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Encyclopedia > Åódź

Łódź (pronunciation: Image:Ltspkr.png 'wudʑ) is the second-largest city (population 776,297 in 2004) of Poland, located in the centre of the country. It is the capital of the Łódź Voivodship. The purpose of this page is to lay out our policies for handling sounds, and give people some useful information for handling sound files. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Łódź voivodship since 1999 Coat of Arms of Łódź Voivodship Łódź Voivodship (1) ( Polish województwo łódzkie) is an administrative and local government region in central Poland created on January 1, 1999 out of the former Łódź (2), Sieradz, Piotrkow Trybunalski, Skierniewice and partly Plock voivodships as a result of Local...

Łódź
(Flag) (Coat of Arms)
Motto: Ex navicula navis (Big boat out of a small one)
Voivodship Łódź
Municipal government Rada miejska w Łodzi
Mayor Jerzy Kropiwnicki
Area 294 km²
Population
 - city
 - urban
 - density

776,297 (2004)
unknown
2640/km²
Founded
City rights
before 1332
1423
Latitude
Longitude
51º 45´ N
19º 28´ E
Area code +48 42
Car plates EL
Twin towns Barreiro, Chemnitz, Ivanovo, Kaliningrad, Lyon, Minsk, Murcia, Odessa, Örebro, Puebla, Rustavi, Stuttgart, Tampere, Tel-Aviv, Tianjin, Vilnius
Municipal Website (http://www.uml.lodz.pl)
Contents

1.1 Agricultural Łódź
1.2 Industrial Łódź
1.3 After 1918
1.4 World War II
1.5 After 1945
1.6 Łódź today
1.7 Łódź for tourists
1.8 The Łódź Film School
1.9 Historical population
1.10 Famous people from Łódź
A motto is a phrase or collection of words intended to describe the motivation or intention of a sociological grouping or organization. ... A Voivodship ( Romanian: Voievodat, Polish: Województwo, Serbian: Vojvodstvo or Vojvodina) was a feudal state in medieval Romania, Hungary, Poland, Russia and Serbia (see Vojvodina), ruled by a Voivod. ... Łódź voivodship since 1999 Coat of Arms of Łódź Voivodship Łódź Voivodship (1) ( Polish województwo łódzkie) is an administrative and local government region in central Poland created on January 1, 1999 out of the former Łódź (2), Sieradz, Piotrkow Trybunalski, Skierniewice and partly Plock voivodships as a result of Local... This article explains the meaning of area as a physical quantity. ... Population density can be used as a measurement of any tangible item. ... Events November 7 - Lucerne joins the Swiss Confederation with Uri, Schwyz, and Unterwalden. ... Events July 31 - Hundred Years War: Battle of Cravant - The French army is defeated at Cravant on the banks of the river Yonne. ... A telephone numbering plan is a system that allows subscribers to make and receive telephone calls across long distances. ... This article is about partnerships between towns distant from each other; see Twin cities for the different concept of physically neighbouring cities. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Map of Germany showing Chemnitz Chemnitz (Sorbian/Lusatian Kamjenica) is a city in Saxony, Germany. ... Ivanovo has the following meanings: Ivanovo - a city in Russia. ... Locator map on an international level map of Kaliningrad Oblast Kaliningrad (Russian: Калининград), seaport city, capital and main city of the Kaliningrad Oblast, a small Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania with access to the Baltic Sea. ... This article is about the French city. ... For things named after Minsk, see Minsk (disambiguation) The Mariinsky Cathedral, 1732 Minsk (Belarusian: Менск, Мінск; Russian: Минск) (population 1. ... Murcia is a city in southeastern Spain, and is the capital of the Autonomous Community of Murcia, on the Segura river. ... ODESSA (German: Organisation der ehemaligen SS-Angehörigen; The Organization of Former SS-Members) was an alleged Nazi fugitive network set up towards the end of World War II by a group of SS officers. ... Örebro [œrəbruː] is a City and is a Municipality, in Örebro County, in central Sweden. ... The city of Puebla – known more formally as Heróica Puebla de Zaragoza or less formally as La Angelópolis or Puebla de los Ángeles – is the capital and largest city of the Mexican state of the same name, and the fourth largest city in Mexico. ... Rustavi is a city in the southeast of Georgia, in the province of Kartli, situated 16 miles (25 km) southeast of the capital Tbilisi on the Kura river. ... Stuttgart is a city located in southern Germany, it is the capital of the state of Baden-Württemberg, and has a population of approximately 600,000 as of June 2004. ... Tampere (Swedish name Tammerfors) is a city in southern Finland located between two lakes: Näsijärvi and Pyhäjärvi. ... Tel Aviv at night Dizengof Center Allenby Street Tel Aviv-Yafo (Hebrew תל אביב-יפו; Arabic تل ابيب-يافا Tal Abīb-Yāfā) is an Israeli city on the coast of the Mediterranean sea. ... Tianjin (Chinese: 天津; pinyin: tiān jīn; Postal System Pinyin: Tientsin) is a harbour municipality in China on the Hai He River (from Beijing) and Bohai Gulf of the Yellow Sea (Pacific Ocean). ... Vilnius Old Town Vilnius (sometimes also Vilna in English, Belarusian Вільня, Polish Wilno, Russian Вильнюс, German Wilna, see also Cities alternative names) is the capital and largest city of Lithuania with population in excess of 540 thousand (in 2003). ...

History

Agricultural Łódź

The first written source mentioning Łódź is a document giving the village of Łodzia to the bishops of Włocławek in 1332. In 1423 king Władysław Jagiełło granted the village of Łódź with city rights. From then until the 18th century the town was but a small settlement on a trade route from Masovia to Silesia. In the 16th century the town had fewer than 800 inhabitants, mostly working on the nearby grain farms. Włocławek (pronounce: [vȗoʦwavek]) is a town in central Poland on the Vistula river, with population of approximately 123 000. ... Events November 7 - Lucerne joins the Swiss Confederation with Uri, Schwyz, and Unterwalden. ... Events July 31 - Hundred Years War: Battle of Cravant - The French army is defeated at Cravant on the banks of the river Yonne. ... Wladislaus II on Jan Matejkos painting Wladislaus II Jagiello (Polish Władysław II Jagiełło, Lithuanian Jogaila, and in Belarusian as Jahajla (Ягайла)) (c. ... The Magdeburg Rights (or Magdeburg law) were the laws of the Imperial Free City of Magdeburg during many centuries of the Holy Roman Empire, and possibly the most important set of Germanic medieval city laws. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Masovia (Polish: Mazowsze) is a geographical and historical region situated in central Poland with its capital in Warsaw. ... Please be advised that the factual accuracy of Wikipedia articles dealing with topics related to the Oder-Neisse Line is often disputed. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ...


After the partitions of Poland Łódź came under Prussian administration and was renamed Lodsch in 1793. In 1798 the town was nationalized and lost its status as a town of the bishops of Kuyavia. In 1806 it joined the Duchy of Warsaw and in 1815 was given to the Russian-controlled Congress Poland. The Partitions of Poland ( Polish Rozbiór or Rozbiory Polski) happened in the 18th century and ended the existence of a sovereign state of Poland (or more correctly the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth). ... The coat of arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 The word Prussia (German: Preußen or Preussen, Polish: Prusy, Lithuanian: Prūsai, Latin: Borussia) has had various (often contradictory) meanings: The land of the Baltic Prussians (in what is now parts of southern Lithuania, the Kaliningrad exclave of Russia and... 1793 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1798 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Kuyavia (sometimes spelt Cuyavia, Polish Kujawy) is a historical region of Poland, between the Vistula to the east and Noteć river to the west and between Noteć and Krówka river to the south. ... Events January 8 - Cape Colony becomes a British colony January 10 - Dutch in Cape Town surrender to the British January 19 - The United Kingdom occupies the Cape of Good Hope February 6 - Royal Navy victory off Santo Domingo - see:Action of 6 February 1806 March 23 - After traveling through the... Location Official languages Polish Established church Roman Catholic Capital Warsaw Largest City Warsaw Head of state Duke of Warsaw Area about 158,000 km² Population about 3 million Existed 1807 - 1814 The Duchy of Warsaw (Polish: Księstwo Warszawskie, Latin: Ducatus Varsoviae, French: Duche de Varsovie) was a Polish state established... 1815 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... The term Congress Poland is an unofficial name of the Kingdom of Poland, a political entity that was created out of the Duchy of Warsaw at the Congress of Vienna in 1815, when European powers reorganised Europe following the Napoleonic wars. ...


Industrial Łódź

In 1820 Stanisław Staszic started a campaign of turning the small town into a modern centre of industry. A constant influx of workers, businessmen and craftsmen from all over the continent turned Łódź into the main textile producton centre of the whole Russian Empire. The first cotton mill was started in 1825, and 14 years later the first steam-powered factory in both Poland and Russia was opened. 1820 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Stanisław Staszic (November 6, 1755 - January 20, 1826) was a Polish priest, philosopher, statesman, geologist, scholar, poet and writer, a leader of the Polish Enlightenment, famous for works related to the Great or Four-Year Sejm (1788-1792) and the May Constitution of Poland adopted by it on May 3... World map showing location of Europe A satellite composite image of Europe Europe is geologically and geographically a peninsula, forming the westernmost part of Eurasia. ... 1825 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ...


The immigrants were coming to the Promised Land (Polish Ziemia obiecana, the term being the city's nickname) from all over Europe. Mostly from Southern Germany and Bohemia, but also from countries as far as Portugal, England, France or Ireland. However, the city's population was composed mostly of three groups that contributed the most to the city's development: Poles, Germans and Jews. With an area of 18,400 sq. ... Bohemia Historical map of Bohemia Bohemia is also a place in the State of New York in the United States of America: see Bohemia, New York. ... Royal motto: Dieu et mon droit (French: God and my right) Englands location within the UK Official language English de facto Capital London de facto Largest city London Area  - Total Ranked 1st UK 130,395 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 1st UK 49,138,831 377/km² Religion...


In 1850 Russia abolished a customs border between the Congress Poland and Russia proper so the industry in Łódź could develop freely with a huge Russian market at a close distance. Soon the city became the second-largest city of the Congress Poland. In 1865 the first railroad line was opened (to Koluszki) and soon the city became linked to Warsaw and Białystok. In the 1823-1873 period, the city's population doubled every ten years. The years 1870-1890 marked the period of most intense industrial development in the city's history. 1850 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The term Congress Poland is an unofficial name of the Kingdom of Poland, a political entity that was created out of the Duchy of Warsaw at the Congress of Vienna in 1815, when European powers reorganised Europe following the Napoleonic wars. ... The term Congress Poland is an unofficial name of the Kingdom of Poland, a political entity that was created out of the Duchy of Warsaw at the Congress of Vienna in 1815, when European powers reorganised Europe following the Napoleonic wars. ... 1865 is a common year starting on Sunday. ... Warsaw ( Polish: Warszawa, see also other names, in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto Stołeczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ... Białystok (pronounce: [bȋa:wistɔk]) ( Belarusian: Biełastok ([bȋe:lastók], Lithuanian Balstogė (literally meaning white roof)) is the largest city (pop. ... 1823 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1873 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1870 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1890 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...



Łódź soon became a major centre of the socialist movement. In 1892 a huge strike paralyzed most of the factories. During the 1905 Revolution more than 300 workers were killed by the Tsarist police. Despite the great crisis preceding World War I, the city grew constantly until 1914. In that year it was one of the most densely populated industrial cities in the world (13 280 people per sq. kilometre). The color red and particularly the red flag are traditional symbols of Socialism. ... 1892 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... 1905 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... 1914 is a common year starting on Thursday. ...


In 1915 the city came under German occupation, but in November 1918 was liberated by the local population who disarmed the German troops. In the aftermath of World War I, Łódź lost approximately 40% of its inhabitants, mostly owing to draft, diseases and the fact that after 1918 a huge part of the German population moved back to Germany. 1915 was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... World War I After World War I and the collapse of the Russian, German and Austro-Hungarian Empires, Poland became an independent republic. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... 1918 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


After 1918

Polish 1931 census
City of Łódź - population (according to language criterion)
1931 is a common year starting on Thursday. ...


Total 604 470

  • Poles 315 622 (52,21%)
  • Jews 202 497 (33,49%)
  • Germans 86 351 (14,28%)

In 1922 Łódź became the capital of the Łódź Voivodship, but the period of fast growth was over. The Great Crisis and the Customs War with Germany closed western markets to Polish textiles while the Bolshevik Revolution and the Civil War in Russia put an end to the most profitable trade with the East. The city became a scene of a series of huge workers' protests and riots in the interbellum. 1922 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Łódź voivodship since 1999 Coat of Arms of Łódź Voivodship Łódź Voivodship (1) ( Polish województwo łódzkie) is an administrative and local government region in central Poland created on January 1, 1999 out of the former Łódź (2), Sieradz, Piotrkow Trybunalski, Skierniewice and partly Plock voivodships as a result of Local... The Great Depression was a global economic slump that began in 1929 and bottomed in 1933. ... The phrase Russian Revolution can refer to three specific events in the history of Imperial Russia. ... The Russian Civil War was fought between 1918 and 1920. ...


World War II

During the Polish September Campaign Łódź was defended by the forces of the Łódź Army of General Juliusz Rómmel. However, the city was captured by the Wehrmacht on September 8. Despite plans for the city to be made into a Polish enclave, attached to the Generalgouvernement, the Nazi givernment respected the wishes of the local governor of Reichsgau Wartheland, Arthur Karl Greiser, and the many of the ethnic Germans living in the city, and annexed it to the Reich in November 1939. The city was renamed of Litzmannstadt after the German general Karl Litzmann who was killed after capturing the city during World War I. Nevertheless, many Łódź Germans refused to sign Volksliste and become Volksdeutsche, instead being deported to the General Government. Soon a Jewish ghetto was set up in the city and was populated with more than 200 000 Jews from the Łódź area. Only approximately 900 people survived its liquidation in August 1944. Several concentration camps and death camps were set up in the city's vicinity for the non-Jewish inhabitants of the regions, among them the infamous Radogoszcz prison and the several minor camps for the Roma people and Polish children. Polish Defence War of 1939 Conflict World War II Date 1 September - 6 October 1939 Place Poland Result Decisive German and Soviet victory The Polish September Campaign (alternatively refered to as the German plan Fall Weiss) refers to the conquest of Poland by the armies of Nazi Germany and the... Wehrmacht was the name of the armed forces of Germany from 1935 to 1945. ... September 8 is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years). ... The General Government (in full General government for the occupied Polish areas, in German Generalgouvernement für die besetzten polnischen Gebiete) was the name given by Germany to the governing authority in Poland after its occupation by the Wehrmacht in September and October 1939. ... Reichsgau Wartheland (initially Reichsgau Posen) was the name given by Nazis to the territory of Greater Poland which was occupied, annexed and directly incorporated into the German Reich after defeating the Polish army in 1939 (as opposed to the General Government, GG). ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... Volksdeutsche (ethnic Germans) is a historical term which arose in the early 20th century to apply for Germans living outside of the German Empire. ... Volksdeutsche (ethnic Germans) is a historical term which arose in the early 20th century to apply for Germans living outside of the German Empire. ... The General Government (in full General government for the occupied Polish areas, in German Generalgouvernement für die besetzten polnischen Gebiete) was the name given by Germany to the governing authority in Poland after its occupation by the Wehrmacht in September and October 1939. ... 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... A concentration camp is a large detention center created for political opponents, aliens, specific ethnic or religious groups, civilians of a critical war-zone, or other groups of people, often during a war. ... A death camp is a concentration camp which has been deliberately set up in order to kill those imprisoned there; such camps are not intended as punishment for criminal actions, rather, they are intended to facilitate genocide. ... The Roma people (pronounced rahma, singular Rom, sometimes Rroma, and Rrom) along with the closely related Sinti people are commonly known as Gypsies in English, and as Tsigany in most of Europe. ...


Until the end of the war Łódź lost approximately 420 000 of its pre-war inhabitants: 300 000 Jews and approximately 120 000 Poles. In January 1945 most of the German population fled the city for fear of the Red Army. The city also suffered tremendous losses due to German policy of requisition of all factories and machines and transporting them to Germany. Despite relatively small losses due to aerial bombardment and the fighting, Łódź had lost most of its infrastructure. The city was liberated by the Soviets on January 18, 1945. 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Red Army flag The short forms Red Army and RKKA refer to the Workers and Peasants Red Army, (Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия - Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya in Russian), the armed forces organised by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918. ... Soviet Union - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... January 18 is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ...


After 1945

In early 1945 Łódź had fewer than 300 000 inhabitants. However, soon the number began to grow and the city was populated with refugees from Warsaw and territories annexed by the Soviet Union. Until 1948 the city was a de facto capital of Poland since Warsaw had been totally destroyed during and after the Warsaw uprising and most of the government and country administration resided in Łódź. There were even plans of moving the capital there permanently, but the idea was abolished and in 1948 the reconstruction of Warsaw started. 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Warsaw ( Polish: Warszawa, see also other names, in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto Stołeczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ... The Curzon line was a boundary line proposed in 1919 by the British Foreign Secretary, Lord Curzon of Kedleston, as a border between Poland, to the west, and Lithuania, Russia and Ukraine, to the east. ... 1948 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Warsaw ( Polish: Warszawa, see also other names, in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto Stołeczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ... The Warsaw Uprising (Powstanie Warszawskie) was a controversial armed struggle during the Second World War by the Polish Home Army (Armia Krajowa) to liberate Warsaw from German occupation and Nazi rule. ... 1948 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ...


After World War II, under the Polish Communist regime, many industrialist families lost their fortunes when the authorities nationalised all private companies. The city was once again turned to a major centre of industry. After the period of economic transition in the country during the 1990s most of them were privatised again, but were in such a desolate state that few survived in the new capitalist reality. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Communism - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... Nationalization is the act of taking assets into state ownership. ... Events and trends Technology Explosive growth of the Internet; decrease in the cost of computers and other technology Reduction in size and cost of mobile phones leads to a massive surge in their popularity Year 2000 problem (commonly known as Y2K) Microsoft Windows operating system becomes virtually ubiquitous on IBM... Privatization (sometimes privatisation, denationalization, or, especially in India, disinvestment) is the process of transferring property, from public ownership to private ownership and/or transferring the management of a service or activity from the government to the private sector. ...


Łódź today

The city is home to the University of Łódź (Uniwersytet Łódzki) and Technical University of Łódź (Politechnika Łódzka). The University of Łódź was founded May 24, 1945 in Łódź, as a continuation of the achievements and traditions of educational institutions functioning in Łódź in the interwar period - the Teacher Training Institute (1921-1928), the Higher School of Social and Economic Sciences (1924-1928) and a division of the... The Technical University of Łódź was created in 1945 and has developed into one of the biggest in Poland. ...


Łódź for tourists

The main attraction of Łódź is Piotrkowska Street, stretching from North to South for a little over 4 kilometers. Recently renovated, it has many beautiful buildings dating back to the XIX century, in the architectural style of the Secession. Well worth visiting from late spring to early fall, strolling from one pub to another on Piotrkowska Street allows one to immerse oneself into the friendly atmosphere of this unique Polish city.


Although Łódź does not have any hills nor any big body of water, it is still possible to get close to nature in one of the many parks lying in the city. The most notable are Łagiewniki (the bigest "park in a city" in Europe), Zdrowie, and Poniatowskiego. Łódź Zoo, and Łódź Botanical Gardens, are also nice places to spend a lazy afternoon.


Łódź has one of the best museums of modern art in Poland. The art of all important contemporary Polish artists can be found there. Even though the exhibition space is lacking (and many very impressive paintings or sculptures are hidden in the basement), there is still a lot on display to look at.


The Łódź Film School

For cinema lovers Łódź has another place worth visiting - the Łódź Film School. The school has been an important education centre for the greatest Polish film-makers and a pivotal cultural centre for the entire country. At the end of the Second World War Łódź was the only large Polish town besides Kraków that war had not destroyed, unlike Warsaw. The creation of the National Film School gave to the town a role of higher importance from a cultural point of view, which before the war had belonged exclusively to Warsaw and Kraków. Among the first students who attended the School were the directors Andrzej Munk, Andrzej Wajda, Janusz Morgenstern - who at the end of the Fifties became famous as one of the founders of the Polish Film School of cinematography, together with Jerzy Wójcik, Witold Sobocinski, Mieczyslaw Jahoda, Wieslaw Zdort and Adam Holender. Immediately after the war Jerzy Bossak, Wanda Jakubowska, Stanislaw Wohl, Antoni Bohdziewicz and Jerzy Toeplitz were the first teachers. The internationally renowned film director Roman Polanski was among the many talented students who attended the School in the 1950s. Andrzej Munk (October 16, 1921–September 20, Polish film director, screenplay writer and camera operator and was one of the most influential artists of the Polish Film School. ... Filmography Pokolenie (The Generation, 1954) Idę do słońca (Towards the Sun, document on Xawery Dunikowski, 1955) Kanał (1956) Popiol i diament or Ashes And Diamonds (1958) Lotna (1959) Niewinni czarodzieje (Innocent Sorcerers, 1960) Powiatowa lady Makbet (Siberian Lady Macbeth, 1961) Samson (1961) Lamour à vingt ans (1962) Popioły (Ashes... Polish Film School (Polish Polska Szkoła Filmowa) refers to an informal group of Polish film directors and screenplay writers active between 1955 and approximately 1963. ... Roman Polanski Roman Polanski (born August 18, 1933) is a French/Polish film director and actor. ...


Historical population

1793: 190
1806: 767
1830: 4,300
1850: 15,800
1880: 77,600
1905: 343,900
1925: 538,600
1990: 850,000
2003: 781,900


Famous people from Łódź

Well-known people born or working in Łódź include:

Others include: Before a wall map of the Warsaw Ghetto at the United States Holocaust Memorial Museum, Jan Karski recalls his secret 1942 missions into the Nazi prison-city-within-a-city. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Three Colors is the collective title of three films directed by Krzysztof Kieślowski, two made in French and one primarily in Polish: Trois couleurs: Bleu (Blue) (1993), Trzy kolory: Biały (White) (1994), and Trois couleurs: Rouge (Red) (1994). ... Dekalog (The Decalogue) (1988) is a Polish film series, originally made as a television miniseries, directed by Krzysztof Kieślowski and co-written by Kieślowski with Krzysztof Piesiewicz, with music by Zbigniew Preisner. ... Tadeusz Kotarbiński (b. ... The aluminium clad east face of the Imperial War Museum North in Manchester. ... The twin towers, photographed from the west The World Trade Center in New York City was a complex of seven buildings around a central plaza, near the south end of Manhattan in the downtown financial district. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... 1924 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Arthur Rubinstein photographed by Carl Van Vechten, 1937 Arthur Rubinstein (January 28, 1887 – December 20, 1982) was a famous Polish-American pianist, best known for his performances of Chopin and his championing of Spanish music. ... Categories: Stub | Jewish Polish history ... Judenrat, German for Jewish council, were administrative bodies the Germans required Jews to form in each ghetto in General Government (Nazi-occupied colony in the central part of Poland). ... Andrzej Sapkowski Andrzej Sapkowski, born June 21, 1948 in Lodz, is a Polish fantasy writer. ... Julian Tuwim (September 13, 1894 – December 27, 1953) was a Polish poet of Jewish descent; born in the city of Łódź in Poland, educated in Łódź and Warsaw (studied Law and Philosophy at Warsaw University). ... The cosmetic firm Max Factor was named after Max Factor, Sr, a make-up artist for the Russian royal ballet who emigrated to the United States in 1904. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Roman Polanski Roman Polanski (born August 18, 1933) is a French/Polish film director and actor. ... Alexandre Tansman (*1897 in Lodz - 1986) was a Polish composer who lived in France for most of his life. ...

Izrael Kalmanowicz Poznański (b. ... Henry Morgentaler (born March 19, 1923, in Lodz, Poland) is a Canadian medical doctor, abortionist, and long time abortion activist from Montreal. ... Categories: Stub | 1978 births | Polish actors | Polish singers ...

Economy

Before 1990, Łódź's economy was focussed on the textile industry, which in the nineteenth century had developed in the city owing to the favourable chemical composition of its water. As a result, Łódź grew from a population of 13,000 in 1840 to over 500,000 in 1913. Just before World War I, Łódź was one of the most densely populated industrial cities in the world, with 13,280 people per square kilometre. The textile industry declined dramatically in 1990 and 1991, an no major textile company survives in Łódź today. However, countless small companies still provide a significant output of textiles, mostly for export to Russia and other countries of the former Soviet Union. 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1913 is a common year starting on Wednesday. ...


Education

See also: Education in Łódź

Currently Łódź is home to three major state-owned universities and a number of smaller schools of higher education. The universities with the most students in Łódź are: Currently Łódź is home to three major state-owned universities and a number of smaller schools of higher education. ... A university is an institution of higher education and of research, which grants academic degrees. ...

The University of Łódź was founded May 24, 1945 in Łódź, as a continuation of the achievements and traditions of educational institutions functioning in Łódź in the interwar period - the Teacher Training Institute (1921-1928), the Higher School of Social and Economic Sciences (1924-1928) and a division of the... The Technical University of Łódź was created in 1945 and has developed into one of the biggest in Poland. ... The Medical University of Lodz was founded on October 1, 2002 as a merger of the Medical Academy of Lodz (founded January 1, 1950) and the Military Medical Academy of Lodz (founded July 1, 1958). ...

Politics

Lódź constituency

Members of Parliament (Sejm) elected from łódź constituency This article is about the lower chamber of Polish parliament. ...

  • Krzysztof Baszczyński, SLD-UP
  • Mirosław Drzewiecki, PO
  • Elżbieta Jankowska, SLD-UP
  • Zbigniew Kaniewski, SLD-UP
  • Ewa Kralkowska, SLD-UP
  • Urszula Krupa, LPR
  • Leszek Miller, SLD-UP
  • Alicja Murynowicz, SLD-UP
  • Krzysztof Rutkowski, Samoobrona
  • Iwona Śledzińska-Katarasińska, PO
  • Elżbieta Więcławska-Sauk, PiS

Leszek Miller Leszek Miller (born 3 July 1946) was Prime Minister of Poland from September 2001 to May 2, 2004. ... Alliance of the Democratic Left ( Polish: Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej, SLD) is one of the main Polish social democratic political parties, established on April 15, 1999. ...

Mayors

  • Waldemar Bohdanowicz, Solidarity (November 1989 - 1990) - appointed by Prime Minister Tadeusz Mazowiecki.
  • Grzegorz Palka (1990-1994)
  • Marek Czekalski, Freedom Union (1994-1998)
  • Tadeusz Matusiak, SLD (1998-2001)
  • Krzysztof Panas, SLD (2001-2002)
  • Krzysztof Jagiełło, SLD (2002)
  • Jerzy Kropiwnicki, Christian-National Union (ZChN) (2002-)

Tadeusz Mazowiecki (born April 18, 1927 in Płock) is a Polish author, journalist, social worker and politician, formerly one of the leaders of the Solidarity movement, and the first non-communist prime minister in Central and Eastern Europe after World War II. Tadeusz Mazowiecki Shortly after World War II Tadeusz... The Unia Wolności (Freedom Union, UW) is a liberal party in Poland, which was founded on March 20, 1994 out of the merger of the Democratic Union (Unia Demokratyczna, UD) and the Congress of Liberal Democrats (Kongres Liberalno-Demokratyczny, KLD). ... Alliance of the Democratic Left (Polish: Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej, SLD) is one of the main Polish social democratic political parties, established on April 15, 1999. ... Alliance of the Democratic Left (Polish: Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej, SLD) is one of the main Polish social democratic political parties, established on April 15, 1999. ... Alliance of the Democratic Left (Polish: Sojusz Lewicy Demokratycznej, SLD) is one of the main Polish social democratic political parties, established on April 15, 1999. ...

Sports

Widzew Lodz, Polish football club This is a copyrighted and/or trademarked logo. ... Widzew Łódź is a Polish football club based in Łódź, Poland. ... Polish Football Association Football (soccer) is probably the most popular sport in Poland. ... Polish Cup The Polish Cup in football (official Polish title: Puchar Polski) is an annually held elimination tournament for Polish football clubs and is the second most important national title in Polish football after the 1st league (or Ekstraklasa) title. ... 1985 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Polish Super Cup in football (official Polish title: Superpuchar Polski) is an annually held match between the Polish Champion (Polish 1st league winner) and Polish Cup winner. ... 1996 is a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... ŁKS Łódź (Łódzki Klub Sportowy) is a Polish football club based in Łódź, Poland. ... Polish Football Association Football (soccer) is probably the most popular sport in Poland. ... Polish Cup The Polish Cup in football (official Polish title: Puchar Polski) is an annually held elimination tournament for Polish football clubs and is the second most important national title in Polish football after the 1st league (or Ekstraklasa) title. ... 1957 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... ŁKS Lotto Łódź is a Polish women basketball team, based in Łodź, playing in Sharp Torell Basket Liga. ... Torell Basket Liga (TBL), previously Sharp Torell Basket Liga (STBL) or Polish Women Basketball League (=Polska Liga Koszykówki Lobiet, PLKK) is the highest level league of women basketball in Poland 2004 Championship Playoffs for 1st place: Stary Browar AZS Poznań (2nd place) - Lotos VBW Clima Gdynia - (Polish Champion 2004) 1... A criterium in Burlington, Vermont, April 2004 Road bicycle racing is a popular sport all over the world, especially in Europe. ... Track cycling is a form of bicycle racing usually held on specially-built banked tracks or velodromes (but many events are held at older velodromes where the track banking is relatively shallow). ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has more media related to:
  • The Official Home Page of the city of Łódź (http://www.lodz.pl)


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