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Encyclopedia > 1904 Summer Olympics
Games of the III Olympiad

Host city St. Louis, Missouri, USA
Nations participating 12
Athletes participating 651
Events 91 in 17 sports
Opening ceremony July 1
Closing ceremony November 23
Officially opened by David Francis
Stadium Francis Field

The 1904 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the III Olympiad, were held in St. Louis, Missouri in the United States from July 1, 1904 to November 23, 1904, at what is now known as Francis Field on the campus of Washington University in St. Louis. The fellow American city of Chicago had won the original bid to host the games, but the Louisiana Purchase Exposition would not accept another international event in the same time frame. The organization began to plan for its own sports activities, informing the Chicago OCOG that the Exposition intended to eclipse the Olympic Games unless the games would be moved to St. Louis. Pierre de Coubertin, the founder of the modern Olympic movement, gave in. Download high resolution version (461x747, 135 KB) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Missouri Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor Francis G. Slay (D) Area  - City  66. ... Official language(s) English Capital Jefferson City Largest city Kansas City Largest metro area St Louis[1] Area  Ranked 21st  - Total 69,709 sq mi (180,693 km²)  - Width 240 miles (385 km)  - Length 300 miles (480 km)  - % water 1. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... David Francis can refer to: David Panama Francis, American drummer David R. Francis, American politican David Hywel Francis, Welsh politican This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Montreals Olympic Stadium The Olympic Stadium is the name usually given to the big centrepiece stadium of the Summer Olympic Games. ... Francis Field is a stadium in St Louis. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Missouri Coordinates: , Country State County Independent City Government  - Mayor Francis G. Slay (D) Area  - City  66. ... is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1904 (MCMIV) was a leap year starting on a Friday (see link for calendar). ... Francis Field is a stadium in St Louis. ... “Washington University” redirects here. ... Flag Seal Nickname: The Windy City Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location Location in Chicagoland and northern Illinois Coordinates , Government Country State Counties United States Illinois Cook, DuPage Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 606. ... Entrance to Creation Exhibit on the Pike Map of the St. ... His statue at the Centennial Olympic Park, Atlanta. ...


Considered the lesser of two evils by de Coubertin, St. Louis repeated the mistakes made at the 1900 Summer Olympics in Paris. Competitions were reduced to a side-show of the World's Fair and were lost in the chaos of other, more popular cultural exhibits. The sheer bombastic arrogance of David Francis, the President of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition, was engraved in history for all the world to see when he declined to invite anybody else to open the Games and, on 01 July 1904, did so himself in a scaled-down short and humdrum 'ceremony'. Officially the games lasted for months; in fact, James Edward Sullivan tried to hold an event every day for the duration of the fair. But the Olympic events were again mixed with other sporting events, but where Paris hardly ever mentioned the Olympics, Sullivan called all his sports events "Olympic". From all such events, the IOC is taken to have declared 94 events Olympic. The participants totaled 651 athletes - 645 men and 6 women, representing 12 countries. However, only 42 events actually included athletes who were not from the United States. The actual athletics events that formed the bulk of the recognised Olympic sports were held from Monday, 29 August to Saturday, 03 September 1904. The 1900 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the II Olympiad, were held in 1900 in Paris, France. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Alternative meanings at IOC (disambiguation) The International Olympic Committee is an organization based in Lausanne, Switzerland, created by Pierre de Coubertin in 1894 to reinstate the Ancient Olympic Games held in Greece, and organize this sports event every four years. ...

Contents

Highlights

  • First games at which gold, silver and bronze medals were awarded for first, second and third place.
  • European tension caused by the Russo-Japanese War and the difficulty of getting to St. Louis kept many of the world's top athletes away.
  • In a number of sports, because there were no competitors from other nations, the U.S. national championship was combined with the Olympic championship.
  • Boxing, dumbbells, freestyle wrestling, and the decathlon made their debuts.
  • One of the most remarkable athletes was the American gymnast George Eyser, who won six medals even though his left leg was made of wood.
  • Chicago runner Jim Lightbody won the steeplechase and the 800 m and then set a world record in the 1500 m.
  • Harry Hillman won both the 200 m and 400 m hurdles and also 400 m dash.
  • Sprinter Archie Hahn was champion in the 60 m, 100 m and 200 m. In this last race, he set a new Olympic record in 21.6, a record broken finally 28 years later.
  • In the discus, after American Martin Sheridan had thrown exactly the same distance as his compatriot, Ralph Rose (39.28 m), the judges gave them both an extra throw to decide the winner. Sheridan won the decider and claimed the gold medal.
  • Ray Ewry again won all three standing jumps.
Hicks and his supporters at the marathon
Hicks and his supporters at the marathon
Felix Carvajal on his way / St. Louis Olympic's Marathon
Felix Carvajal on his way / St. Louis Olympic's Marathon
  • The marathon was the most bizarre event of the Games.
    • It was run in brutally hot weather, over dusty roads, with horses and automobiles clearing the way and creating dust clouds.
    • The first to arrive was Frederick Lorz, who actually was just trotting back to the finish line to retrieve his clothes, after dropping out after nine miles. When the officials thought he had won the race, Lorz played along until he was found out shortly after the medal ceremony. Banned for life by the AAU for this stunt, Lorz was reinstated a year later and won the 1905 Boston Marathon. The Briton Thomas Hicks (running for the United States) was the the first to cross the finish-line legally, after having received several doses of strychnine sulfate, and of brandy, from his trainers. He was supported by his trainers when he crossed the finish, but is still considered the winner. Hicks had to be carried off the track, and possibly would have died in the stadium, had he not been treated by several doctors.
  • The marathon included the first two black Africans to compete in the Olympics; two Tswana tribesmen named Len Tau (real name: Len Taunyane) and Yamasani (real name: Jan Mashiani). But they weren't there to compete in the Olympics, they were actually the sideshow. They had been brought over by the exposition as part of the Boer War exhibit (both were really students at Orange Free State in South Africa, but no one wanted to believe that these tribesmen could actually be educated, as that would have ruined the whole image). Len Tau finished ninth and Yamasani came in twelfth. This was a disappointment, as many observers were sure Len Tau could have done better, if he had not been chased nearly a mile off course by a large, aggressive canine.
  • The top foreign athlete was Emil Rausch of Germany, who won three swimming events.
  • Zoltan Halmay of Hungary and Charles Daniels of the United States each won two swimming gold medals.
  • In one of the more embarrassing moments in Olympic history, the organizers of the games held "Anthropology Days" on August 12-13. Various indigenous men from around the world, who were at the World's Fair as part of the exhibits competed in various events more for anthropologists to see how they stacked up to the white man than for the sake of sport.

Combatants Russian Empire Principality of Montenegro [1] Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov â€  Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War (Japanese: Nichi-Ro Sensō, Russian: Russko-Yaponskaya Voyna, Chinese: RìézhànzhÄ“ng, February 10, 1904–September 5, 1905) was a conflict... For other senses of these words, see boxing (disambiguation) or boxer (disambiguation). ... A pair of spinlock dumbbells with 2 kg plates. ... This article is about freestyle wrestling. ... Decathlon is an athletic event combining 10 track and field events. ... Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... James Davies Jim Lightbody (March 15, 1882 – March 2, 1953) was an American middle distance runner, winner of six Olympic medals in the early 20th century. ... Harry Hillman Harry Livingston Hillman Jr. ... Sprints are short running races in athletics. ... Charles Archibald Archie Hahn (September 14, 1880 – January 21, 1955) was an American athlete, and one of the best sprinters in the early 20th century. ... “Discus” redirects here. ... Martin Sheridan (born March 28, 1881 in Treenduff, Ireland – died March 27, 1918) is a former athlete from the United States, who came as a sixteen year old to the US. He won the discus throw event at the 1904 Summer Olympics. ... Ralph Waldo Rose (born March 17, 1885 in Healdsburg, California, deceased October 16, 1913) was an American athlete. ... Raymond Clarence Ray Ewry (October 14, 1873 – September 29, 1937) was an American track and field athlete who won 8 gold medals at the Olympic Games and 2 gold medals at the Intercalated Games (1906 in Athens). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other senses of this word, see Marathon (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Carvajal1904. ... Image File history File links Carvajal1904. ... For other senses of this word, see Marathon (disambiguation). ... Frederick Lorz (born 1880, date of death unknown) was an American long distance runner who, while he had some race victories, is best known for not winning the marathon at the 1904 Summer Olympics. ... - The Amateur Athletic Union, widely known as the AAU, was formed in United States. ... For other uses, see 1905 (disambiguation). ... The 100th running of the Boston Marathon, 1996 The Boston Marathon is an annual marathon sporting event hosted by the city of Boston, Massachusetts, on Patriots Day, the third Monday of April. ... Thomas J. Hicks (January 7, 1875 – December 2, 1963) was an American track and field athlete, winner of the Olympic marathon in 1904. ... Tswana (Setswana), is a Bantu language. ... Combatants British Empire Orange Free State South African Republic Commanders Sir Redvers Buller Lord Kitchener Lord Roberts Paul Kruger Louis Botha Koos de la Rey Martinus Steyn Christiaan de Wet Casualties 6,000 - 7,000 (A further ~14,000 from disease) 6,000 - 8,000 (Unknown number from disease) Civilians... Flag of the Orange Free State Capital Bloemfontein Language(s) Afrikaans, English Religion Dutch Reformed Church Government Republic President  - 1854 - 1855 Josias P. Hoffman  - 1855 - 1859 Jacobus Nicolaas Boshoff  - 1859 - 1863 Marthinus Wessel Pretorius (also President of the South African Republic from 1857 to 1871). ... Emil A. Rausch (September 11, 1883[1] – December 14, 1954) was a German freestyle swimmer who competed in the 1904 Summer Olympics and 1906 Summer Olympics. ... Zoltán Halmay (June 18, 1881 – May 20, 1956) was a Hungarian Olympic swimmer. ... Charles Meldrum Daniels (born March 21, 1885 in Dayton, Ohio – died August 9, 1973 in Carmel Valley, California) was a freestyle swimmer from the United States, who won a total number of five Olympic golds during his career. ...

Sports

A tug-of-war competition at the 1904 Summer Olympics.

18 disciplines, comprising 16 sports, were part of the Olympic program in 1904. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For the Upstairs, Downstairs episode, see Tug of War (Upstairs, Downstairs). ...

Basketball was also featured as a demonstration sport. At the 1904 Summer Olympics, two diving events were contested. ... At the 1904 Summer Olympics, nine swimming events were contested. ... At the 1904 Summer Olympics, a water polo tournament was contested. ... At the 1904 Summer Olympics, five archery events were contested, of which three were mens and two womens competitions. ... At the 1904 Summer Olympics, twenty-five athletics events were contested, all for men only. ... At the 1904 Summer Olympics, seven boxing events were contested. ... At the 1904 Summer Olympics, seven cycling events were contested. ... At the 1904 Summer Olympics, five fencing events were contested. ... At the 1904 Summer Olympics, a demonstration football event was contested. ... At the 1904 Summer Olympics, two golf events were contested (mens individual and team tournaments). ... At the 1904 Summer Olympics, twelve gymnastics events were contested. ... At the 1904 Summer Olympics, a lacrosse event was contested. ... At the 1904 Summer Olympics, a roque individual tournament was contested. ... At the 1904 Summer Olympics, five rowing events were contested. ... The final results of the Tennis competiton at the 1904 Summer Olympics in St. ... At the 1904 Summer Olympics, a tug of war tournament was contested. ... At the 1904 Summer Olympics, two weightlifting events were contested. ... At the 1904 Summer Olympics, seven wrestling events were contested, all in the freestyle discipline for men. ... Basketball appeared at the 1904 Summer Olympics for the first time, as a demonstration sport. ... A demonstration sport is a sport which is played in order to promote itself, most commonly during the Olympic Games, but also at other sporting events. ...


Participating nations

participants
participants

Athletes from only 12 nations competed in St. Louis. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 47 KB) Countries which participated in the 1904 Summer Olympics, as listed at the olympic games museum, derived from blank world map. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1357x628, 47 KB) Countries which participated in the 1904 Summer Olympics, as listed at the olympic games museum, derived from blank world map. ...

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Habsburg_Monarchy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Canada-1868-Red. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cuba. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece_(1828-1978). ... Flag of the Kingdom of Hungary from 1867 to 1918 File links The following pages link to this file: 1896 Summer Olympics Tennis at the 1896 Summer Olympics Swimming at the 1896 Summer Olympics Athletics at the 1896 Summer Olympics 1906 Summer Olympics 1912 Summer Olympics 1908 Summer Olympics 1904... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... Image File history File links US_flag_45_stars. ...

Medal count

 Rank  Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1 United States United States (USA) (host nation) 79 83 80 242
2 Germany Germany (GER) 4 4 5 13
3 Cuba Cuba (CUB) 4 2 3 9
4 Canada Canada (CAN) 4 1 1 6
5 Hungary Hungary (HUN) 2 1 1 4
6 Great Britain Great Britain (GBR) 1 1 0 2
Mixed team Mixed team (ZZX) 1 1 0 2
8 Greece Greece (GRE) 1 0 1 2
Switzerland Switzerland (SUI) 1 0 1 2
10 Austria Austria (AUT) 0 0 1 1

This is the full table of the medal count of the 1904 Summer Olympics. ... Image File history File links US_flag_45_stars. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Cuba. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Canada-1868-Red. ... Flag of the Kingdom of Hungary from 1867 to 1918 File links The following pages link to this file: 1896 Summer Olympics Tennis at the 1896 Summer Olympics Swimming at the 1896 Summer Olympics Athletics at the 1896 Summer Olympics 1906 Summer Olympics 1912 Summer Olympics 1908 Summer Olympics 1904... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Olympic_flag. ... Early Olympic Games allowed for individuals in a team to be from different nations. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece_(1828-1978). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Switzerland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Habsburg_Monarchy. ...

External links

Preceded by
Paris
Summer Olympic Games
Host City

III Olympiad (1904)
Succeeded by
London
Olympic Games
v  d  e
SportsMedal countsNOCs
MedalistsSymbols
Summer Games: 1896, 1900, 1904, 19061, 1908, 1912, (1916)2, 1920, 1924, 1928, 1932, 1936, (1940)2, (1944)2,3, 1948, 1952, 1956, 1960, 1964, 1968, 1972, 1976, 1980, 1984, 1988, 1992, 1996, 2000, 2004, 2008, 2012, 2016, 2020, 2024, 2028
Winter Games: 1924, 1928, 1932, 1936, (1940)2, (1944)2, 1948, 1952, 1956, 1960, 1964, 1968, 1972, 1976, 1980, 1984, 1988, 1992, 1994, 1998, 2002, 2006, 2010, 2014, 2018, 2022
Summer Youth Games: 2010
Winter Youth Games: 2012
Athens 2004Turin 2006Beijing 2008Vancouver 2010London 2012Sochi 2014

  Results from FactBites:
 
1904 Summer Olympics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1162 words)
The 1904 Summer Olympics, officially known as the Games of the III Olympiad, were held in St.
Pierre de Coubertin, the founder of the modern Olympic movement, gave in.
Considered the lesser of two evils by De Coubertin, St. Louis repeated the mistakes made at the 1900 Summer Olympics in Paris.
BIGpedia - Olympic Games - Encyclopedia and Dictionary Online (4470 words)
The Olympics were of fundamental religious importance, contests alternating with sacrifices and ceremonies honouring both Zeus (whose colossal statue stood at Olympia), and Pelops, divine hero and mythical king of Olympia famous for his legendary chariot race, in whose honor the games were held.
The Olympic Flame is lighted in Olympia and brought to the host city by runners carrying the torch in relay.
The first Olympic athlete to test positive for doping use was Hans-Gunnar Liljenwall, a Swedish pentathlete at the 1968 Summer Olympics, who lost his bronze medal for alcohol use.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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