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Encyclopedia > 1 Ceres
1 Ceres
Discovery A
Discoverer Giuseppe Piazzi
Discovery date January 1, 1801
Alternate
designations
B
A899 OF; 1943 XB
Category Main belt
Orbital elements C
Epoch November 26, 2005 (JD 2453700.5)
Eccentricity (e) 0.080
Semi-major axis (a) 413.715 Gm (2.766 AU)
Perihelion (q) 380.612 Gm (2.544 AU)
Aphelion (Q) 446.818 Gm (2.987 AU)
Orbital period (P) 1679.819 d (4.599 a)
Mean orbital speed 17.882 km/s
Inclination (i) 10.587°
Longitude of the
ascending node
(Ω)
80.410°
Argument of
perihelion
(ω)
73.271°
Mean anomaly (M) 108.509°
Physical characteristics D
Dimensions 975×909 km[1]
Mass 9.5×1020 kg [2][3]
Density 2.08 g/cm³[1]
Surface gravity 0.27 m/s²
Escape velocity 0.51 km/s
Rotation period 0.3781 d
Spectral class G-type asteroid
Absolute magnitude 3.34
Albedo (geometric) 0.113[4]
Mean surface
temperature
~167 K
max: 239 K (-34 ° C)[5]

1 Ceres (IPA /ˈsiːriz/, Latin: Cerēs) is a dwarf planet in the asteroid belt. Its name is derived from the Roman goddess Ceres - the goddess of growing plants and of motherly love. It was discovered on January 1, 1801, by Giuseppe Piazzi. With a diameter of about 950 km, Ceres is by far the largest and most massive body in the asteroid belt: it contains approximately a third of the belt's total mass. Image File history File links 1_Ceres_(0). ... Image File history File links 1_Ceres_(1). ... Image File history File links 1_Ceres_(2). ... Image File history File links 1_Ceres_(3). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Ceres_optimized. ... Giuseppe Piazzi - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Provisional designation of in astronomy is the naming convention applied to astronomical objects immediately following their discovery. ... Minor planets, or planetoids are minor bodies of the Solar system orbiting the Sun (or of other planetary systems orbiting other stars) that are larger than meteoroids (the largest of which might be taken to be around 10 meters or so across) but smaller than major planets (Mercury having a... The asteroid belt is a region of the solar system falling roughly between the planets Mars and Jupiter where the greatest concentration of asteroid orbits can be found. ... In astronomy, an epoch is a moment in time for which celestial coordinates or orbital elements are specified. ... November 26 is the 330th day (331st on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Julian day or Julian day number (JDN) is the number of days that have elapsed since 12 noon Greenwich Mean Time (UT or TT) on Monday, January 1, 4713 BC in the proleptic Julian calendar . ... In astrodynamics, under standard assumptions any orbit must be of conic section shape. ... In geometry, the semi-major axis (also semimajor axis) a applies to ellipses and hyperbolas. ... A gigametre (American spelling: gigameter) (symbol: Gm) is a unit of length equal to 109 metres. ... The astronomical unit (AU or au or a. ... This article is about several astronomical terms (apogee & perigee, aphelion & perihelion, generic equivalents based on apsis, and related but rarer terms. ... This article is about several astronomical terms (apogee & perigee, aphelion & perihelion, generic equivalents based on apsis, and related but rarer terms. ... The orbital period is the time it takes a planet (or another object) to make one full orbit. ... Water, Rabbit, and Deer: three of the 20 day symbols in the Aztec calendar, from the Aztec Sun Stone. ... In astronomy, a Julian year is a unit of time defined as exactly 365. ... The orbital speed of a body, generally a planet, a natural satellite, an artificial satellite, or a multiple star, is the speed at which it orbits around the barycenter of a system, usually around a more massive body. ... Look up second in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Inclination in general is the angle between a reference plane and another plane or axis of direction. ... A degree (in full, a degree of arc, arc degree, or arcdegree), usually symbolized °, is a measurement of plane angle, representing 1/360 of a full rotation. ... The Longitude of the ascending node () is one of the orbital elements used to specify the orbit of an object in space. ... The argument of the perihelion is one of the orbital elements describing the orbit of a planet. ... In the study of orbital dynamics the mean anomaly is a measure of time, specific to the orbiting body p, which is a multiple of 2π radians at and only at periapsis. ... For the majority of numbered asteroids, almost nothing is known apart from a few physical parameters. ... Mass is a property of a physical object that quantifies the amount of matter and energy it is equivalent to. ... The international prototype, made of platinum-iridium, which is kept at the BIPM under conditions specified by the 1st CGPM in 1889. ... Density (symbol: ρ - Greek: rho) is a measure of mass per unit of volume. ... A cubic centimetre (cm3) is an SI derived unit of volume, equal to the volume of a cube with side length of 1 centi metre. ... Gravity is a force of attraction that acts between bodies that have mass. ... In physics, for a given gravitational field and a given position, the escape velocity is the minimum speed an object without propulsion, at that position, needs to have to move away indefinitely from the source of the field, as opposed to falling back or staying in an orbit within a... In astronomy, a rotation period is the time an astronomical object takes to complete one revolution around its rotation axis. ... Asteroids are assigned a type based on spectral shape, color, and sometimes albedo. ... G-type asteroid is a subdivision of C-type asteroids distinguished spectrally by differences in the ultraviolet absorption. ... In astronomy, absolute magnitude is the apparent magnitude, m, an object would have if it were at a standard luminosity distance away from us (in the absence of interstellar extinction!). It allows the overall brightnesses of objects to be compared without regard to distance. ... Albedo is a ratio of scattered to incident electromagnetic radiation power, most commonly light. ... The geometric albedo of an astronomical body is the ratio of its total brightness at zero phase angle to that of an idealised fully reflecting, diffusively scattering (Lambertian) disk with the same cross-section. ... In thermodynamics, temperature is the physical property of a system that underlies the common notions of hot and cold —something that is hotter has the greater temperature. ... The kelvin (symbol: K) is the SI unit of temperature, and is one of the seven SI base units. ... A degree Celsius (°C) is a unit of temperature named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius (1701-1744), who first proposed a similar system in 1742. ... The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is a system of phonetic notation devised by linguists to accurately and uniquely represent each of the wide variety of sounds (phones or phonemes) used in spoken human language. ... Latin was the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Artists impression of Pluto (background) and its satellite Charon (foreground). ... Image of the main asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. ... Roman mythology, the mythological beliefs of the people of Ancient Rome, can be considered as having two parts. ... Ceres, the Roman goddess of agriculture. ... Ceres, in Roman mythology, equivalent to the Greek Demeter (see which for more details), daughter of Saturn and Rhea, wife-sister of Jupiter, mother of Proserpina by Jupiter, sister of Juno, Vesta, Neptune and Pluto, and patron of Sicily. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Giuseppe Piazzi - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... The following is a list of noteworthy asteroids in our Solar system. ... Image of the main asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. ...


The classification of Ceres has changed more than once. At the time of its discovery it was considered a planet, but upon the realization that it represented the first of a class of many similar bodies, it was reclassified as an asteroid for over 150 years. As the first such body to be discovered, its name was prefixed by the number 1, under the modern system of asteroid numbering. After the discovery of the trans-Neptunian object Eris, a proposition was made by the International Astronomical Union to reinstate Ceres to the status of planet along with Pluto's moon Charon and Eris.[6][7] This draft definition did not successfully pass, and in its place an alternate proposal came into effect as of August 24, 2006, labelling Ceres a 'dwarf planet'. The IAU has not made any pronouncement on whether Ceres should continue to be formally considered an asteroid, although the body is still widely referred to by that term.[8] An asteroid is a predominantly rocky body that orbits around its star. ... An asteroid is a predominantly rocky body that orbits around its star. ... A trans-Neptunian object (TNO) is any object in the solar system that orbits the sun at a greater distance on average than Neptune. ... Eris (IPA or ), officially designated 136199 Eris, is the largest known dwarf planet in the solar system. ... Logo of the IAU The International Astronomical Union (French: Union astronomique internationale) unites national astronomical societies from around the world. ... Adjective Plutonian Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 0. ... Media:Example. ... Eris (IPA or ), officially designated 136199 Eris, is the largest known dwarf planet in the solar system. ... August 24 is the 236th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (237th in leap years), with 129 days remaining. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Artists impression of Pluto (background) and its satellite Charon (foreground). ...

Contents


Name

Piazzi's Book "Della scoperta del nuovo pianeta Cerere Ferdinandea" outling the discovery of Ceres
Piazzi's Book "Della scoperta del nuovo pianeta Cerere Ferdinandea" outling the discovery of Ceres

Ceres was originally named Ceres Ferdinandea (Cerere Ferdinandea) after both the mythological figure Ceres (Roman goddess of plants and motherly love) and King Ferdinand III of Sicily. The "Ferdinandea" part was not acceptable to other nations of the world and was thus dropped. Ceres was also called Hera for a short time in Germany. In Greece, it is called Δήμητρα (Demeter), after the goddess Ceres' Greek equivalent; in English usage, Demeter is the name of a different asteroid (1108 Demeter). Image File history File links Piazzi_Cerere. ... Image File history File links Piazzi_Cerere. ... Ceres, in Roman mythology, equivalent to the Greek Demeter (see which for more details), daughter of Saturn and Rhea, wife-sister of Jupiter, mother of Proserpina by Jupiter, sister of Juno, Vesta, Neptune and Pluto, and patron of Sicily. ... Roman mythology, the mythological beliefs of the people of Ancient Rome, can be considered as having two parts. ... King Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies (January 12, 1751 - January 4, 1825). ... In the Olympian pantheon of classical Greek Mythology, Hêra (IPA pronunciation: ; Greek or ) was the wife and sister of Zeus. ... This article is about the grain goddess Demeter; for other uses, see Demeter (disambiguation). ... 1108 Demeter is an asteroid named after the Greek goddess of fertility, Demeter. ...


Due to the rarity of the usage, there is no consensus as to the proper adjectival form of the name, although the nonce forms Cerian and Cerean have been used in fiction. A nonce word is a word used only for the nonce—to meet a need that is not expected to recur. ...


Discovery

Piazzi was searching for a star listed by Francis Wollaston as Mayer 87 because it was not in Mayer's zodiacal catalogue in the position given. Instead, Piazzi found a moving star-like object, which he thought at first was a comet. Comet Hale-Bopp For other uses, see Comet (disambiguation). ...


Piazzi observed Ceres a total of 24 times, the final time on February 11, when illness interrupted. On January 24, 1801, Piazzi announced his discovery in letters to fellow astronomers, among them his fellow countryman, Barnaba Oriani of Milan. He reported it as a comet but "since its movement is so slow and rather uniform, it has occurred to me several times that it might be something better than a comet".[9] By early February Ceres was lost as it receded behind the Sun. In April, Piazzi sent his complete observations to Oriani, Bode, and Lalande in Paris. They were shortly thereafter published in the September, 1801 issue of the Monatliche Correspondenz. February 11 is the 42nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... January 24 is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Barnaba Oriani. ... Country Italy Region Lombardy Province Milan (MI) Mayor Letizia Moratti Elevation 120 m Area 182 km² Population  - Total (as of December 31, 2004) 1,308,311  - Density 6,988/km² Time zone CET, UTC+1 Coordinates Gentilic Milanesi Dialing code 02 Postal code 20100 Patron St. ... The Sun is the name given to the star of our solar system. ... Johann Elert Bode Johann Elert Bode (January 19, 1747 – November 23, 1826) was a German astronomer known for his contribution to the Titius-Bode law and his works to determine the orbit of Uranus, for which he also suggested the name. ... Joseph Jérôme Lefrançais de Lalande (July 11, 1732 – April 4, 1807) was a French astronomer. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) Administration Subdivisions 20 arrondissements Département Paris (75) Région ÃŽle-de-France Mayor Bertrand Delanoë (PS) City (commune) Characteristics Land Area 86. ...


To recover the asteroid, Carl Friedrich Gauss, then only 24 years old, developed a method of orbit determination from three observations. In only a few weeks, he predicted the path of Ceres, and sent his results to Franz Xaver, Baron von Zach, the editor of the Monatliche Correspondenz. On December 31, 1801, von Zach and Heinrich W. M. Olbers unambiguously confirmed the recovery of Ceres. (30 April 1777 – 23 February 1855) was a German mathematician and scientist of profound genius who contributed significantly to many fields, including number theory, analysis, differential geometry, geodesy, magnetism, astronomy and optics. ... Franz Xaver, Baron Von Zach Baron Franz Xaver von Zach (Franz Xaver Freiherr von Zach) (June 4, 1754 - September 2, 1832) was a German/Hungarian astronomer born at Pest. ... December 31 is the 365th day of the year (366th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Categories: Astronomers stubs | 1758 births | 1840 deaths | German astronomers | German physicists | Lists of asteroids ...


Status

Ceres in comparison with The Moon.
Ceres in comparison with The Moon.

Johann Elert Bode believed Ceres to be the "missing planet" that Johann Daniel Titius had proposed to exist between Mars and Jupiter, at a distance of 419 million km (2.8 AU) from the Sun. Ceres was assigned a planetary symbol, and remained listed as a planet in astronomy books and tables (along with 2 Pallas, 3 Juno and 4 Vesta) for about half a century until further asteroids were discovered.[10] Ceres turned out to be disappointingly small for a planet, showing no discernible disc, so Sir William Herschel coined the term "asteroid" ("star-like") to describe it. Image File history File links Confronto_Ceres_Lua. ... Image File history File links Confronto_Ceres_Lua. ... Bulk composition of the moons mantle and crust estimated, weight percent Oxygen 42. ... Johann Elert Bode Johann Elert Bode (January 19, 1747 – November 23, 1826) was a German astronomer known for his contribution to the Titius-Bode law and his works to determine the orbit of Uranus, for which he also suggested the name. ... Our solar system: the Sun, the eight planets and the three dwarf planets. ... Johann Daniel Titius. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Adjective Jovian Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 70 kPa Hydrogen ~86% Helium ~14% Methane 0. ... 2 Pallas (pal-us, Greek Παλλάς) was the first asteroid discovered after 1 Ceres. ... 3 Juno (jew-noe (key)) was the third asteroid to be discovered and is one of the largest main belt asteroids, being the heaviest of the stony S-type. ... 4 Vesta (ves-ta) is the second most massive asteroid in the asteroid belt, with a mean diameter of about 530 km and an estimated mass 12% the mass of the entire asteroid belt. ... Sir Wilhelm Friedrich Herschel, FRS KH (November 15, 1738 – August 25, 1822) was a German-born British astronomer and composer who became famous for discovering the planet Uranus. ...


The 2006 debate surrounding Pluto and what constitutes a 'planet' led to Ceres being considered for reclassification as a planet. An unsuccessful proposal before the International Astronomical Union for the definition of a planet would have defined a planet as "a celestial body that (a) has sufficient mass for its self-gravity to overcome rigid body forces so that it assumes a hydrostatic equilibrium (nearly round) shape, and (b) is in orbit around a star, and is neither a star nor a satellite of a planet". Had this resolution been adopted, this would have made Ceres the fifth planet in order from the Sun.[11] Instead, the new definition of 'planet' will be "a celestial body that is in orbit around the sun, has sufficient mass for its self-gravity to overcome rigid body forces so that it assumes a ... nearly round shape, and has cleared the neighborhood around its orbit." By this definition, Ceres (along with Pluto) cannot be classified as a planet, and both are now classified as "dwarf planets". 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Adjective Plutonian Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 0. ... Logo of the IAU The International Astronomical Union (French: Union astronomique internationale) unites national astronomical societies from around the world. ... Although planets are the principal component of the solar system other than the Sun, a precise definition of the term is surprisingly elusive. ... Artists impression of Pluto (background) and its satellite Charon (foreground). ...


Orbit

Orbit of Ceres (yellow) and Mars (red). Orbit of Ceres (yellow) and Mars (red). Image File history File links ThePlanets_Orbits_Ceres_Mars_PolarView. ... Image File history File links ThePlanets_Orbits_Ceres_Mars. ...

Ceres follows an orbit between Mars and Jupiter, within the main asteroid belt, with a period of 4.6 years. The orbit is moderately inclined (i=10.6° to be compared with 7° for Mercury and 17° for Pluto) and moderately eccentric (e=0.08 to compare with 0.09 for Mars). Image of the main asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. ...


The diagram illustrates the orbits of Ceres (yellow) and Mars (red) as seen from the ecliptic pole (top) and from the ascending node (below). The segments of orbits below the ecliptic are plotted in darker colours. The perihelia (q) and aphelia (Q) are labelled with the date of the nearest passage. Interestingly, the perihelion of Ceres (as well as those of several other of the largest MBAs) and Mars are on the opposite side of the Sun. This article is about several astronomical terms (apogee & perigee, aphelion & perihelion, generic equivalents based on apsis, and related but rarer terms. ... This article is about several astronomical terms (apogee & perigee, aphelion & perihelion, generic equivalents based on apsis, and related but rarer terms. ...


Physical characteristics

Hubble Space Telescope images of Ceres, taken in 2003/4 with a resolution of about 30 km. The nature of the bright spot is uncertain. A movie was also made.
Hubble Space Telescope images of Ceres, taken in 2003/4 with a resolution of about 30 km. The nature of the bright spot is uncertain. A movie was also made.[12]
Hubble Space Telescope UV image of Ceres, taken in 1995 with a resolution of about 60 km. The "Piazzi" feature is the dark spot in the center.
Hubble Space Telescope UV image of Ceres, taken in 1995 with a resolution of about 60 km. The "Piazzi" feature is the dark spot in the center.

Ceres is the largest object in the asteroid belt, which mostly lies between Mars and Jupiter. However, it is not the largest object besides the Sun, planets and their satellites, in the solar system: the Kuiper belt is known to contain larger objects, including Eris, Pluto, 50000 Quaoar, 90482 Orcus, and possibly 90377 Sedna. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (880x781, 93 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): 1 Ceres User:Scott3/planet ceres ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (880x781, 93 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): 1 Ceres User:Scott3/planet ceres ... The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a telescope in orbit around the Earth. ... Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet image of asteroid 1 Ceres This image shows features as small as 50 km across, including the dark spot in the middle, dubbed Piazzi. ... Hubble Space Telescope ultraviolet image of asteroid 1 Ceres This image shows features as small as 50 km across, including the dark spot in the middle, dubbed Piazzi. ... The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a telescope in orbit around the Earth. ... Ultraviolet (UV) light is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength shorter than that of visible light, but longer than soft X-rays. ... Image of the main asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. ... Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun in the solar system, named after the Roman god of war (the counterpart of the Greek Ares), on account of its blood red color as viewed in the night sky. ... Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 70 kPa Hydrogen ~86% Helium ~14% Methane 0. ... Artists rendering of the Kuiper Belt and hypothetical more distant Oort cloud. ... Eris (IPA or ), officially designated 136199 Eris, is the largest known dwarf planet in the solar system. ... Adjective Plutonian Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 0. ... Artists impression by G. Bacon of STScI / NASA 50000 Quaoar (pronounced kwah·war, kwah·wor, or kwow·ur, Tongva ) [1] is a Trans-Neptunian object orbiting the Sun in the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt. ... 90482 Orcus (originally known by the provisional designation 2004 DW) is a Kuiper Belt object (KBO) that was discovered by Michael Brown of Caltech, Chad Trujillo of the Gemini Observatory, and David Rabinowitz of Yale University. ... 90377 Sedna is a trans-Neptunian object, discovered by Michael Brown (Caltech), Chad Trujillo (Gemini Observatory) and David Rabinowitz (Yale University) on November 14, 2003. ...


At certain points in its orbit, Ceres can reach a magnitude of 7.0. This is generally regarded as being just barely too dim to be seen with the naked eye, but under exceptional viewing conditions a very sharp-sighted person may be able to see the asteroid with the naked eye. The only other asteroid that can be seen with the naked eye is 4 Vesta. 4 Vesta (ves-ta) is the second most massive asteroid in the asteroid belt, with a mean diameter of about 530 km and an estimated mass 12% the mass of the entire asteroid belt. ...


Ceres' size and mass are sufficient to give it a nearly spherical shape. That is, it is close to hydrostatic equilibrium. Other large asteroids such as 2 Pallas, 3 Juno, and 4 Vesta are known to be quite irregular, while lightcurve analysis of 10 Hygiea indicates it is oblong although it appears spheroidal in low-resolution images (presumably due to viewing angle). Hydrostatic equilibrium occurs when compression due to gravity is balanced by outward pressure. ... 2 Pallas (pal-us, Greek Παλλάς) was the first asteroid discovered after 1 Ceres. ... 3 Juno (jew-noe (key)) was the third asteroid to be discovered and is one of the largest main belt asteroids, being the heaviest of the stony S-type. ... 4 Vesta (ves-ta) is the second most massive asteroid in the asteroid belt, with a mean diameter of about 530 km and an estimated mass 12% the mass of the entire asteroid belt. ... 10 Hygiea (hye-jee-a or hi-jee-a) is the fourth largest Main belt asteroid with a diameter of 407 km. ...


With a mass of 9.5×1020 kg, Ceres comprises about a third of the estimated total 3.0±0.2×1021 kg mass of all the asteroids in the solar system[13] (note how all these amount to only about 4% of the mass of the Moon). Bulk composition of the moons mantle and crust estimated, weight percent Oxygen 42. ...


There are some indications that the surface of Ceres is relatively warm and that it may have a tenuous atmosphere and frost. The maximum temperature with the Sun overhead was estimated from measurements to be 235 K (about -38 °C) on May 5, 1991.[5] Taking into account also the heliocentric distance at the time, gives an estimated maximum of ~239 K at perihelion. Atmosphere is the general name for a layer of gases that may surround a material body of sufficient mass. ... It has been suggested that hoar frost be merged into this article or section. ... The Sun is the name given to the star of our solar system. ... The kelvin (symbol: K) is the SI unit of temperature, and is one of the seven SI base units. ... A degree Celsius (°C) is a unit of temperature named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius (1701-1744), who first proposed a similar system in 1742. ... May 5 is the 125th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (126th in leap years). ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... In astronomy, heliocentrism is the theory that the Sun is at the center of the Universe and/or the Solar System. ... This article is about several astronomical terms (apogee & perigee, aphelion & perihelion, generic equivalents based on apsis, and related but rarer terms. ...

Diagram showing differentiated layers of Ceres
Diagram showing differentiated layers of Ceres

A study led by Peter Thomas of Cornell University suggests that Ceres has a differentiated interior: observations coupled with computer models suggest the presence of a rocky core overlain with an icy mantle. This mantle of thickness from 120 to 60 km could contain 200 million cubic kilometres of water, which is more than the amount of fresh water on the Earth.[14][1] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1200x963, 358 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): 1 Ceres Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1200x963, 358 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): 1 Ceres Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used to... This is about the university. ... Earth cutaway from core to exosphere. ...


There has been some ambiguity regarding surface features on Ceres. Low resolution ultraviolet Hubble Space Telescope images taken in 1995 showed a dark spot on its surface which was nicknamed "Piazzi" in honour of the discoverer of Ceres. This was thought to be a crater. Later images with a higher resolution taken over a whole rotation with the Keck telescope using adaptive optics showed no sign of "Piazzi". However, two dark features were seen to move with the asteroid's rotation, one with a bright central region. These are presumably craters. More recent visible light Hubble Space Telescope images of a full rotation taken in 2003 and 2004 show an enigmatic white spot, the nature of which is currently unknown.[15] The dark albedo features seen with Keck are, however, not immediately recognizable in these images. Ultraviolet (UV) light is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength shorter than that of visible light, but longer than soft X-rays. ... The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a telescope in orbit around the Earth. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Mauna Kea Observatory, an institute of the University of Hawaii, is considered one of the most important land-based observatories in the world for its isolated, unobstructed views of space without interference from man-made light sources. ... A deformable mirror can be used to correct wavefront errors in an astronomical telescope. ... The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a telescope in orbit around the Earth. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


These last observations also determined that Ceres' north pole points (give or take about 5°) in the direction of right ascension 19 h 24 min, declination +59°, in the constellation Draco. This means that Ceres' axial tilt is very small (about 4±5°).[1] Right ascension (RA; symbol α: Greek letter alpha) is the astronomical term for one of the two coordinates of a point on the celestial sphere when using the equatorial coordinate system. ... In astronomy, declination (dec) is one of the two coordinates of the equatorial coordinate system, the other being either right ascension or hour angle. ... Orion is a remarkable constellation, visible from most places on the globe at one time or another during the year. ... Draco (Latin for Dragon) is a far northern constellation that is circumpolar for many northern hemisphere observers. ... Axial tilt is an astronomical term regarding the inclination angle of a planets rotational axis in relation to its orbital plane. ...


Ceres was long thought to be the parent body of the "Ceres asteroid family". However, that grouping is now defunct because Ceres has been shown to be an interloper in its "own" family, and physically unrelated. The bulk of that asteroid group is now called the Gefion family. Minor planet is the official term for asteroids and trans-Neptunian objects. ... The Gefion family of asteroids is a grouping of S-type asteroids in the intermediate main belt. ...


Observations

Some notable observation milestones for Ceres include:


An occultation of a star by Ceres was observed in Mexico, Florida and across the Caribbean on November 13, 1984. In this July, 1997 still frame captured from video, the bright star Aldebaran has just reappeared on the dark limb of the waning crescent moon in this predawn occultation. ... The Pleiades, an open cluster of stars in the constellation of Taurus. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Central America and the Caribbean (detailed pdf map) The Caribbean (Spanish: Caribe; French: Caraïbe; Dutch: Caraïben; Portuguese: Caribe or Caraíbas) is a region of the Americas consisting of the Caribbean Sea, its islands (most of which enclose the sea), and the surrounding coasts. ... November 13 is the 317th day of the year (318th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 48 days remaining. ... 1984 (MCMLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Features on Ceres' surface have been telescopically imaged several times in recent years.


These include:

Radio signals from spacecraft in orbit around Mars and on its surface have been used to estimate the mass of Ceres from the perturbations induced by it onto the motion of Mars.[13] Ultraviolet (UV) light is electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength shorter than that of visible light, but longer than soft X-rays. ... The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a telescope in orbit around the Earth. ... 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Mauna Kea Observatory, an institute of the University of Hawaii, is considered one of the most important land-based observatories in the world for its isolated, unobstructed views of space without interference from man-made light sources. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... A deformable mirror can be used to correct wavefront errors in an astronomical telescope. ... The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) is a telescope in orbit around the Earth. ... 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ...


Exploration of Ceres

Artist's conception of Dawn visiting Ceres and Vesta.
Artist's conception of Dawn visiting Ceres and Vesta.

To date no space probes have visited Ceres. However, NASA's Dawn mission will be the first spacecraft to study Ceres. Initially the probe will visit the second most massive asteroid, 4 Vesta, for approximately six months in 2010, before arriving at Ceres in 2014 or 2015. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1500x1147, 950 KB) Dawn spacecraft (final configuration) Source: http://dawn. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1500x1147, 950 KB) Dawn spacecraft (final configuration) Source: http://dawn. ... NASA logo Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from an article revision dated 2005-09-01, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ... Dawn spacecraft, powered by ion thrusters The Dawn Mission is a NASA unmanned space mission that will send an orbiting space probe to examine the asteroids Ceres and Vesta. ... Mass is a property of a physical object that quantifies the amount of matter and energy it is equivalent to. ... 4 Vesta (ves-ta) is the second most massive asteroid in the asteroid belt, with a mean diameter of about 530 km and an estimated mass 12% the mass of the entire asteroid belt. ... 2010 (MMX) will be a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2014 (MMXIV) will be a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 2015 (MMXV) will be a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Namesakes

  • The chemical element Cerium (atomic number 58) was discovered in 1803 by Berzelius and Klaproth, working independently. Berzelius named the element after the asteroid. [19]
  • William Hyde Wollaston discovered palladium as early as 1802 and at first called it Ceresium. By the time he openly published his discovery in 1805, the name was already taken (by Berzelius) and he switched it to palladium in honour of 2 Pallas. [20]

General Name, Symbol, Number cerium, Ce, 58 Chemical series lanthanides Group, Period, Block n/a, 6, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 140. ... 1803 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Jöns Jakob Berzelius Statue of Berzelius in the centre of Berzelii Park, Stockholm Jöns Jakob Berzelius (August 20, 1779 - August 7, 1848) was a Swedish chemist. ... Martin Heinrich Klaproth Martin Heinrich Klaproth (December 1, 1743 – January 1, 1817) was a German chemist. ... William Hyde Wollaston (August 6, 1766 – December 22, 1828) was an English chemist who is famous for discovering two chemical elements and for developing a way to process platinum ore. ... General Name, Symbol, Number palladium, Pd, 46 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 10, 5, d Appearance silvery white metallic Atomic mass 106. ... --69. ... 1805 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 2 Pallas (pal-us, Greek Παλλάς) was the first asteroid discovered after 1 Ceres. ...

Aspects

Stationary,
retrograde
Opposition Distance to
Earth (AU)
Maximum
brightness (mag)
Stationary,
prograde
Conjunction
to Sun
March 21, 2005 May 8, 2005 1.68631 7.0 June 30, 2005 December 28, 2005
June 26, 2006 August 12, 2006 1.98278 7.6 November 27, 2006 March 22, 2007
September 20, 2007 November 9, 2007 1.83690 7.2 January 1, 2008 June 28, 2008
January 17, 2009 February 24, 2009 1.58526 6.9 April 16, 2009 October 31, 2009
April 28, 2010 June 18, 2010 1.81988 7.0 August 9, 2010 January 30, 2011
July 31, 2011 September 16, 2011 1.99211 7.7 November 12, 2011 April 26, 2012
October 30, 2012 December 17, 2012 1.68842 6.7 February 4, 2013 August 17, 2013
March 1, 2014 April 15, 2014 1.63294 7.0 June 7, 2014 December 10, 2014
June 6, 2015 July 25, 2015 1.94252 7.5 September 16, 2015 March 3, 2016
September 1, 2016 October 20, 2016 1.90844 7.4 December 15, 2016 June 5, 2017
December 21, 2017 January 31, 2018 1.59531 8.8 March 20, 2018 October 7, 2018
April 9, 2019 May 29, 2019 1.74756 7.0 July 20, 2019 January 14, 2020
July 13, 2020 August 28, 2020 1.99916 7.7 October 23, 2020 April 7, 2021

Prograde motion is the motion of a planetary body in a direction similar to that of other bodies within its system, and is sometimes called direct motion, especially in astrology. ... Opposition is a term used in positional astronomy and astrology to indicate when one celestial body is on the opposite side of the sky when viewed from a particular place (usually the Earth). ... The astronomical unit (AU or au or a. ... Prograde motion is the motion of a planetary body in a direction similar to that of other bodies within its system, and is sometimes called direct motion, especially in astrology. ... Solar Conjunction occurs when a planet or other solar system object is on the opposite side of the sun than the Earth. ... March 21 is the 80th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (81st in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 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February 4 is the 35th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2013 (MMXIII) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 17 is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2013 (MMXIII) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 1 is the 60th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (61st in leap years). ... 2014 (MMXIV) will be a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 15 is the 105th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (106th in leap years). ... 2014 (MMXIV) will be a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 7 is the 158th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (159th in leap years), with 207 days remaining. ... 2014 (MMXIV) will be a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 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September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years). ... 2016 (MMXVI) will be a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 20 is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 72 days remaining. ... 2016 (MMXVI) will be a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 15 is the 349th day of the year (350th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2016 (MMXVI) will be a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... June 5 is the 156th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (157th in leap years), with 209 days remaining. ... 2017 (MMXVII) will be a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 21 is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2017 (MMXVII) will be a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... January 31 is the 31st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2018 (MMXVIII) will be a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in Leap years). ... 2018 (MMXVIII) will be a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... October 7 is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years). ... 2018 (MMXVIII) will be a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 9 is the 99th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (100th in leap years). ... 2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... May 29 is the 149th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (150th in leap years). ... 2019 (MMXIX) will be a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 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April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... 2021 is a common year starting on Friday. ...

See also

The minor planet Ceres (formally 1 Ceres), known since its discovery in 1801 as either one of the smallest planets or as the largest asteroid in the Asteroid Belt, and since 2006 as the smallest of the dwarf planets, is a frequent setting for events in works of science fiction. ... The following is a list of solar system bodies formerly considered planets: 1 Ceres 3 Juno Moon 2 Pallas Sun 4 Vesta The Galilean Moons of Jupiter (called the Medicean Planets by their discoverer, Galileo Galilei) Some astronomers now consider Pluto to be a minor planet, though this is disputed. ... The asteroid 1 Ceres has been proposed as one of possible targets for human colonization in the inner solar system, probably after establishment of permanent human bases on Mars. ... Artists impression of Pluto (background) and its satellite Charon (foreground). ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d P. C. Thomas et al Differentiation of the asteroid Ceres as revealed by its shape, Nature, Vol. 437, pp. 224 (2005).
  2. ^ http://iau-comm4.jpl.nasa.gov/EPM2004.pdf
  3. ^ D. T. Britt et al Asteroid density, porosity, and structure, pp. 488 in Asteroids III, University of Arizona Press (2002).
  4. ^ Supplemental IRAS Minor Planet Survey. (404 error as of 2006-08-16)
  5. ^ a b O. Saint-Pé Ceres surface properties by high-resolution imaging from earth, Icarus, vol. 105 pp. 271 (1993).
  6. ^ http://www.iau2006.org/mirror/www.iau.org/iau0601/iau0601_release.html
  7. ^ http://www.latimes.com/news/science/la-sci-planets16aug16,0,3652893.story?coll=la-home-headlines?invade Proposal would increase from 9 to 12
  8. ^ http://www.iau2006.org/mirror/www.iau.org/iau0603/index.html
  9. ^ Hoskin, Michael. 8. Piazzi and the Discovery of Ceres. Bode's Law and the Disovery of Ceres. Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Giuseppe S. Vaiana. Retrieved on 2006-08-16.
  10. ^ Hilton, J. L. (September 17, 2001). When Did the Asteroids Become Minor Planets?. Retrieved on 2006-08-16.
  11. ^ http://www.spacedaily.com/reports/The_IAU_Draft_Definition_Of_Planets_And_Plutons_999.html
  12. ^ Cooke, Bill, "An icy interior for Ceres?", Astronomy, September 12, 2005. movie credit J. Parker, Southwest Research Institute
  13. ^ a b E. V. Pitjeva High-Precision Ephemerides of Planets — EPM and Determination of Some Astronomical Constants, Solar System Resarch, Vol. 39 pp. 176 (2005).
  14. ^ Bjorn, "Largest Asteroid Might Contain More Fresh Water than Earth", SPACE.com, 07 September 2005. Retrieved on 2006-08-16.
  15. ^ a b "Largest Asteroid May Be 'Mini Planet' with Water Ice", HubbleSite, September 7, 2005. Retrieved on 2006-08-16.
  16. ^ Observations reveal curiosities on the surface of asteroid Ceres. Retrieved on 2006-08-16.
  17. ^ J. W. Parker et al Analysis of the first disk-resolved images of Ceres from ultraviolet observations with the Hubble Space Telescope, The Astronomical Journal, Vol. 123 pp. 549 (2002).
  18. ^ http://s1.simpload.com/10034341d7edcf588.jpg
  19. ^ Cerium Historical Information. Retrieved on 2006-08-21.
  20. ^ Amalgamator Features 2003: 200 Years Ago. Retrieved on 2006-08-21.

2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 16 is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 16 is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 16 is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 16 is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 16 is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 21 is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... August 21 is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ...

External links


(asteroid navigator) | 1 Ceres | Next asteroid | ...
  The Solar System  v·d·e 
Image:Eight Planets.png
Star: The Sun
Planets: Mercury - Venus - Earth - Mars - Jupiter - Saturn - Uranus - Neptune
Dwarf Planets: Ceres - Pluto - Eris
Small Bodies: Asteroids - Centaurs - TNOs - Comets - Meteoroids
Populations: Asteroid belt - Kuiper belt - Scattered disc - Oort cloud - Natural satellites
See also astronomical objects and the solar system's list of objects, sorted by radius or mass.

2 Pallas (pal-us, Greek Παλλάς) was the first asteroid discovered after 1 Ceres. ... Major features of the Solar System (not to scale): The Sun, the eight planets, the asteroid belt, the dwarf planet Pluto, and a comet. ... Image File history File links Eight_Planets. ... The Pleiades, an open cluster of stars in the constellation of Taurus. ... The Sun is the name given to the star of our solar system. ... Our solar system: the Sun, the eight planets and the three dwarf planets. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Adjective Venusian or (rarely) Cytherean (*min temperature refers to cloud tops only) Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 9. ... Earth (often referred to as the Earth, or the earth) whose Latin name is Tellus (often incorrectly referred to as Terra, meaning soil) is the third planet in the solar system in terms of distance from the Sun, and the fifth largest. ... Note: This article contains special characters. ... Adjective Jovian Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 70 kPa Hydrogen ~86% Helium ~14% Methane 0. ... Adjective Saturnian Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 140 kPa Hydrogen >93% Helium >5% Methane 0. ... Adjective Uranian Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 120 kPa (at the cloud level) Hydrogen 83% Helium 15% Methane 1. ... Adjective Neptunian Atmospheric characteristics Surface pressure ≫100 MPa Hydrogen - H2 80% ±3. ... Artists impression of Pluto (background) and its satellite Charon (foreground). ... Adjective Plutonian Atmospheric characteristics Atmospheric pressure 0. ... Eris (IPA or ), officially designated 136199 Eris, is the largest known dwarf planet in the solar system. ... A small solar system body is a term defined in 2006 by the International Astronomical Union to describe solar system objects which are not planets or dwarf planets: [1] Therefore it refers to these objects that can be further classified based on their orbit or composition: all known minor planets... An asteroid is a predominantly rocky body that orbits around its star. ... The centaurs are a class of icy planetoids that orbit the Sun between Jupiter and Neptune, named after the mythical race of centaurs. ... A trans-Neptunian object (TNO) is any object in the solar system that orbits the sun at a greater distance on average than Neptune. ... Comet Hale-Bopp For other uses, see Comet (disambiguation). ... Look up meteoroid in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Image of the main asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. ... Artists rendering of the Kuiper Belt and hypothetical more distant Oort cloud. ... The scattered disc (or scattered disk) is a distant region of our solar system, thinly populated by icy planetoids known as scattered disk objects (SDOs), a subset of the broader family of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs). ... This image is an artists rendering of the Oort cloud and the Kuiper Belt. ... Moons of solar system scaled to Earths Moon A natural satellite is a moon (not capitalized), that is, any natural object that orbits a planet. ... See also Lists of astronomical objects Category: ... Major features of the Solar System (not to scale): The Sun, the eight planets, the asteroid belt, the dwarf planet Pluto, and a comet. ... Below is a list of solar system objects with diameter >500km: The Sun, a spectral class G2 star Mercury Venus Earth Moon Mars Jupiter Io Europa Ganymede Callisto complete list of Jupiters natural satellites Saturn Tethys Dione Rhea Titan Iapetus complete list of Saturns natural satellites Uranus Ariel... This is a list of solar system objects by radius, in decreasing order. ... This is a list of Solar system objects by mass, in decreasing order. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
1 Ceres - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2011 words)
Ceres was assigned a planetary symbol, and remained listed as a planet in astronomy books and tables (along with 2 Pallas, 3 Juno and 4 Vesta) for about half a century until further asteroids were discovered.
Ceres is the largest object in the asteroid belt, which mostly lies between Mars and Jupiter.
Ceres was long thought to be the parent body of the "Ceres asteroid family".
Ceres (minor planet 1) (617 words)
Ceres contains about one third of the mass of all the asteroids in the main asteroid belt put together.
There matters might have stood were it not for the fact that Ceres lay at the heliocentric distance predicted by the Titius-Bode law and therefore seemed as if it might be the missing planet that Johann Bode argued must exist between Mars and Jupiter.
Piazzi named it Ceres after the Roman goddess of grain and patron goddess of Sicily, thereby starting a tradition that continues to the this day: asteroids are named by their discoverers (in contrast to comets, which are named for their discoverers).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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