The following times all assume that the Universe is "open":
1014 years – the estimated time until low-mass stars cool off. The smallest red dwarf stars are the longest-lived stars, and are believed to have a lifetime of up to 14 trillion years (1.4 x 1013 years). Star formation is expected to cease in galaxies in about 1013 to 1014 years as galaxies are depleted of the gas clouds they need to form stars. The longest-lived stars formed from the last gas clouds will therefore cool off after about 2 x 1014 years.
1015 years – the estimated time until planets detach from stars. Whenever two stars pass close to each other, the orbits of the planets can be disrupted and the planets can be ejected from orbit around their parent star. Planets that orbit closer to their stars take longer to be ejected in this manner on average because a passing star must make a closer pass to the planet's star to eject the planet.
1019 years – the estimated time until stars detach from galaxies. When two stars pass close enough to each other, the stars exchange orbital energy with lower-mass stars tending to gain energy. The lower-mass stars can gain enough energy in this manner through repeated encounters to be ejected from the galaxy. This process can cause the galaxy to eject the majority of its stars.
101500 years – the estimated time until all matter decays to iron (if the proton does not decay)
10100,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 years () – low estimate for the time until all matter collapses into black holes
1010,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 years () – high estimate for the time until all matter collapses into neutron stars or black holes
Categories: Orders of magnitude (time) | Eschatology
1 550.003 1 square inches A square inch is by definition the area enclosed by a square with sides each 1 inch long.
measuring 1 kilometre A kilometre (American spelling: kilometer), symbol: km is a unit of length in the metric system equal to 1000 metres (from the Greek words khilia = thousand and metro = count/measure).
1 MmÂ² is the area of Egypt The Arab Republic of Egypt, commonly known as Egypt, (in Arabic: مصر, romanized Misr, or Masr in Egyptian dialect), kemet in Ancient Egyptian, is a republic predominantly in north-eastern Africa, together with the Sinai in southwest Asia.
In an open universe, General Relativity shows that the universe can exist indefinitely in the future, but will settle down into a state where life as we know it will cease to exist; for a possible timeline based on current physical theories, see 1E19s and more.
In 2003, New Scientist magazine reported a preprint by Robert R. Caldwell, Marc Kamionkowski and Nevin N. Weinberg which puts forward the hypothesis that the end of the universe may occur as a "Big Rip", which will shred the physical structure of the universe.
 The concept was popularized in Isaac Asimov's The Last Question.
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