound In geology, the elastic rebound theory was the first theory to explain the immediate cause of earthquakes. ...


The USGS estimates that the earthquake measured a powerful 7.9 on the moment magnitude scale. The earthquake caused ruptures visible on the surface for a length of 470 kilometers (290 miles). Modified Mercalli Intensities of VII to IX paralleled the length of the rupture, extending as far as 80 kilometers inland from the fault trace.[citation needed] The moment magnitude scale was introduced in 1979 by Thomas C. Hanks and Hiroo Kanamori as a successor to the Richter scale and is used by seismologists to compare the energy released by earthquakes. ... The Mercalli intensity scale is a scale used for measuring the intensity of an earthquake. ...


See also

The Loma Prieta earthquake was a major earthquake that struck the San Francisco Bay Area of California on October 17, 1989 at 5:04 p. ...

Notes

  1. ^ USGS - The Great 1906 San Francisco Earthquake
  2. ^ 1906 Earthquake: What was the magnitude?USGS Earthquake Hazards Program - Northern California, Accessed September 3, 2006
  3. ^ 1906 Earthquake: How long was the 1906 Crack?USGS Earthquake Hazards Program - Northern California, Accessed September 3, 2006
  4. ^ Timeline of the San Francisco Earthquake April 18 - 23, 1906, The Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco
  5. ^ John A. Kilpatrick and Sofia Dermisi, Aftermath of Katrina: Recommendations for Real Estate Research, Journal of Real Estate Literature, Spring, 2007
  6. ^ 1906 San Francisco Quake: How large was the offset?USGS Earthquake Hazards Program - Northern California, Accessed September 3, 2006
  7. ^ Seasonal Seismicity of Northern California Before the Great 1906 Earthquake, (Journal) Pure and Applied Geophysics, ISSN 0033-4553 (Print) 1420-9136 (Online), volume 159, Numbers 1-3 / January, 2002, Pages 7-62.
  8. ^ "Over 500 Dead, $200,000,000 Lost in San Francisco Earthquake.", The New York Times, April 18, 1906. Retrieved on 2008-04-19. "Earthquake and fire today have put nearly half of San Francisco in ruins. About 500 persons have been killed, a thousand injured, and the property loss will exceed $200,000,000." 
  9. ^ San Francisco Museum
  10. ^ NPS Signal Corps History
  11. ^ San Francisco Museum
  12. ^ Alice Eastwood, The Coniferae of the Santa Lucia Mountains
  13. ^ Double Cone Quarterly, Fall Equinox, volume VII, Number 3 (2004)
  14. ^ The Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemisty
  15. ^ How the Army Worked to Save San Francisco, by Brigadier General Frederick Funston (U.S.A.). Cosmopolitan Magazine, July 1906. Retrieved on 2007-03-29.
  16. ^ Mayor Eugene Schmitz' Famed "Shoot-to-Kill" Order. Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco. Retrieved on 2006-09-03.
  17. ^ Looting Claims Against the U.S. Army Following the 1906 Earthquake. Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco. Retrieved on 2008-03-26.
  18. ^ Reality Times: 1906 San Francisco Earthquake Housing Is Valuable Piece Of History by Blanche Evans
  19. ^ Casualties and damage after the 1906 Earthquake. United States Geological Survey. Accessed December 6, 2006
  20. ^ a b US CPI inflation numbers based on data available from Measuring Worth: US CPI.
  21. ^ San Francisco History The New San Francisco Magazine May 1906
  22. ^ The Great Earthquake and Firestorms of 1906 Philip L. Fradkin
  23. ^ Christoph Strupp, Dealing with Disaster: The San Francisco Earthquake of 1906, http://repositories.cdlib.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1066&context=ies.
  24. ^ The New York Herald (European Edition) of April 21, 1906, p. 2.
  25. ^ R. K. Mackenzie, The San Francisco earthquake & conflagration. Typoscript, Bancroft Library, Berkeley, 1907.
  26. ^ For a list of these companies see Tilmann Röder, Rechtsbildung im wirtschaftlichen Weltverkehr. Das Erdbeben von San Francisco und die internationale Standardisierung von Vertragsbedingungen (1871-1914), p.341-351.
  27. ^ The role of Lloyd's in the reconstruction Lloyd's of London, Accessed December 6, 2006
  28. ^ See T. Röder, The Roots of the "New Law Merchant": How the international standardization of contracts and clauses changed business law, http://www.rewi.hu-berlin.de/FHI/articles/0610roeder.htm.
  29. ^ Kerry A. Odell and Marc D. Weidenmier, Real Shock, Monetary Aftershock: The 1906 San Francisco Earthquake and the Panic of 1907, The Journal of Economic History, 2005, vol. 64, issue 04, p. 1002-1027.
  30. ^ 1906 Centennial Alliance
  31. ^ National Geographic TV movie
  32. ^ projection of fire onto the Coit Tower
  33. ^ series of Internet documents
  34. ^ 100th anniversary
  35. ^ Officials unmoved by quake notoriety Daly City

Dr. John A. Kilpatrick (born on January 7, 1954, Portsmouth, Virginia) is a business executive and author in the real estate field. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ... is the 108th day of the year (109th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1906 (MCMVI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... CPI-U 1913-2004; Source: U.S. Department Of Labor The U.S. Consumer Price Index is a time series measure of the price level of consumer goods and services. ...

References

  • Double Cone Quarterly, Fall Equinox, volume VII, Number 3 (2004).
  • Eastwood, Alice, The Coniferae of the Santa Lucia Mountains.
  • Lawson, Andrew C., The California Earthquake of April 18, 1906. Report of the State Earthquake Investigation Commission, Carnegie Institution of Washington, available online at this USGS webpage.
  • Morris, Charles. The San Francisco Calamity by Earthquake and fire. World Bible House, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, 1906.
  • Reid, H. F., The Mechanics of the Earthquake, Vol. 2 in The California Earthquake of April 18, 1906. Report of the State Investigation Commission, Carnegie Institution of Washington, 1910.
  • Winchester, Simon, A Crack in the Edge of the World: America and the Great California Earthquake of 1906. HarperCollins Publishers, New York, 2005.

The Carnegie Institution of Washington (CIW) is a foundation established by Andrew Carnegie in 1902 to support scientific research. ... See also: 1909 in literature, other events of 1910, 1911 in literature, list of years in literature. ... Simon Winchester, OBE (born September 28, 1944), is a British author and journalist. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
San Francisco Bay Area Portal
Image File history File links Portal. ... More than one country maintains a national archive: The Canadian Library and Archives Canada The New Zealand Archives New Zealand (formerly National Archives) The United States National Archives and Records Administration The United Kingdom National Archives This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might... The American Geological Institute (AGI) is a nonprofit federation of 44 geoscientific and professional associations. ... The Museum of the City of San Francisco operated by the San Francisco Historical Society currently has exhibits at Pier 45 and San Francisco City Hall. ... The Bancroft Library, located at the University of California, Berkeley, was founded in 1905 with the acquisition of Hubert Howe Bancrofts collection and named in his honor. ... Internet Archive headquarters is in the Presidio, a former US military base in San Francisco. ... Leslies Weekly was an American magazine published in in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, which among others published stories by H. Irving Hancock and Ellis Parker Butler. ...

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