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Encyclopedia > Åbo
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Location within Finland

Turku (Swedish: Åbo Sound listen, Latin: Aboa) is a city in Finland, founded in the 13th century. Turku is the fifth largest city in Finland, with a population of about 175 000, and is located in the south-west of the country at the mouth of the Aura river. Due to its history and location, over 5% of its inhabitants are Swedish speakers. It belongs to the historical province of Finland Proper and is the capital of the administrative province of Western Finland. The Republic of Finland (Finnish: Suomen tasavalta, Swedish: Republiken Finland) is a Nordic country in northeastern Europe, bordered by the Baltic Sea to the southwest, the Gulf of Finland to the southeast and the Gulf of Bothnia to the west. ... Finland-Swedish is a variety of Swedish. ... To play the audio file do not click on the -image. ... Latin - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... This is a list of towns in Finland. ... The Republic of Finland (Finnish: Suomen tasavalta, Swedish: Republiken Finland) is a Nordic country in northeastern Europe, bordered by the Baltic Sea to the southwest, the Gulf of Finland to the southeast and the Gulf of Bothnia to the west. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... The term Swedish can refer to: From or related to Sweden, a country in Europe (List of Sweden-related topics) The Swedish language Swedes, the inhabitants of Sweden The Finland-Swedish linguistic minority The Swedish Medical Center in Seattle, Washington The Swedish Chef character in The Muppet Show This is... The historical provinces (Finnish: maakunta, Swedish: landskap) of Finland is a legacy of the countrys joint history with Sweden. ... Finland Proper, Varsinais-Suomi or Egentliga Finland, is a historical province in south western Finland. ... Finland consists of 6 provinces (Finnish: läänit, Swedish: län), following a 1997 redesign that reduced their number from 12. ... The Province of Western Finland is a province of Finland. ...

Contents

Geography

The total area of the city is 306 square kilometres, of which 63 km² is water. There are 719 inhabitants per one km² of land. The city is divided into two parts by the river Aura, referred popularly to täl pual jokke ('this side of the river', referring to the eastern side where the Cathedral of Turku is located) and tois pual jokke ('the other side of the river', ie the western side). The city centre is rather equally spread on both sides of the river.


As many small neighbouring municipalities that were in financial problems were annexed to the city during the latter half of the 20th century, the city's shape is now reminescent of an elongated pear. The city centre and most of the suburban areas lie in the middle, separated from the less densely populated rural areas to the north by the Turku bypass, part of European route E18. Islands, such as Ruissalo, Hirvensalo and Kakskerta, form the southern part of the city. These are also sparsely populated and mostly contain summer residences, with the exception of the Moikoinen district in Hirvensalo, which is currently growing as an upper-middle-class suburb. The municipalities (kunta in Finnish, kommun in Swedish) represent the local level of self government in Finland and also act as the basic regional administrative units of the country. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... Species Pyrus calleryana P. pyrifolia et al Pears are trees of the genus Pyrus and the edible fruit of that tree. ... A bypass is a highway that avoids (passes by) a built-up area, town, or village, to let through traffic flow without interference from local traffic, to reduce congestion in the built-up area, and to improve road safety. ... Europes road system incorporates a series of European routes, which are numbered E1 and up. ... Class or Caste Society is split into different groups according to class (in most western countries) or caste (in most eastern countries). ... Illustration of the backyards of a surburban neighbourhood Suburbs are inhabited districts located either on the outer rim of a city or outside the official limits of a city (the term varies from country to country), or the outer elements of a conurbation. ...


The Turku region, with a population of 290 000, is the third largest urban region in Finland, after Greater Helsinki and the area around Tampere. The Turku region is usually considered to include, in addition to the city itself, at least the neighbouring cities of Naantali, Raisio and Kaarina and the town of Lieto. Often also municipalities such as Pargas, Piikkiö, Paimio, Aura, Vahto, Rusko and Masku are included in this definition, as they are certainly inside the city's sphere of influence. Central Helsinki, the focal point of the Capital Region, from the sky Greater Helsinki (Finnish: Suur-Helsinki, Swedish: Storhelsingfors), Capital Region (Pääkaupunkiseutu, Huvudstadsregionen), Helsinki Metropolitan Area, and Helsinki Region (Helsingin seutu, Helsingforsregionen) all refer to the conurbation surrounding the Finnish capital, Helsinki. ... Tampere (Swedish name Tammerfors) is a city in southern Finland located between two lakes: Näsijärvi and Pyhäjärvi. ... Naantali (Swedish Nådendal, Latin Vallis Gratiae - valley of grace), city in south-western Finland, known as the probably most important tourist centre of the country. ... Raisio (Swedish Reso), city in south-western Finland and an important junction of major roads. ... Kaarina (S:t Karins in Swedish) is a town and municipality of Finland. ... Pargas (Parainen in Finnish) is a municipality of Finland. ... Paimio (Pemar in Swedish) is a municipality of Finland. ... Aura is a municipality of Finland. ... Vahto is a municipality of Finland. ... Rusko is a municipality of Finland. ... Masku is a municipality of Finland. ... A sphere of influence is a metaphorical region of political influences surrounding a country or a region of economic influence around an urban area. ...


Access and public transport

The Turku Castle was built in the 1280s.

Download high resolution version (700x727, 24 KB)Turku Castle, photo by User:Jniemenmaa File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (700x727, 24 KB)Turku Castle, photo by User:Jniemenmaa File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Rail

There are several daily rail services from Turku to Helsinki and towards Tampere (and further to the direction of Joensuu) operated by the Finnish national carrier VR. All passenger services depart from, or stop at, Turku Central Railway Station (some depart from the Port of Turku), and those going to Helsinki make another stop at Kupittaa Railway Station. The other railway stations in the city are only used by goods traffic. Travelling by rail is usually the cheapest and fastest way to get into Turku, but due to the lack of connections towards the north it is not always an option. Rail transport refers to the land transport of passengers and goods along railways or railroads. ... Helsinki (pronounced with the stress on the first syllable in Finnish — think Helsin Ki), or Helsingfors in Swedish, is the capital of Finland. ... Tampere (Swedish name Tammerfors) is a city in southern Finland located between two lakes: Näsijärvi and Pyhäjärvi. ... Joensuu is a town in eastern Finland. ... For other uses of the word VR, see VR (disambiguation). ...


Road

Turku is the terminal point of several important Finnish highways: A highway is a major road within a city, or linking several cities together. ...

Helsinki (pronounced with the stress on the first syllable in Finnish — think Helsin Ki), or Helsingfors in Swedish, is the capital of Finland. ... Europes road system incorporates a series of European routes, which are numbered E1 and up. ... This article is about the Finnish city; for other uses see Oulu (disambiguation). ... Rauma is: A town in Finland, see Rauma, Finland. ... Europes road system incorporates a series of European routes, which are numbered E1 and up. ... Kuopio is a Finnish city located in the province of Eastern Finland and the region of Northern Savonia. ... Tampere (Swedish name Tammerfors) is a city in southern Finland located between two lakes: Näsijärvi and Pyhäjärvi. ... Europes road system incorporates a series of European routes, which are numbered E1 and up. ... Hämeenlinna (Tavastehus in Swedish) is a municipality and city of about 47,000 inhabitants in the heart of the historical province of Häme in the south of Finland. ...

Long-distance buses

Privately-operated bus companies have services from Turku along all the major roads to nearly every direction. However, they are usually more expensive and take longer than rail transport.


Air

Turku Airport is located eight kilometres to the north of the city centre, partly in the neighbouring municipality of Rusko, and has frequent connections to Helsinki (Vantaa), Stockholm (Arlanda) and Copenhagen (Kastrup) airports. The flights are operated mainly by Finnair and SAS, and their subsidiaries. Rusko is a municipality of Finland. ... The Helsinki-Vantaa Airport in Vantaa, Finland is the main airport of the Helsinki metropolitan region. ... Stockholm-Arlanda, or simply Arlanda, is an international airport located in Sigtuna Municipality, 42 km north of Stockholm and 31 km south of Uppsala. ... CPH also stands for chronic paroxysmal hemicrania, a chronic headache caused by head injury. ... Finnair McDonnell Douglas MD-11 Finnair A320-200 Finnair is Finlands biggest airline and the national flag carrier. ... SAS is a Three-Letter Acronym which may refer to: Scandinavian Airlines System: Scandinavian airline, with the Danish, Norwegian and Swedish governments as the largest shareholders Slovak Academy of Sciences Semester at Sea, a shipboard academic program administered by the University of Pittsburgh Special Air Service, a British special forces... A subsidiary is a corporation controlled by another. ...


Ferry

The Port of Turku has daily ferry services to Sweden and Åland, operated by Silja Line, Viking Line and SeaWind Line. These are somewhat of a Finnish cultural tradition (see ruotsinlaiva), and people often travel long distances across Finland to Turku just to be able to take a cruise across the Gulf of Bothnia. The Pride of Burgundy, a P&O Ferries car ferry on the Dover-Calais route A ferry is a boat or a ship carrying passengers, and possibly their vehicles, on a relatively short-distance, regularly-scheduled service. ... The Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish: Konungariket Sverige  listen) is a Nordic country in Scandinavia, in Northern Europe. ... National motto: ? Official language Swedish Capital Mariehamn Governor Peter Lindbäck Premier Roger Nordlund Total Area  - Land  - Water 6,784 km² 1,527 km² 5,258 km² Population  - Total (2002)  - Density 26,257 17. ... Silja Line ferries in Helsinki. ... Viking Line is a Finnish shipping company that operates a fleet of large combined ferry/cruise ships between Finland, the Åland Islands, Sweden and Estonia. ... Categories: Finland geography stubs | Sweden geography stubs | Seas | Baltic Sea ...


Internal and regional public transport

Turku has, for a city of its size, very good public transport connections. The city transport currently consists of buses only. It is managed and supervised by the City of Turku Public Transport Office, and operated mainly by private companies. All of the major districts are served by buses every ten or fifteen minutes (some even more often) in the daytime. A taxi serving as a bus Public transport comprises all transport systems in which the passengers do not travel in their own vehicles. ...


Regional buses are operated by private companies, most importantly TLO with very frequent services especially to the neighbouring cities of Naantali, Raisio and Kaarina. TLO has been accused, however, of abusing its near-monopoly position and setting prices excessively high. Naantali (Swedish Nådendal, Latin Vallis Gratiae - valley of grace), city in south-western Finland, known as the probably most important tourist centre of the country. ... Raisio (Swedish Reso), city in south-western Finland and an important junction of major roads. ... Kaarina (S:t Karins in Swedish) is a town and municipality of Finland. ... This article is about economic monopoly. ...


There are plans for a light railway line in the Turku region in the near future. This system would serve the major suburbs of the city (namely Varissuo and Runosmäki) as well as the neighbouring cities. This article is about light rail systems in general. ...


Education

There are three universities in Turku: A university is an institution of higher education and of research, which grants academic degrees. ...

There are also several polytechnics in Turku: The University of Turku, located in Turku in southwestern Finland, is the second largest university in the country as measured by student enrolment. ... The Åbo Akademi University is a Swedish language university, founded in 1918 in Turku (Åbo in Swedish), Finland. ... The term polytechnic, from the Greek πολύ polú meaning many and τεχνικός tekhnikós meaning arts, is commonly used in many countries to describe an institution that delivers technical education, other countries do not use the term and use alternative terminology. ...

In addition, there are 39 primary schools (ala-aste), 14 secondary schools (yläaste), 13 upper secondary schools (lukio), 7 different special needs schools, 7 vocational schools, several open colleges, and Turku International School. The Republic of Finland (Finnish: Suomen tasavalta, Swedish: Republiken Finland) is a Nordic country in northeastern Europe, bordered by the Baltic Sea to the southwest, the Gulf of Finland to the southeast and the Gulf of Bothnia to the west. ... Primary or elementary education is the first years of formal, structured education that occurs during childhood. ... High School also refers to the highest form of classical riding, High School Dressage. ... Gymnasium can have following meanings: Gymnasium (ancient Greece)—an educational and sporting institution in Ancient Greece Gymnasium—a school of secondary education found in several European countries (approx. ... A vocational school, also sometimes referred to as a trade school is one operated for the express purpose of giving its students the skills needed to perform a certain job or jobs. ...


Culture

(13th century - 14th century - 15th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 14th century was that century which lasted from 1301 to 1400. ... Part of the Sibelius monument in Helsinki, Finland. ... The Moomins are the central characters in a series of books by Tove Jansson. ... Naantali (Swedish Nådendal, Latin Vallis Gratiae - valley of grace), city in south-western Finland, known as the probably most important tourist centre of the country. ... Ruisrock is a rock festival in Turku. ... A rock festival, or rock fest, is a large-scale outdoor rock music concert, featuring multiple acts, often spread out over several days. ...

History

Enlarge
The Cathedral of Turku

There have been findings dating back to the Stone Age in the area of the modern city of Turku, but it did not become an important city until the late 13th century, thus being the oldest city in Finland. The origins of the city's name are in the Old Russian word tǔrgǔ, meaning 'market place'. The Cathedral of Turku was dedicated in 1300, and together with the Turku Castle and the Dominican monastery founded in 1229, it made Turku the most important centre of mediaeval Finland. Stone Age fishing hook. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... The name Old Russian language has been applied to different things. ... Events Beginning of the Renaissance. ... The Order of Preachers (Ordo Praedicatorum), more commonly known as the Dominican Order, is a Catholic religious order. ... Buddhist monastery near Tibet A monastery is the habitation of monks. ... Events March 18 - Sixth Crusade of Emperor Frederick II ends in truce with Sultan al-Kamil and coronation of Frederick as King of Jerusalem. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


During the Middle Ages, Turku was the only city in Finland to take part in trade with the Hanseatic League, as well as being the seat of the Bishop of Turku (later Archbishop of Turku). The population of the city was around two thousand, and in the 1620s it became the residence of the Governor-General of Finland, thus affirming its status as the capital of Finland. In 1640, the first university in Finland, the Academy of Åbo, was founded in Turku. The foundations of the Hanseatic League (German: Hanse), an alliance of trading cities that for a time in the later Middle Ages and the Early Modern period maintained a trade monopoly over most of Northern Europe and the Baltic, can be seen as early as the 12th century, with the... The Archbishop of Turku, or the Archbishop of Åbo is the head of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland. ... Centuries: 16th century - 17th century - 18th century Decades: 1570s 1580s 1590s 1600s 1610s - 1620s - 1630s 1640s 1650s 1660s 1670s Years: 1620 1621 1622 1623 1624 1625 1626 1627 1628 1629 Events and Trends Permanent Dutch settlement of New York Bay and the Hudson River. ... A Governor-General, or Generalguvernör, was appointed appointed by the Swedish monarch as a form of viceroy, with both civil and military jurisdiction, over parts of the Swedish Realm, from the 17th century to the early 19th century, when constitutional changes made the office obsolete. ... In politics a capital (also called capital city or political capital — although the latter phrase has an alternative meaning based on an alternative meaning of capital) is the principal city or town associated with its government. ... A university is an institution of higher education and of research, which grants academic degrees. ...


After Sweden ceded Finland to Imperial Russia in the Treaty of Hamina in 1809, thus ending the Finnish War, the functions of capital started to be moved away from Turku and into Helsinki, as Emperor Alexander I felt that Turku was too far away from Russia to efficiently serve as capital of the Grand Duchy. The move took place officially in 1812. The government offices that remained in Turku were finally moved to the new capital after the Great Fire of Turku in 1827, which almost completely destroyed the city. The Kingdom of Sweden (Swedish: Konungariket Sverige  listen) is a Nordic country in Scandinavia, in Northern Europe. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of Russian history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... The Treaty of Fredrikshamn (Freden i Fredrikshamn in Swedish and Haminan rauha in Finnish ) was a peace treaty concluded between Sweden and Russia on September 17, 1809. ... 1809 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The Finnish War was fought between Sweden and Russia from February 1808 to September 1809. ... Helsinki (pronounced with the stress on the first syllable in Finnish — think Helsin Ki), or Helsingfors in Swedish, is the capital of Finland. ... Emperor is also a Norwegian black metal band; see Emperor (band). ... A number of historical people were named Alexander I : Alexander I of Macedon, king of Macedon 495-450 BC Alexander I of Epirus King of Epirus about 342 B.C. Pope Alexander I, Pope from 106 to 115 Alexander I of Scotland (c. ... The Grand Duchy of Finland was a state that existed 1809–1917. ... Events January 1 - the Allgemeines Bürgerliches Gesetzbuch, the Austrian civil code enters into force in the Austrian Empire February 2 - Russia establishes a fur trading colony at Fort Ross, California February 7 - The strongest in a series of massive earthquakes near New Madrid, Missouri, est. ... Events February 20 - Battle of Huzaingo February 28 - The Baltimore & Ohio Railroad is incorporated, becoming the first railroad offering commercial transportation of both people and freight. ...


After the fire, a new, safer city plan was drawn up by German architect Carl Engel, who had also designed the new capital, Helsinki. Turku was still to remain the largest city in Finland for another twenty years. The Federal Republic of Germany (German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is one of the worlds leading industrialised countries, located in the heart of Europe. ... Architect at his drawing board, 1893 An architect is a person licensed in the art of planning, designing and overseeing the construction of buildings, or more generally, the designer of a scheme or plan. ...


In 1918, a new university, the Åbo Akademi - the only Swedish-language university in Finland - was founded in Turku. Two years later the Finnish-language University of Turku was founded on its side. In the late 20th century, Turku displayed unprecedented rates of growth, resulting in the construction of many new densely inhabited suburbs such as Varissuo and Runosmäki, and many neighbouring municipalities (eg Maaria and Paattinen) were annexed into the city. The Åbo Akademi University is a Swedish language university, founded in 1918 in Turku (Åbo in Swedish), Finland. ... Swedish (svenska  listen?) is a Scandinavian language language spoken predominantly in Sweden, Finland and Åland by over 8 million native speakers. ... Finnish is spoken by the majority (92%) in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland. ... The University of Turku, located in Turku in southwestern Finland, is the second largest university in the country as measured by student enrolment. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... Illustration of the backyards of a surburban neighbourhood Suburbs are inhabited districts located either on the outer rim of a city or outside the official limits of a city (the term varies from country to country), or the outer elements of a conurbation. ...


External links

  • Travel guide to Turku from Wikitravel
  • Turku (http://www.turku.fi/) - Official site

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