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Encyclopedia > .NET Framework
.NET Framework
Developed by Microsoft
Latest release 3.5.21022.8 / November 19, 2007
OS Windows NT 4.0, Windows 98 and above
Genre System platform
License MS-EULA, BCL under Microsoft Reference License[1]
Website http://www.microsoft.com/net

Microsoft .NET Framework is a software component that is a part of several Microsoft Windows operating systems. It has a large library of pre-coded solutions to common programming problems and manages the execution of programs written specifically for the framework. The .NET Framework is a key Microsoft offering and is intended to be used by most new applications created for the Windows platform. Image File history File links Microsoft_. ... For other uses, see Software developer (disambiguation). ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... Code complete redirects here. ... is the 323rd day of the year (324th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... An operating system (OS) is a software that manages computer resources and provides programmers with an interface used to access those resources. ... Windows NT 4. ... Windows 98 (codenamed Memphis) is a graphical operating system released on June 25, 1998 by Microsoft and the successor to Windows 95. ... Windows redirects here. ... In computing, a platform describes some sort of framework, either in hardware or software, which allows software to run. ... A software license is a legal agreement which may take the form of a proprietary or gratuitous license as well as a memorandum of contract between a producer and a user of computer software. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... The Base Class Library (BCL) is a library of types and functionalities available to all languages using the . ... Shared source is Microsoft’s framework for sharing computer program source code with individuals and organizations. ... A website (alternatively, web site or Web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos or other digital assets that is hosted on one or more web servers, usually accessible via the Internet. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Component-based software engineering. ... Windows redirects here. ... An operating system (OS) is a software that manages computer resources and provides programmers with an interface used to access those resources. ... Illustration of an application which may use libvorbisfile. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ...

The pre-coded solutions that form the framework's Base Class Library cover a large range of programming needs in a number of areas, including user interface, data access, database connectivity, cryptography, web application development, numeric algorithms, and network communications. The class library is used by programmers who combine it with their own code to produce applications. The Base Class Library (BCL) is a library of types and functionalities available to all languages using the . ... Computer programming (often simply programming) is the craft of implementing one or more interrelated abstract algorithms using a particular programming language to produce a concrete computer program. ... An interface defines the communication boundary between two entities, such as a piece of software, a hardware device, or a user. ... Data Access typically refers to software and activities related to storing, retrieving, or acting on data housed in a database or other repository. ... A Database Connection is the method in computer science that allows client software to talk to database server software, whether these exist on the same machine or not. ... The German Lorenz cipher machine, used in World War II for encryption of very high-level general staff messages Cryptography (or cryptology; derived from Greek κρυπτός kryptós hidden, and the verb γράφω gráfo write or λεγειν legein to speak) is the study of message secrecy. ... In software engineering, a web application is an application delivered to users from a web server over a network such as the World Wide Web or an intranet. ... Flowcharts are often used to graphically represent algorithms. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Source code (commonly just source or code) is any series of statements written in some human-readable computer programming language. ...


Programs written for the .NET Framework execute in a software environment that manages the program's runtime requirements. Also part of the .NET Framework, this runtime environment is known as the Common Language Runtime (CLR). The CLR provides the appearance of an application virtual machine so that programmers need not consider the capabilities of the specific CPU that will execute the program. The CLR also provides other important services such as security, memory management, and exception handling. The class library and the CLR together compose the .NET Framework. Computer software (or simply software) refers to one or more computer programs and data held in the storage of a computer for some purpose. ... In computer science, runtime or run time describes the operation of a computer program, the duration of its execution, from beginning to termination (compare compile time). ... The Common Language Runtime (CLR) is the virtual machine component of Microsofts . ... In computer science, a virtual machine is software that creates a virtualized environment between the computer platform and its operating system, so that the end user can operate software on an abstract machine. ... CPU redirects here. ... Memory management is the act of managing computer memory. ... Exception handling is a programming language construct or computer hardware mechanism designed to handle the occurrence of some condition that changes the normal flow of execution. ...


The .NET Framework is included with Windows Server 2008 and Windows Vista. The current version of the framework can also be installed on Windows XP and the Windows Server 2003 family of operating systems.[2] Windows Server 2008 is the most recent release of Microsoft Windowss server line of operating systems. ... Windows Vista (pronounced ) is a line of operating systems developed by Microsoft for use on personal computers, including home and business desktops, laptops, Tablet PCs, and media centers. ... Windows XP is a line of operating systems developed by Microsoft for use on personal computers, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, and media centers. ... Windows Server 2003 (also referred to as Win2K3) is a server operating system produced by Microsoft. ...

Contents

Principal Design Features

Interoperability 
Because interaction between new and older applications is commonly required, the .NET Framework provides means to access functionality that is implemented in programs that execute outside the .NET environment. Access to COM components is provided in the System.Runtime.InteropServices and System.EnterpriseServices namespaces of the framework; access to other functionality is provided using the P/Invoke feature.
Common Runtime Engine 
Programming languages on the .NET Framework compile into an intermediate language known as the Common Intermediate Language (CIL). In Microsoft's implementation this intermediate language is not interpreted but rather compiled in a manner known as just-in-time compilation (JIT) into native code. The combination of these concepts is called the Common Language Infrastructure (CLI). Microsoft's implementation of the CLI is known as the Common Language Runtime (CLR).
Language Independence 
The .NET Framework introduces a Common Type System, or CTS. The CTS specification defines all possible datatypes and programming constructs supported by the CLR and how they may or may not interact with each other. Because of this feature, the .NET Framework supports the exchange of instances of types between programs written in any of the .NET languages. This is discussed in more detail in Microsoft .NET Languages.
Base Class Library 
The Base Class Library (BCL), part of the Framework Class Library (FCL), is a library of functionality available to all languages using the .NET Framework. The BCL provides classes which encapsulate a number of common functions, including file reading and writing, graphic rendering, database interaction and XML document manipulation.
Simplified Deployment 
Installation of computer software must be carefully managed to ensure that it does not interfere with previously installed software, and that it conforms to increasingly stringent[citation needed] security requirements. The .NET framework includes design features and tools that help address these requirements.
Security 
The design is meant to address some of the vulnerabilities, such as buffer overflows, that have been exploited by malicious software. Additionally, .NET provides a common security model for all applications.
Portability 
The design of the .NET Framework allows it to be platform agnostic, and thus cross-platform compatible. That is, a program written to use the framework should run without change on any type of system for which the framework is implemented. Microsoft's commercial implementations of the framework cover Windows, Windows CE, and the Xbox 360.[3] In addition, Microsoft submits the specifications for the Common Language Infrastructure (which includes the core class libraries, Common Type System, and the Common Intermediate Language),[4][5][6] the C# language,[7] and the C++/CLI language[8] to both ECMA and the ISO, making them available as open standards. This makes it possible for third parties to create compatible implementations of the framework and its languages on other platforms.

Interoperability is a property referring to the ability of diverse systems and organizations to work together (inter-operate). ... Component Object Model (COM) is a platform for software componentry introduced by Microsoft in 1993. ... Platform Invocation Services, commonly referred to as just P/Invoke, is a feature of Common Language Infrastructure implementations, like Microsofts Common Language Runtime, that enables managed code to call native code in dynamic-linked libraries (DLLs). ... A diagram of the operation of a typical multi-language, multi-target compiler. ... In computer science, an intermediate language is the language of an abstract machine designed to aid in the analysis of computer programs. ... Common Intermediate Language (CIL, pronounced either sill or kill) (formerly called Microsoft Intermediate Language or MSIL) is the lowest-level human-readable programming language in the Common Language Infrastructure and in the . ... In computer science, an interpreter is a computer program that executes, or performs, instructions written in a computer programming language. ... For other uses, see Just In Time. ... A system of codes directly understandable by a computers CPU is termed this CPUs native or machine language. ... Visual overview of the Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) The Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) is an open specification developed by Microsoft that describes the executable code and runtime environment that form the core of the Microsoft . ... The Common Language Runtime (CLR) is the virtual machine component of Microsofts . ... The Common Type System (CTS) is used by every language built on the . ... Specification may refer to several different concepts: Specification (standards) refers to specific standards Specificatio - a legal concept Specification (regression) refers to the practice of translating theory into a regression model Category: ... On computer science, a datatype (often simply type) is a name or label for a set of values and some operations which can be performed on that set of values. ... Computer programming (often simply programming) is the craft of implementing one or more interrelated abstract algorithms using a particular programming language to produce a concrete computer program. ... Microsoft . ... The Base Class Library (BCL) is a library of types and functionalities available to all languages using the . ... In object-oriented programming, a class is a programming language construct used to group related fields and methods. ... This article is about computer files and file systems in general terms. ... An image created by using POV-Ray 3. ... This article is about computing. ... The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a general-purpose markup language. ... // Installation (or setup) of a program (including drivers) is the act and the effect of putting the program in a computer system so that it can be executed. ... [[Media:Media:Example. ... A cross-platform (or platform independent) programming language, software application or hardware device works on more than one system platform (e. ... It has been suggested that Xbox 360 Elite be merged into this article or section. ... Visual overview of the Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) The Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) is an open specification developed by Microsoft that describes the executable code and runtime environment that form the core of the Microsoft . ... The Common Type System (CTS) is used by every language built on the . ... Common Intermediate Language (CIL, pronounced either sill or kill) (formerly called Microsoft Intermediate Language or MSIL) is the lowest-level human-readable programming language in the Common Language Infrastructure and in the . ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... “ISO” redirects here. ...

Architecture

Visual overview of the Common Language Infrastructure (CLI)
Visual overview of the Common Language Infrastructure (CLI)

CLI (Common Language Infrastructure)

The core aspects of the .NET framework lie within the Common Language Infrastructure, or CLI. The purpose of the CLI is to provide a language-agnostic platform for application development and execution, including functions for exception handling, garbage collection, security, and interoperability. Microsoft's implementation of the CLI is called the Common Language Runtime or CLR. The CLR is composed of four primary parts: Visual overview of the Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) The Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) is an open specification developed by Microsoft that describes the executable code and runtime environment that form the core of the Microsoft . ... The Common Language Runtime (CLR) is the virtual machine component of Microsofts . ...

The Common Type System (CTS) is used by every language built on the . ... The Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) is an open specification developed by Microsoft that describes the executable code and runtime environment that form the core of the Microsoft . ... . ... The Virtual Execution System(VES) provides an environment for executing managed code. ...

Assemblies

Main article: .NET assembly

The intermediate CIL code is housed in .NET assemblies. As mandated by specification, assemblies are stored in the Portable Executable (PE) format, common on the Windows platform for all DLL and EXE files. The assembly consists of one or more files, one of which must contain the manifest, which has the metadata for the assembly. The complete name of an assembly (not to be confused with the filename on disk) contains its simple text name, version number, culture, and public key token. The public key token is a unique hash generated when the assembly is compiled, thus two assemblies with the same public key token are guaranteed to be identical from the point of view of the framework. A private key can also be specified known only to the creator of the assembly and can be used for strong naming and to guarantee that the assembly is from the same author when a new version of the assembly is compiled (required to add an assembly to the Global Assembly Cache). For the counterpart to assembly language in the Microsoft . ... For the counterpart to assembly language in the Microsoft . ... The Portable Executable (PE) format is a file format for executables, object code, and DLLs, used in 32-bit and 64-bit versions of Windows operating systems. ... Metadata is data about data. ... PKC, see PKC (disambiguation) Public-key cryptography is a form of modern cryptography which allows users to communicate securely without previously agreeing on a shared secret key. ...


Metadata

Main article: .NET metadata

All CIL is Self-Describing through .NET metadata. The CLR checks on metadata to ensure that the correct method is called. Metadata is usually generated by language compilers but developers can create their own metadata through custom attributes. Metadata contains information about the assembly, and is also used to implement the reflective programming capabilities of .NET Framework. . ... . ... In computer science, reflection is the process by which a computer program of the appropriate type can be modified in the process of being executed, in a manner that depends on abstract features of its code and its runtime behavior. ...


Class library

Main article: Base Class Library

The Base Class Library, sometimes incorrectly referred to as the Framework Class Library (FCL) (superset including the Microsoft.* namespaces), is a library of classes available to all languages using the .NET Framework. The BCL provides classes which encapsulate a number of common functions, such as file reading and writing, graphic rendering, database interaction, XML document manipulation, and so forth. The BCL is much larger than other libraries, but has much more functionality in one package. The Base Class Library (BCL) is a library of types and functionalities available to all languages using the . ... In object-oriented programming, a class is a programming language construct used to group related fields and methods. ...


Security

.NET has its own security mechanism with two general features: Code Access Security (CAS), and validation and verification. Code Access Security is based on evidence that is associated with a specific assembly. Typically the evidence is the source of the assembly (whether it is installed on the local machine or has been downloaded from the intranet or Internet). Code Access Security uses evidence to determine the permissions granted to the code. Other code can demand that calling code is granted a specified permission. The demand causes the CLR to perform a call stack walk: every assembly of each method in the call stack is checked for the required permission; if any assembly is not granted the permission a security exception is thrown. Code access security, in the Microsoft . ...


When an assembly is loaded the CLR performs various tests. Two such tests are validation and verification. During validation the CLR checks that the assembly contains valid metadata and CIL, and whether the internal tables are correct. Verification is not so exact. The verification mechanism checks to see if the code does anything that is 'unsafe'. The algorithm used is quite conservative; hence occasionally code that is 'safe' does not pass. Unsafe code will only be executed if the assembly has the 'skip verification' permission, which generally means code that is installed on the local machine.


.NET Framework uses appdomains as a mechanism for isolating code running in a process. Appdomains can be created and code loaded into or unloaded from them independent of other appdomains. This helps increase the fault tolerance of the application, as faults or crashes in one appdomain do not affect rest of the application. Appdomains can also be configured independently with different security privileges. This can help increasing security of the application by isolating potentially unsafe code. The developer, however, has to split the application into subdomains; it is not done by the CLR. A Common Language Runtime application domain is a mechanism (similar to an operating system process), used to isolate executed software applications from one another so that they do not affect each other. ... In computing, a process is an instance of a computer program that is being executed. ...


Memory management

The .NET Framework CLR frees the developer from the burden of managing memory (allocating and freeing up when done); instead it does the memory management itself. To this end, the memory allocated to instantiations of .NET types (objects) is done contiguously[9] from the managed heap, a pool of memory managed by the CLR. As long as there exists a reference to an object, which might be either a direct reference to an object or via a graph of objects, the object is considered to be in use by the CLR. When there is no reference to an object, and it cannot be reached or used, it becomes garbage. However, it still holds on to the memory allocated to it. .NET Framework includes a garbage collector which runs periodically, on a separate thread from the application's thread, that enumerates all the unusable objects and reclaims the memory allocated to them. In computer science, garbage collection (GC) is a form of automatic memory management. ... Many programming languages, operating systems, and other software development environments support what are called threads of execution. ...


The .NET Garbage Collector (GC) is a non-deterministic, compacting, mark-and-sweep garbage collector. The GC runs only when a certain amount of memory has been used or there is enough pressure for memory on the system. Since it is not guaranteed when the conditions to reclaim memory are reached, the GC runs are non-deterministic. Each .NET application has a set of roots, which are pointers to objects on the managed heap (managed objects). These include references to static objects and objects defined as local variables or method parameters currently in scope, as well as objects referred to by CPU registers.[9] When the GC runs, it pauses the application, and for each object referred to in the root, it recursively enumerates all the objects reachable from the root objects and marks them as reachable. It uses .NET metadata and reflection to discover the objects encapsulated by an object, and then recursively walk them. It then enumerates all the objects on the heap (which were initially allocated contiguously) using reflection. All objects not marked as reachable are garbage.[9] This is the mark phase.[10] Since the memory held by garbage is not of any consequence, it is considered free space. However, this leaves chunks of free space between objects which were initially contiguous. The objects are then compacted together, by using memcpy[10] to copy them over to the free space to make them contiguous again.[9] Any reference to an object invalidated by moving the object is updated to reflect the new location by the GC.[10] The application is resumed after the garbage collection is over. This article is about the concept of recursion. ... In computer science, reflection is the process by which a computer program of the appropriate type can be modified in the process of being executed, in a manner that depends on abstract features of its code and its runtime behavior. ... This page aims to alphabetically list all the predefined functions used in the C standard library, and a few of the non-standard functions. ...


The GC used by .NET Framework is actually generational.[11] Objects are assigned a generation; newly created objects belong to Generation 0. The objects that survive a garbage collection are tagged as Generation 1, and the Generation 1 objects that survive another collection are Generation 2 objects. The .NET Framework uses up to Generation 2 objects.[11] Higher generation objects are garbage collected less frequently than lower generation objects. This helps increase the efficiency of garbage collection, as older objects tend to have a larger lifetime than newer objects.[11] Thus, by removing older (and thus more likely to survive a collection) objects from the scope of a collection run, fewer objects need to be checked and compacted.[11]


Standardization and licensing

In August 2000, Microsoft, Hewlett-Packard, and Intel worked to standardize CLI and the C# programming language. By December 2001, both were ratified ECMA standards (ECMA 335 and ECMA 334). ISO followed in April 2003 - the current version of the ISO standards are ([1] and [2]). Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... The Hewlett-Packard Company (NYSE: HPQ), commonly known as HP, is a very large, global company headquartered in Palo Alto, California, United States. ... Intel Corporation (NASDAQ: INTC, SEHK: 4335), founded in 1968 as Integrated Electronics Corporation, is an American multinational corporation that is best known for designing and manufacturing microprocessors and specialized integrated circuits. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Ecma International is an international, private (membership-based) standards organization for information and communication systems. ... The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from national standards bodies. ...


While Microsoft and their partners hold patents for the CLI and C#, ECMA and ISO require that all patents essential to implementation be made available under "reasonable and non-discriminatory (RAND) terms." In addition to meeting these terms, the companies have agreed to make the patents available royalty-free. Reasonable and Non Discriminatory Licensing (RAND) is a term for a type of licensing typically used during standardisation processes. ...


However, this does not apply for the part of the .NET Framework which is not covered by the ECMA/ISO standard, which includes Windows Forms, ADO.NET, and ASP.NET. Patents that Microsoft holds in these areas may deter non-Microsoft implementations of the full framework. This API is a part of . ... ADO.NET is a set of computer software components that can be used by programmers to access data and data services. ... ASP.NET logo ASP.NET is a web application framework marketed by Microsoft that programmers can use to build dynamic web sites, web applications and XML web services. ...


On October 3, 2007, Microsoft announced that much of the source code for the .NET Framework Base Class Library (including ASP.NET, ADO.NET and Windows Presentation Foundation) will be made available with the final release of Visual Studio 2008 towards the end of 2007 under the shared source Microsoft Reference License.[1] The source code for other libraries including Windows Communication Foundation (WCF), Windows Workflow Foundation (WF) and Language Integrated Query (LINQ) will be added in future releases. Being released under the Microsoft Reference License means this source code is made available for debugging purpose only, primarily to support integrated debugging of the BCL in Visual Studio. is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Source code (commonly just source or code) is any series of statements written in some human-readable computer programming language. ... The Base Class Library (BCL) is a library of types and functionalities available to all languages using the . ... ASP.NET logo ASP.NET is a web application framework marketed by Microsoft that programmers can use to build dynamic web sites, web applications and XML web services. ... ADO.NET is a set of computer software components that can be used by programmers to access data and data services. ... This subsystem is a part of . ... Microsoft Visual Studio is Microsofts flagship software development product for computer programmers. ... Shared source is Microsoft’s framework for sharing computer program source code with individuals and organizations. ... Shared source is Microsoft’s framework for sharing computer program source code with individuals and organizations. ... This subsystem is a part of . ... This subsystem is a part of . ... Language intergrated query (LINQ) is a Microsoft project that aims to add a native querying syntax to C# and VB.Net. ... Microsoft Visual Studio is a series of IDEs by Microsoft. ...


Versions

Microsoft started development on the .NET Framework in the late 1990s originally under the name of Next Generation Windows Services (NGWS). By late 2000 the first beta versions of .NET 1.0 were released.[12]

The .NET Framework stack.
The .NET Framework stack.
Version Version Number Release Date
1.0 1.0.3705.0 2002-01-05
1.1 1.1.4322.573 2003-04-01
2.0 2.0.50727.42 2005-11-07
3.0 3.0.4506.30 2006-11-06
3.5 3.5.21022.8 2007-11-19

A more complete listing of the releases of the .NET Framework may be found on the .NET Framework version list. Image File history File links DotNet. ... Image File history File links DotNet. ...


.NET Framework 1.0

This is the first release of the .NET Framework. Released on February 13, 2002. Available for Windows 98, NT 4.0, 2000, and XP. Mainstream support by Microsoft for this version ended July 10th, 2007, and extended support ends July 14th, 2009.[13] is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ...


.NET Framework 1.1

This is the first major .NET Framework upgrade. It is available on its own as a redistributable package or in a software development kit, and was published on April 3, 2003. It is also part of the second release of Microsoft Visual Studio .NET (released as Visual Studio .NET 2003). This is the first version of the .NET Framework to be included as part of the Windows operating system, shipping with Windows Server 2003. Mainstream support for .NET Framework 1.1 ends on October 14th, 2008, and extended support ends on October 8th, 2013. Since .NET 1.1 is a component of Windows Server 2003, extended support for .NET 1.1 on Server 2003 will run out with that of the OS - currently June 30th, 2013. is the 93rd day of the year (94th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Visual Studio . ... Windows Server 2003 (also referred to as Win2K3) is a server operating system produced by Microsoft. ...


Changes since 1.0

  • Built-in support for mobile ASP.NET controls. Previously available as an add-on for .NET Framework, now part of the framework.
  • Security changes - enable Windows Forms assemblies to execute in a semi-trusted manner from the Internet, and enable Code Access Security in ASP.NET applications.
  • Built-in support for ODBC and Oracle databases. Previously available as an add-on for .NET Framework 1.0, now part of the framework.
  • .NET Compact Framework - a version of the .NET Framework for small devices.
  • Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) support.
  • Numerous API changes.

ASP.NET logo ASP.NET is a web application framework marketed by Microsoft that programmers can use to build dynamic web sites, web applications and XML web services. ... Code access security, in the Microsoft . ... The Microsoft . ... Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) is a network layer for packet-switched internetworks. ...

.NET Framework 2.0

Released with Visual Studio 2005, Microsoft SQL Server 2005, and BizTalk 2006. Microsoft Visual Studio is Microsofts flagship software development product for computer programmers. ... Microsoft SQL Server is a relational database management system (RDBMS) produced by Microsoft. ... Biztalk is a Microsoft tool for allowing software applications to easily communicate for Enterprise application integration. ...

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Microsoft Visual Studio is Microsofts flagship software development product for computer programmers. ... Microsoft SQL Server is a relational database management system (RDBMS) produced by Microsoft. ... Windows 2000 (also referred to as Win2K) is a preemptive, interruptible, graphical and business-oriented operating system designed to work with either uniprocessor or symmetric multi-processor computers. ... Windows 98 (codenamed Memphis) is a graphical operating system released on June 25, 1998 by Microsoft and the successor to Windows 95. ... Windows Millennium Edition, or Windows Me (IPA pronunciation: [miː], [ɛm iː]), is a hybrid 16-bit/32-bit graphical operating system released on September 14, 2000 by Microsoft. ... Windows Server 2003 (also referred to as Win2K3) is a server operating system produced by Microsoft. ...

Changes since 1.1

  • Numerous API changes.
  • A new hosting API for native applications wishing to host an instance of the .NET runtime. The new API gives a fine grain control on the behavior of the runtime with regards to multithreading, memory allocation, assembly loading and more (detailed reference). It was initially developed to efficiently host the runtime in Microsoft SQL Server, which implements its own scheduler and memory manager.
  • Full 64-bit support for both the x64 and the IA64 hardware platforms.
  • Language support for Generics built directly into the .NET CLR.
  • Many additional and improved ASP.NET web controls.
  • New data controls with declarative data binding.
  • New personalization features for ASP.NET, such as support for themes, skins and webparts.
  • .NET Micro Framework - a version of the .NET Framework related to the Smart Personal Objects Technology initiative.

Microsoft SQL Server is a relational database management system (RDBMS) produced by Microsoft. ... Generic programming is a style of computer programming where algorithms are written in an extended grammar and are made adaptable by specifying variable parts that are then somehow instantiated later by the compiler with respect to the base grammar. ... . ... Smart Personal Object Technology (SPOT) is Microsofts initiative to attempt to create smart software and hardware that will personalize household electronics and everyday devices to make their uses more versatile. ...

.NET Framework 3.0

.NET Framework 3.0, formerly called WinFX,[14] includes a new set of managed code APIs that are an integral part of Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008 operating systems. It is also available for Windows XP SP2 and Windows Server 2003 as a download. There are no major architectural changes included with this release; .NET Framework 3.0 uses the Common Language Runtime of .NET Framework 2.0.[15] Unlike the previous major .NET releases there was no .NET Compact Framework release made as a counterpart of this version. In Microsoft Windows terminology, managed code is computer instructions — that is, code — executed by a CLI-compliant virtual machine, such as Microsofts . ... Windows Vista (pronounced ) is a line of operating systems developed by Microsoft for use on personal computers, including home and business desktops, laptops, Tablet PCs, and media centers. ... Windows Server 2008 is the most recent release of Microsoft Windowss server line of operating systems. ... Windows XP is a line of operating systems developed by Microsoft for use on personal computers, including home and business desktops, notebook computers, and media centers. ... Windows Server 2003 (also referred to as Win2K3) is a server operating system produced by Microsoft. ... The Common Language Runtime (CLR) is the virtual machine component of Microsofts . ...


.NET Framework 3.0 consists of four major new components:

This subsystem is a part of . ... The user interface is the part of a system exposed to users. ... API redirects here. ... The Extensible Markup Language (XML) is a general-purpose markup language. ... Example showing effect of vector graphics versus raster graphics. ... This article is about process of creating 3D computer graphics. ... Direct3D is part of Microsofts DirectX API. Direct3D is only available for Microsofts various Windows operating systems (Windows 95 and above) and is the base for the graphics API on the Xbox and Xbox 360 console systems. ... This subsystem is a part of . ... Web services architecture A Web service (also Web Service) is defined by the W3C as a software system designed to support interoperable Machine to Machine interaction over a network. ... This subsystem is a part of . ... A workflow is a reliably repeatable pattern of activity enabled by a systematic organization of resources, defined roles and mass, energy and information flows, into a work process that can be documented and learned. ... The Windows Cardspace UI This subsystem is a part of . ...

.NET Framework 3.5

Version 3.5 of the .NET Framework was officially released to manufacturing (RTM) on November 19, 2007. As with .NET Framework 3.0, version 3.5 uses the CLR of version 2.0. In addition, it installs .NET Framework 2.0 SP1, which adds some methods and properties to the BCL classes in version 2.0 which are required for version 3.5 features such as Language Integrated Query (LINQ). These changes do not affect applications written for version 2.0, however.[16] Language intergrated query (LINQ) is a Microsoft project that aims to add a native querying syntax to C# and VB.Net. ...


As with previous versions, a new .NET Compact Framework 3.5 was released in tandem with this update in order to provide support for additional features on Windows Mobile and Windows Embedded CE devices. Windows Mobile is a compact operating system combined with a suite of basic applications for mobile devices based on the Microsoft Win32 API. Devices which run Windows Mobile include Pocket PCs, Smartphones, Portable Media Centers, and on-board computers for certain automobiles. ...


The source code of the Base Class Library in this version has been partially released under Microsoft Reference License.[1] The Base Class Library (BCL) is a library of types and functionalities available to all languages using the . ... Shared source is Microsoft’s framework for sharing computer program source code with individuals and organizations. ...


Changes since version 3.0

The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Visual Basic . ... // One of the features of C# 3. ... A parse tree or concrete syntax tree is a tree that represents the syntactic structure of a string according to some formal grammar. ... Language intergrated query (LINQ) is a Microsoft project that aims to add a native querying syntax to C# and VB.Net. ... ADO.NET is a set of computer software components that can be used by programmers to access data and data services. ... This article needs more context around or a better explanation of technical details to make it more accessible to general readers and technical readers outside the specialty, without removing technical details. ... In the Microsoft Windows operating system, Windows Management Instrumentation is a set of extensions to the Windows Driver Model. ... Typically Active Directory is managed using the graphical Microsoft Management Console. ... API redirects here. ... This subsystem is a part of . ... This subsystem is a part of . ... Pox can refer to: Animal pox viruses. ... JSON (JavaScript Object Notation) (Pronounced like Jason, IPA ) is a lightweight computer data interchange format. ... Schema of non-pipelined vs. ... A typical web feed logo A web feed is a data format used for serving users frequently updated content. ... ASP.NET AJAX, formerly code-named Atlas, is a set of extensions to ASP.NET developed by Microsoft for implementing Ajax functionality. ...

SP1 (codename "Arrowhead")

.NET Framework 3.5 SP1, codenamed "Arrowhead", reportedly will enhance support for occasionally connected applications[21], and provide built-in support for the Microsoft ASP.NET Model-View-Controller (MVC) Framework.[22] "Arrowhead" will[23] increase the cold-start performance (startup when no other .NET Framework application has been started previously) of .NET Framework applications, by as much as 25 - 40%.[24] It will also hardware accelerate some WPF effects such as shadows, as well as general performance and API enhancements across the WPF stack. In addition, a set of WPF controls, including a DataGrid will also be included.[24] This article or section should include material from Model view controller triad Model-View-Controller (MVC) is a software architecture that separates an applications data model, user interface, and control logic into three distinct components so that modifications to the view component can be made with minimal impact to... This subsystem is a part of . ... API may refer to: In computing, application programming interface In petroleum industry, American Petroleum Institute In education, Academic Performance Index This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


Future development

Microsoft has not yet made public a roadmap of the development plans for future edition of .NET framework, but has released general information regarding it. Future revisions will have better support for parallel programs, that target multi-core or distributed systems.[25] To this end, it will include technologies like PLINQ (Parallel LINQ),[26] a parallel implementation of the LINQ engine, and Task Parallel Library, which exposes parallel constructs via method calls.[27] Image File history File links Gnome_globe_current_event. ... Image File history File links Nuvola_apps_kpager. ... Language intergrated query (LINQ) is a Microsoft project that aims to add a native querying syntax to C# and VB.Net. ... Task Parallel Library (TPL, also referred to as Parallel FX Library) is a managed concurrency library being developed by a collaboration between Microsoft Research and the CLR team at Microsoft for inclusion with a future revision of the . ...


.NET vs. Java and Java EE

See also: Comparison of the Java and .NET platforms and Comparison of C# and Java

The CLI and C# have many similarities to Sun's JVM and Java. They are strong competitors. Both are based on a virtual machine model that hides the details of the computer hardware on which their programs run. Both use their own intermediate byte-code, Microsoft calling theirs Common Intermediate Language (CIL; formerly MSIL) and Sun Java bytecode. On .NET the byte-code is always compiled before execution, either Just In Time (JIT) or in advance of execution using the ngen.exe utility. With Java the byte-code is either interpreted, compiled in advance, or compiled JIT. Both provide extensive class libraries that address many common programming requirements and address many security issues that are present in other approaches. The namespaces provided in the .NET Framework closely resemble the platform packages in the Java EE API Specification in style and invocation. This is a comparison of the . ... This is a comparison of the C# programming language with the Java programming language. ... Visual overview of the Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) The Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) is an open specification developed by Microsoft that describes the executable code and runtime environment that form the core of the Microsoft . ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... A Java Virtual Machine (JVM) is a set of computer software programs and data structures which implements a specific virtual machine model. ... Java language redirects here. ... In computer science, a virtual machine is software that creates a virtualized environment between the computer platform and its operating system, so that the end user can operate software on an abstract machine. ... Byte-code is a sort of intermediate code that is more abstract than machine code. ... Common Intermediate Language (CIL, pronounced either sill or kill) (formerly called Microsoft Intermediate Language or MSIL) is the lowest-level human-readable programming language in the Common Language Infrastructure and in the . ... Java bytecode is the form of instructions that the Java virtual machine executes. ... For other uses, see Just In Time. ... Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition or Java EE (formerly also J2EE) is a programming platform — part of the Java platform — for developing and running distributed multi-tier architecture applications, based largely on modular components running on an application server. ...


.NET in its complete form (Microsoft's implementation) is only available on Windows platforms and partially available on Linux and Macintosh,[28][29][30] whereas Java is fully available on many platforms.[31] From its beginning .NET has supported multiple programming languages and at its core remains platform agnostic and standardized so that other vendors can implement it on other platforms (although Microsoft's implementation only targets Windows, Windows CE, and Xbox platforms). The Java platform was initially built to support only the Java language on many operating system platforms under the slogan "Write once, run anywhere." Other programming languages have been implemented on the Java Virtual Machine[32] but are not widely used.[citation needed] Write once, run anywhere (WORA), or sometimes also Write once, run everywhere (WORE), is a slogan created by Sun Microsystems to illustrate the cross-platform benefits of the Java language. ...


Sun's reference implementation of Java (including the class library, the compiler, the virtual machine, and the various tools associated with the Java Platform) is becoming open source under the GNU GPL license with Classpath exception.[33] Sun Microsystems, Inc. ... Illustration of an application which may use libvorbisfile. ... A diagram of the operation of a typical multi-language, multi-target compiler. ... In computer science, a virtual machine is software that creates a virtualized environment between the computer platform and its operating system, so that the end user can operate software on an abstract machine. ... The Java platform is the name for a bundle of related programs, or platform, from Sun Microsystems which allow for developing and running programs written in the Java programming language. ... ... The GNU logo For other uses of GPL, see GPL (disambiguation). ...


The third-party Mono Project, sponsored by Novell, has been developing an open source implementation of the ECMA standards that define the .NET Framework, as well as most of the other non-ECMA standardized libraries in Microsoft's .NET. The Mono implementation is meant to run on Linux, Solaris, Mac OS X, BSD, HP-UX, and Windows platforms. Mono includes the CLR, the class libraries, and compilers for C# and VB.NET. The current version supports nearly all the APIs in version 1.1 of Microsoft's .NET and almost 96% of the APIs in version 2.0 of Microsoft's .NET. Support for the additional libraries in .NET 3.0 and 3.5 is in the early stages of development, as is support for C# 3.0 and LINQ.[34] Mono is a project led by Novell (formerly by Ximian) to create an Ecma standard compliant . ... For the road bicycle racing team previously known as Novell, see Rabobank (cycling). ... Language intergrated query (LINQ) is a Microsoft project that aims to add a native querying syntax to C# and VB.Net. ...


Disadvantages

Some concerns and criticisms relating to .NET include:

  • Applications running in a managed environment such as the Microsoft framework's CLR or Java's JVM tend to require more system resources than similar applications that access machine resources more directly. Some applications, however, have been shown to perform better in .NET than in their native version.[citation needed] This could be due to the runtime optimizations made possible by such an environment, the use of relatively well-performing functions in the .NET framework, just-in-time compilation of managed code, or other aspects of the CLR.[35][36][dead link]
  • As JIT languages can be more easily reverse-engineered than native code to algorithms used by an application there is concern over possible loss of trade secrets and the bypassing of license control mechanisms. Many obfuscation techniques already developed, however, can help to prevent this; indeed Microsoft's Visual Studio 2005 includes such a tool.
  • In a managed environment such as the Microsoft framework's CLR or Java's JVM the regularly occurring garbage collection for reclaiming memory suspends execution of the application for an unpredictable lapse of time (typically no more than a few milliseconds). This makes such environments unsuitable for applications such as those that must respond to events with sub-second timing (see real-time computing).
  • Multiple instances of the runtime cannot be loaded in a process simultaneously. This causes problems when different managed components (such as add-ins), compiled to different versions of the framework, need to be loaded in a single process.
  • Since the framework is not pre-installed on older versions of Windows an application that requires it must verify that it is present, and if it is not, guide the user to install it. This requirement may deter some from using the application.
  • Newer versions of the framework (3.5 and up) are not pre-installed on any versions of the Windows operating system. Some developers have expressed concerns about the large size (around 54 MB for end-users with .NET 3.0 and 65 MB with .NET 3.5) and reliability of .NET framework runtime installers for end-users.

For other uses, see Just In Time. ... For other uses, see Just In Time. ... A trade secret is a formula, practice, process, design, instrument, pattern, or compilation of information which is not generally known or reasonably ascertainable, by which a business can obtain an economic advantage over competitors or customers. ... Obfuscated code is source code that is (usually intentionally) very hard to read and understand. ... In computer science, garbage collection (GC) is a form of automatic memory management. ... Realtime redirects here. ... In Microsoft Windows terminology, managed code is computer instructions — that is, code — executed by a CLI-compliant virtual machine, such as Microsofts . ... The end user is a central concept in software engineering, referring to an abstraction of the group of persons who will ultimately use a piece of software (i. ...

Alternative implementations

The Microsoft .NET Framework is the predominant implementation of .NET technologies. Other implementations for parts of the framework exist. Since the runtime engine is described by an ECMA/ISO specification, other implementations of it are unencumbered by copyright issues. It is more difficult to develop alternatives to the base class library (BCL), which is not described by an open standard, and may be subject to copyright restrictions. Additionally, parts of the BCL have Windows-specific functionality and behavior, so implementation on non-Windows platforms can be problematic.


Some alternative implementations of parts of the framework are listed here.

  • Microsoft's Shared Source Common Language Infrastructure is a shared source implementation of the CLR component of the .NET Framework. It runs on Microsoft Windows XP, FreeBSD, and Mac OS X 10.2.
  • Portable.NET (part of DotGNU) provides an implementation of the Common Language Infrastructure (CLI), portions of the .NET Base Class Library (BCL), and a C# compiler. It supports a variety of CPUs and operating systems.
  • Mono is an implementation of the CLI and portions of the .NET Base Class Library (BCL), and provides additional functionality. It is dual-licensed under free software and proprietary software licenses. Mono is being developed by Novell, Inc. It includes support for ASP.NET, ADO.NET, and evolving support for Windows Forms libraries. It also includes a C# compiler, and a VB.NET compiler is in pre-beta form.
  • CrossNet is an implementation of the CLI and portions of the .NET Base Class Library (BCL). It is free software. It parses .NET assemblies and generates unmanaged C++ code that can be compiled and linked within any ANSI C++ application on any platform.
  • .NET for Symbian .NET Compact Framework implementation for Symbian (S60)

The Shared Source Common Language Infrastructure (SSCLI), previously codenamed Rotor, is Microsofts shared source implementation of the CLI, the core of . ... Shared source is Microsoft’s framework for sharing computer program source code with individuals and organizations. ... FreeBSD is a Unix-like free operating system descended from AT&T UNIX via the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) branch through the 386BSD and 4. ... Mac OS X (pronounced ) is a line of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... DotGNU Portable . ... DotGNU is a part of the GNU Project that aims to provide a free software replacement for the Microsoft . ... Mono is a project led by Novell (formerly by Ximian) to create an Ecma standard compliant . ... Licenses are granted by copyright holders to grant exceptions of copyright law to users for a work. ... Free software is software that can be used, studied, and modified without restriction, and which can be copied and redistributed in modified or unmodified form either without restriction, or with minimal restrictions only to ensure that further recipients can also do these things. ... Proprietary software is software with restrictions on copying and modifying as enforced by the proprietor. ... Novell was also the name of a road bicycle racing team. ... This API is a part of . ... Free software is software that can be used, studied, and modified without restriction, and which can be copied and redistributed in modified or unmodified form either without restriction, or with minimal restrictions only to ensure that further recipients can also do these things. ...

See also

Microsoft Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... This is a comparison of the . ... Java Platform, Enterprise Edition or Java EE (formerly known as Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition or J2EE until the name was changed to Java EE in version 1. ... Visual overview of the Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) The Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) is an open specification developed by Microsoft that describes the executable code and runtime environment that form the core of the Microsoft . ... // CLI Languages are computer programming languages that are used to produce libraries and programs that conform to the Common Language Infrastructure specifications. ... Mono is a project led by Novell (formerly by Ximian) to create an Ecma standard compliant . ...

Components and libraries

The Base Class Library (BCL) is a library of types and functionalities available to all languages using the . ... ADO.NET is a set of computer software components that can be used by programmers to access data and data services. ... ASP.NET logo ASP.NET is a web application framework marketed by Microsoft that programmers can use to build dynamic web sites, web applications and XML web services. ... This subsystem is a part of . ... This subsystem is a part of . ... This subsystem is a part of . ... The Windows Cardspace UI This subsystem is a part of . ... The Microsoft Enterprise Library is a set of tools and programming libraries for the Microsoft . ... Web Services Enhancements (WSE) is an add-on to the Microsoft . ...

References

  1. ^ a b c Scott Guthrie. Releasing the Source Code for the NET Framework. Retrieved on 2007-10-04.
  2. ^ Microsoft. Deploying Microsoft .NET Framework Version 3.0. Retrieved on 2008-04-21.
  3. ^ Microsoft has also previously released implementations of .NET 1.0 that could run on some Unix-based platforms such as FreeBSD and Mac OS X, but license restrictions limited these to educational use only, and they are no more available since .NET 1.1
  4. ^ ECMA 335 - Standard ECMA-335 Common Language Infrastructure (CLI). ECMA (2006-06-01). Retrieved on 2007-12-19.
  5. ^ ISO/IEC 23271:2006
  6. ^ Technical Report TR/84 Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) - Information Derived from Partition IV XML File. ECMA (2006-06-01).
  7. ^ ECMA-334 C# Language Specification. ECMA (2006-06-01).
  8. ^ Standard ECMA-372 C++/CLI Language Specification. ECMA (2005-12-01).
  9. ^ a b c d Garbage Collection: Automatic Memory Management in the Microsoft .NET Framework. Retrieved on 2007-11-21.
  10. ^ a b c Garbage collection in .NET. Retrieved on 2007-11-21.
  11. ^ a b c d Garbage Collection—Part 2: Automatic Memory Management in the Microsoft .NET Framework. Retrieved on 2007-11-21.
  12. ^ Framework Versions.
  13. ^ Microsoft Product Lifecycle Search. Microsoft. Retrieved on 2008-01-25.
  14. ^ WinFX name change announcement
  15. ^ .NET Framework 3.0 Versioning and Deployment Q&A. Retrieved on 2007-03-21.
  16. ^ Catching RedBits differences in .NET 2.0 and .NET 2.0SP1. Retrieved on 2007-10-16.
  17. ^ a b c Whats New in the .NET Framework 3.5. Retrieved on 2008-03-31.
  18. ^ Kevin Hoffman. Orcas' Hidden Gem - The managed PNRP stack. Retrieved on 2007-06-24.
  19. ^ .NET Framework 3.5. Retrieved on 2007-06-24.
  20. ^ a b Matt Winkle. WCF and WF in "Orcas". Retrieved on 2007-06-14.
  21. ^ Microsoft ‘Arrowhead’ to up support for ‘occasionally connected’ apps. Retrieved on 2007-10-16.
  22. ^ Scott Guthrie (2007-10-14). ASP.NET MVC Framework. Retrieved on 2007-10-18.
  23. ^ ‘Arrowhead’ updates to .Net 3.5 to speed WPF apps. Retrieved on 2008-03-22.
  24. ^ a b Scott Guthrie. .NET 3.5 Client Product Roadmap. Retrieved on 2008-03-22.
  25. ^ S. Somasegar. The world of multi and many cores. Retrieved on 2007-05-11.
  26. ^ Parallel LINQ: Running Queries On Multi-Core Processors. Retrieved on 2007-07-20.
  27. ^ Parallel Performance: Optimize Managed Code For Multi-Core Machines. Retrieved on 2007-07-20.
  28. ^ .Net Framework 1.0 Redistributable Requirements MSDN, Accessed April 22, 2007
  29. ^ .Net Framework 1.1 Redistributable Requirements MSDN, Accessed April 22, 2007
  30. ^ .Net Framework 2.0 Redistributable Requirements MSDN, Accessed April 22, 2007
  31. ^ JRE 5.0 Installation Notes Sun Developer Network, Access April 22, 2007
  32. ^ Languages for the Java VM. Retrieved on 2007-05-11.
  33. ^ Free and Open Source Java. Sun.com. Retrieved on 2007-04-22.
  34. ^ FAQ: General. Mono (2006-12-20). Retrieved on 2007-01-21.
  35. ^ The PHP Language Compiler for the .NET Framework
  36. ^ IronPython: A fast Python implementation for .NET and Mono

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Microsoft Corporation, (NASDAQ: MSFT, HKSE: 4338) is a multinational computer technology corporation with global annual revenue of US$44. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 111th day of the year (112th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... FreeBSD is a Unix-like free operating system descended from AT&T UNIX via the Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) branch through the 386BSD and 4. ... Mac OS X (pronounced ) is a line of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 353rd day of the year (354th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 325th day of the year (326th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 165th day of the year (166th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 291st day of the year (292nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Microsoft Developer Network (MSDN) is an information service from Microsoft for software developers. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The Microsoft Developer Network (MSDN) is an information service from Microsoft for software developers. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The Microsoft Developer Network (MSDN) is an information service from Microsoft for software developers. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Mono is a project led by Novell (formerly by Ximian) to create an Ecma standard compliant . ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

Wikibooks
Wikibooks has a book on the topic of
  • .NET Framework Developer Center
  • Windows Vista Developer Center
  • BCL Team Blog
  • Interview on Channel 9 with Jason Zander, general manager of the .NET Framework team, about .NET Fx 3.5; streaming wmv file.
  • MegaDetailed.Net Complete information about .NET Framework including undocumented features.
Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... Channel 9 is a Microsoft discussion forum used to promote conversations among Microsofts customers targeted at Microsoft Windows users. ... Windows Media Video (WMV) is a generic name for the set of video codec technologies developed by Microsoft. ... The software architecture of a program or computing system is the structure or structures of the system, which comprise software components, the externally visible properties of those components, and the relationships between them. ... The Base Class Library (BCL) is a library of types and functionalities available to all languages using the . ... The Common Language Runtime (CLR) is the virtual machine component of Microsofts . ... Code access security, in the Microsoft . ... For the counterpart to assembly language in the Microsoft . ... . ... Visual overview of the Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) The Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) is an open specification developed by Microsoft that describes the executable code and runtime environment that form the core of the Microsoft . ... Visual overview of the Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) The Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) is an open specification developed by Microsoft that describes the executable code and runtime environment that form the core of the Microsoft . ... The Common Type System (CTS) is used by every language built on the . ... Common Intermediate Language (CIL, pronounced either sill or kill) (formerly called Microsoft Intermediate Language or MSIL) is the lowest-level human-readable programming language in the Common Language Infrastructure and in the . ... The Virtual Execution System(VES) provides an environment for executing managed code. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Visual Basic . ... C++/CLI (Common Language Infrastructure) is the newer language specification due to supersede Managed Extensions for C++. Completely reviewed to simplify the older Managed C++ syntax, it provides much more clarity over code readability than Managed C++. C++/CLI is standardized by ECMA. It is currently only available on Visual... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Managed C Plus Plus. ... The J# (pronounced J-sharp) programming language is a transitional language for programmers of Suns Java and Microsofts J++ languages, so they may use their existing knowledge, and applications on Microsofts . ... JScript . ... A# is a port of the Ada programming language to the Microsoft . ... Boo is an object oriented, statically typed programming language developed starting in 2003, which seeks to make use of the Common Language Infrastructure support for Unicode, internationalization and web style applications, while using a Python-inspired syntax and a special focus on language and compiler extensibility. ... IronLisp is an implementation of the Lisp programming language targeting Microsoft . ... IronPython is an implementation of the Python programming language, targeting . ... IronRuby is an implementation of the Ruby programming language targeting Microsoft . ... Nemerle is a high-level statically-typed programming language for the . ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... P# is a Prolog (logic programming language) interpreter written for the Common Language Infrastructure. ... Windows PowerShell is an administration focused extensible command line interface (CLI) shell and scripting language product developed by Microsoft. ... In Microsoft Windows terminology, managed code is computer instructions — that is, code — executed by a CLI-compliant virtual machine, such as Microsofts . ... A software framework is a reusable design for a software system (or subsystem). ... This subsystem is a part of . ... This subsystem is a part of . ... This subsystem is a part of . ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Software componentry. ... ADO.NET is a set of computer software components that can be used by programmers to access data and data services. ... The ADO.NET Entity Framework, part of ADO.NET components of the . ... ASP.NET logo ASP.NET is a web application framework marketed by Microsoft that programmers can use to build dynamic web sites, web applications and XML web services. ... ASP.NET AJAX, formerly code-named Atlas, is a set of extensions to ASP.NET developed by Microsoft for implementing Ajax functionality. ... The ASP.NET MVC Framework is a Model-view-controller framework which Microsoft is adding to ASP.NET. It allows an application to be built as a composition of three roles: Model, View and Controller. ... . ... Language intergrated query (LINQ) is a Microsoft project that aims to add a native querying syntax to C# and VB.Net. ... The Windows Cardspace UI This subsystem is a part of . ... This API is a part of . ... Extensible Application Markup Language (XAML, pronounced zammel ()) by Microsoft is a declarative XML-based language used to initialize structured values and objects. ... Deployment of a ClickOnce application ClickOnce is a Microsoft technology for deploying Windows Forms or Windows Presentation Foundation-based software, also called Smart clients. ... The Dynamic Language Runtime (DLR) from Microsoft is a ongoing effort to bring a set of services that run on top of the CLR and provides language services for several different dynamic languages. ... Parallel FX Library (PFX) is a managed concurrency library being developed by a collaboration between Microsoft Research and the CLR team at Microsoft for inclusion with a future revision of the . ... Parallel FX Library (PFX) is a managed concurrency library being developed by a collaboration between Microsoft Research and the CLR team at Microsoft for inclusion with a future revision of the . ... Task Parallel Library (TPL, also referred to as Parallel FX Library) is a managed concurrency library being developed by a collaboration between Microsoft Research and the CLR team at Microsoft for inclusion with a future revision of the . ... Mono is a project led by Novell (formerly by Ximian) to create an Ecma standard compliant . ... The Microsoft . ... The Microsoft . ... . ... DotGNU Portable . ... Microsoft Silverlight is a browser plugin that allows web applications to be developed with features like animation, vector graphics, and audio-video playback - features that characterize a rich internet application. ... The Shared Source Common Language Infrastructure (SSCLI), previously codenamed Rotor, is Microsofts shared source implementation of the CLI, the core of . ... This is a comparison of the C# programming language with the Java programming language. ... The original . ... This is a comparison of the . ... Microsoft Codename Acropolis, available as a release, is a set of tools and components that can be used to build . ... Microsoft Codename Jasper is an ADO.NET incubation project being developed by Microsoft which aims for simpler integration between the data access layer and the presentation layer in an application. ... Microsoft Visual Studio is Microsofts flagship software development product for computer programmers. ... The following is a list of Microsoft APIs. ... Desktop Window Manager (DWM) is currently the name for the new windowing system that will be available in all versions of Windows Vista, except Starter Edition, to enable the new Aero user interface. ... Microsoft DirectX is a collection of application programming interfaces for handling tasks related to multimedia, especially game programming and video, on Microsoft platforms. ... Direct3D is part of Microsofts DirectX API. Direct3D is only available for Microsofts various Windows operating systems (Windows 95 and above) and is the base for the graphics API on the Xbox and Xbox 360 console systems. ... The Graphics Device Interface (GDI, sometimes called Graphical Device Interface) is one of the three core components or subsystems, together with the kernel and the Windows API for the user interface (GDI window manager) of Microsoft Windows. ... This subsystem is a part of . ... Screenshot of the Color Management control panel which is used to configure Windows Color System settings. ... The Microsoft Windows Image Acquisition (WIA) interface is both an application programming interface (API) and a device driver interface (DDI). ... The Windows Imaging Component (WIC) is a Component Object Model based imaging codec framework introduced in Windows Vista for working with and processing digital images and image metadata. ... DirectSound is software supplied by Microsoft that resides on a computer with the Windows operating system. ... DirectMusic is a high-level set of objects, built on top of DirectSound, that allow you to play sound and music without needing to get quite as low-level as DirectSound. ... In computer music and professional audio creation, a DirectX plugin is a software processing component that can be loaded as a plugin into host applications to allow real-time processing, audio effects, mixing audio or act as virtual synthesizers. ... XACT is an audio authoring tool released by Microsoft as part of XNA. External references http://www. ... This article is about the Speech API. For other uses, see SAPI. The Speech Application Programming Interface or SAPI is an API developed by Microsoft to allow the use of speech recognition and speech synthesis within Windows applications. ... Logo of the DirectX Media SDK - the first time DirectShow was distributed under its current name. ... DirectX Media Objects (DMOs) are COM-based multimedia and data-streaming components. ... Microsoft DirectX Video Acceleration (DXVA) is a Microsoft API specification for video decoding that utilises 2-D hardware acceleration on Microsoft platforms (Windows, Xbox etc). ... Windows Media is a multimedia framework for media creation and distribution for Microsoft Windows. ... Media Foundation is set of COM-based Microsoft APIs forming the next generation multimedia application framework and platform infrastructure for Microsoft Windows. ... Trident (also known as MSHTML) is the name of the layout engine for the Microsoft Windows version of Internet Explorer. ... Microsoft XML Core Services (MSXML) is a set of services that allow applications written in JScript, VBScript, and Microsoft development tools to build Windows-native XML-based applications. ... Windows RSS Platform, included in Internet Explorer 7 and Windows Vista is a platform that exposes feed handling and management to Windows applications. ... JScript is the Microsoft implementation of the ECMAScript scripting programming language specification. ... VBScript (short for Visual Basic Scripting Edition) is an Active Scripting language developed by Microsoft. ... Add-on Manager from Windows XP SP2 Internet Explorer A Browser Helper Object (BHO) is a DLL module designed as a plugin for Microsofts Internet Explorer web browser to provide added functionality. ... XMLHttpRequest (XHR) is an API that can be used by JavaScript, and other web browser scripting languages to transfer XML and other text data to and from a web server using HTTP, by establishing an independent and asynchronous communication channel between a web pages Client-Side and Server-Side. ... Microsoft Gadgets are light-weight single-purpose applications that can sit on the users computer desktop, or are hosted on a web page. ... Microsoft Data Access Components (commonly abbreviated MDAC) is a group of Microsoft technologies that interact together as a framework that allows programmers a uniform and comprehensive way of developing applications for accessing almost any data store. ... For JET Red storage engine of Microsoft Access, see Microsoft Jet Database Engine. ... ADO.NET is a set of computer software components that can be used by programmers to access data and data services. ... The ADO.NET Entity Framework, part of ADO.NET components of the . ... Microsoft Sync Framework is a data synchronization platform from Microsoft that can be used to synchronize data across multiple data stores. ... Jet is the database engine behind Microsofts Access. ... Windows Sockets API version 2. ... A Layered Service Provider is part of the Microsoft Windows Winsock 2 interface. ... Network and Internet icon in Windows Vista Windows Vista and Windows Server 2008 contain a brand new networking stack, named Next Generation TCP/IP stack,[1] which brings large improvements in all areas of network-related functionality. ... Windows Vista contains a brand new networking stack, which brings large improvements in all areas of network-related functionality[1]. It includes native implementation of IPv6, as well as complete overhaul of IPv4. ... The Network Driver Interface Specification (NDIS) is an application programming interface (API) for network interface cards (NICs). ... Windows Rally is a set of technologies from Microsoft to simplify the setup and maintenance of wired and wireless network-connected devices and ensure reliable, secure and high-quality connectivity for users who connect the devices to the Internet or to computers running the Microsoft Windows operating system. ... Background Intelligent Transfer Service (BITS) is a component of modern Microsoft Windows operating systems that facilitates prioritized, throttled, and asynchronous transfer of files between machines using idle network bandwidth. ... Windows Vista contains a brand new networking stack, which brings large improvements in all areas of network-related functionality[1]. It includes native implementation of IPv6, as well as complete overhaul of IPv4. ... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... The Telephony Application Programming Interface (TAPI) is a Microsoft Windows API, which provides computer telephony integration and enables PCs running Microsoft Windows to use telephone services. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into cmd. ... The Microsoft Windows Script Host (originally called Windows Scripting Host, but renamed for the second release) is distributed and installed by default on Windows 98 and later versions of Microsoft Windows. ... Windows Management Instrumentation (WMI) is a set of extensions to the Windows Driver Model that provides an operating system interface through which instrumented components provide information and notification. ... Windows PowerShell is an administration focused extensible command line interface (CLI) shell and scripting language product developed by Microsoft. ... This article is about the scheduled tasks component in Windows. ... Microsofts latest Windows operating system, Windows Vista, includes a number of new I/O technologies and enhancements that are intended to shorten the time taken to boot the system, improve the responsiveness of the system, and improve the reliability of data storage. ... Shadow Copy in Windows Vista Shadow Copy (also called Volume Snapshot Service or VSS) is a feature in recent versions of Microsoft Windows that allows taking manual or automatic backup copies or snapshots of a file or folder on a specific volume at a specific point in time. ... Nero software setup is using Windows Installer program The Windows Installer (previously known as Microsoft Installer, codename Darwin) is an engine for the installation, maintenance, and removal of software on modern Microsoft Windows systems. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Dr. Watson (debugger). ... Event Viewer in Windows XP. Event Viewer in Windows Vista. ... Common Log File System (CLFS) is a general-purpose logging subsystem that is accessible to both kernel-mode as well as user-mode applications for building high-performance transaction logs. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Software componentry. ... Component Object Model (COM) is a platform for software componentry introduced by Microsoft in 1993. ... Component Object Model (COM) is a platform for software componentry introduced by Microsoft in 1993. ... ActiveX is Microsoft technology used for developing reusable object oriented software components. ... Distributed Component Object Model (DCOM) is a Microsoft proprietary technology for software components distributed across several networked computers to communicate with each other. ... Illustration of an application which may use libvorbisfile. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Active Template Library (ATL) is a set of template-based C++ classes that simplify the programming of Component Object Model (COM) objects. ... The Windows Template Library (WTL) is an object-oriented Win32 encapsulation C++ library by Microsoft. ... In computing, the Windows Driver Model (WDM) — also known (somewhat misleadingly) at one point as the Win32 Driver Model — is a framework for device drivers that was introduced with Windows 98 and Windows 2000 to replace VxD, which was used on older versions of Windows such as Windows 95 and... The Broadcast Driver Architecture (or BDA) is a Microsoft standard for digital video capture on their Windows operating systems. ... Windows Driver Foundation (WDF) is a Microsoft development group which is building tools to aid in the creation of high-quality device drivers for Windows 2000, Windows XP, Windows Server 2003, Windows Vista, and later editions of Windows. ... The Kernel-Mode Driver Framework (KMDF) is a driver framework developed by Microsoft as a tool to aid driver developers create and maintain Kernel mode device drivers for Windows 2000[1] and later releases. ... The User-Mode Driver Framework is a device-driver development platform first introduced with Microsofts Windows Vista operating system, and is also available for Windows XP. It facilitates the creation of drivers for certain classes of devices. ... The Cryptographic Application Programming Interface (also known variously as CryptoAPI, Microsoft Cryptography API, or simply CAPI) is an application programming interface included with Microsoft Windows operating systems that provides services to enable developers to secure Windows-based applications using cryptography. ... CAPICOM is an ActiveX control created by Microsoft to help expose a select set of Microsoft Cryptographic Application Programming Interface (CryptoAPI) functions through Microsoft Component Object Model (COM). ... The Windows Cardspace UI This subsystem is a part of . ... DPAPI (Data Protection Application Programming Interface) is a relatively easy-to-use cryptography API available as a standard component in Microsoft Windows 2000 and later versions of Windows operating systems. ... ASP.NET logo ASP.NET is a web application framework marketed by Microsoft that programmers can use to build dynamic web sites, web applications and XML web services. ... ADO.NET is a set of computer software components that can be used by programmers to access data and data services. ... . ... This subsystem is a part of . ... This subsystem is a part of . ... This subsystem is a part of . ... The Windows Cardspace UI This subsystem is a part of . ... Microsoft XNA (XNAs Not Acronymed[1]) is a set of tools, complete with a managed runtime environment, provided by Microsoft that facilitates computer game design, development and management. ... Microsoft Silverlight is a browser plugin that allows web applications to be developed with features like animation, vector graphics, and audio-video playback - features that characterize a rich internet application. ... Task Parallel Library (TPL, also referred to as Parallel FX Library) is a managed concurrency library being developed by a collaboration between Microsoft Research and the CLR team at Microsoft for inclusion with a future revision of the . ... In software engineering and enterprise software architecture, a software factory is defined as a software organization structured such that software projects are built in discrete work centers. ... Enterprise Framework (EFx), and the EFx Software Factory. ... The Microsoft Enterprise Library is a set of tools and programming libraries for the Microsoft . ... The Composite UI Application Block (or CAB) is an addition to Microsofts . ... Microsoft Connected Services Framework (CSF) is a service aggregation SOA platform from Microsoft. ... Inter-Process Communication (IPC) is a set of techniques for the exchange of data between two or more threads in one or more processes. ... MSRPC (Microsoft Remote Procedure Call) is a modified version of DCE/RPC. Additions include support for Unicode strings, implicit handles, inheritance of interfaces (which are extensively used in DCOM), and complex calculations in the variable-length string and structure paradigms already present in DCE/RPC. The DCE 1. ... In computing, a named pipe (also FIFO for its behaviour) is an extension to the traditional pipe concept on Unix and Unix-like systems, and is one of the methods of inter-process communication. ... A memory-mapped file is a segment of virtual memory which has been assigned a direct byte-for-byte correlation with some portion of a file or file-like resource. ... Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE) is a technology for communication between multiple applications under Microsoft Windows and also OS/2. ... A MailSlot is a type of interprocess communication that allows communication between processes both locally and over a network. ... Microsoft Active Accessibility is a COM-based technology designed to improve the way accessibility aids work with applications running on Microsoft Windows. ... Microsoft UI Automation (UIA) is a new royalty-free, cross-platform managed code API exposing user interface controls for test automation and assistive technology such as screen readers. ... The Text Services Framework (TSF) , is a COM framework and API in Windows XP and later Windows operating systems that supports advanced text input and text processing. ... Operation of a typical Japanese romaji based IME. An input method editor (IME) is a program or operating system component that allows computer users to enter characters and symbols not found on their keyboard. ... Microsoft Language Interface Pack (LIP) is a localized skin for emerging or minority language markets, such as Catalan, Lithuanian, Tamil and Thai. ... This article is about Multilingual User Interface. ... Uniscribe is the Microsoft Windows set of services for rendering Unicode-encoded text. ... Direct3D is part of Microsofts DirectX API. Direct3D is only available for Microsofts various Windows operating systems (Windows 95 and above) and is the base for the graphics API on the Xbox and Xbox 360 console systems. ... In computing, D3DX is a high level API library that sits on top of Microsofts Direct3D graphics API. The D3DX libaray was introduced in Direct3D 8 and an improved version was released with Direct3D 9. ... DirectSound is software supplied by Microsoft that resides on a computer with the Windows operating system. ... DirectInput is a library of objects for collecting input from the user, via input devices such the mouse, keyboard, joystick or game controllers. ... DirectPlay is part of Microsofts DirectX API. DirectPlay is a network communication library intended for computer game development, although its general nature certainly allows it to be used for other purposes. ... DirectMusic is a high-level set of objects, built on top of DirectSound, that allow you to play sound and music without needing to get quite as low-level as DirectSound. ... This article should appear in one or more categories. ... Microsoft XNA (XNAs Not Acronymed[1]) is a set of tools, complete with a managed runtime environment, provided by Microsoft that facilitates computer game design, development and management. ...

 
 

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