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Encyclopedia > 1280s
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Centuries:
12th century - 13th century - 14th century
Decades:

1240s 1250s 1260s - 1270s - 1280s 1290s 1300s These pages contain the trends of millennia and centuries. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Jump to: navigation, search This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right}. It is housed in the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C. As a means of recording the passage of time, the 14th century was that century which... This is a list of decades which have articles with more information about them. ... Jump to: navigation, search Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century Decades: 1190s 1200s 1210s 1220s 1230s - 1240s - 1250s 1260s 1270s 1280s 1290s Years: 1240 1241 1242 1243 1244 1245 1246 1247 1248 1249 Events and Trends Hungary was partially demolished with a great loss of life in 1241–1242... Jump to: navigation, search The 1250s is the decade starting January 1, 1250 and ending December 31, 1259. ... Jump to: navigation, search The 1260s is the decade starting January 1, 1260 and ending December 31, 1269. ... Jump to: navigation, search The 1270s is the decade starting January 1, 1270, and ending December 31, 1279. ... Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century Decades: 1240s 1250s 1260s 1270s 1280s - 1290s - 1300s 1310s 1320s 1330s 1340s Years: 1290 1291 1292 1293 1294 1295 1296 1297 1298 1299 Events and Trends Categories: 1290s ... Centuries: 13th century - 14th century - 15th century Decades: 1250s 1260s 1270s 1280s 1290s - 1300s - 1310s 1320s 1330s 1340s 1350s Years: 1300 1301 1302 1303 1304 1305 1306 1307 1308 1309 Events and Trends MARF Categories: 1300s ...

Years:

1280 1281 1282 1283 1284 1285 1286 1287 1288 1289 For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... Events February 22 - Martin IV becomes Pope August 15 - Kamikaze storm wipes out invading Mongol army in the coast of Japan The Ottoman Empire was founded as an autonomous state (Beylik) in present day Bilecik, Turkey, by Osman Bey. ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... Jump to: navigation, search For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... Jump to: navigation, search // Events War and politics King Charles II of Naples is captured in a naval battle off Naples by Roger of Lauria, admiral to King Peter III of Aragon. ... Jump to: navigation, search For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... Events Margaret I of Scotland became queen of Scotland, end of Canmore dynasty. ... Jump to: navigation, search For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... Events February 22 - Nicholas IV becomes Pope. ... Jump to: navigation, search For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ...

The 1280s is the decade starting January 1, 1280 and ending December 31, 1289. Jump to: navigation, search January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... Jump to: navigation, search December 31 is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ...


Europe in the 1280s was marked by naval warfare on the Mediterranean Sea and consolidation of power by the major states. Ongoing struggles over the control of Sicily provoked lengthy naval warfare: after the Sicilian Vespers rebellion, the French Angevins struggled against Aragon for control of the island. King Rudolph I of Germany established the Habsburg dynasty in Austria when he invested his two sons with power there. In England, King Edward I of England completed the conquest of Wales and annexed the territory via the Statute of Rhuddlan; he also constructed a series of castles in Wales to suppress any future rebellions. Edward I also established several important legal traditions, including a court system to hear claims on the king's behalf and a codification of the separation of church and state legal powers. The death of King Alexander III of Scotland fomented political wrangling in Scotland which would soon lead to increased English influence over Scotland. In Sweden, King Magnus I of Sweden founded a Swedish nobility. World map showing Europe (geographically) When considered a continent, Europe is the worlds second-smallest continent in terms of area, with an area of 10,600,000 km² (4,140,625 square miles), making it larger than Australia only. ... Satellite image The Mediterranean Sea is a part of the Alanic Ocean almost completely enclosed by land, on the north by Europe, on the south by Africa, and on the east by Asia. ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,700 sq. ... The Sicilian Vespers is the name given to a rebellion in Sicily, in 1282 against the rule of the Angevin king Charles I, who had taken control of the island with Papal support in 1266. ... Angevin is the name applied to three distinct medieval dynasties which originated as counts (from 1360, dukes) of the western French province of Anjou (of which angevin is the adjectival form), but later came to rule far greater areas including England, Hungary and Poland (see Angevin Empire). ... Capital Zaragoza Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47 719 km²  9,4% Population  â€“ Total (2003)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 11th  1 217 514  2,9%  25,51/km² Demonym  â€“ English  â€“ Spanish  Aragonese  aragonés Statute of Autonomy August 16, 1982 ISO 3166-2 AR Parliamentary representation  â€“ Congress seats  â€“ Senate... The brass of the tomb of Rudolph I in Speyer Rudolph I (Rudolph of Habsburg) (May 1, 1218 – July 15, 1291) was a German king, who played a vital role in raising the Habsburg family to a leading position among the royal dynasties of Germany. ... Jump to: navigation, search Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... Jump to: navigation, search Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population - Total (mid-2004) - Density Ranked 1st UK... King Edward I of England (June 17, 1239 – July 7, 1307), popularly known as Longshanks because of his 6 foot 2 inch frame and the Hammer of the Scots (his tombstone, in Latin, read, Hic est Edwardvs Primus Scottorum Malleus, Here lies Edward I, Hammer of the Scots), achieved fame... Jump to: navigation, search National motto: Cymru am byth (Welsh: Wales for ever) Waless location within the UK Official languages English, Welsh Capital Cardiff Largest city Cardiff First Minister Rhodri Morgan Area  - Total Ranked 3rd UK 20,779 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 3rd UK 2,903,085... The Statute of Rhuddlan was created in 1284 after the conquest of Wales by the English king Edward I. After the defeat of Llywelyn ap Gruffydd in 1282, Wales was incorporated into England and Edward set about pacifying the new territory. ... Alexander III (September 4, 1241 – March 19, 1286), king of Scots, also known as Alexander the Glorious, ranks as one of Scotlands greatest kings. ... Jump to: navigation, search Royal motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (Latin: No one provokes me with impunity) (Scots: Wha daur meddle wi me) Scotlands location within the UK Languages with Official Status1 English Gaelic Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow First Minister Jack McConnell Area - Total - % water Ranked 2nd UK... Jump to: navigation, search Seal of Magnus I Magnus I of Sweden (1240 – 1290), often called LadulÃ¥s: Barnlock, was king of Sweden from 1275/1280 until his death in 1290. ... The Swedish nobility (Adeln) was historically a privileged class in Sweden. ...


In Asia, the Mongol Empire continued to expand, although at a slower pace and with less success than in previous decades. Kublai Khan's Yuan dynasty established control over the Khmer empire in Cambodia, the Pagan Empire in Myanmar, and a kingdom of Laos, but failed a second attempted invasion of Japan and was twice defeated in attempted invasions of Vietnam. The Thai kingdoms of Lanna and Sukhothai also exercised power in the region, avoiding conflict with the Mongol Empire to the north. Across the continent in the Middle East, the Mamluk sultanate of Egypt continued to extinguish crusader states under the leadership of Qalawun, capturing Margat, Latakia, and the County of Tripoli. In Anatolia, Osman I became a local chief, or bey, planting the seed that would eventually grow into the Ottoman Empire. Jump to: navigation, search World map showing Asia (geographically) Asia is the central and eastern part of Eurasia and worlds largest continent. ... Jump to: navigation, search Mongol Empire in 1300–1405 The Mongol Empire (1206–1368) was the largest contiguous and second largest empire in world history. ... Kublai Khan or Khubilai Khan (1215 – 1294), Mongol military leader, was Khan (1260-1294) of the Mongol Empire and founder and first Emperor (1279-1294) of the Chinese Yuan Dynasty. ... The Yuan Dynasty (Mongolian: Dai Ön Yeke Mongghul Ulus; Chinese: 元朝 or 大元帝國) lasting officially from 1271 to 1368, also called the Mongol Dynasty, was the name given to the significant ruling family of Borjigin in Asia. ... The Khmer empire was a powerful kingdom based in what is now Cambodia. ... Pagan (also known as Bagan) was an important ancient kingdom in Myanmar. ... Lanna (English One Million Thai Rice Fields, Thai ล้านนา) was a kingdom in the north of Thailand around the city of Chiang Mai. ... Sukhothai may mean the following: the historic Thai kingdom; see Sukhothai kingdom the province Sukhothai the historic city Sukhothai, now the Sukhothai historic park the city Sukhothai, sometimes called New Sukhothai This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (also Mameluks, Mamelukes) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim caliphs and the Ottoman Empire. ... The Crusader states, c. ... Saif ad-Din Qalawun al-Alfi al-Mansur (also Qalaun or Kalavun) (c. ... Margat, also known as Marqab (from the Arabic Qalaat al-Marqab, Castle of the Watchtower) was a Crusader fortress in modern Syria. ... Jump to: navigation, search Roundabout in Latakia Latakia (Arabic: اللاذقية Al-Ladhiqiyah, Greek:Λαοδικεία) is the principal port city of Syria. ... Armenian Cilicia and Crusader States The County of Tripoli was the last of the four major Crusader states in the Levant to be created. ... Jump to: navigation, search Asia Minor lies east of the Bosporus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. ... Sultan Osman I Osman I (1258–1326) (Ottoman عُثمَان ʿUthmān) was the founder of the Ottoman Empire. ... Jump to: navigation, search Bey is the Turkish word for chieftain, traditionally applied to the leaders of small tribal groups. ... Jump to: navigation, search Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (the Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Bursa (1335 - 1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Ä°stanbul (Constantinople) (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanli...


The 1280s was also a busy decade in culture. In Thailand, King Ramkhamhaeng the Great invented the Thai alphabet. In Holland, a dramatic flood killed 50,000 while creating the Zuider Zee, thus giving Amsterdam the sea access it would later need to rise to prominence as an important port. In legal reforms, King Edward I of England started the use of drawing and quartering as punishment for traitors, King Philip IV of France created the gabelle, an onerous tax on salt, and the Scottish Parliament passed laws allowing women to propose marriage to men, but only in leap years. The northern branch of the Grand Canal of China was constructed during the first half of the decade, the Uppsala Cathedral was begun, and a partial collapse set back construction of the Cathédrale Saint-Pierre de Beauvais in a blow to the aspirations of its Gothic architecture. Colleges at the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge were founded. The cities of Al Mansurah, Egypt and Guiyang, China were founded, while Hamburg, Germany burnt to the ground in a catastrophic fire. Jews continued to be persecuted across Europe, while Taoists suffered under Kublai Khan in Mongol China. Statue of King Ramkhamhaeng Ramkhamhaeng the Great (c. ... The Thai alphabet (ตัวอักษรไทย) is used to write the Thai language (ภาษาไทย) and other minority languages in Thailand. ... Jump to: navigation, search Holland is a region in the central-western part of the Netherlands. ... Jump to: navigation, search Landsat photo The Zuider Zee (pronounced , Dutch: Zuiderzee, pronounced ) was a shallow inlet of the North Sea in the northwest of the Netherlands, extending about 100 km inland and at most 50 km wide, with an overall depth of about 4 to 5 meters and a... Jump to: navigation, search Amsterdam Location Country The Netherlands Province North Holland Population 739,295 (1 January 2005) Coordinates 4°54E - 52°22N Website www. ... King Edward I of England (June 17, 1239 – July 7, 1307), popularly known as Longshanks because of his 6 foot 2 inch frame and the Hammer of the Scots (his tombstone, in Latin, read, Hic est Edwardvs Primus Scottorum Malleus, Here lies Edward I, Hammer of the Scots), achieved fame... Drawing and quartering was part of the penalty once ordained in England for treason. ... Philippe IV, recumbent statue on his tomb, Royal Necropolis, Saint Denis Basilica Philip IV (French: Philippe IV; 1268–November 29, 1314) was King of France from 1285 until his death. ... The gabelle was a very unpopular tax on salt in France before 1790. ... The Scottish Parliament (Pàrlamaid na h-Alba in Gaelic, Scots Pairlament in Scots) is the national unicameral legislature of Scotland. ... A leap year (or intercalary year) is a year containing an extra day or month in order to keep the calendar year in sync with an astronomical or seasonal year. ... The Grand Canal (Simplified Chinese: 大运河; Traditional Chinese: 大運河; pinyin: ) of China, also known as the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal (Simplified Chinese: 京杭大运河; Traditional Chinese: 京杭大運河; pinyin: ) is the largest ancient canal or artificial river in the world. ... See also Archbishop of Uppsala Categories: Sweden geography stubs | Buildings and structures stubs | Swedish churches | Cathedrals | Uppsala ... The Cathédrale Saint-Pierre de Beauvais is a cathedral, located in Beauvais, in northern France. ... Jump to: navigation, search See also Gothic art. ... Jump to: navigation, search The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... The University of Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world, with one of the most selective sets of entry requirements in the United Kingdom. ... Al Mansurah (Arabic منصورة) is considered to be Egyptian fourth city after Cairo, Alexandria and Port Said. ... Typically known as the Forest City, Guiyang (Simplified Chinese: 贵阳; Traditional Chinese: 貴陽; pinyin: ) is the capital of Guizhou province in the Peoples Republic of China. ... Hamburg is Germanys second largest city (after Berlin) and, with the Hamburg Harbour, its principal port. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Yin-Yang or Taiji diagram, often used as a symbol in Taoism. ... Kublai Khan or Khubilai Khan (1215 – 1294), Mongol military leader, was Khan (1260-1294) of the Mongol Empire and founder and first Emperor (1279-1294) of the Chinese Yuan Dynasty. ... Jump to: navigation, search Mongol Empire in 1300–1405 The Mongol Empire (1206–1368) was the largest contiguous and second largest empire in world history. ...

Contents


War and politics

Europe

War and Peace

Continental Europe and the British Isles

March is the third month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... Jump to: navigation, search Dafydd ap Gruffydd (c. ... The Badge of the Prince of Wales is derived from the ostrich feathers borne by Edward, the Black Prince. ... Arms used by Llywelyn ap Gruffydd Llywelyn ap Gruffydd or Gruffudd (c. ... Jump to: navigation, search Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population - Total (mid-2004) - Density Ranked 1st UK... Jump to: navigation, search National motto: Cymru am byth (Welsh: Wales for ever) Waless location within the UK Official languages English, Welsh Capital Cardiff Largest city Cardiff First Minister Rhodri Morgan Area  - Total Ranked 3rd UK 20,779 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 3rd UK 2,903,085... King Edward I of England (June 17, 1239 – July 7, 1307), popularly known as Longshanks because of his 6 foot 2 inch frame and the Hammer of the Scots (his tombstone, in Latin, read, Hic est Edwardvs Primus Scottorum Malleus, Here lies Edward I, Hammer of the Scots), achieved fame... The Prussian people, or (old) Prussians, inhabited the area around the Curonian and Vistula Lagoons, in the region roughly occupied by the Mazurian Lakes. ... Jump to: navigation, search Serbia and Montenegro  â€“ Serbia    â€“ Kosovo and Metohia        (UN administration)    â€“ Vojvodina  â€“ Montenegro Official language Serbian1 Capital Belgrade Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % water  88,361 km²  n/a Population  â€“ Total (2002)     (without Kosovo)  â€“ Density  7. ... June 5 is the 156th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (157th in leap years), with 209 days remaining. ... Jan I van Brabant, also called John I the Victorious, was born in Brussels in 1253 and died in Louvain on May 3, 1294. ... For the present province also called Guelders in English, see Gelderland. ... The Battle of Worringen was fought on June 5, 1288 near the town of Worringen (also called Woeringen), nowadays a suburb of Cologne. ... The Duchy of Limburg was a state of the Holy Roman Empire in the Low Countries, located between the river Meuse and the city of Aachen. ... Jump to: navigation, search Cologne skyline at night with river Rhine in the foreground and famous Cologne Cathedral on the right. ... The Archbishopric of Cologne was one of the major ecclesiastical principalities of the Holy Roman Empire. ... Jump to: navigation, search This page is about the Germanic empire. ... Jump to: navigation, search August 8 is the 220th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (221st in leap years), with 145 days remaining. ... Nicholas IV, né Girolamo Masci (Lisciano, a small village near Ascoli Piceno, September 30, 1227 – April 4, 1292), was pope from February 22, 1288 to April 4, 1292. ... Ladislaus IV the Cuman (Hungarian: IV László, Slovak: Ladislav IV) (1262 – July 10, 1290), also known as Laszlo IV, king of Hungary, was the son of Stephen V, whom he succeeded in 1272. ... The Cumans, also known as Polovtsy (Slavic for yellowish) were a nomadic West Turkic tribe living on the north of the Black Sea along the Volga. ...

Mediterranean Europe

Martin IV, né Simon de Brion (ca. ... The Ninth Crusade is commonly considered to be the last of the medieval Crusades against the Muslims in the Holy Land. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centred at its capital in Constantinople. ... Jump to: navigation, search Map of Constantinople. ... Jump to: navigation, search Location within Italy Venice (Italian: Venezia), the city of canals, is the capital of the region of Veneto and of the province of Venice, 45°26′ N 12°19′ E, population 271,663 (census estimate 2004-01-01). ... Jump to: navigation, search The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Greek-speaking Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centred at its capital in Constantinople. ... The Kingdom of Albania was established by Charles of Anjou in the territory he conquered from the Despotate of Epirus in 1271. ... The Despotate of Epirus was one of the successor states of the Byzantine Empire, founded in the aftermath of the Fourth Crusade in 1204. ... Charles I (March 1227 (or 1226) - January 7, 1285) was the posthumous (or born ten months before fathers death: sources suggest two possible birth years) son of King Louis VIII of France by Blanche of Castile. ... March 30 is the 89th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (90th in Leap years). ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,700 sq. ... The Sicilian Vespers is the name given to a rebellion in Sicily, in 1282 against the rule of the Angevin king Charles I, who had taken control of the island with Papal support in 1266. ... Angevin is the name applied to three distinct medieval dynasties which originated as counts (from 1360, dukes) of the western French province of Anjou (of which angevin is the adjectival form), but later came to rule far greater areas including England, Hungary and Poland (see Angevin Empire). ... Charles I (March 1227 (or 1226) - January 7, 1285) was the posthumous (or born ten months before fathers death: sources suggest two possible birth years) son of King Louis VIII of France by Blanche of Castile. ... The Ninth Crusade is commonly considered to be the last of the medieval Crusades against the Muslims in the Holy Land. ... Jump to: navigation, search Map of Constantinople. ... Peter III of Aragon (Catalan: Pere) (1239 – November 11, 1285, also Peter I of Valencia, Peter II of Barcelona), known as the Great, was the king of Aragon and Valencia and count of Barcelona from 1276 to 1285. ... Jump to: navigation, search Excommunication is a religious censure which is used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community. ... Martin IV, né Simon de Brion (ca. ... Jump to: navigation, search July 8 is the 189th day of the year (190th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 176 days remaining. ... U.S. Navy supercarrier USS Nimitz on November 3, 2003. ... The naval Battle of Malta took place on July 8, 1283 in the entrance to Grand Harbor, Valetta, when a galley fleet commanded by Roger of Lauria (Ruggiero di Lauria) defeated a fleet of Angevin galleys commanded by William Cornut and Bartholomew Bonvin. ... St Johns Co-Cathedral Valletta, population 7048 (official estimate for 2000), is the capital of Malta. ... Angevin is the name applied to three distinct medieval dynasties which originated as counts (from 1360, dukes) of the western French province of Anjou (of which angevin is the adjectival form), but later came to rule far greater areas including England, Hungary and Poland (see Angevin Empire). ... Roger of Lauria, or Ruggiero di Lauria (c. ... Charles II, known as the Lame (Fr. ... Jump to: navigation, search Location within Italy Naples (Italian Napoli, Neapolitan Napule, from Greek Νέα Πόλις - Néa Pólis - meaning New City; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is the largest city in southern Italy and capital of Campania Region. ... Roger of Lauria, or Ruggiero di Lauria (c. ... Peter III of Aragon (Catalan: Pere) (1239 – November 11, 1285, also Peter I of Valencia, Peter II of Barcelona), known as the Great, was the king of Aragon and Valencia and count of Barcelona from 1276 to 1285. ... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city. ... Jump to: navigation, search Location within Italy Flag of Genoa Christopher Columbus monument in Piazza Aquaverde Genoa (Italian Genova, Genoese Zena, French Gênes, German Genua) is a city and a seaport in northern Italy, the capital of the Province of Genoa and of the region of Liguria. ... Jump to: navigation, search Pisas coat of arms This article is about Pisa in Italy. ... Jump to: navigation, search September 4 is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years). ... Roger of Lauria, or Ruggiero di Lauria (c. ... Philippe III Philip III the Bold ( French: Philippe III le Hardi) (April 3, 1245 - October 5, 1285) reigned as King of France from 1270 to 1285. ... Jump to: navigation, search Barcelona within Barcelonès Population (2003) 1,582,738 Area 100. ... Jump to: navigation, search January 17 is the 17th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Alfons or Alfonso III of Aragon (1265 – June 18, 1291, also Alfons II of Barcelona), surnamed the Liberal, was the king of Aragon and count of Barcelona from 1285 to 1291. ... Flag of Minorca Minorca (Menorca both in Catalan and Spanish and increasingly in English usage; from Latin insula minor, later Minorica minor island) is one of the Balearic Islands (Illes Balears Catalan official name, Islas Baleares in Spanish), located in the Mediterranean Sea, and belonging to Spain. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Moors were the medieval Muslim inhabitants of al-Andalus (the Iberian Peninsula including the present day Spain and Portugal) and the Maghreb, whose culture is often called Moorish. Juba II king of Mauretania // Origins of the name The name derives from the old Berber (barbarian...

Political entities

The Statute of Rhuddlan was created in 1284 after the conquest of Wales by the English king Edward I. After the defeat of Llywelyn ap Gruffydd in 1282, Wales was incorporated into England and Edward set about pacifying the new territory. ... Jump to: navigation, search National motto: Cymru am byth (Welsh: Wales for ever) Waless location within the UK Official languages English, Welsh Capital Cardiff Largest city Cardiff First Minister Rhodri Morgan Area  - Total Ranked 3rd UK 20,779 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 3rd UK 2,903,085... Jump to: navigation, search Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population - Total (mid-2004) - Density Ranked 1st UK... Stefan Dragutin (d. ... Jump to: navigation, search Serbia and Montenegro  â€“ Serbia    â€“ Kosovo and Metohia        (UN administration)    â€“ Vojvodina  â€“ Montenegro Official language Serbian1 Capital Belgrade Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % water  88,361 km²  n/a Population  â€“ Total (2002)     (without Kosovo)  â€“ Density  7. ... Jump to: navigation, search This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... For the region in Europe, see Srem (region) For the Polish city, see Śrem, Poland This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

Political reform

Jump to: navigation, search Seal of Magnus I Magnus I of Sweden (1240 – 1290), often called Ladulås: Barnlock, was king of Sweden from 1275/1280 until his death in 1290. ... The Swedish nobility (Adeln) was historically a privileged class in Sweden. ... Italian cavalry officers practice their horsemanship in 1904 outside Rome. ... King Edward I of England (June 17, 1239 – July 7, 1307), popularly known as Longshanks because of his 6 foot 2 inch frame and the Hammer of the Scots (his tombstone, in Latin, read, Hic est Edwardvs Primus Scottorum Malleus, Here lies Edward I, Hammer of the Scots), achieved fame... One of the ancient courts of England, the Kings Bench (or Queens Bench when the monarch is female) is now a division of the High Court of Justice of England and Wales. ... In law, a writ is a formal written order issued by a government entity in the name of the sovereign power. ... Circumspecte Agatis is an English writ of 1285, issued by King Edward I. It defines the jurisdictions of Church and State, forcing church courts to confine themselves to ecclesiastical cases. ... King Edward I of England (June 17, 1239 – July 7, 1307), popularly known as Longshanks because of his 6 foot 2 inch frame and the Hammer of the Scots (his tombstone, in Latin, read, Hic est Edwardvs Primus Scottorum Malleus, Here lies Edward I, Hammer of the Scots), achieved fame... Jump to: navigation, search Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population - Total (mid-2004) - Density Ranked 1st UK...

People and dynasties

The Asen dynasty ruled the Second Bulgarian Empire between 1187 and 1280. ... Tsar (Bulgarian цар, Russian царь,   listen[?]; often spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to 1917 (although... Jump to: navigation, search This page is about the Germanic empire. ... The brass of the tomb of Rudolph I in Speyer Rudolph I (Rudolph of Habsburg) (May 1, 1218 – July 15, 1291) was a German king, who played a vital role in raising the Habsburg family to a leading position among the royal dynasties of Germany. ... Albert I (July 1255 – May 1, 1308) was a German king, duke of Austria, and eldest son of King Rudolph I of Habsburg. ... Duke Rudolph II of Austria (born 1271, died May 10, 1290) was born as the younger son of Emperor Rudolph I of Habsburg. ... Styria was a duchy of the Holy Roman Empire until its dissolution in 1806, and a crownland of Austria-Hungary until it dissolved in 1918. ... Jump to: navigation, search Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... Jump to: navigation, search June 1 is the 152nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (153rd in leap years), with 213 days remaining. ... Duke Rudolph II of Austria (born 1271, died May 10, 1290) was born as the younger son of Emperor Rudolph I of Habsburg. ... Styria was a duchy of the Holy Roman Empire until its dissolution in 1806, and a crownland of Austria-Hungary until it dissolved in 1918. ... Albert I (July 1255 – May 1, 1308) was a German king, duke of Austria, and eldest son of King Rudolph I of Habsburg. ... In the Treaty of Rheinfelden, concluded June 1, 1283, Duke Rudolph II of Austria had to waive all his rights to the thrones of Austria and Styria to the benefit of his elder brother Albert I. The fact that Rudolph was never compensated induced his son John Parricida to murder... Jump to: navigation, search March 19 is the 78th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (79th in leap years). ... Alexander III (September 4, 1241 – March 19, 1286), king of Scots, also known as Alexander the Glorious, ranks as one of Scotlands greatest kings. ... This is a list of people and fictional characters who had severe injuries, or died from accidents related with horses. ... This article is about Margaret, Queen of Scots. ... The Wars of Scottish Independence were a series of military campaigns fought between Scotland and England in the late 13th and early 14th centuries. ... Jump to: navigation, search Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population - Total (mid-2004) - Density Ranked 1st UK... Jump to: navigation, search Royal motto: Nemo me impune lacessit (Latin: No one provokes me with impunity) (Scots: Wha daur meddle wi me) Scotlands location within the UK Languages with Official Status1 English Gaelic Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow First Minister Jack McConnell Area - Total - % water Ranked 2nd UK...

The Mongol Empire sphere of influence

The Yuan dynasty: east Asia

Jump to: navigation, search August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... Jump to: navigation, search Mongol Empire in 1300–1405 The Mongol Empire (1206–1368) was the largest contiguous and second largest empire in world history. ... The Mongol invasions of Japan (元寇, Genkō) of 1274 and 1281 were major events of macrohistorical importance, despite their ultimate failures. ... The Battle of Kouan (弘安の役, kouan no eki), also known as the Second battle of Hakata Bay, was the second attempt by the Mongols to invade Japan. ... This article is about weather phenomena. ... Jump to: navigation, search A kamikaze, a Mitsubishi Zero in this case, about to hit the USS Missouri. ... The Mon are an ethnic group in Southeast Asia. ... Haripunchai (or Haribhunjaya) was a kingdom of the Mon in northern Thailand around the 11th century. ... Lamphun is a town in northern Thailand, capital of the Lamphun Province. ... King Mengrai (or Mangrai) (1239-1317) was the founder of the Thai kingdom Lannathai. ... Lanna (English One Million Thai Rice Fields, Thai ล้านนา) was a kingdom in the north of Thailand around the city of Chiang Mai. ... Kublai Khan or Khubilai Khan (1215 – 1294), Mongol military leader, was Khan (1260-1294) of the Mongol Empire and founder and first Emperor (1279-1294) of the Chinese Yuan Dynasty. ... Jump to: navigation, search Mongol Empire in 1300–1405 The Mongol Empire (1206–1368) was the largest contiguous and second largest empire in world history. ... The Khmer empire was a powerful kingdom based in what is now Cambodia. ... Jayavarman VIII was one of the kings of the Khmer empire. ... Trần HÆ°ng Đạo (1228?-1300) was a Vietnamese general during the Tran Dynasty. ... The Yuan Dynasty (Mongolian: Dai Ön Yeke Mongghul Ulus; Chinese: 元朝 or 大元帝國) lasting officially from 1271 to 1368, also called the Mongol Dynasty, was the name given to the significant ruling family of Borjigin in Asia. ... Jump to: navigation, search Mongol Empire in 1300–1405 The Mongol Empire (1206–1368) was the largest contiguous and second largest empire in world history. ... A coup détat, or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... Jump to: navigation, search Mongol Empire in 1300–1405 The Mongol Empire (1206–1368) was the largest contiguous and second largest empire in world history. ... The Yuan Dynasty (Mongolian: Dai Ön Yeke Mongghul Ulus; Chinese: 元朝 or 大元帝國) lasting officially from 1271 to 1368, also called the Mongol Dynasty, was the name given to the significant ruling family of Borjigin in Asia. ... Kublai Khan or Khubilai Khan (1215 – 1294), Mongol military leader, was Khan (1260-1294) of the Mongol Empire and founder and first Emperor (1279-1294) of the Chinese Yuan Dynasty. ... Jump to: navigation, search Mongol Empire in 1300–1405 The Mongol Empire (1206–1368) was the largest contiguous and second largest empire in world history. ... King Mengrai (or Mangrai) (1239-1317) was the founder of the Thai kingdom Lannathai. ... Lanna (English One Million Thai Rice Fields, Thai ล้านนา) was a kingdom in the north of Thailand around the city of Chiang Mai. ... Statue of King Ramkhamhaeng Ramkhamhaeng the Great (c. ... The Sukhothai kingdom was a kingdom in the north of Thailand around the city Sukhothai. ... Jump to: navigation, search World map showing Asia (geographically) Asia is the central and eastern part of Eurasia and worlds largest continent. ... Jump to: navigation, search Theravada (Pali; Sanskrit: Sthaviravada) is one of the eighteen (or twenty) Nikāya schools that formed early in the history of Buddhism. ... Jump to: navigation, search A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a religion and philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE... Pagan (also known as Bagan) was an important ancient kingdom in Myanmar. ... Jump to: navigation, search Mongol Empire in 1300–1405 The Mongol Empire (1206–1368) was the largest contiguous and second largest empire in world history. ... The Battle of Pagan was fought in 1287 between Kublai Khans Mongol Yuan dynasty of China, and their neighbors to the south, the Pagan Empire. ... Trần HÆ°ng Đạo (1228?-1300) was a Vietnamese general during the Tran Dynasty. ... The Yuan Dynasty (Mongolian: Dai Ön Yeke Mongghul Ulus; Chinese: 元朝 or 大元帝國) lasting officially from 1271 to 1368, also called the Mongol Dynasty, was the name given to the significant ruling family of Borjigin in Asia. ... Jump to: navigation, search Mongol Empire in 1300–1405 The Mongol Empire (1206–1368) was the largest contiguous and second largest empire in world history. ... Jump to: navigation, search Halong Bay is a body of water of approximately 1,500 square kilometres in north Vietnam with a 120 kilometre coastline, in the Gulf of Tonkin near the border with China, and 170 kilometres east of Hanoi. ... The Order of Friars Minor and other Franciscan movements are disciples of Saint Francis of Assisi. ... A missionary is a propagator of religion, often an evangelist or other representative of a religious community who works among those outside of that community. ...

The Ilkhanate: southwest Asia

Jump to: navigation, search Mongol Empire in 1300–1405 The Mongol Empire (1206–1368) was the largest contiguous and second largest empire in world history. ... Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... Jump to: navigation, search Arghun Khan (c. ... Rabban Bar Sauma (fl. ... World map showing Europe (geographically) When considered a continent, Europe is the worlds second-smallest continent in terms of area, with an area of 10,600,000 km² (4,140,625 square miles), making it larger than Australia only. ... Jump to: navigation, search A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم) is an adherent of Islam. ... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (also Mameluks, Mamelukes) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim caliphs and the Ottoman Empire. ...

The Mamluk Sultanate sphere of influence: the Middle East

An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (also Mameluks, Mamelukes) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim caliphs and the Ottoman Empire. ... Saif ad-Din Qalawun al-Alfi al-Mansur (also Qalaun or Kalavun) (c. ... Jump to: navigation, search October 29 is the 302nd day of the year (303rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 63 days remaining. ... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (also Mameluks, Mamelukes) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim caliphs and the Ottoman Empire. ... Saif ad-Din Qalawun al-Alfi al-Mansur (also Qalaun or Kalavun) (c. ... Jump to: navigation, search Mongol Empire in 1300–1405 The Mongol Empire (1206–1368) was the largest contiguous and second largest empire in world history. ... Khanates of Mongolian Empire: Il-Khanate, Chagatai Khanate, Empire of the Great Khan (Yuan Dynasty), Golden Horde The Ilkhanate (also spelled Il-khanate or Il Khanate) was one of the four divisions within the Mongol Empire. ... Abaqa Khan (1234-1282), the son of Hulegu and Oroqina Khatun, a Mongol Christian. ... Sultan Osman I Osman I (1258–1326) (Ottoman عُثمَان ʿUthmān) was the founder of the Ottoman Empire. ... Jump to: navigation, search Imperial motto (Ottoman Turkish) Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (the Eternal State) The Ottoman Empire at the height of its power Official language Ottoman Turkish Capital Bursa (1335 - 1365), Edirne (1365-1453), Ä°stanbul (Constantinople) (1453-1922) Imperial anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Sovereigns Padishah of the Osmanli... Jump to: navigation, search Bey is the Turkish word for chieftain, traditionally applied to the leaders of small tribal groups. ... Söğüt was a Seljuk Turkish tribe in western Anatolia that later gave birth to the Ottoman Empire. ... Jump to: navigation, search Asia Minor lies east of the Bosporus, between the Black Sea and the Mediterranean. ... Events Osman I declares the independence of the Ottoman Principality The County of Holland is annexed by the County of Hainaut April 1, 1299 Kings Towne on the River Hull granted city status by Royal Charter of King Edward I of England. ... The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in Turkish Selçuklu; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (also Mameluks, Mamelukes) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim caliphs and the Ottoman Empire. ... Saif ad-Din Qalawun al-Alfi al-Mansur (also Qalaun or Kalavun) (c. ... The Crusader states, c. ... An acre is an English unit of area. ... Jump to: navigation, search For broader historical context, see 1290s and 13th century. ... April 25 is the 115th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (116th in leap years). ... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (also Mameluks, Mamelukes) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim caliphs and the Ottoman Empire. ... Saif ad-Din Qalawun al-Alfi al-Mansur (also Qalaun or Kalavun) (c. ... This article is about historical Crusades . ... Margat, also known as Marqab (from the Arabic Qalaat al-Marqab, Castle of the Watchtower) was a Crusader fortress in modern Syria. ... The Knights Hospitaller is a tradition which began as a Benedictine nursing Order founded in Jerusalem, following the First Crusade, ca. ... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (also Mameluks, Mamelukes) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim caliphs and the Ottoman Empire. ... Saif ad-Din Qalawun al-Alfi al-Mansur (also Qalaun or Kalavun) (c. ... Jump to: navigation, search Roundabout in Latakia Latakia (Arabic: اللاذقية Al-Ladhiqiyah, Greek:Λαοδικεία) is the principal port city of Syria. ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (also Mameluks, Mamelukes) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim caliphs and the Ottoman Empire. ... Saif ad-Din Qalawun al-Alfi al-Mansur (also Qalaun or Kalavun) (c. ... Armenian Cilicia and Crusader States The County of Tripoli was the last of the four major Crusader states in the Levant to be created. ... The Crusader states, c. ...

Culture

Natural events

  • 1280 - The Wolf minimum of solar activity begins (approximate date).
  • 1282 - The most recent eruption of Larderello, a volcano in southern Tuscany, is observed.
  • 1287 - December 14 - A fringing barrier between the North Sea and a shallow lake in Holland collapses during a heavy storm, causing the fifth largest flood in recorded history which creates the Zuider Zee inlet and kills over 50,000 people; it also gives sea access to Amsterdam, allowing its development as an important port city.
  • 1287 - The English city of Old Winchelsea on Romney Marsh is destroyed by catastrophic flooding during a severe storm; a new town of the same name is later constructed some two miles away on higher ground.

20 years of solar irradiance data from satellites Solar variations are fluctuations in the amount of energy emitted by the Sun. ... Larderello is a geologically active area of southern Tuscany, Italy, which is renowned for its geothermal productivity. ... Jump to: navigation, search A volcano is a geological landform (usually a mountain) where magma (rock of the Earths interior made molten or liquid by extremely high temperatures along with a reduction in pressure and/or the introduction of water or other volatiles) erupts through the surface of the... Jump to: navigation, search Tuscany (Italian Toscana) is a region in central Italy, bordering on Latium to the south, Umbria and Marche to the east, Emilia-Romagna and Liguria to the north, and the Tyrrhenian Sea to the west. ... Jump to: navigation, search December 14 is the 348th day of the year (349th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... The North Sea is a sea of the Atlantic Ocean, located between the coasts of Norway and Denmark in the east, the coast of the British Isles in the west, and the German, Dutch, Belgian and French coasts in the south. ... Jump to: navigation, search Holland is a region in the central-western part of the Netherlands. ... Jump to: navigation, search Landsat photo The Zuider Zee (pronounced , Dutch: Zuiderzee, pronounced ) was a shallow inlet of the North Sea in the northwest of the Netherlands, extending about 100 km inland and at most 50 km wide, with an overall depth of about 4 to 5 meters and a... Jump to: navigation, search Amsterdam Location Country The Netherlands Province North Holland Population 739,295 (1 January 2005) Coordinates 4°54E - 52°22N Website www. ... Jump to: navigation, search Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population - Total (mid-2004) - Density Ranked 1st UK... Location within the British Isles. ... The Romney Marsh is a sparsely-populated wetland area in the counties of Kent and East Sussex in the south-east of England. ...

Science, literature, and industry

Categories: Historical stubs | Music stubs | Illuminated manuscripts ... For broader historical context, see 1280s and 13th century. ... This Crown & CA (for Crown Agent) watermark was standard for postage stamps of the British colonies from the 1880s to the 1920s. ... Jump to: navigation, search This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Bologna (from Latin Bononia, Bulaggna in the local dialect) is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna in northern Italy, between the Po River and the Apennines. ... The Libro de los Juegos, (Book of games), or Libro de ajedrez, dados y tablas, (Book of chess, dice and tables) was commissioned by Alfonso X, king of León and Castile, during the 13th century between 1251 and 1283 AD. It consists of 98 pages, with 150 color illustrations. ... World map showing Europe (geographically) When considered a continent, Europe is the worlds second-smallest continent in terms of area, with an area of 10,600,000 km² (4,140,625 square miles), making it larger than Australia only. ... A chess table is a table with a chessboard painted or engraved on it. ... Rolling dice A die (Old French de, from Latin datum something given or played [1]) is a small polyhedral object (usually a cube) suitable as a gambling device (especially for craps or sic bo). ... Jump to: navigation, search Close-up of modern backgammon set. ... Alfonso X and his court. ... Events First Shepherds Crusade Births Deaths Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon and count of Barcelona (reigned from 1213 to 1276) Castile - Ferdinand III, the Saint King of Castile and Leon (reigned from 1217 to 1252) Categories: 1251 ... Statue of King Ramkhamhaeng Ramkhamhaeng the Great (c. ... The Sukhothai kingdom was a kingdom in the north of Thailand around the city Sukhothai. ... The Thai alphabet (ตัวอักษรไทย) is used to write the Thai language (ภาษาไทย) and other minority languages in Thailand. ... Jean de Meun or Jean de Meung (c. ... Vegetius (Publius Flavius Vegetius Renatus) was a celebrated military writer of the 4th century. ... (3rd century - 4th century - 5th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... De Re Militari (Latin On military matters) was a treatise of late Roman warfare that became a military guide in the middle ages. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Jump to: navigation, search Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population - Total (mid-2004) - Density Ranked 1st UK... The Lay of Havelok the Dane is one of the earliest Romances in English. ... Jump to: navigation, search A volcano is a geological landform (usually a mountain) where magma (rock of the Earths interior made molten or liquid by extremely high temperatures along with a reduction in pressure and/or the introduction of water or other volatiles) erupts through the surface of the... Popocatépetl (commonly referred to as Popo) is an active volcano and the second highest peak in Mexico after Pico de Orizaba (5,610m). ... In climbing, a first ascent (FA) is the first climb to reach the top of a mountain, or the first to follow a particular climbing route. ...

Civic laws and institutions

The Hundred Rolls are a census of England and parts of what is now Wales taken in the late thirteenth century. ... Jump to: navigation, search Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population - Total (mid-2004) - Density Ranked 1st UK... Jump to: navigation, search A census is the process of obtaining information about every member of a population (not necessarily a human population). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Events Domesday Book is completed in England Emperor Shirakawa of Japan starts his cloistered rule Imam Ali Mosque is rebuilt by the Seljuk Malik Shah I after being destroyed by fire. ... Jump to: navigation, search For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... The Trial of the Pyx is the procedure in the United Kingdom for ensuring that newly-minted coins conform to required standards. ... A mint is a facility which manufactures coins for currency. ... This article concerns British coinage, the coinage of the United Kingdom. ... Jump to: navigation, search October 3 is the 276th day of the year (277th in Leap years). ... Drawing and quartering was part of the penalty once ordained in England for treason. ... Jump to: navigation, search Death Penalty World Map Color Key: Blue: Abolished for all crimes Green: Abolished, except for crimes committed under certain circumstances (such as crimes committed in time of war) Orange: Abolished in practice Red: Legal form of punishment Capital punishment, also referred to as the death penalty... Under English, and later British law, high treason is the crime of disloyalty to the Sovereign. ... King Edward I of England (June 17, 1239 – July 7, 1307), popularly known as Longshanks because of his 6 foot 2 inch frame and the Hammer of the Scots (his tombstone, in Latin, read, Hic est Edwardvs Primus Scottorum Malleus, Here lies Edward I, Hammer of the Scots), achieved fame... Jump to: navigation, search Dafydd ap Gruffydd (c. ... Jump to: navigation, search National motto: Cymru am byth (Welsh: Wales for ever) Waless location within the UK Official languages English, Welsh Capital Cardiff Largest city Cardiff First Minister Rhodri Morgan Area  - Total Ranked 3rd UK 20,779 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 3rd UK 2,903,085... The Most Serene Republic of Venice was a city-state in Venetia in Northeastern Italy, based around the city of Venice. ... The ducat was a gold coin that was used throughout Europe. ... Jump to: navigation, search General Name, Symbol, Number gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 6, d Appearance metallic yellow Atomic mass 196. ... 1¢ euro coin A coin is usually a piece of hard material, generally metal and usually in the shape of a disc, which is issued by a government to be used as a form of money. ... World map showing Europe (geographically) When considered a continent, Europe is the worlds second-smallest continent in terms of area, with an area of 10,600,000 km² (4,140,625 square miles), making it larger than Australia only. ... This article deals with the Statutes of Westminster passed in thirteenth century. ... Jump to: navigation, search Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population - Total (mid-2004) - Density Ranked 1st UK... De donis conditionalibus is the chapter of the English Statutes of Westminster (1285) which originated the law of entail. ... Philippe IV, recumbent statue on his tomb, Royal Necropolis, Saint Denis Basilica Philip IV (French: Philippe IV; 1268–November 29, 1314) was King of France from 1285 until his death. ... The gabelle was a very unpopular tax on salt in France before 1790. ... Jump to: navigation, search In chemistry, salt is a term used for ionic compounds composed of positively charged cations and negatively charged anions, so that the product is neutral and without a net charge. ... In economics, government monopoly is a form of coercive monopoly, in which a government agency is the sole provider of a particular good or service and competition is prohibited by law. ... 1790 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The Scottish Parliament (Pàrlamaid na h-Alba in Gaelic, Scots Pairlament in Scots) is the national unicameral legislature of Scotland. ... Jump to: navigation, search Marriage is a legal, social, and religious relationship between individuals which has formed the foundation of the family for most societies. ... A leap year (or intercalary year) is a year containing an extra day or month in order to keep the calendar year in sync with an astronomical or seasonal year. ...

Art and architecture

The Grand Canal (Simplified Chinese: 大运河; Traditional Chinese: 大運河; pinyin: ) of China, also known as the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal (Simplified Chinese: 京杭大运河; Traditional Chinese: 京杭大運河; pinyin: ) is the largest ancient canal or artificial river in the world. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Lincoln Cathedral seen from the west Lincoln Cathedral is a historic cathedral in Lincoln in England, and seat of the Diocese of Lincoln in the Church of England. ... The ward of Caernarfon Castle, showing (from left to right) the Black Tower, the Chamberlains Tower, and the Eagle Tower. ... Conwy Castle - illustration from Cassells History of England circa 1902 Conwy Castle (often spelled Conway Castle in English usage, although this is now discouraged) was built in Conwy as part of Edward Is second campaign in North Wales. ... The main gatehouse of Harlech Castle. ... Jump to: navigation, search National motto: Cymru am byth (Welsh: Wales for ever) Waless location within the UK Official languages English, Welsh Capital Cardiff Largest city Cardiff First Minister Rhodri Morgan Area  - Total Ranked 3rd UK 20,779 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 3rd UK 2,903,085... King Edward I of England (June 17, 1239 – July 7, 1307), popularly known as Longshanks because of his 6 foot 2 inch frame and the Hammer of the Scots (his tombstone, in Latin, read, Hic est Edwardvs Primus Scottorum Malleus, Here lies Edward I, Hammer of the Scots), achieved fame... The Cathédrale Saint-Pierre de Beauvais is a cathedral, located in Beauvais, in northern France. ... Jump to: navigation, search See also Gothic art. ... Jump to: navigation, search Glasgows location in Scotland Glasgow (or Glaschu in Gaelic) is Scotlands largest city, situated on the River Clyde in the countrys west central lowlands. ... The River Clyde, looking eastwards upstream, as it passes beneath the Kingston Bridge. ... Pistoia (ancient Pistoria) is a city in the Tuscany region of Italy, the capital of a province of the same name, located about 30 km (18 mi) west and north of Florence. ... Band made of Silver. ... Jump to: navigation, search General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Atomic mass 107. ... See also Archbishop of Uppsala Categories: Sweden geography stubs | Buildings and structures stubs | Swedish churches | Cathedrals | Uppsala ... For other uses, see number 1435. ... The bells of St Savas A bell is a simple sound-making device. ... The Basilica of Saint Peter, officially known in Italian as the Basilica di San Pietro in Vaticano and colloquially called Saint Peters Basilica, ranks second among the five major basilicas of Rome and its Vatican City enclave. ... Jump to: navigation, search City motto: Senatus Populusque Romanus – SPQR (The Senate and the People of Rome) Founded 21 April 753 BC mythical, 1st millennium BC Region Latium Mayor Walter Veltroni (Left-Wing Democrats) Area  - City Proper  1290 km² Population  - City (2004)  - Metropolitan  - Density (city proper) 2,546,807 almost... External links Photos on Radzima. ...

Cities and institutions

Al Mansurah (Arabic منصورة) is considered to be Egyptian fourth city after Cairo, Alexandria and Port Said. ... College name Hertford College Named after Elias de Hertford Established 1282 Sister College None Principal Dr John Landers JCR President Stephanie Johnston Undergraduates 376 Graduates 224 Homepage Boatclub Hertford College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. ... Jump to: navigation, search The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford, England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... Typically known as the Forest City, Guiyang (Simplified Chinese: 贵阳; Traditional Chinese: 貴陽; pinyin: ) is the capital of Guizhou province in the Peoples Republic of China. ... Hamburg is Germanys second largest city (after Berlin) and, with the Hamburg Harbour, its principal port. ... Full name Peterhouse Motto - Named after St Peters Church (now little St Marys Church) Previous names - Established 1284 Sister College Merton College Master The Lord Wilson of Tillyorn Location Trumpington Street Undergraduates 270 Graduates 125 Homepage Boatclub Peterhouse is the oldest college in the University of Cambridge. ... The University of Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world, with one of the most selective sets of entry requirements in the United Kingdom. ... Hugo (or Hugh) de Balsham (died 1286) was an English bishop. ... Nicholas IV, né Girolamo Masci (Lisciano, a small village near Ascoli Piceno, September 30, 1227 – April 4, 1292), was pope from February 22, 1288 to April 4, 1292. ... The University of Montpellier, (Université de Montpellier), is a French university in Montpellier. ... Papal bull of Pope Urban VIII, 1637, sealed with a leaden bulla. ... Jump to: navigation, search A professor giving a lecture at the Helsinki University of Technology A university is an institution of higher education and of research, which grants academic degrees. ...

Religion

Christianity

Jump to: navigation, search January 6 is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Jakub Świnka (died on March 4, 1314) was a Polish Catholic priest, the Archbishop of Gniezno and a notable politician and supporter of the idea of unification of all Polish lands under the rule of Wladislaus the Short. ... The Roman Catholic Church believes its founding was based on Jesus appointment of Saint Peter as the primary church leader, later Bishop of Rome. ... Jump to: navigation, search March 7 is the 66th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (67th in Leap years). ... The Summa grammaticalis quae vocatur Catholicon, or Catholicon, was completed March 7, 1286 by John Balbi (Johannes Januensis de Balbis) , of Genoa, a Dominican. ... Jump to: navigation, search Latin is an Indo-European language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Jump to: navigation, search Location within Italy Flag of Genoa Christopher Columbus monument in Piazza Aquaverde Genoa (Italian Genova, Genoese Zena, French Gênes, German Genua) is a city and a seaport in northern Italy, the capital of the Province of Genoa and of the region of Liguria. ...

Judaism

Arms of the see of Canterbury The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior clergyman of the established Church of England and symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... A synagogue or synagog (from Greek συναγωγη, transliterated sunagoge, place of assembly literally meeting, assembly) is a Jewish house of prayer and study. ... Jump to: navigation, search The clock tower of the Palace of Westminster, which contains Big Ben London is the capital city of the United Kingdom and of England. ... Jump to: navigation, search The word Jew (Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity; and often a combination of... Philippe III Philip III the Bold ( French: Philippe III le Hardi) (April 3, 1245 - October 5, 1285) reigned as King of France from 1270 to 1285. ... The brass of the tomb of Rudolph I in Speyer Rudolph I (Rudolph of Habsburg) (May 1, 1218 – July 15, 1291) was a German king, who played a vital role in raising the Habsburg family to a leading position among the royal dynasties of Germany. ... King Edward I of England (June 17, 1239 – July 7, 1307), popularly known as Longshanks because of his 6 foot 2 inch frame and the Hammer of the Scots (his tombstone, in Latin, read, Hic est Edwardvs Primus Scottorum Malleus, Here lies Edward I, Hammer of the Scots), achieved fame... Jump to: navigation, search The word Jew (Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity; and often a combination of... Gascony (French: Gascogne, pronounced  ; Gascon: Gasconha, pronounced ) is an area of southwest France that constituted a royal province prior to the French Revolution. ... Anjou is a former county (c. ...

Taoism

  • 1281 - Kublai Khan orders the burning of sacred Taoist texts, resulting in the reduction in number of volumes of the Dao Zheng (Taoist Canon) from 4,565 to 1,120.

Kublai Khan or Khubilai Khan (1215 – 1294), Mongol military leader, was Khan (1260-1294) of the Mongol Empire and founder and first Emperor (1279-1294) of the Chinese Yuan Dynasty. ... Jump to: navigation, search The Yin-Yang or Taiji diagram, often used as a symbol in Taoism. ... The first compilation of the Dao Zheng occurred during the Sung Dynasty, when it was catalog and printed in 1019. ...

Births

Louis IV of Bavaria of the House of Wittelsbach (born 1282) was duke of Bavaria from 1294, duke of the Palatinate from 1329 and, after 1314, Holy Roman Emperor. ... -1... April 25 is the 115th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (116th in leap years). ... Edward II, (April 25, 1284 – September 21, 1327), of Caernarvon, was King of England from 1307 until deposed in January, 1327. ... Jump to: navigation, search Events January 25 - Edward III becomes King of England. ... William of Ockham William of Ockham (also Occam or any of several other spellings) (ca. ... Jump to: navigation, search Royal motto (French): Dieu et mon droit (Translated: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population - Total (mid-2004) - Density Ranked 1st UK... Franciscans is the common name used to designate a variety of mendicant religious orders of men or women tracing their origin to Francis of Assisi and following the Rule of St. ... Jump to: navigation, search Occams Razor (also spelled Ockhams Razor), is a principle attributed to the 14th-century English logician and Franciscan friar, William of Ockham. ... Jump to: navigation, search // Events August 24 - Black Death outbreak in Elbing (modern-day Elblag in Poland) October 20 - Pope Clement VI publishes a papal bull that condemns the Flagellants The bubonic plague is spread to Norway when an English ship with everyone dead on board floats to Bergen Births... Frederick the Handsome (born 1286; died January 13, 1330), from the House of Habsburg, was Duke of Austria as Frederick I and King of the Romans as Frederick (III). ... Events The Bulgars under Michael III are beaten by the Serbs at Velbuzhd, and large parts of Bulgaria fall to Serbia. ... Odoric of Pordenone (c. ... Jump to: navigation, search Events September 8 - Stefan Dusan declares himself king of Serbia Start of the reign of Emperor Kogon of Japan, first of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders Births Coluccio Salutati, Florentine political leader (died 1406) Deaths January 14 - Odoric, Italian explorer October 27 - Abulfeda, Arab historian and geographer... Levi ben Gershon (Levi son of Gerson), better known as Gersonides or the Ralbag (1288-1344), was a famous rabbi, philosopher, mathematician and Talmudic commentator. ... Jump to: navigation, search The word Jew (Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity; and often a combination of... Events English king Edward III introduces three new gold coins, the florin. ... Jump to: navigation, search October 4 is the 277th day of the year (278th in Leap years). ... Jump to: navigation, search Louis X the Quarreller, also called the Headstrong or the Stubborn, (French: Louis X le Hutin, Spanish: Luis el Obstinado) (October 4, 1289 – June 5, 1316), King of France from 1314 to 1316, was a member of the Capetian Dynasty. ... Jump to: navigation, search Events Pope John XXII elected to the papacy. ...

Deaths


  Results from FactBites:
 
1280s - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2830 words)
The 1280s is the decade starting January 1, 1280 and ending December 31, 1289.
Europe in the 1280s was marked by naval warfare on the Mediterranean Sea and consolidation of power by the major states.
The 1280s was also a busy decade in culture.
ultrapop - diverse artister : 12"/80s (942 words)
"12"/80s" inkluderer de korte, konsise miksene såvel som de virkelig påtrengende utskeielsene som knapt fungerer andre steder enn på dansegulvet.
Flere har nok deler av materialet på "12"/80s" gjennom nettopp de originale maxisinglene og / eller diverse samlealbum, utvalget er imidlertid så bredt at det neppe finnes mange som allerede besitter flertallet av disse sporene.
Bredde, underholdningsfaktor og interessante tilbakeblikk har "12"/80s" i mengder, noe som gjør denne samlingen til en attråverdig dings for venner og venninner av 80-tallet.
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