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Encyclopedia > .45 ACP
.45 ACP

.45 ACP cartridges
Type Pistol
Place of origin USA
Production history
Designer John Browning
Designed 1906
Specifications
Parent case .30-06 Springfield
Case type Rimless, straight
Bullet diameter 11.46 mm (0.451 in)
Neck diameter 12.01 mm (0.473 in)
Base diameter 12.09 mm (0.476 in)
Rim diameter 12.19 mm (0.48 in)
Case length 22.81 mm (0.898 in)
Overall length 32 mm (1.26 in)
Primer type Large pistol
Ballistic performance
Bullet weight/type Velocity Energy
10.69 gr
(~0.69 g) JHP
323 ft/s
(~98 m/s)
560 ft·lbf
(~762 J)
11.99 gr
(~0.78 g) JHP
290 ft/s
(~88 m/s)
505 ft·lbf
(~687 J)
14.9 gr
(~0.97 g) JHP
259 ft/s
(~79 m/s)
502 ft·lbf
(~683 J)
Test barrel length: 12.7 cm
Source: Federal Cartridge[1]
.45 ACP cartridges
.45 ACP cartridges
".45" redirects here. For the revolver cartridge, see .45 Colt. For the film, see .45 (film). For the song, see 45 (song)

The .45 ACP (Automatic Colt Pistol, 11.43 x 23 mm) is a rimless pistol cartridge designed by firearms designer John Browning in 1905, for use in his prototype Colt semi-automatic .45 pistol—a design which evolved into the M1911 pistol adopted by the U.S. Army in 1911. Image File history File links File links The following pages link to this file: .45 ACP ... John Moses Browning (January 21[1] or January 23,[2] 1855 – November 26, 1926), born in Ogden, Utah, was an American firearms designer who developed myriad varieties of weapons, cartridges, and gun mechanics, many of which are still in use around the world. ... A M4 Carbine just after firing, with an ejected case in mid-air The article titled casing is a disambiguation page. ... .30-06 Springfield cartridge specifications. ... This article is about firearms projectiles. ... The percussion cap or primer was the crucial invention that enabled firearms to fire in any weather. ... A Browning 9 millimeter Hi-Power Ordnance pistol of the French Navy, 19th century, using a Percussion cap mechanism Derringers were small and easily hidden. ... A grain (symbol: grd) is a unit of mass equal to about 64. ... BIC pen cap, about 1 gram. ... .357 Magnum rounds. ... Feet per second is a unit of speed; it expressses the number of feet traveled in one second. ... Metre per second (U.S. spelling: meter per second) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds. ... The foot-pound force (symbol: ft·lbf) is an English unit of work or energy from the English Engineering System. ... The joule (IPA: or ) (symbol: J) is the SI unit of energy. ... A grain (symbol: grd) is a unit of mass equal to about 64. ... BIC pen cap, about 1 gram. ... Feet per second is a unit of speed; it expressses the number of feet traveled in one second. ... Metre per second (U.S. spelling: meter per second) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds. ... The foot-pound force (symbol: ft·lbf) is an English unit of work or energy from the English Engineering System. ... The joule (IPA: or ) (symbol: J) is the SI unit of energy. ... A grain (symbol: grd) is a unit of mass equal to about 64. ... BIC pen cap, about 1 gram. ... Feet per second is a unit of speed; it expressses the number of feet traveled in one second. ... Metre per second (U.S. spelling: meter per second) is an SI derived unit of both speed (scalar) and velocity (vector), defined by distance in metres divided by time in seconds. ... The foot-pound force (symbol: ft·lbf) is an English unit of work or energy from the English Engineering System. ... The joule (IPA: or ) (symbol: J) is the SI unit of energy. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2909x1571, 1737 KB) Pictures I took with my camera I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2909x1571, 1737 KB) Pictures I took with my camera I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... The . ... Plot summary Spoiler warning: Set in New Yorks Hells Kitchen during the 1970s, the film revolves around a married couple involved in small-time crime. ... 45 is a song by the Alternative band Shinedown. ... ACP (Automatic Colt Pistol) is the acronym chosen by Colt to denote its involvement in the design of several pistol cartridges. ... A Browning 9 millimeter Hi-Power Ordnance pistol of the French Navy, 19th century, using a Percussion cap mechanism Derringers were small and easily hidden. ... Rimmed, centerfire . ... Firearms redirects here. ... John Moses Browning (January 21[1] or January 23,[2] 1855 – November 26, 1926), born in Ogden, Utah, was an American firearms designer who developed myriad varieties of weapons, cartridges, and gun mechanics, many of which are still in use around the world. ... Rampant Colt - The original logo of Colts Firearms Colts Manufacturing Company was founded in Hartford, Connecticut in 1847 by Samuel Colt in order to produce revolvers, which Colt held the patent on, during the Mexican-American War. ... The M1911 is a single-action, semiautomatic handgun chambered for the . ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ...


The .45 ACP would become one of the most successful cartridges of all time, among both military and civilian users. It has been used in innumerable handguns and submachine guns since its introduction.

Contents

Design & History

The US Cavalry had been buying and testing various handguns in the late 1890s and early 1900s. The .45 Colt Single Action Army had largely been replaced, even by some double action versions of the same. The Cavalry had fielded some double action revolvers in .38 Long Colt, and they determined that the .38 caliber round was significantly less effective against determined opponents, such as those encountered in the Moro Rebellion warriors they were fighting at the time of the Philippine-American war, than the .45 Colt. The current issue rifle at the time, the .30-40 Krag, also had failed to stop Moro warriors;[2] the British had similar issues switching to the .303 British, which resulted in the development of the Dum-dum bullet. This experience, and the Thompson-LaGarde Tests of 1904 led the Army and the Cavalry to decide that a minimum of .45 caliber was required in the replacement handgun. The United States Cavalry was a horse-mounted cavalry force that existed in various forms between 1775 and 1942. ... Modern copy of the Colt Single Action Army handgun Also known as the Colt Peacemaker or Single Action Army, the most exotic of which being the Black Powder model, the Colt Single Action Army handgun is a single action revolver holding 6 rounds of ammunition, that was designed for the... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The . ... The Moro Rebellion was the second phase of the Philippine-American War, following the so-called Philippine Insurrection phase. ... The . ... The . ... Dumdum (Bengali দমদম) is a city and a municipality in North 24 Parganas district in the state of West Bengal, India. ... The Thompson-LaGrande Tests were a short series of unscientific tests conducted in 1901 to determine which caliber should be used in new military handguns. ...


Colt had been working with Browning on a .41 caliber cartridge in 1904, and in 1905 when the Cavalry asked for a .45 caliber equivalent Colt modified the pistol design to fire a .45 caliber version of the prototype .41 caliber round. The result from Colt was the Colt Model 1905 and the new .45 ACP. The original round that passed the testing fired a 13 g (200 grain) bullet at 275 m/s (900 ft/s), but after a number of rounds of revisions between Winchester Repeating Arms, Frankford Arsenal, and Union Metallic Cartridge, it ended up using a 15 g (230 grain) bullet at about 260 m/s (850 ft/s). The resulting .45 caliber cartridge, named the .45 ACP, is similar in performance to the .45 S&W cartridge, and only slightly less powerful (but significantly shorter) than the .45 Colt cartridges the Cavalry was using. The cartridge case shared the same head dimensions as the .30-03 and later .30-06 rifle cartridges in use by the military at the time. The . ...


By 1906 bids from 6 makers were submitted, among them Browning's design, submitted by Colt. Only DWM, Savage, and Colt made the first cut. DWM, which submitted two Luger pistols adapted to the .45 ACP cartridge, withdrew from testing after the first round of tests, for unspecified reasons.[3] One of the DWM pistols, serial number 1, was destroyed in testing; the remaining instance, serial number 2, is considered one of the most desirable collectors handguns in existence.[4] Deutsche Waffen und Munitions Fabriken (German Weapons and Munitions Works), known as DWM, was an arms company in Imperial Germany created when Ludwig Loewe & Company merged with several other companies. ... // Savage Arms was founded in 1894 by Arthur Savage in Utica, NY. Perhaps best-known for the Savage Model 99 which is a hammerless lever action rifle, which is no longer in production. ... The Parabellum-Pistole (Pistol Parabellum), popularly known as the Luger pistol is a semi-automatic self-loading pistol patented by Georg Luger in 1898 and manufactured by Deutsche Waffen- und Munitionsfabriken (DWM) starting in 1900. ...


In the second round of testing in 1910, the Colt design passed the extensive testing with no failures, while the Savage design suffered 37 stoppages or parts failures.[3] The resulting design was adopted as the Model 1911.

.45 ACP hollowpoint with .22LR for comparison
.45 ACP hollowpoint with .22LR for comparison

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 176 KB) A single round of . ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2272x1704, 176 KB) A single round of . ...

Performance

The result is one of the world's more effective combat pistol cartridges, one that combines very good accuracy and stopping power for use against human targets. The cartridge also has relatively low muzzle blast and flash, as well as moderate recoil. The .45ACP also operates at a relatively low maximum chamber pressure rating of 145 MPa (21,000PSI) (compared to 240 MPa for 9mmP and .40S&W, 260 MPa for 10mmAuto, 280 MPa for .357SIG), which helps extend service life of weapons it is fired in. For the concept in nuclear physics, see stopping power (particle radiation). ... An early naval cannon design, allowing the gun to roll backwards a small distance when firing The recoil when firing a gun is the backward momentum of a gun, which is equal to the forward momentum of the bullet or shell, due to conservation of momentum. ...


Like many pistol cartridges, it is a low-velocity round, and thus not particularly effective against body armor. Another drawback for large scale military operations is the cartridge's large size, weight, the increased material cost of manufacture compared to the 9 mm Para cartridge, and lack of compliance with Standardization Agreements pertaining to handgun ammunition currently enacted between the US and many of its allies. For other uses, see Armour (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Even in its non-expanding full metal jacket (FMJ) version, the .45 ACP cartridge has a reputation for effectiveness against human targets because its large diameter creates a deep and substantial permanent wound channel, although some writers, such as the published work of Marshall and Sanow, have cast the reputation of .45 ACP being the "best" at this task into doubt. Marshall & Sanow's work, while receiving heavy criticism from Dr. Fackler, still show the .45 ACP, loaded with the best hollowpoint bullets, to be a "one shot kill", somewhat better than the 9mm Luger equal with the .40 S&W and only a few percentage points behind the "King" of the Marshall and Sanow study the .357 Magnum. It does not however match up to the 9mm Luger, the .40 S&W or the .357 Magnum without the best hollowpoint bullets. The .45 ACP averages 78.5% "one shot kill" while the 9mm Luger averages 87%, the .357 Magnum averages 89.5% with the .40 S&W on top with 91.5% average "one shot kill". The .45 ACP remains one of the top handgun cartridges for stopping power. An example of FMJ bullets in their usual shapes: pointed (spitzer) for the rifle and round for the pistol. ...


Being a moderate-powered round on the energy scale, the wide diameter of the .45 ACP bullets produces a decreased tendency to overpenetrate, which reduces the projectile's possibility of passing through the intended target with enough velocity to injure another person. The combination of stopping power and controlled penetration makes the .45 ACP practical for police use, although numerous issues including: the resulting loss of magazine capacity and the larger size and weight of pistols chambered in this caliber has led more police departments in the USA to adopt sidearms in .40 S&W, and .357 SIG.[5] Many US tactical police units still utilize the .45 pistol round, including the FBI's Hostage Rescue Team.[6][7][8] While high capacity firearms are available in .45 ACP, the greater length and diameter of the .45 ACP means that the grip of the pistol must be longer and wider than the grip of a comparable pistol of a smaller caliber; this increase in grip size can make the pistol difficult to use for shooters with smaller hands. The . ... The . ... The Hostage Rescue Team (HRT) is the United States Federal Bureau of Investigations Counter-Terrorism tactical unit. ...


Today most NATO militaries use sidearms chambered for the 9 mm Para cartridge, but the effectiveness of the .45 ACP cartridge has ensured its continued popularity with large caliber sport shooters, especially in the United States. In addition, select military and police units around the world still utilize firearms firing the .45 ACP. This article is about the military alliance. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Because all standard .45 ACP rounds fired from handguns or short barreled "submachine" guns are inherently subsonic, it is one of the most powerful pistol calibers available for use in suppressed weapons since subsonic rounds are quieter than supersonic rounds. The latter inevitably produce a highly compressed shockwave, audible as a loud "crack", literally a small sonic boom, while they travel through the air. Suppressors reduce the audible "report" by slowing and channeling the high speed gas generated by the burning/expanding gunpowder before it exits the muzzle resulting in a muffled "cough". Suppressors of course can't act on a supersonic shockwave generated by the bullet breaking the 1100 ft/s sound barrier as this happens after it exits the barrel. The downside to the use of .45ACP in suppressed weapons is that increasing the diameter of the passage through a suppressor decreases its efficiency - thus, while .45ACP is among the most powerful suppressed pistol rounds, it is also one of the loudest. Most .45 suppressors must be fired "wet" (with an ablative medium, usually water) to bring sound levels down to "hearing-safe" (under 140dB, generally). Several firearms with detachable suppressors Bolt-action rimfire rifle with suppressor Semiautomatic rimfire pistol with suppressor A suppressor or sound moderator is a device attached to a firearm to reduce the amount of noise and flash generated by firing the weapon. ...


Load variants

Several manufacturers market preloaded .45 ACP rounds in sizes ranging from 117 to 230 (90 in the case of Le mas RBCD) grains (8 to 15 g), with the most popular commercial load being the standard military loading of a 230-grain (15g) FMJ bullet at around 850 ft/s (260 m/s). Specialty rounds are available in weights under 100 grains (6.5g) and over 260 grains (16.8g); popular rounds among reloaders and target shooters include 185- and 230-grain (12 and 15 g) bullets. Hollow-point rounds intended for maximum effectiveness against live targets are designed to expand upon impact with soft tissue, increasing the size of the permanent cavity left by the bullet as it passes through the target. This article or section may be confusing or unclear for some readers, and should be edited to rectify this. ... A grain is a unit of mass equal to 0. ...


Most ammunition manufacturers also market what are termed "+P" loadings in pistol ammunition, including the .45 ACP. This means the cartridge is loaded to a higher maximum pressure level than SAAMI standard, generating higher velocity and more muzzle energy. This is a common practice for updating older cartridges to match the better quality of materials and workmanship in modern firearms. The American Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufacturers Institute (commonly abbreviated as SAAMI) is an association of American firearms and ammunitions manufacturers that is publishing various industry standards related to the field, ranging from policy to acceptable chamber pressure. ...


The terminology is generally given as ".45 ACP +P", and appears on the headstamp. It is important to note that +P cartridges are dimensionally identical to standard-pressure cartridges and will chamber and fire in all firearms designed for the standard-pressure loadings. +P loadings should not be used in firearms not specifically designed for them as they are harder on the gun and may cause damage and injuries. A headstamp is the markings on the bottom on a cartridge case designed for a firearm. ...


Timeline

  • 1899/1900 self-loading pistols test: Colt M1900 of .38 caliber entered
  • 1904 Thompson-LaGarde Tests: Caliber of new handgun should be at least .45
  • 1906–1907 handgun trials: Colt enters with .45 ACP design
  • 1910 final tests: Colt pistol (designed by John Browning) out-performs Savage
  • On March 29, 1911, the Colt pistol is officially adopted as the Model 1911 - and with it, the .45 ACP cartridge.

Colt Model 1900 Photo by Adam Guns The Colt Model 1900 was a self-loading semi-automatic . ... The Thompson-LaGrande Tests were a short series of unscientific tests conducted in 1901 to determine which caliber should be used in new military handguns. ... is the 88th day of the year (89th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

Synonyms

  • .45 Auto
  • 11.43 x 23 mm

Firearms using the .45 ACP

Image File history File links Springfield_Armory_M1911A1. ... Image File history File links Springfield_Armory_M1911A1. ... This is an article about the US Government Arsenal. ... The M1911 is a . ... The Semmerling LM4 is a five shot, manual repeating double action pistol designed for backup purposes. ... The AMT Hardballer is a clone of the . ... The Ballester-Molina bears an uncanny resemblance to the Colt M1911, perhaps because Colt technicians took part in the weapons development. ... The Beretta Cx4 Storm is a pistol-caliber carbine aimed at sporting, personal defense and law enforcement. ... The M1911 is a single-action, semiautomatic handgun chambered for the . ... The CZ 97B is a semi-automatic handgun introduced in 1997, in caliber . ... Line drawing of Guppy 13 pocket cruiser The De Lisle carbine was a British rifle used during World War II. It was based on a Lee_Enfield rifle converted to . ... Detonics USA is a firearm manufacturing company based in Pendergrass, Georgia. ... FP-45 Liberator on display in the Invalides The FP-45 Liberator was a pistol manufactured for the United States military during World War II. The pistol was designed for the United States Army in 1942 by the Inland Guide Lamp Manufacturing Division of the General Motors Corporation in Dayton... The Glock 21 is a pistol manufactured by Glock. ... The Glock 30 is a pistol manufactured by Glock. ... The Glock 36 is a pistol manufactured by Glock. ... The HK45 is a semi-automatic pistol designed by the German arms manufacturer Heckler & Koch. ... The Heckler & Koch USP (Universale Selbstladepistole, or Universal Self-loading Pistol) is a semi-automatic pistol designed by the German arms manufacturer Heckler & Koch. ... The Mark 23 Mod 0 Caliber . ... The Heckler & Koch P7 is a compact semi-automatic pistol normally chambered in 9 x 19 mm Luger manufactured by the German company of Heckler & Koch. ... The UMP (Universale Maschinenpistole, German for Universal Submachine Gun) is a submachine gun developed and manufactured by Heckler & Koch. ... The Hi-Point . ... Kahr Arms is a small arms manufacturer with a 22,000 sq. ... Kahr Arms is a small arms manufacturer with a 22,000 sq. ... Kimber is a manufacturer of M1911 pistols, rifles, and shotguns. ... The Uzi is a compact, boxy, light-weight submachine gun. ... The La France M16K is a M16 rifle modified by the company La France Specialties, which among with other firearm related activities, convert common military weapons into more compact configurations typically for law enforcement and special forces use. ... The Grizzly Win Mag pistols were developed in the 1980s by L.A.R. Manufacturing Inc. ... The M1911 is a single-action, semiautomatic handgun chambered for the . ... The M1917 revolver was a US six shot revolver of 45 ACP caliber. ... The M3 Grease Gun (more formally United States Submachine Gun, Cal. ... The Military Armament Corporation Model 10 or MAC-10 is a blowback-operated select-fire submachine gun (more specifically a machine pistol) developed by Gordon B. Ingram in 1964. ... The camp carbine is a . ... Para-Ordnance is a firearms manufacturer located in Toronto, Canada. ... The Ruger P90 is a . ... The Smith & Wesson (S & W) Model 625, is a six shot double action revolver chambered for the . ... This article needs cleanup. ... The M&P (Military and Police) is a relatively new polymer- framed, short recoil operated, locked breech semi-automatic handgun introduced in the summer of 2005 by the American company Smith & Wesson who designed and manufactures the weapon. ... The SIG P220 is a semi-automatic pistol designed and manufactured in Switzerland by Swiss Arms AG (formerly SIG Arms AG (distributed in United States by the SIGARMS). ... The SIG SAUER P220 is a popular handgun available in . ... Manufactured in the city of Ozalj, Croatia by HS Produkt (formerly I.M. Metal), and licensed and sold in the US by Springfield Armory, the HS 2000, or XD (X-Treme Duty) series of pistols are polymer-framed, magazine-fed, striker-fired, semi-automatic handguns. ... The introduction of this article does not provide enough context for readers unfamiliar with the subject. ... The Kriss Super V is a . ... For the Clash song, see Tommy Gun (song). ... The Webley Revolver (also known as the Webley Break-Top Revolver or Webley Self-Extracting Revolver) was, in various marks, the standard issue service pistol for the armed forces of the United Kingdom, the British Empire, and the Commonwealth from 1887 until 1963. ...

See also

This is an extensive list of small arms — pistol, machine gun, grenade launcher, anti-tank rifle — that includes variants. ... Common handgun cartridges. ... Left to Right: .17 HM2, .17 HMR, .22LR, .22 WMR, .17 SMc, 5mm/35 SMc, .22 Hornet, .223 Remington, .223 WSSM, .243 Winchester, .243 Winchester Improved (Ackley), .25-06, .270 Winchester, .308, .30-06, .45-70 Govt, .50-90 Sharps From left to right: .50 BMG, 300 Win Mag, .308... Individual weapons by type and current level of use. ... US firearms that have been captured and redesignated by the third reich. ...

References

  1. ^ Federal Cartridge Co. Ballistics page
  2. ^ 1911 History
  3. ^ a b Background
  4. ^ Luger comment
  5. ^ Ayoob, Massad. Choose your ammo ... police style. Backwoods Home Magazine. Retrieved on 2007-02-21.
  6. ^ Diez, Octavio. Special Police Task Forces. Lima Publications, 40. 
  7. ^ Hogg, Ian. Jane's Gun Regonition Guide, 2nd Edition.. Harper Collins Publishers, 113. 
  8. ^ Hopkins, Cameron (2000). Most Wanted. American Handgunner. Publishers Development Corporation. Retrieved on 2007-02-21.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Marshall, EP, Sanow, EJ: "Street Stoppers: The Latest Handgun Stopping Power Street Results", Paladin Press, Boulder, Colorado, 1996.

External links

  • Massad Ayoob's 2003 article on the approaching 100th anniversary of the .45 ACP
  • .45 ACP Videos

 
 

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