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Encyclopedia > Éamon de Valera

Eamon de Valera[1]  (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eamon_de_Valera#endnote_Name) (born Edward George de Valera, Irish name Éamonn de Bhailéara (October 14, 1882August 29, 1975), was an Irish politician, best known as a leader of Ireland's struggle for independence from Britain in the early 20th Century, and the Republican opposition in the ensuing Irish Civil War. October 14 is the 287th day of the year (288th in Leap years). ... 1882 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... August 29 is the 241st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (242nd in leap years), with 124 days remaining. ... 1975 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ... Irish can refer to multiple things: The island of Ireland or its culture, see also List of Ireland-related topics. ... A true colour image of Ireland, captured by a NASA satellite on January 4, 2003. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the G8, the European Union, and NATO. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, the UK, or (inaccurately) as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999 in the... Irish Republicanism is the nationalist belief that all of Ireland should be a united independent republic. ... The Civil War (June 1922–April 1923) was a conflict between supporters and opponents of the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 6, 1921, which established the Irish Free State, precursor of todays Republic of Ireland. ...


At various times a mathematician, teacher and a politician he served as Irish head of government on three occasions, as second President of the Executive Council (original name for the prime minister) and the first Taoiseach (prime ministerial title after 1937). He ended his political career as President of Ireland, serving two terms from 1959 until 1973. Eamon de Valera was also the Chancellor of the National University of Ireland from 1922 until 1975. A mathematician is a person whose area of study and research is mathematics. ... In education, teachers are those who teach students or pupils, often a course of study or a practical skill. ... A politician is an individual involved in politics. ... The President of the Executive Council (Irish: Uachtaráin na hArd-Chomhairle) was the title of the prime minister in the Executive Council of the Irish Free State from 1922-37. ... The Taoiseach (plural: Taoisigh) or, more formally, An Taoiseach, is the head of government of the Republic of Ireland and the leader of the Irish cabinet1. ... The President of Ireland (Irish: Uachtarán na hÉireann) is the head of state of the Republic of Ireland. ... The National University of Ireland (NUI) is a federal university system of constituent universities, previously called constituent colleges, and recognised colleges set up under the Irish Universities Act, 1908, as amended by the Universities Act, 1997. ...


Revered and despised in equal measure throughout Ireland, during his lifetime and posthumously, Eamon de Valera is generally regarded as the most influential person in the history of 20th Century Ireland.


Since the foundation of the state a de Valera has always served in Dáil Éireann. While Eamon de Valera served until 1959, his son, Vivion de Valera, was a TD between 1945 and 1981. His grandchildren, Éamon Ó Cuív and Síle de Valera, are currently members of the Dáil, with both having served in the government as a Minister. Dáil Éireann is the lower house of the Oireachtas (parliament) of the Republic of Ireland1. ... A TD or Teachta Dála (Irish for Dáil Deputy, pronounced chock-ta dawla) is a member of Dáil Éireann, the lower chamber of the Irish Oireachtas (pronounced orr-och-tas) or National Parliament. ... Síle de Valera [SHEE-la DEV-uh-LE-ra] (born 1954), is an Irish Fianna Fáil politician. ... The Government (Irish: Rialtas) is the cabinet that exercises executive authority in the Republic of Ireland. ...

EAMON DE VALERA
President of Ireland
Éamon de Valera (1882-1975)
Rank: 3rd
Term of Office: June 25, 1959 - June 24, 1973
Number of Terms: 2
Predecessor: Seán T. Ó Ceallaigh
Successor: Erskine Hamilton Childers
Date of Birth: Saturday, October 14, 1882
Place of Birth: Manhattan, New York City
Date of Death: Friday, August 29, 1975
Place of Death: Dublin, Ireland
First Lady: Sinéad Bean de Valera
Profession: Politician, teacher, mathematician
Nominated by: Fianna Fáil (1959 & 1966)
Other candidates: Fine Gael (1959): Sean MacEoin

Fine Gael (1966): Tom O'Higgins cropped image of older de valera. ... June 25 is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 189 days remaining. ... 1959 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... June 24 is the 175th day of the year (176th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 190 days remaining. ... 1973 was a common year starting on Monday. ... Sean Thomas OKelly ( Ir: Seán Tomás Ó Ceallaigh, pronounced Shaun Tho-mass O Kealla) ( August 25, 1882 - November 23, 1966) was the second President of Ireland (1945-1959). ... Erskine Hamilton Childers (November 11, 1905 - November 17, 1974), the son of Robert Erskine Childers (the author of The Riddle of the Sands), served as the fourth President of Ireland from 1973 until his death in 1974. ... Saturday is the day of the week between Friday and Sunday. ... October 14 is the 287th day of the year (288th in Leap years). ... 1882 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Manhattan (disambiguation). ... Midtown Manhattan, looking north from the Empire State Building, 2005 New York City (officially named the City of New York) is the most populous city in the state of New York and the entire United States. ... Friday is the day of the week between Thursday and Saturday. ... August 29 is the 241st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (242nd in leap years), with 124 days remaining. ... 1975 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ... Dublins Hapenny Bridge. ... A true colour image of Ireland, captured by a NASA satellite on January 4, 2003. ... A First Lady is the female spouse of an elected male head of state such as a president or governor. ... A profession is a specialized work function within society, generally performed by a professional. ... Fianna Fáil - The Republican Party ( IPA in English and in Irish; English translation: Soldiers of Destiny) is the largest political party in Ireland. ... Seán MacEoin (1893–1973), Irish Fine Gael politician and soldier. ... Tom OHiggins ( 1916- 2003), was an Irish Fine Gael politician, barrister, and judge. ...

Contents

Childhood

Born in New York City in 1882 to an Irish mother, he stated that his parents, Kate Coll and Juan Vivion de Valera were married in 1881 in New York. However exhaustive trawls through church and state records by genealogists and by his most recent biographer, Tim Pat Coogan (1990) have failed to find either a church or civil record of the marriage. Furthermore, no birth, baptismal, marriage or death certificate has ever been found for anyone called Juan Vivion de Valera or de Valeros, an alternative spelling. As a result, it is now widely believed by academics that deV (to use his nickname) was illegitimate. While this fact might seem irrelevant to 21st century eyes, one result of illegitimacy in the late 19th/early 20th century was that one was barred from a career in the Roman Catholic Church. Éamon de Valera was throughout his life a deeply religious man, who in death asked to be buried in a religious habit. There are a number of occasions where de Valera seriously contemplated entering the religious life like his half-brother, Fr. Thomas Wheelright. Yet he did not do so, and apparently received little encouragement from the priests whose advice he sought. In his biography of de Valera, Tim Pat Coogan speculated as to whether rumours surrounding de Valera's legitimacy may have been a deciding factor. Midtown Manhattan, looking north from the Empire State Building, 2005 New York City (officially named the City of New York) is the most populous city in the state of New York and the entire United States. ... 1882 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Events January - April January 16-24 ? Siege of Geok Tepe ? Russian troops under general Skobeleff defeat Turkomans January 25 - Thomas Edison and Alexander Graham Bell form the Oriental Telephone Company February 5 - Phoenix, Arizona is incorporated. ... Tim Pat Coogan is a respected Irish historian, broadcaster, newspaper columnist and former editor of the Irish Press newspaper. ... 1990 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Juan Vivion de Valera was a Spaniard, who had emigrated to America. ... A nickname is a short, clever, cute, derogatory, or otherwise substitute name for a person or things real name (for example, Nick is short for Nicholas). ... (20th century - 21st century - 22nd century - other centuries) Definition In calendars based on the Christian Era or Common Era, such as the Gregorian calendar, the 21st century is the current century, as of this writing, lasting from 2000-2099. ... The Roman Catholic Church is the largest religious denomination of Christianity with over one billion members. ...


Whatever his parentage, de Valera was taken to Ireland at the age of two. Even when his mother married a new husband in the mid 1880s, he was not brought back to live with her but reared instead by maternal relatives in County Limerick. He was educated locally at Bruree National School and Charleville Christian Brothers School. At the age of sixteen he won a scholarship to his beloved Blackrock College, County Dublin. Events and Trends Technology Development and commercial production of electric lighting Development and commercial production of gasoline-powered automobile by Karl Benz, Gottlieb Daimler and Maybach First commercial production and sales of phonographs and phonograph recordings. ... Limerick (Luimneach in Irish) is an Irish county in the province of Munster, located in the Mid-west of Ireland with County Clare to the north, County Cork to the south and County Kerry to the west. ... Charleville can refer to: a former commune of the Ardennes département in France, now part of Charleville-Mézières a commune of the Marne département, in France. ... There are at least two religious orders that go by the informal name Christian Brothers. ... Blackrock College (Irish: Coláiste na Carraige Duibhe) is a fee-paying secondary school for boys in Blackrock, County Dublin in Ireland, located about four miles from the city centre. ... Dublin (Irish Áth Cliath) is the county that contains the City of Dublin, the capital and largest city of the Republic of Ireland. ...


Always a diligent student he won further scholarships and exhibitions and in 1903 was appointed professor of mathematics at Rockwell College, County Tipperary. He graduated in mathematics in 1904 from the Royal University of Ireland (RUI) and then went back to Dublin to teach at Belvedere College. In 1906 he secured a post as professor of mathematics at Carysfort Teachers’ Training College for women in Blackrock, County Dublin. His applications for professorships in colleges of the National University of Ireland were unsuccessful, but he obtained a part-time appointment at Maynooth and also lectured in mathematics at various Dublin colleges. 1903 has the latest occurring solstices and equinoxes for 400 years, because the Gregorian calendar hasnt had a leap year for seven years or a century leap year since 1600. ... County Tipperary (Tiobraid Árainn in Irish) is a county in the Republic of Ireland, in the province of Munster. ... 1904 is a leap year starting on a Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1906 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Blackrock is a suburb of Dublin City, in County Dublin, Republic of Ireland. ... The National University of Ireland (NUI) is a federal university system of constituent universities, previously called constituent colleges, and recognised colleges set up under the Irish Universities Act, 1908, as amended by the Universities Act, 1997. ... Maynooth (Maigh Nuad in Irish) is a town located in County Kildare, Ireland. ...


Early political activity

An intelligent young man, he became an active gaeilgeoir (Irish language enthusiast). In 1908 he joined the Ardchraobh of Conradh na Gaeilge (the Gaelic League), where he met Sinéad Flanagan. A teacher by profession and four years his senior, they were married on January 8, 1910 at St Paul’s Church, Arran Quay, Dublin. 1908 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Gaelic League (Conradh na Gaeilge) is an organization for the purpose of keeping the Irish language spoken in Ireland. ... January 8 is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1910 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Dublins Hapenny Bridge. ...


While he was already involved in the cultural revolution de Valera's involvement in the political revolution began on November 25, 1913 when he joined the Irish Volunteers. He rose through the ranks and it wasn't long until he was elected captain of the Donnybrook company. Preparations were pushed ahead for an armed rising, and he was made commandant of the Third Battalion and adjutant of the Dublin Brigade. He was sworn by Thomas MacDonagh into the oath-bound Irish Republican Brotherhood, which secretly controlled the central executive of the Volunteers. November 25 is the 329th (in leap years the 330th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1913 is a common year starting on Wednesday. ... The Irish Volunteers (Óglaigh na hÉireann) were a paramilitary organization established by Irish Nationalists in 1913 to secure and maintain the rights and liberties common to the whole people of Ireland, and to enforce the imminent Home Rule Act. ... Donnybrook has several other meanings, see Donnybrook (disambiguation). ... Thomas MacDonagh (February 1, 1878 - May 3, 1916) was an Irish nationalist, poet, and a leader of the 1916 Easter Rising. ... The Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB) played an important role in the history of Ireland. ...


Easter Rising

Eamon de Valera in the 1930s

On April 24, 1916 the rising began. de Valera occupied Boland’s Mills, Grand Canal Street in Dublin, his chief task being to cover the south-eastern approaches to the city. After a week of fighting the order came from Pádraig Pearse to surrender. de Valera was court-martialled, convicted, and sentenced to death, but the sentence was immediately commuted to penal servitude for life. It was speculated that he was saved from execution because of American citizenship. That is technically incorrect. He was saved by two facts. Firstly, he was held in a different prison from other leaders, thus his execution was delayed by practicalities; had he been held with Padraig Pearse, James Connolly and others, he probably would have been one of the first executed. Secondly, his rumoured American citizenship caused a delay, while the full legal situation (i.e., was he actually a United States citizen and if so, how would the United States react to the execution of one of its citizens?) was clarified. The fact that Britain was trying to bring the USA into the war in Europe at the time made the situation even more delicate. Both delays taken together meant that, while he was next-in-line for execution, when the time came for a decision, all executions had been halted in view of the negative public reaction; so timing, location and questions relating to citizenship saved de Valera's life. Eamon de Valera. ... Eamon de Valera. ... April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (115th in leap years). ... 1916 is a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar) Events January-February January 1 -The first successful blood transfusion using blood that had been stored and cooled. ... Dublins Hapenny Bridge. ... The United States of America — also referred to as the United States, the U.S.A., the U.S., America, the States, or (archaically) Columbia—is a federal republic of 50 states located primarily in central North America (with the exception of two states: Alaska and Hawaii). ... Patrick Pearse Patrick Henry Pearse (known as Pádraic Pearse or, in the Irish language, as Pádraic Anraí Mac Piarais) (November 10, 1879 - May 3, 1916) was a teacher, poet, writer and political activist who led the Irish Easter Rising in 1916. ... For the Olympic athlete, see James Connolly (athlete) James Connolly (June 5, 1868 - May 12, 1916) was an Irish nationalist and Labour leader. ...


The Easter Rising showed up a number of contrasting aspects of Éamon de Valera's personality. On the one hand, he showed leadership skills and a meticulous ability for planning. Yet during his command he also experienced what in hindsight was seen as a form of nervous breakdown, so embarrassing that its occurrence was hidden by those who had been with him in 1916 all through his lifetime. In fact the details of his erratic and emotional behaviour only came to light, thanks to a recent biography.[2]  (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eamon_de_Valera#endnote_Orders) The Easter Rising (Irish: Éirí Amach na Casca) was a militarily unsuccessful rebellion staged in Ireland against British rule on Easter Monday in April 1916. ...



After imprisonment in Dartmoor, Maidstone and Lewes he and his comrades were released under an amnesty in June 1917. Shortly afterwards he was elected member of the British House of Commons for East Clare (the constituency which he represented until 1959) in the 1918 general election as well as president of Sinn Féin, the previously small monarchist party which had wrongly been credited by the British for the Easter Rising and which the survivors of the Rising took over and then turned into a republican party. The previous president of Sinn Féin, Arthur Griffith, had championed an Anglo-Irish "dual monarchy", with an independent Ireland governed separately from Britain, their only link being a shared monarch. That had been the situation with the so-called Constitution of 1782 under Henry Grattan, until Ireland merged with the Kingdom of Great Britain to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in 1800. 1917 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... The House of Commons is a component of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which also includes the Sovereign and the House of Lords. ... Poulnabrone dolmen in the Burren, County Clare, Ireland, taken 2004. ... 1959 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Irish general election of 1918 was that part of the 1918 United Kingdom general election that took place in Ireland. ... The name Sinn Féin pronounced Shin-Feyn (in the Irish language ourselves or we ourselves; not as sometimes incorrectly translated, ourselves alone or we alone) has been applied to a series of political movements since 1905 in Ireland, each of which claim or claimed sole descent from the original party... Monarchism is the advocacy of the establishment, preservation, or restoration of a monarchy. ... In a broad definition a republic is a state or country that is led by people that dont found their political power on any principle beyond the control of the people living in that state or country. ... Arthur Griffith (Árt Ó Gríobhtha in Irish) (31 March 1871 - 12 August 1922) was the founder and first leader of Sinn Féin. ... The Irish Parliament, a mediaeval body made up of the Irish House of Commons and the Irish House of Lords, and from which Roman Catholics had been excluded from both membership and voting for, had been subject to a number of restrictions imposed by English governments as to its ability... Henry Grattan (July 3, 1746 - June 6, 1820) was a member of the Irish House of Commons and a campaigner for legislative freedom for the Irish Parliament in the late 18th century. ... The united Kingdom of Great Britain was created by the merger of the Kingdoms of Scotland and England in 1707 (see Act of Union 1707). ... The Union Flag, in its modern form, was first adopted in 1801. ...


President of Dáil Éireann

Sinn Féin won a huge majority in the 1918 general election, largely thanks to the executions of the 1916 leaders and the threat of conscription. They won 73 out of 104 seats, with about 47% of votes cast. However, such was the level of support for the party, many seats were uncontested and so this this percentage is lower than it would have been had this not been the case. In January 1919, those Sinn Féin MPs, calling themselves Teachta Dálaí, assembled in the Mansion House in Dublin on January 21, 1919 and formed an Irish parliament, known as Dáil Éireann (in English, the Assembly of Ireland). A ministry or Aireacht was formed, under the leadership of the Príomh Aire (also called President of Dáil Éireann) Cathal Brugha. de Valera had been re-arrested in May 1918 and imprisoned and so could not attend January session of the Dáil. He however escaped from Lincoln Gaol in February 1919. As a result he replaced Brugha as Príomh Aire in the April session of Dáil Éireann. However the Dáil Constitution passed by the Dáil in 1919 made clear that the Príomh Aire (or President of Dáil Éireann as it came to be called) was merely prime minister - the literal translation of Príomh Aire - not a full head of state. 1919 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... A TD or Teachta Dála (Irish for Dáil Deputy, pronounced chock-ta dawla) is a member of Dáil Éireann, the lower chamber of the Irish Oireachtas (pronounced orr-och-tas) or National Parliament. ... The Mansion House on Dawson Street, Dublin, is the official residence of the Lord Mayor of Dublin and has been since 1715. ... January 21 is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1919 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Dáil Éireann is the lower house of the Oireachtas (parliament) of the Republic of Ireland1. ... The ireacht was the name of the cabinet or ministry in the D il Constitution passed by the First D il of the Irish Republic in January 1919. ... The head of government under the Dáil Constitution adopted by the First Dáil of the Irish Republic in January 1919. ... The head of government under the Dáil Constitution adopted by the First Dáil of the Irish Republic in January 1919. ... Charles William St John Burgess (Cathal Brugha) (18 July 1874-7 July 1922) was an Irish revolutionary, born in Dublin, who was active in the Easter Rising and the Irish Civil War. ... May is the fifth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of seven Gregorian months with the length of 31 days. ... 1918 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Constitution of Dáil Éireann ( Irish: Bunreacht Dála Éireann), more commonly known as the Dáil Constitution, was a short, provisional constitution adopted by the First Dáil in January 1919. ... A prime minister is the leading member of the cabinet of the top level government in a parliamentary system of government of a country, alternatively A prime minister is an official in a presidential system or semi-presidential system whose duty is to execute the directives of the President and... A head of state or chief of state is the chief public representative of a nation-state, federation or commonwealth, whose role generally includes personifying the continuity and legitimacy of the state and exercising the political powers, functions and duties granted to the head of state in the countrys...


In the hope of securing international recognition, Seán T. Ó Ceallaigh was sent as envoy to Paris to present the Irish case to the Peace Conference convened by the great powers at the end of the World War I. When it became clear by May 1919 that this mission could not succeed, the President decided to visit the United States. The mission had three objectives: to ask for official recognition of the Irish Republic, to float a loan to finance the work of the government, and to secure the support of the American people for the republic. His visit lasted from June 1919 to December 1920 and had mixed success. A loan of $6 million was raised, a sum that far exceeded the hopes of the Dáil, and he won wide public support, but official recognition was not forthcoming and he had difficulties with the Irish-American leaders who resented the dominant position he took up and wished to retain their control over Irish affairs in the United States. Sean Thomas OKelly (Ir: Seán Tomás Ó Ceallaigh, pronounced Shaun Tho-mass O Kealla) (August 25, 1882 - November 23, 1966) was the second President of Ireland (1945-1959). ... The Eiffel Tower has become the symbol of Paris throughout the world. ... Ypres, 1917, in the vicinity of the Battle of Passchendaele. ... The Irish Republic (Irish: Poblacht na hÉireann or Saorstát Éireann), also known as the Republic of Ireland, was a revolutionary state established by Irish nationalists seeking secession from the United Kingdom (UK) in the 1910s, with the aim of supplanting the UK government. ... The United States of America — also referred to as the United States, the U.S.A., the U.S., America, the States, or (archaically) Columbia—is a federal republic of 50 states located primarily in central North America (with the exception of two states: Alaska and Hawaii). ...


Meanwhile in Ireland, conflict between the British authorities and the Dáil (declared illegal in September 1919) escalated into the Irish War of Independence (also called the 'Anglo-Irish War'). The Long Fellow (or An t-Amadán Fada, another of de Valera's nicknames, given to him because of his great height) left day to day government to Michael Collins(The Big Fellow), his twenty-nine year old Minister for Finance and rival. An Irish War of Independence memorial in Dublin The Anglo-Irish War (also known as the Irish War of Independence) was a Ireland by the Irish Republican Army. ... Michael Collins (October 16, 1890 – August 22, 1922), an Irish revolutionary leader, served as Minister for Finance in the Irish Republic, as a member of the Irish delegation during the Anglo-Irish Treaty negotiations, as Chairman of the Provisional Government and as Commander-in-Chief of the National Army. ... The Irish Minister for Finance is the second most important ministerial position in the Irish Cabinet after that of the Taoiseach. ...


President of the Republic

Returning to a country gripped by the Irish War of Independence, de Valera in August 1921 had Dáil Éireann change the 1919 Dáil Constitution to upgrade his office from prime minister or chairman of the cabinet to a full President of the Republic. Declaring himself now the Irish equivalent of King George V, he argued that as Irish head of state, in the absence of the British head of state from the negotiations, he too should not attend the peace conference called the Treaty Negotiations (October-December 1921) at which British and Irish government leaders agreed to the effective independence of 26 of Ireland's 32 counties as the Irish Free State, with the other six in the north remaining under British sovereignty as Protestant-dominated Northern Ireland. (Technically, the Six Counties were originally part of the Free State, but with the option of opting out immediately, which they did straight away. Having done so, a Boundary Commission came into place to redraw the Irish border. Nationalists expected its report to recommend that largely nationalist areas become part of the Free State, making Northern Ireland so small it would not be economically viable. A Council of Ireland was also provided in the Treaty as a model for an eventual all-Irish parliament. Hence neither the pro- nor anti-treaty sides made much complaint about partition in the Treaty debates. They all expected it would prove shortlived.) An Irish War of Independence memorial in Dublin The Anglo-Irish War (also known as the Irish War of Independence) was a Ireland by the Irish Republican Army. ... 1921 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... An organizations constitution defines its form, structure, activities, character, and fundamental rules. ... This article is about the president of the 1919-1922 Irish Republic Republic of Ireland see: President of Ireland. ... King George V King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Emperor of India His Majesty King George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert) (3 June 1865–20 January 1936) was the last British monarch of the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, changing the name to the House... Signature page of the Anglo_Irish Treaty The Anglo_Irish Treaty was a treaty between the British government and the Irish Republic which brought the Anglo-Irish War to an end and established the Irish Free State. ... The Irish Free State (Irish: Saorstát Éireann) was (1922–1937) the name of the state comprising the 26 of Irelands 32 counties which were separated from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland under the Irish Free State Agreement (or Anglo-Irish Treaty) signed by British and Irish... Northern Ireland is an administrative region and one of four parts of the United Kingdom. ... Northern Ireland is an administrative region and one of four parts of the United Kingdom. ... In the United Kingdom, the four Boundary Commissions are responsible for determining the boundaries of House of Commons constituencies. ... The Council of Ireland may refer to one of two councils, one proposed and one implemented for a brief period. ...


The Treaty

The Republic's delegates to the Treaty Negotiations were accredited by President de Valera and his cabinet as Plenipotentiaries (ie, negotiators with the legal authority to sign a treaty without reference back to the cabinet.). However the Treaty proved controversial in so far as it replaced the Republic (which was unrecognised by any international state) by a dominion of the British Commonwealth with the King represented by a Governor-General of the Irish Free State. De Valera balked at the agreement, even though his opponents claimed he had refused to go because he knew what the outcome would be and didn't want to get the blame. Curiously, he reacted to news of the signing of the Treaty not with anger at its contents (which he refused even to read when offered a newspaper report of its contents) but with anger over the fact that they had not consulted with him, their president, before signing. De Valera and minority of supporters in Sinn Féin left Dáil Éireann and tried unsuccessfully to set up a republican administration with a republican ministry under himself. Griffith was elected President of Dáil Éireann in his place. Signature page of the Anglo_Irish Treaty The Anglo_Irish Treaty was a treaty between the British government and the Irish Republic which brought the Anglo-Irish War to an end and established the Irish Free State. ... Flag of the Commonwealth of Nations The Commonwealth of Nations is a voluntary association of independent sovereign states, most of which were once governed by the United Kingdom and are its former colonies. ... The Governor-General of the Irish Free State (Irish: Seanascal Shaorstáit Eireann) was the representative of the Crown in the Irish Free State between 1922 and 1936. ... The head of government under the Dáil Constitution adopted by the First Dáil of the Irish Republic in January 1919. ...


Civil War

Relations with the new Irish government, which was backed by most of the Dáil and the electorate, and the Anti-treatyites under the nominal leadership of deV, now descended into the Irish Civil War (June 1922), in which the pro-treaty Free State forces defeated de Valera's Republicans. Even de Valera's most passionate supporters admit his behaviour at that point was the low point in his career. Speeches where he talked of "wading through the blood" of ministers hardly cooled tempers. Though nominally head of the Anti-treatyites, de Valera had little influence and spent part of the time in prison. Among the Civil War's many tragedies were the assassination of Michael Collins, who was the head of the Provisional Government, the death through exhaustion of the President of Dáil Éireann, Arthur Griffith, the execution of one of the treaty signatories, Robert Erskine Childers and the deliberate booby-trapping and destruction by republicans of the Irish Public Records Office in the Four Courts, which destroyed one thousand years of Irish state records in an act that even the strongest defenders of the anti-treaty cause describe as a "pointless act". The Civil War (June 1922–April 1923) was a conflict between supporters and opponents of the Anglo-Irish Treaty of December 6, 1921, which established the Irish Free State, precursor of todays Republic of Ireland. ... Jack Ruby murdered the assassin, Lee Harvey Oswald, in a very public manner. ... Michael Collins (October 16, 1890 – August 22, 1922), an Irish revolutionary leader, served as Minister for Finance in the Irish Republic, as a member of the Irish delegation during the Anglo-Irish Treaty negotiations, as Chairman of the Provisional Government and as Commander-in-Chief of the National Army. ... A provisional government is an emergency or interim government set up when a political void has been created by the collapse of a previous administration or regime. ... The head of government under the Dáil Constitution adopted by the First Dáil of the Irish Republic in January 1919. ... Arthur Griffith (Árt Ó Gríobhtha in Irish) (31 March 1871 - 12 August 1922) was the founder and first leader of Sinn Féin. ... Overview Robert Erskine Childers (June 25, 1870 - November 24, 1922) was a British soldier, sailor, author and Irish nationalist who was executed by the authorities of the newly independent Irish Free State during the Irish Civil War. ... The Four Courts in Dublin is the Republic of Irelands main courts building. ...


Entry into the Free State Dáil: the 'empty formula'

 The foundation of Fianna Fáil in 1926
The foundation of Fianna Fáil in 1926
De Valera, the new leader of the new party, is on the left. On the right is Domhnall Ua Buachalla, whom he would appoint as Governor-General in 1932.

After the IRA dumped their arms rather than surrender them or continue a now fruitless war, de Valera returned to political methods. Frustrated by Sinn Féin's refusal to move on from the past, deV resigned from the presidency of the party and the party itself in March 1926 to form a new party, Fianna Fáil (Soldiers of Destiny), a party destined to dominate twentieth century Irish politics. The party made swift electoral gains but refused to take the Oath of Allegiance (spun by opponents as an 'Oath of Allegiance to the Crown' but actually an Oath of Allegiance to the Irish Free State with a secondary promise of fidelity to the King in his role in the Treaty settlement: The oath was actually largely the work of Michael Collins and based ironically on three sources: British oaths in the dominions, the oath of the Irish Republican Brotherhood and a draft oath prepared by de Valera in his proposed Treaty alternative, Document No.2). The party began a legal case to challenge the requirement that it take the Oath, but the assassination of the Vice-President of the Executive Council (ie. deputy prime minister) Kevin O'Higgins led the Executive Council under W.T. Cosgrave to introduce a Bill requiring all Dáil candidates to promise on oath that if they were elected they would take the Oath of Allegiance. Forced into a corner, and faced with the option of staying outside politics forever or taking the oath and entering, deV and his TDs took the Oath of Allegiance in 1927, declaring it "an empty formula", albeit one that people had fought and killed over in a civil war five years earlier. In 1931, in a populist and controversial move, he backed Mayo County Council when they fired a Protestant head librarian on the grounds of religion, stating that "a county that is 98% Catholic is entitled to a Catholic head librarian." Eamon de Valera at founding of Fianna Fáil. ... Domhnall Ua Buachalla (pronounced Donal ou-a Bu-calla) or Donal Buckley (February 3, 1866 - October 30, 1963) was an Irish politician, who served as third and final Governor-General of the Irish Free State. ... Governor-General (or Governor General) is a term used both historically and currently to designate the appointed representative of a head of state or their government for a particular territory, historically in a colonial context, but no longer necessarily in that form. ... Fianna Fáil - The Republican Party ( IPA in English and in Irish; English translation: Soldiers of Destiny) is the largest political party in Ireland. ... The Irish Oath of Allegiance was a controversial provision in the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921, which Irish TDs (members of the Irish parliament) and Senators were required to take, in order to take their seats in Dáil Éireann (The Chamber of Deputies) and Seanad Éireann (the Irish Senate). ... The Irish Republican Brotherhood (IRB) played an important role in the history of Ireland. ... The Vice-President of the Executive Council (Irish: Leas-Uachtarán na hArd-Chomhairle) was in effect the deputy prime minister of the Irish Free State, the Executive Council. ... Kevin Christopher OHiggins ( 7 June 1892- 10 July 1927), Irish politician. ... An Executive Council in British constitutional practice is the top tier of a government led by a Governor-General, Governor or a Lieutenant-Governor, superior to Legislative Councils and Legislative Assemblies. ... William Thomas Cosgrave, (June 6, 1880 - November 16, 1965) served as the first President of the Executive Council of the Irish Free State from 1922 to 1932. ... The Irish Oath of Allegiance was a controversial provision in the Anglo-Irish Treaty of 1921, which Irish TDs (members of the Irish parliament) and Senators were required to take, in order to take their seats in Dáil Éireann (The Chamber of Deputies) and Seanad Éireann (the Irish Senate). ... Events January 7 - First transatlantic telephone call - New York City to London January 9 - Military rebellion crushed in Lisbon January 14 - Paul Doumer elected president of France January 19 - Britain sends troops to China February 12 - First British troops lad on Shanghai February 14 - Earthquake in Yugoslavia - 700 dead February... County Mayo (Irish: Maigh Eo) is a county on the west coast of Ireland. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ...


President of the Executive Council

In the 1932 General Election Fianna Fáil secured 72 seats and became the largest party in the Dáil, although without a majority. de Valera was appointed President of the Executive Council (Prime Minister) by Governor-General James McNeill on March 9. He at once initiated steps to fulfil his election promises of abolishing the oath and withholding the land annuities. In retaliation the British imposed economic sanctions against Irish exports, and the resulting economic war caused much distress. On his advice the appointment of James McNeill as Governor-General was terminated by King George V on November 1, 1932 and a 1916 veteran, Domhnall Ua Buachalla, was appointed Seanascal in his place. Thus another symbol of monarchical authority was virtually removed. To strengthen his position against the opposition in the Dáil and Seanad, de Valera called a general election in January 1933 and won 77 seats, giving him an overall majority. Under his leadership, Fianna Fáil won further general elections in 1937, 1938, 1943 and 1944. The 1932 General Election was one of the most important general elections held in Ireland in the 20th Century. ... Fianna Fáil - The Republican Party ( IPA in English and in Irish; English translation: Soldiers of Destiny) is the largest political party in Ireland. ... The President of the Executive Council (Irish: Uachtaráin na hArd-Chomhairle) was the title of the prime minister in the Executive Council of the Irish Free State from 1922-37. ... James McNeill (March 27, 1869 - December 12, 1938) was an Irish politician, who served as second Governor-General of the Irish Free State. ... March 9 is the 68th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (69th in Leap years). ... James McNeill (March 27, 1869 - December 12, 1938) was an Irish politician, who served as second Governor-General of the Irish Free State. ... King George V King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Emperor of India His Majesty King George V (George Frederick Ernest Albert) (3 June 1865–20 January 1936) was the last British monarch of the House of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, changing the name to the House... November 1 is the 305th day of the year (306th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 60 days remaining. ... 1932 is a leap year starting on a Friday. ... Domhnall Ua Buachalla (pronounced Donal ou-a Bu-calla) or Donal Buckley (February 3, 1866 - October 30, 1963) was an Irish politician, who served as third and final Governor-General of the Irish Free State. ... 1933 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1937 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1938 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1943 is a common year starting on Friday. ... 1944 was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ...


de valera took charge of Ireland's foreign policy as well by acting as his own Minister for External Affairs. In that capacity he attended meetings of the League of Nations. He was president of the Council of the League on his first appearance at Geneva in 1932 and, in a speech that made a worldwide impression, appealed for genuine adherence by its members to the principles of the Covenant of the league. In September 1938 he was elected nineteenth president of the Assembly of the league, a tribute to the international recognition he had won by his independent stance on world questions. The League of Nations was an international organisation founded after the First World War with its constitution being approved by the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. ... Coat of arms of the Canton of Geneva Coat of arms of the City of Geneva Geneva (French: Genève, German: Genf, Italian: Ginevra, Romansh Genevra, Spanish: Ginebra) is the second-most populous city in Switzerland (after Zurich), located where Lake Geneva (French: Lac de Genève or Lac L... 1932 is a leap year starting on a Friday. ... 1938 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ...


DeV's new Constitution - Bunreacht na hÉireann

Éamon de Valera entering Leinster House
DeV entering Leinster House, home of the Free State parliament.

During the 1930s, de Valera had systematically stripped down the Irish Free State constitution that had been drafted by a committee under the nominal chairmanship of his great rival, Michael Collins. In reality, deV had only been able to do this due to three reasons. First, though the 1922 constitution was supposed to require amendment through public plebiscite eight years after its passage, the Free State government under W.T. Cosgrave had amended that period to 16 years, meaning that until 1938 the Free State constitution could be amended by the simple passage of a Constitutional Amendment Act through the Oireachtas. Secondly, while in theory the Governor-General of the Irish Free State could reserve or deny the Royal Assent to any legislation, in practice the power to advise the Governor-General so to do as and from 1927 no longer rested with the British Government in London but with His Majesty's Government in the Irish Free State, which meant that in practice, the Royal Assent was automatically granted to legislation; the government was hardly likely to advise the Governor-General to block the enactment of one of its own bills. Thirdly, in theory the Constitution had to be in keeping with the provisions of the Anglo-Irish Treaty, the fundamental law of the state. However that requirement had been removed only a short time before de Valera gained power. Thus, with all the checks and balances that had been provided to preserve the Treaty settlement neutralised, de Valera had a free hand to change the 1922 constitution at will. cropped standard image (taken February 1932) of de Valera - no suggestion ever of copyright - indeed no-one seems to know who took the original! This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Events and trends Technology Jet engine invented Science Nuclear fission discovered by Otto Hahn, Lise Meitner and Fritz Strassmann Pluto, the ninth planet from the Sun, is discovered by Clyde Tombaugh British biologist Arthur Tansley coins term ecosystem War, peace and politics Socialists proclaim The death of Capitalism Rise to... Amendment has at least two meanings: An amendment is a formal alteration to any official document or record, typically with the aim of improving it for the better. ... A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ... The granting of Royal Assent is the formal method by which a Sovereign or the Sovereigns representative in the United Kingdom and in Commonwealth Realms completes the process of the enactment of legislation by formally assenting to an Act of Parliament. ... Events January 7 - First transatlantic telephone call - New York City to London January 9 - Military rebellion crushed in Lisbon January 14 - Paul Doumer elected president of France January 19 - Britain sends troops to China February 12 - First British troops lad on Shanghai February 14 - Earthquake in Yugoslavia - 700 dead February... Signature page of the Anglo_Irish Treaty The Anglo_Irish Treaty was a treaty between the British government and the Irish Republic which brought the Anglo-Irish War to an end and established the Irish Free State. ...


This he did with a vengeance. The Oath of Allegiance was abolished, as were appeals to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council. The opposition-controlled Senate, when it protested and slowed down these measures was also abolished. And finally in December 1936, deV used the sudden abdication of King Edward VIII as king of his various realms including King of Ireland to pass two Bills; one amended the constitution to remove all mention of the King and Governor-General while the second brought the King back, this time through statute law, for use in representing the Irish Free State at diplomatic level. The Judicial Committee of the Privy Council is one of the highest courts in the United Kingdom. ... A senate is a deliberative body, often the upper house or chamber of a legislature. ... King Edward VIII King of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, King of Ireland Emperor of India His Majesty King Edward VIII, (Edward Albert Christian George Andrew Patrick David), later His Royal Highness The Duke of Windsor (23 June 1894 – 28 May 1972) was the second British monarch of the House...


In July 1936, de Valera as constitutionally the King's Irish Prime Minister, wrote to King Edward in London indicating that he planned to introduce a new constitution, the central part of which was to be the creation of an office deV provisionally intended to call President of Saorstát Éireann, which would create the governor-generalship. The title may ultimately have changed from President of Saorstát Éireann (Uachtarán Shaorstát Éireann) to President of Ireland (Uachtarán na hÉireann), but it still remained the central feature of his new constitution, to which he gave the new Irish language name Bunreacht na hÉireann (meaning literally the Constitution of Ireland). Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


De Valera's new constitution embodied a process called Constitutional Autochthony, that is, the assertion of legal nationalism. At various levels it contained key symbols to mark Irish republican independence from Britain. These included:

  • a new name for the state, Éire
  • a claim that the island of Ireland was a natural national territorial unit (Article 2) and so challenged Britain's partition settlement of 1920;
  • a new popularly elected 'President of Ireland' to replace the British King and Crown and the appointed Irish Governor-General;
  • recognition of the "special position" of Roman Catholicism, which had for most of Britain's rule in Ireland been suppressed and discriminated against;
  • a recognition of a Catholic concept of marriage which excluded divorce, something that was culturally associated with English Protestantism (e.g., Henry VIII) but which had no history of acceptance within Catholicism.
  • the declaration that the Irish language was an official language of the nation, along with English.
  • the use of Irish language terms to stress Irish cultural and historical identity (eg, Uachtarán, Taoiseach, Tánaiste, Rialtas, Dáil, Seanad, etc.)

In reality, as with much of de Valera's policies, most of the above were more apparent than real. Map of Éire Éire (pronounced AIR uh, in the Irish language, translated as Ireland) is the name given in Article 4 of the 1937 Irish constitution to the 26-county Irish state, created under the 1921 Anglo-Irish Treaty, which was known between 1922 and 1937 as the Irish Free... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... Henry VIII King of England and Ireland by Hans Holbein the Younger His Grace King Henry VIII (28 June 1491–28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland (later King of Ireland) from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... This article considers Catholicism in the broadest ecclesiastical sense. ...

  • For all the anti-partition rhetoric, partition remained a legal reality, accepted by Article 3;
  • for most of its existence, the popularly elected president was never popularly elected, but chosen by the political parties for their own reasons. In addition, the key powers that defined who a head of state was (ie, being the representative of a state at international diplomatic level) were possessed by the 'King of Ireland' (as George VI was proclaimed and continued to be called until the declaration of the republic in April 1949;
  • the "special position" of the Roman Catholic Church was a constitutionally meaningless phrase. In some areas (deV's refusal to make Catholicism the established church, his refusal to side with Franco in the Spanish Civil War, the constitutional recognition given to the existence of the Church of Ireland, the Presbyterians, the Methodists and in particular in Irish Jewish community) deV's constitution was actually quite radical and distinctly non-Catholic in its day. For that reason, Pope Pius XI refused to support its adoption, an endorsement constitutions in predominantly Catholic countries routinely sought and often got.
  • the features of the "Catholic" family focused on in the constitution (family based on marriage, with no divorce and the belief that the family was central to society) accurately mirrored most of the beliefs (divorce excepted) of the mainstream Protestant faiths on the island, namely the Church of Ireland and the Presbyterian Church.
  • Though given symbolic superiority, Irish in reality remained a language of a small and rapidly dwindling number of people. In contrast, the state's second official language, English, was the language of the vast majority of people.

Thus for all the constitutional autochthony symbols, the Irish state was neither as nationalist nor as Catholic, neither as Gaelic nor as free from the Crown as deV, through his use of symbols, tried to suggest. Francisco Franco, late in life Francisco Paulino Hermenegildo Teódulo Franco y Bahamonde Salgado Pardo de Andrade (December 4, 1892 - November 20, 1975), abbreviated Francisco Franco Bahamonde and sometimes known as Generalísimo Francisco Franco, was dictator of Spain from 1939 until his death in 1975. ... Alternative meaning: Spanish Civil War, 1820-1823 A republican soldier seeks cover on the Plaza de Toros in Teruel, east of Madrid. ... The Church of Ireland which is part of the Anglican Communion, is the largest Protestant church on the island of Ireland, claims to be the most ancient Christian church within all Ireland, and is the second largest Protestant denomination in Northern Ireland. ... Presbyterianism is part of the Reformed churches family of denominations of Christian Protestantism based on the teachings of John Calvin which traces its institutional roots to the Scottish Reformation, especially as led by John Knox. ... The Methodist movement is a group of denominations of Protestant Christianity. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... Pius XI (born Achille Ratti May 31, 1857 - Rome, February 10, 1939) was Pope from February 6, 1922 until February 10, 1939. ...


Neutrality in World War II

Germany's interest in Ireland before and in the early years of World War II (called The Emergency in the Free State) including investigating whether the IRA could be used against Britain, investigating the tactical advantages of invading Ireland, and negotiating with the Irish government. Germany courted Éire, before and during the war, though with little success. A true colour image of Ireland, captured by a NASA satellite on January 4, 2003. ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... The Emergency is a euphemism which was first used officially in Ireland by the Irish Government during the 1940s to refer to World War II. In government media, direct references to the war were avoided and Ireland publicly maintained a strictly neutral position (which prompted some to ask the question... The Federal Republic of Germany (German: Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is one of the worlds leading industrialised countries, located in the heart of Europe. ...


De Valera kept the Free State neutral in World War II. The British MI5 naturally took more than a passing interest in his deeds and whereabouts. Whereas the neutrality of the USA was terminated with the attack on Pearl Harbor, Irish neutrality was maintained right through to the end of the war. Both the possibility of a German invasion and a British invasion were discussed in the Dáil. Current MI5 headquarters in Thames House, London MI5—officially called the Security Service—is one of the British secret service agencies. ... The United States of America — also referred to as the United States, the U.S.A., the U.S., America, the States, or (archaically) Columbia—is a federal republic of 50 states located primarily in central North America (with the exception of two states: Alaska and Hawaii). ... Satellite image of Pearl Harbor. ... Dáil Éireann is the lower house of the Oireachtas (parliament) of the Republic of Ireland1. ...


Characteristics

Irish neutrality took on some unique characteristics of its own:

  • The Irish government secretly aided the Allies side; for example, the timing of D-Day was decided thanks to weather reports supplied by Ireland which told of incoming weather conditions from the Atlantic.
  • Allied airmen were 'accidentally' allowed to 'escape' into Northern Ireland while German airmen who crashed in the Free State were interned.
  • On the occasion of the death of Adolf Hitler, de Valera paid a visit to Eduard Hempel, the German minister in Dublin, to express sympathy over the death of the Führer. This action was criticised by some of the victorious allies.

Land on Normandy In military parlance, D-Day is a term often used to denote the day on which a combat attack or operation is to be initiated. ... Adolf Hitler (20 April 1889 – 30 April 1945), a German politician who was the founder of the Third Reich (1933-1945), is widely regarded as one of the most significant and reviled leaders in world history. ... Führer (often written Fuehrer or Fuhrer in English when umlauts are not used) is a proper noun meaning leader or guide in the German language. ...

Analysis

Non-neutrality could either have meant support for Germany or Britain. Neither was particularly appealing and either would have led to an upsurge in subversive activity. An alliance with Germany risked certain invasion from Britain. An alliance with Britain risked internal political instability. De Valera's policy of neutrality probably enabled de Valera and the opposition to maintain a political unity. That might not have been achievable had de Valera wanted to openly side with the Allies, which might have provoked anti-British campaigning by the IRA. (De Valera had no hesitation in executing IRA prisoners during the War also!). This article needs copyediting (checking for proper English spelling, grammar, usage, etc. ...


Some historians might argue that Irish neutrality was the best tactic for the Allies too, as an attack by Germany on a neutral Ireland risked enraging Irish-Americans and so bringing the United States into the war earlier, although had Ireland joined the war in 1939, the reality of the war would have been brought to Irish-Americans earlier. Had Éire openly sided with the Allies, it might have been, both politically and militarily, the Allies' weakest link, drawing resources for its protection at a time when there were no resources to spare. In 2005 documents were released from the Public Record Office regarding contacts between dV and a British MI6 officer in 1942 over Ireland joining the Allies. Details of the meetings were not disclosed but it is believed an offer was made over the status of the six counties. Many such vague offers were made at different times but were never accompanied with any form of guarantee, leading the Irish side to dismiss them as insubstantial. The Public Record Office of the United Kingdom is one of the two organisations that make up the National Archives (the other is the Historical Manuscripts Commission). ... The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS), more commonly known as MI6 (originally Military Intelligence [section] 6), or Her Majestys Secret Service or just the Secret Service, is the British external security agency. ...


DeV and Churchill clash on radio

In his VE day radio broadcast, British Prime Minister and old de Valera adversary Winston Churchill launched a strong attack on the Irish government's policy of neutrality, while being careful to distinguish that from any criticism of the Irish people as a whole or of individual Irishmen - a nuance that may well have failed to be communicated. De Valera's reply, also in a radio broadcast, won widespread respect and praise in Ireland from even his bitterest opponents. However, at the time and in the emotions of the moment, it lowered the respect for him held by people in combatant countries, who did not always fully appreciate the points and who were also influenced by indignation at his official and diplomatically proper condolences on the death of Hitler. De Valera told Radio Éireann listeners: Victory in Europe Day (V-E Day) was May 8, 1945, the date when the Allies during the Second World War formally celebrated the defeat of Nazi Germany and the end of Adolf Hitlers Reich. ... A prime minister is the leading member of the cabinet of the top level government in a parliamentary system of government of a country, alternatively A prime minister is an official in a presidential system or semi-presidential system whose duty is to execute the directives of the President and... The Right Honourable Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill KG, OM, CH, PC, FRS (November 30, 1874 – January 24, 1965) was a British statesman, best known as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom during World War II. At various times an author, soldier, journalist, and politician, Churchill is generally regarded as...

It is indeed fortunate that Britain's necessity did not reach the point when Mr. Churchill would have [invaded Ireland]. All credit to him that he successfully resisted the temptation which, I have not doubt, many times assailed him in his difficulties and to which I freely admit many leaders might have easily succumbed. It is indeed hard for the strong to be just to the weak, but acting justly always has its rewards.
By resisting his temptation in this instance, Mr. Churchill, instead of adding another horrid chapter to the already bloodstained record of the relations between England and this country, has advanced the cause of international morality an important step-one of the most important, indeed, that can be taken on the road to the establishment of any sure basis for peace. . .
Mr. Churchill is proud of Britain's stand alone, after France had fallen and before America entered the War.
Could he not find in his heart the generosity to acknowledge that there is a small nation that stood alone not for one year or two, but for several hundred years against aggression; that endured spoliation's, famines, massacres in endless succession; that was clubbed many times into insensibility, but that each time on returning consciousness took up the fight anew; a small nation that could never be got to accept defeat and has never surrendered her soul?
Mr. Churchill is justly proud of his nation's perseverance against heavy odds. But we in this island are still prouder of our people's perseverance for freedom through all the centuries. We, of our time, have played our part in the perseverance, and we have pledged our selves to the dead generations who have preserved intact for us this glorious heritage, that we, too, will strive to be faithful to the end, and pass on this tradition unblemished.

As a speech, it probably counts among de Valera's finest and even his opponents spoke of their pride in his words. But the speech also contained another interesting but often overlooked phrase. Early in the speech, he told listeners,

I know the reply I would have given a quarter of a century ago. But I have deliberately decided that that is not the reply I shall make tonight. I shall strive not to be guilty of adding any fuel to the flames of hatred and passion which, if continued to be fed, promise to burn up whatever is left by the war of decent human feeling in Europe.
Allowances can be made for Mr. Churchill's statement, however unworthy, in the first flush of his victory. No such excuse could be found for me in this quieter atmosphere. There are, however some things which it is my duty to say, some things which it is essential to say. I shall try to say them as dispassionately as I can.

In those sentences he showed a degree of criticism of his own behaviour in the past that was occasionally repeated, particularly towards the end of his life, how a quarter of a century before, during the Treaty debates and the civil war, he had used war-like provocative words and sentences, such as 'wading through the blood of Irishmen', that inflamed tension; indeed, his aside however unworthy was provocative there and then if not to later perceptions, in the circumstances he himself had noted. The Éamon de Valera of 1945, in his sixty-fifth year, was not the hothead of 1921 and would not make precisely the same mistakes. Though overshadowed by other parts of his most famous speech, those lines showed a self-critical side to Éamon de Valera that was rarely expressed publicly.


Post-War Period

After the Emergency the position of Fianna Fáil began to weaken. Sixteen years in power finally took its toll on the electorate and the oppsotion political parties. In 1948 de Valera was ousted from power by the first Inter-Party Government, with John A. Costello as Taoiseach. de Valera, as leader of the opposition, embarked on a world campaign on the partition question. In 1951 he was back in power but without an overall majority. He was Taoiseach again of what many would consider to be his worst government. No new ideas emerged and the same faces that formed his first administration back in 1932 where still in power. Fianna Fáil - The Republican Party ( IPA in English and in Irish; English translation: Soldiers of Destiny) is the largest political party in Ireland. ... 1948 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... John Aloysius Costello (20 June 1891 - 5 January 1976), a successful barrister, was one of the main legal advisors to the government of the Irish Free State after independence, Attorney-General of Ireland from 1926-1932 and Taoiseach from 1948-1951 and 1954-1957. ... The Taoiseach (plural: Taoisigh) or, more formally, An Taoiseach, is the head of government of the Republic of Ireland and the leader of the Irish cabinet1. ... 1951 was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... 1932 is a leap year starting on a Friday. ...


Fianna Fáil was defeated again on the 1954 General Election. However, like the first coalition government, the second lasted only three years. At the general election of 1957 de Valera, then in his seventy-fifth year, won an absolute majority of nine seats, the greatest number he had ever secured. This was the beginning of another sixteen year period in office fro Fianna Fáil. A new economic policy emerged with the First Programme for Economic Expansion. He remained as Taoiseach until 1959, handing over power to Seán F. Lemass. Fianna Fáil - The Republican Party ( IPA in English and in Irish; English translation: Soldiers of Destiny) is the largest political party in Ireland. ... See also: Government of the 15th Dáil Categories: Elections in Ireland | 1954 ... 1957 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Taoiseach (plural: Taoisigh) or, more formally, An Taoiseach, is the head of government of the Republic of Ireland and the leader of the Irish cabinet1. ... 1959 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... Seán Francis Lemass ( July 15, 1899 - May 11, 1971) was Taoiseach of the Republic of Ireland and served as the second leader of Fianna Fáil from 1959 until 1966. ...


President of Ireland

His last bid at constitutional reform failed when the people, by referendum, rejected his proposal that proportional representation be replaced by the direct vote. On the same day in June 1959 he was elected President of Ireland in succession to Seán T. Ó Ceallaigh, defeating General Seán MacEoin by a comfortable majority. By now, he was almost totally blind, but hid the fact through the use of an aide, whose job was to whisper sotto voice to deV instructions such as the number of steps to take, or where to 'look'. (In one famous photograph, President de Valera is seen 'inspecting' a new statue just erected of Irish patriot Robert Emmet, apparently standing back in admiration. In fact, he could not see it at all!) As President he received many distinguished visitors, including Presidents Charles de Gaulle and John F. Kennedy. In 1964, at the age of eighty-one, he visited Washington and addressed Congress, speaking for twenty-five minutes without notes. Proportional Representation (PR) describes various multi-winner electoral systems which try to ensure that the proportional support gained by different groups is accurately reflected in the election result. ... 1959 was a common year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar). ... The President of Ireland (Irish: Uachtarán na hÉireann) is the head of state of the Republic of Ireland. ... Sean Thomas OKelly (Ir: Seán Tomás Ó Ceallaigh, pronounced Shaun Tho-mass O Kealla) (August 25, 1882 - November 23, 1966) was the second President of Ireland (1945-1959). ... Robert Emmet Statue of Robert Emmet; photo courtesy Paul Huang. ... Portrait of General Charles de Gaulle. ... Order: 35th President Vice President: Lyndon B. Johnson Term of office: January 20, 1961 – November 22, 1963 Preceded by: Dwight D. Eisenhower Succeeded by: Lyndon B. Johnson Date of birth: May 29, 1917 Place of birth: Brookline, Massachusetts Date of death: November 22, 1963 Place of death: Dallas, Texas First... 1964 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... This article deals with the U.S. state. ...


However de Valera's career came to the brink of disaster in 1966 when he was almost defeated in his final electoral battle, for re-election to the presidency. So close was the election that a mere one vote more in each ballot box in the Republic for his opponent would have been enough to secure the election of Fine Gael's youthful presidential candidate, Tom O'Higgins. While de Valera narrowly won the election, by a majority of a mere 10,000 votes in a poll of over 1,000,000, he did develop a deep dislike and distrust for his campaign manager, Agriculture Minister and future Taoiseach Charles J. Haughey. He warned colleagues later that Haughey would 'destroy the (Fianna Fáil) party', a perceptive analysis of the now disgraced former prime minister who did indeed almost destroy Fianna Fáil in the 1980s, and who has since been the subject of tribunals enquiring into proven financial improprieties. (Haughey was due to stand trial as a result of the revelations, but was let off the hook because of potentially prejudicial comments made by Tánaiste Mary Harney on live television.)-1... Current Fine Gael logo Fine Gael (United Ireland) (pronounced fi-na gale) is the second largest political party in the Republic of Ireland. ... Tom OHiggins ( 1916- 2003), was an Irish Fine Gael politician, barrister, and judge. ... Farming, ploughing rice paddy, in Indonesia Agriculture is the process of producing food, feed, fiber and other desired products by cultivation of certain plants and the raising of domesticated animals (livestock). ... Charles James Haughey (born September 16, 1925) was the sixth Taoiseach of the Republic of Ireland. ... Fianna Fáil - The Republican Party ( IPA in English and in Irish; English translation: Soldiers of Destiny) is the largest political party in Ireland. ... Events and trends The 1980s marked an abrupt shift towards more conservative lifestyles after the momentous cultural revolutions which took place in the 1960s and 1970s and the definition of the AIDS virus in 1981. ...


De Valera finished his final term of office in 1973, aged 91, the oldest head of state in the world at the time. During his sixty-three year career in public life he received numerous honours. He was elected Chancellor of the National University of Ireland in 1921, holding the post until his death. Pope John XXIII bestowed on him the Order of Christ. He received honorary degrees from universities in Ireland and abroad and in 1968 was elected FRS, a recognition of his lifelong interest in mathematics. During his parliamentary career he was MP for Down from 1921 to 1929 and for South Down from 1933 to 1937 but did not take his seat in Westminster. He retired from the Presidency in June 1973, having served for fourteen years, the longest period allowed under the Constitution. 1973 was a common year starting on Monday. ... The National University of Ireland (NUI) is a federal university system of constituent universities, previously called constituent colleges, and recognised colleges set up under the Irish Universities Act, 1908, as amended by the Universities Act, 1997. ... 1921 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... The Blessed John XXIII wearing a Papal Tiara Angelo Roncalli was born in Sotto il Monte (province of Bergamo), Italy on November 25, 1881. ... A true colour image of Ireland, captured by a NASA satellite on January 4, 2003. ... 1968 was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1968 calendar). ... MP may stand for: Member of Parliament military police magic points (in roleplaying games) Northern Mariana Islands (ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 country code and USPS state code) milepost multiprocessing in computers Minimalist Program (linguistics) Modus ponens Megapixel M.P is also a drummer of an alternative rock band School... County Down, (An Dún in Irish) is one of the six counties of Northern Ireland, covering an area of 2,448 km² (945 square miles). ... 1921 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1929 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1933 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1937 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... Westminster is the name of a city that covers much of central London, located to the west of the ancient City of London, and which has been the principal seat of government in England for more than nine hundred years. ...


Eamon de Valera died in Lyndon Nursing Home, Blackrock, County Dublin on August 29, 1975 aged 92. His wife, Sinéad de Valera, died the previous January, on the date of their 65th wedding anniversary. He is buried in Dublin's Glasnevin Cemetery. Blackrock is a suburb of Dublin City, in County Dublin, Republic of Ireland. ... Dublin (Irish Áth Cliath) is the county that contains the City of Dublin, the capital and largest city of the Republic of Ireland. ... August 29 is the 241st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (242nd in leap years), with 124 days remaining. ... 1975 was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1975 calendar). ... Glasnevin Cemetery is the main Catholic cemetery in Dublin, the capital of Ireland. ...


Overview

 Éamon de Valera's grave
Éamon de Valera's grave
His wife, Sinead, and son, Brian (who was killed in a horse-riding accident in 1936) are buried there also.

A close up view of the gravestone

Ireland's dominant political personality for many decades, as well as co-owner of one of Ireland's most influential group of newspapers, Irish Press Newspapers, de Valera is alleged by critics to have kept Ireland under the influence of Catholic conservatism, though to his credit his constitution did explicitly recognise the existence and rights of the Jewish community in Ireland in 1937, at a time when much of Europe was beginning the process of wholesale extermination of Jews. He also rejected fundamentalist Catholic demands by organisations like Maria Duce that Roman Catholicism be made the state religion of Ireland, just as he rejected demands by the Irish Christian Front that the Irish Free State support Franco during the Spanish Civil War. His role in Irish history is no longer unequivocally seen by today's historians as a positive one, and a recent controversial biography by Tim Pat Coogan alleges that his failures outweigh his achievements, with deV's reputation declining as that of his great rival in the 1920s, Michael Collins is rising. Eamon de Valeras grave. ... Maria Duce was a small right wing Roman Catholic lobby group in Ireland in the 1930s to 1950s that among other things campaigned to get Eamon de Valera to make Roman Catholicism the established church in the Irish state in his 1937 constitution, Bunreacht na hÉireann. ... The Irish Free State (Irish: Saorstát Éireann) was (1922–1937) the name of the state comprising the 26 of Irelands 32 counties which were separated from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland under the Irish Free State Agreement (or Anglo-Irish Treaty) signed by British and Irish... Alternative meaning: Spanish Civil War, 1820-1823 A republican soldier seeks cover on the Plaza de Toros in Teruel, east of Madrid. ... Tim Pat Coogan is a respected Irish historian, broadcaster, newspaper columnist and former editor of the Irish Press newspaper. ... Michael Collins (October 16, 1890 – August 22, 1922), an Irish revolutionary leader, served as Minister for Finance in the Irish Republic, as a member of the Irish delegation during the Anglo-Irish Treaty negotiations, as Chairman of the Provisional Government and as Commander-in-Chief of the National Army. ...


Overall, historians regard de Valera as a brilliant but flawed leader: from his disastrous behaviour during the Civil War that inflamed hatred rather than cooled tempers, to his 1937 constitution, studied most recently by Mandela's South Africa as they designed their own. Erratic, brilliant, tactful, tactless, innovative and most of all pragmatic, Éamon de Valera, the American-born head of an Irish republic, was the most influential Irish leader of the twentieth century, admired, criticised and studied the world over, by leaders from Nehru to John F. Kennedy. Nelson Mandela Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela, (born 18 July 1918) a former President of South Africa, was one of its chief anti-apartheid activists, and was also an anti-apartheid saboteur. ... Jawaharlal Nehru (जवाहरलाल नेहरू, Javāharlāl Nehrū) (November 14, 1889 – May 27, 1964), also called Pandit (Teacher) Nehru, was the leader of the socialist wing of the Indian National Congress during and after Indias struggle for independence from the British Empire. ... Order: 35th President Vice President: Lyndon B. Johnson Term of office: January 20, 1961 – November 22, 1963 Preceded by: Dwight D. Eisenhower Succeeded by: Lyndon B. Johnson Date of birth: May 29, 1917 Place of birth: Brookline, Massachusetts Date of death: November 22, 1963 Place of death: Dallas, Texas First...


Notes

  1. ^ His name is frequently misspelled Eamonn De Valera but in fact he never used the second 'n' in his first name (the standard Irish spelling) and always a small 'd' in 'de Valera'. (Similarly his nickname was always written as 'deV', not 'Dev' or 'DeV'.
  2. ^ According to accounts from 1916 de Valera was seen running about, giving conflicting orders, refusing to sleep and on one occasion, having forgotten the password almost getting himself shot in the dark by his own men. According to one account, deV, on being forced to sleep by one subordinate who promised to sit beside him and wake him if he was needed, suddenly woke up, his eyes 'wild', screaming 'set fire to the railway. Set fire to the railway'. Later in the Ballykinlar Internment Camp one deV loyalist approached another internee, a medical doctor, recounted the story and asked for a medical opinion as to deV's condition. He also threatened to sue the doctor, future Fine Gael TD and minister, Dr. Tom O'Higgins, if he ever repeated the story. Tim Pat Coogan, De Valera: Long Fellow, Long Shadow (Hutchinson, London, 1993) hardback. pp.69-72. ISBN 009175030X

Current Fine Gael logo Fine Gael (United Ireland) (pronounced fi-na gale) is the second largest political party in the Republic of Ireland. ... A TD or Teachta Dála (Irish for Dáil Deputy, pronounced chock-ta dawla) is a member of Dáil Éireann, the lower chamber of the Irish Oireachtas (pronounced orr-och-tas) or National Parliament. ...

First Cabinet, March 1932-February 1933

The President of the Executive Council (Irish: Uachtaráin na hArd-Chomhairle) was the title of the prime minister in the Executive Council of the Irish Free State from 1922-37. ... The Vice-President of the Executive Council (Irish: Leas-Uachtarán na hArd-Chomhairle) was in effect the deputy prime minister of the Irish Free State, the Executive Council. ... Sean Thomas OKelly (Ir: Seán Tomás Ó Ceallaigh, pronounced Shaun Tho-mass O Kealla) (August 25, 1882 - November 23, 1966) was the second President of Ireland (1945-1959). ... The Irish Minister for Finance is the second most important ministerial position in the Irish Cabinet after that of the Taoiseach. ... Seán MacEntee ( 1889– 1984) was a senior Irish politician. ... The Minister for Foreign Affairs is one of the most important ministerial positions in the Irish cabinet, with responsibility for the relations between the Republic of Ireland and foreign states. ... The Department of Enterprise Trade and Employment is one of the most important economic ministeries in the Irish Cabinet. ... Seán Francis Lemass ( July 15, 1899 - May 11, 1971) was Taoiseach of the Republic of Ireland and served as the second leader of Fianna Fáil from 1959 until 1966. ... The Minister for Justice, Equality & Law Reform is the chief minister in charge of law and order in the Republic of Ireland. ... The Minister for Agriculture and Food is an important position in the Irish Government. ... Dr. James Ryan (December 6, 1891 - September 25, 1970), was a senior Irish politician. ... The Minister for Defence is in charge of the Department of Defence in the Republic of Ireland. ... Frank Aiken (February 13, 1898 - May 18, 1983), was a senior Irish politician. ... The Minister for Education & Science is the chief person at the Department of Education & Science is engaged in a wide range of activities covering pllicy planning, quality assurance and providing a broad range of services for education in the Republic of Ireland. ... The Minister for the Environment, Heritage and Local Government is responsible for: election matters such as the general election and presidential elections, including electronic voting; the environment, Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland; heritage; local authorities and related services. ... Sean Thomas OKelly (Ir: Seán Tomás Ó Ceallaigh, pronounced Shaun Tho-mass O Kealla) (August 25, 1882 - November 23, 1966) was the second President of Ireland (1945-1959). ... The Minister for Communications, Marine & Natural Resources is the chief minister at the Department of the same name in the Irish Government. ... Patrick J. Ruttledge (1892-1952) was a senior Irish politician. ... The Minister for Posts & Telegraphs was responsible for Irelands postal and telecommunications services since the foundation of the State until 1984, the department was one of the largest civil service departments in Ireland. ...

Second Cabinet, February 1933-July 1937

The President of the Executive Council (Irish: Uachtaráin na hArd-Chomhairle) was the title of the prime minister in the Executive Council of the Irish Free State from 1922-37. ... The Vice-President of the Executive Council (Irish: Leas-Uachtarán na hArd-Chomhairle) was in effect the deputy prime minister of the Irish Free State, the Executive Council. ... Sean Thomas OKelly (Ir: Seán Tomás Ó Ceallaigh, pronounced Shaun Tho-mass O Kealla) (August 25, 1882 - November 23, 1966) was the second President of Ireland (1945-1959). ... The Irish Minister for Finance is the second most important ministerial position in the Irish Cabinet after that of the Taoiseach. ... Seán MacEntee ( 1889– 1984) was a senior Irish politician. ... The Minister for Foreign Affairs is one of the most important ministerial positions in the Irish cabinet, with responsibility for the relations between the Republic of Ireland and foreign states. ... The Department of Enterprise Trade and Employment is one of the most important economic ministeries in the Irish Cabinet. ... Seán Francis Lemass ( July 15, 1899 - May 11, 1971) was Taoiseach of the Republic of Ireland and served as the second leader of Fianna Fáil from 1959 until 1966. ... The Minister for Justice, Equality & Law Reform is the chief minister in charge of law and order in the Republic of Ireland. ... Patrick J. Ruttledge (1892-1952) was a senior Irish politician. ... The Minister for Agriculture and Food is an important position in the Irish Government. ... Dr. James Ryan (December 6, 1891 - September 25, 1970), was a senior Irish politician. ... The Minister for Defence is in charge of the Department of Defence in the Republic of Ireland. ... Frank Aiken (February 13, 1898 - May 18, 1983), was a senior Irish politician. ... The Minister for Education & Science is the chief person at the Department of Education & Science is engaged in a wide range of activities covering pllicy planning, quality assurance and providing a broad range of services for education in the Republic of Ireland. ... The Minister for the Environment, Heritage and Local Government is responsible for: election matters such as the general election and presidential elections, including electronic voting; the environment, Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland; heritage; local authorities and related services. ... Sean Thomas OKelly (Ir: Seán Tomás Ó Ceallaigh, pronounced Shaun Tho-mass O Kealla) (August 25, 1882 - November 23, 1966) was the second President of Ireland (1945-1959). ... The Minister for Communications, Marine & Natural Resources is the chief minister at the Department of the same name in the Irish Government. ... The Minister for Posts & Telegraphs was responsible for Irelands postal and telecommunications services since the foundation of the State until 1984, the department was one of the largest civil service departments in Ireland. ... Gerald Boland (May 25, 1885 - January 5, 1973) was a senior Irish politician. ...

Changes

May 29 is the 149th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (150th in leap years). ... 1936 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... June 3 is the 154th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (155th in leap years), with 211 days remaining. ... 1936 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Frank Aiken (February 13, 1898 - May 18, 1983), was a senior Irish politician. ... November 11 is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 50 days remaining. ... 1936 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Gerald Boland (May 25, 1885 - January 5, 1973) was a senior Irish politician. ... Oscar Traynor ( March 21, 1886- December 15, 1963), Fianna Fáil politician and revolutionary. ...

Third Cabinet, July 1937-June 1938

The President of the Executive Council (Irish: Uachtaráin na hArd-Chomhairle) was the title of the prime minister in the Executive Council of the Irish Free State from 1922-37. ... The Vice-President of the Executive Council (Irish: Leas-Uachtarán na hArd-Chomhairle) was in effect the deputy prime minister of the Irish Free State, the Executive Council. ... Sean Thomas OKelly (Ir: Seán Tomás Ó Ceallaigh, pronounced Shaun Tho-mass O Kealla) (August 25, 1882 - November 23, 1966) was the second President of Ireland (1945-1959). ... The Irish Minister for Finance is the second most important ministerial position in the Irish Cabinet after that of the Taoiseach. ... Seán MacEntee ( 1889– 1984) was a senior Irish politician. ... The Minister for Foreign Affairs is one of the most important ministerial positions in the Irish cabinet, with responsibility for the relations between the Republic of Ireland and foreign states. ... The Department of Enterprise Trade and Employment is one of the most important economic ministeries in the Irish Cabinet. ... Seán Francis Lemass ( July 15, 1899 - May 11, 1971) was Taoiseach of the Republic of Ireland and served as the second leader of Fianna Fáil from 1959 until 1966. ... The Minister for Justice, Equality & Law Reform is the chief minister in charge of law and order in the Republic of Ireland. ... Patrick J. Ruttledge (1892-1952) was a senior Irish politician. ... The Minister for Agriculture and Food is an important position in the Irish Government. ... Dr. James Ryan (December 6, 1891 - September 25, 1970), was a senior Irish politician. ... The Minister for Defence is in charge of the Department of Defence in the Republic of Ireland. ... Frank Aiken (February 13, 1898 - May 18, 1983), was a senior Irish politician. ... The Minister for Education & Science is the chief person at the Department of Education & Science is engaged in a wide range of activities covering pllicy planning, quality assurance and providing a broad range of services for education in the Republic of Ireland. ... The Minister for the Environment, Heritage and Local Government is responsible for: election matters such as the general election and presidential elections, including electronic voting; the environment, Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland; heritage; local authorities and related services. ... Sean Thomas OKelly (Ir: Seán Tomás Ó Ceallaigh, pronounced Shaun Tho-mass O Kealla) (August 25, 1882 - November 23, 1966) was the second President of Ireland (1945-1959). ... The Minister for Communications, Marine & Natural Resources is the chief minister at the Department of the same name in the Irish Government. ... Gerald Boland (May 25, 1885 - January 5, 1973) was a senior Irish politician. ... The Minister for Posts & Telegraphs was responsible for Irelands postal and telecommunications services since the foundation of the State until 1984, the department was one of the largest civil service departments in Ireland. ... Oscar Traynor ( March 21, 1886- December 15, 1963), Fianna Fáil politician and revolutionary. ...

Changes

December 29 is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 2 days remaining. ... 1937 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Constitution of Ireland is the founding legal document of the state known today as the Republic of Ireland. ... The President of the Executive Council (Irish: Uachtaráin na hArd-Chomhairle) was the title of the prime minister in the Executive Council of the Irish Free State from 1922-37. ... The Taoiseach (plural: Taoisigh) or, more formally, An Taoiseach, is the head of government of the Republic of Ireland and the leader of the Irish cabinet1. ... The Vice-President of the Executive Council (Irish: Leas-Uachtarán na hArd-Chomhairle) was in effect the deputy prime minister of the Irish Free State, the Executive Council. ... The Tánaiste (plural: Tánaistithe), or more formally An Tánaiste, is the deputy prime minister of the Republic of Ireland1. ... The Government (Irish: Rialtas) is the cabinet that exercises executive authority in the Republic of Ireland. ...

Fourth Cabinet, June 1938-July 1943

The Taoiseach (plural: Taoisigh) or, more formally, An Taoiseach, is the head of government of the Republic of Ireland and the leader of the Irish cabinet1. ... The Tánaiste (plural: Tánaistithe), or more formally An Tánaiste, is the deputy prime minister of the Republic of Ireland1. ... Sean Thomas OKelly (Ir: Seán Tomás Ó Ceallaigh, pronounced Shaun Tho-mass O Kealla) (August 25, 1882 - November 23, 1966) was the second President of Ireland (1945-1959). ... The Irish Minister for Finance is the second most important ministerial position in the Irish Cabinet after that of the Taoiseach. ... Seán MacEntee ( 1889– 1984) was a senior Irish politician. ... The Minister for Foreign Affairs is one of the most important ministerial positions in the Irish cabinet, with responsibility for the relations between the Republic of Ireland and foreign states. ... The Department of Enterprise Trade and Employment is one of the most important economic ministeries in the Irish Cabinet. ... Seán Francis Lemass ( July 15, 1899 - May 11, 1971) was Taoiseach of the Republic of Ireland and served as the second leader of Fianna Fáil from 1959 until 1966. ... The Minister for Justice, Equality & Law Reform is the chief minister in charge of law and order in the Republic of Ireland. ... Patrick J. Ruttledge (1892-1952) was a senior Irish politician. ... The Minister for Agriculture and Food is an important position in the Irish Government. ... Dr. James Ryan (December 6, 1891 - September 25, 1970), was a senior Irish politician. ... The Minister for Defence is in charge of the Department of Defence in the Republic of Ireland. ... Frank Aiken (February 13, 1898 - May 18, 1983), was a senior Irish politician. ... The Minister for Education & Science is the chief person at the Department of Education & Science is engaged in a wide range of activities covering pllicy planning, quality assurance and providing a broad range of services for education in the Republic of Ireland. ... The Minister for the Environment, Heritage and Local Government is responsible for: election matters such as the general election and presidential elections, including electronic voting; the environment, Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland; heritage; local authorities and related services. ... Sean Thomas OKelly (Ir: Seán Tomás Ó Ceallaigh, pronounced Shaun Tho-mass O Kealla) (August 25, 1882 - November 23, 1966) was the second President of Ireland (1945-1959). ... The Minister for Communications, Marine & Natural Resources is the chief minister at the Department of the same name in the Irish Government. ... Gerald Boland (May 25, 1885 - January 5, 1973) was a senior Irish politician. ... The Minister for Posts & Telegraphs was responsible for Irelands postal and telecommunications services since the foundation of the State until 1984, the department was one of the largest civil service departments in Ireland. ... Oscar Traynor ( March 21, 1886- December 15, 1963), Fianna Fáil politician and revolutionary. ...

Changes

September 8 is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years). ... 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Sean Thomas OKelly (Ir: Seán Tomás Ó Ceallaigh, pronounced Shaun Tho-mass O Kealla) (August 25, 1882 - November 23, 1966) was the second President of Ireland (1945-1959). ... Patrick J. Ruttledge (1892-1952) was a senior Irish politician. ... Gerald Boland (May 25, 1885 - January 5, 1973) was a senior Irish politician. ... Seán Francis Lemass ( July 15, 1899 - May 11, 1971) was Taoiseach of the Republic of Ireland and served as the second leader of Fianna Fáil from 1959 until 1966. ... The Minister for Supplies was created by the Ministers and Secretaries (Amendment) Act, 1939, to assist Ireland through the World War II, or The Emergency, as referred to by the Irish Government. ... Oscar Traynor ( March 21, 1886- December 15, 1963), Fianna Fáil politician and revolutionary. ... Frank Aiken (February 13, 1898 - May 18, 1983), was a senior Irish politician. ... The Minister for Supplies was created by the Ministers and Secretaries (Amendment) Act, 1939, to assist Ireland through the World War II, or The Emergency, as referred to by the Irish Government. ... September 16 is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years). ... 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Seán MacEntee ( 1889– 1984) was a senior Irish politician. ... Sean Thomas OKelly (Ir: Seán Tomás Ó Ceallaigh, pronounced Shaun Tho-mass O Kealla) (August 25, 1882 - November 23, 1966) was the second President of Ireland (1945-1959). ... September 27 is the 270th day of the year (271st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 95 days remaining. ... 1939 was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... Sean Thomas OKelly (Ir: Seán Tomás Ó Ceallaigh, pronounced Shaun Tho-mass O Kealla) (August 25, 1882 - November 23, 1966) was the second President of Ireland (1945-1959). ... June 18 is the 169th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (170th in leap years), with 196 days remaining. ... 1940 was a leap year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... July 15 is the 196th day (197th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 169 days remaining. ... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... August 18 is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Seán MacEntee ( 1889– 1984) was a senior Irish politician. ... Seán Francis Lemass ( July 15, 1899 - May 11, 1971) was Taoiseach of the Republic of Ireland and served as the second leader of Fianna Fáil from 1959 until 1966. ...

Fifth Cabinet, July 1943-June 1944

The Taoiseach (plural: Taoisigh) or, more formally, An Taoiseach, is the head of government of the Republic of Ireland and the leader of the Irish cabinet1. ... The Tánaiste (plural: Tánaistithe), or more formally An Tánaiste, is the deputy prime minister of the Republic of Ireland1. ... Sean Thomas OKelly (Ir: Seán Tomás Ó Ceallaigh, pronounced Shaun Tho-mass O Kealla) (August 25, 1882 - November 23, 1966) was the second President of Ireland (1945-1959). ... The Irish Minister for Finance is the second most important ministerial position in the Irish Cabinet after that of the Taoiseach. ... Sean Thomas OKelly (Ir: Seán Tomás Ó Ceallaigh, pronounced Shaun Tho-mass O Kealla) (August 25, 1882 - November 23, 1966) was the second President of Ireland (1945-1959). ... The Minister for Foreign Affairs is one of the most important ministerial positions in the Irish cabinet, with responsibility for the relations between the Republic of Ireland and foreign states. ... The Minister for Supplies was created by the Ministers and Secretaries (Amendment) Act, 1939, to assist Ireland through the World War II, or The Emergency, as referred to by the Irish Government. ... Seán Francis Lemass ( July 15, 1899 - May 11, 1971) was Taoiseach of the Republic of Ireland and served as the second leader of Fianna Fáil from 1959 until 1966. ... The Minister for Supplies was created by the Ministers and Secretaries (Amendment) Act, 1939, to assist Ireland through the World War II, or The Emergency, as referred to by the Irish Government. ... Frank Aiken (February 13, 1898 - May 18, 1983), was a senior Irish politician. ... The Department of Enterprise Trade and Employment is one of the most important economic ministeries in the Irish Cabinet. ... Seán Francis Lemass ( July 15, 1899 - May 11, 1971) was Taoiseach of the Republic of Ireland and served as the second leader of Fianna Fáil from 1959 until 1966. ... The Minister for Justice, Equality & Law Reform is the chief minister in charge of law and order in the Republic of Ireland. ... Gerald Boland (May 25, 1885 - January 5, 1973) was a senior Irish politician. ... The Minister for Agriculture and Food is an important position in the Irish Government. ... Dr. James Ryan (December 6, 1891 - September 25, 1970), was a senior Irish politician. ... The Minister for Defence is in charge of the Department of Defence in the Republic of Ireland. ... Oscar Traynor ( March 21, 1886- December 15, 1963), Fianna Fáil politician and revolutionary. ... The Minister for Education & Science is the chief person at the Department of Education & Science is engaged in a wide range of activities covering pllicy planning, quality assurance and providing a broad range of services for education in the Republic of Ireland. ... The Minister for the Environment, Heritage and Local Government is responsible for: election matters such as the general election and presidential elections, including electronic voting; the environment, Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland; heritage; local authorities and related services. ... Seán MacEntee ( 1889– 1984) was a senior Irish politician. ... The Minister for Communications, Marine & Natural Resources is the chief minister at the Department of the same name in the Irish Government. ... The Minister for Posts & Telegraphs was responsible for Irelands postal and telecommunications services since the foundation of the State until 1984, the department was one of the largest civil service departments in Ireland. ...

Sixth Cabinet, June 1944-February 1948

The Taoiseach (plural: Taoisigh) or, more formally, An Taoiseach, is the head of government of the Republic of Ireland and the leader of the Irish cabinet1. ... The Tánaiste (plural: Tánaistithe), or more formally An Tánaiste, is the deputy prime minister of the Republic of Ireland1. ... Sean Thomas OKelly (Ir: Seán Tomás Ó Ceallaigh, pronounced Shaun Tho-mass O Kealla) (August 25, 1882 - November 23, 1966) was the second President of Ireland (1945-1959). ... The Irish Minister for Finance is the second most important ministerial position in the Irish Cabinet after that of the Taoiseach. ... Sean Thomas OKelly (Ir: Seán Tomás Ó Ceallaigh, pronounced Shaun Tho-mass O Kealla) (August 25, 1882 - November 23, 1966) was the second President of Ireland (1945-1959). ... The Minister for Foreign Affairs is one of the most important ministerial positions in the Irish cabinet, with responsibility for the relations between the Republic of Ireland and foreign states. ... The Minister for Supplies was created by the Ministers and Secretaries (Amendment) Act, 1939, to assist Ireland through the World War II, or The Emergency, as referred to by the Irish Government. ... Seán Francis Lemass ( July 15, 1899 - May 11, 1971) was Taoiseach of the Republic of Ireland and served as the second leader of Fianna Fáil from 1959 until 1966. ... The Minister for Supplies was created by the Ministers and Secretaries (Amendment) Act, 1939, to assist Ireland through the World War II, or The Emergency, as referred to by the Irish Government. ... Frank Aiken (February 13, 1898 - May 18, 1983), was a senior Irish politician. ... The Department of Enterprise Trade and Employment is one of the most important economic ministeries in the Irish Cabinet. ... Seán Francis Lemass ( July 15, 1899 - May 11, 1971) was Taoiseach of the Republic of Ireland and served as the second leader of Fianna Fáil from 1959 until 1966. ... The Minister for Justice, Equality & Law Reform is the chief minister in charge of law and order in the Republic of Ireland. ... Gerald Boland (May 25, 1885 - January 5, 1973) was a senior Irish politician. ... The Minister for Agriculture and Food is an important position in the Irish Government. ... Dr. James Ryan (December 6, 1891 - September 25, 1970), was a senior Irish politician. ... The Minister for Defence is in charge of the Department of Defence in the Republic of Ireland. ... Oscar Traynor ( March 21, 1886- December 15, 1963), Fianna Fáil politician and revolutionary. ... The Minister for Education & Science is the chief person at the Department of Education & Science is engaged in a wide range of activities covering pllicy planning, quality assurance and providing a broad range of services for education in the Republic of Ireland. ... The Minister for the Environment, Heritage and Local Government is responsible for: election matters such as the general election and presidential elections, including electronic voting; the environment, Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland; heritage; local authorities and related services. ... Seán MacEntee ( 1889– 1984) was a senior Irish politician. ... The Minister for Communications, Marine & Natural Resources is the chief minister at the Department of the same name in the Irish Government. ... The Minister for Posts & Telegraphs was responsible for Irelands postal and telecommunications services since the foundation of the State until 1984, the department was one of the largest civil service departments in Ireland. ...

Changes

  • June 14, 1945: Seán T. Ó Ceallaigh resigns from the Cabinet after being elected President of Ireland.
  • June 19, 1945: The Department of Co-Ordination of Defensive Measures is abolished following the end of "The Emergency". Seán F. Lemass and Frank Aiken succeed Ó Ceallaigh as Tánaiste and Minister for Finance respectively.
  • July 31, 1945: The Department of Supplies is abolished with all functions transferred to the Department of Industry & Commerce.
  • January 21, 1947: The Department of Health & Social Welfare is established with James Ryan becoming the first Minister. Patrick Smith joins the Cabinet replacing Ryan as Minister for Agriculture.
  • January 22, 1947: The title of the Department of Local Government & Public Health is altered to the Department of Local Government.

June 14 is the 165th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (166th in leap years), with 200 days remaining. ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Sean Thomas OKelly (Ir: Seán Tomás Ó Ceallaigh, pronounced Shaun Tho-mass O Kealla) (August 25, 1882 - November 23, 1966) was the second President of Ireland (1945-1959). ... The President of Ireland (Irish: Uachtarán na hÉireann) is the head of state of the Republic of Ireland. ... June 19 is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 195 days remaining. ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... Seán Francis Lemass ( July 15, 1899 - May 11, 1971) was Taoiseach of the Republic of Ireland and served as the second leader of Fianna Fáil from 1959 until 1966. ... Frank Aiken (February 13, 1898 - May 18, 1983), was a senior Irish politician. ... July 31 is the 212th day (213th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 153 days remaining, as the final day of July. ... 1945 was a common year starting on Monday (link will take you to calendar). ... January 21 is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1947 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Dr. James Ryan (December 6, 1891 - September 25, 1970), was a senior Irish politician. ... Paddy Smith was a senior Irish politician. ... January 22 is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1947 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...

Seventh Cabinet, June 1951-June 1954

The Taoiseach (plural: Taoisigh) or, more formally, An Taoiseach, is the head of government of the Republic of Ireland and the leader of the Irish cabinet1. ... The Tánaiste (plural: Tánaistithe), or more formally An Tánaiste, is the deputy prime minister of the Republic of Ireland1. ... Seán Francis Lemass ( July 15, 1899 - May 11, 1971) was Taoiseach of the Republic of Ireland and served as the second leader of Fianna Fáil from 1959 until 1966. ... The Irish Minister for Finance is the second most important ministerial position in the Irish Cabinet after that of the Taoiseach. ... Seán MacEntee ( 1889– 1984) was a senior Irish politician. ... The Minister for Foreign Affairs is one of the most important ministerial positions in the Irish cabinet, with responsibility for the relations between the Republic of Ireland and foreign states. ... Frank Aiken (February 13, 1898 - May 18, 1983), was a senior Irish politician. ... The Department of Enterprise Trade and Employment is one of the most important economic ministeries in the Irish Cabinet. ... Seán Francis Lemass ( July 15, 1899 - May 11, 1971) was Taoiseach of the Republic of Ireland and served as the second leader of Fianna Fáil from 1959 until 1966. ... The Minister for Justice, Equality & Law Reform is the chief minister in charge of law and order in the Republic of Ireland. ... Gerald Boland (May 25, 1885 - January 5, 1973) was a senior Irish politician. ... The Minister for Agriculture and Food is an important position in the Irish Government. ... This article is about Thomas Walsh, the Irish politician. ... The Minister for Defence is in charge of the Department of Defence in the Republic of Ireland. ... Oscar Traynor ( March 21, 1886- December 15, 1963), Fianna Fáil politician and revolutionary. ... The Minister for Education & Science is the chief person at the Department of Education & Science is engaged in a wide range of activities covering pllicy planning, quality assurance and providing a broad range of services for education in the Republic of Ireland. ... The Minister for Health & Children has overall constitutional and political responsibility for the Department of Health & Children, while his or her duties include the creation and assessment of policy for the health services. ... Dr. James Ryan (December 6, 1891 - September 25, 1970), was a senior Irish politician. ... The Minister for Social & Family Affairs is the chief person at the Department of Social & Family Affairs in the Irish Government. ... Dr. James Ryan (December 6, 1891 - September 25, 1970), was a senior Irish politician. ... The Minister for the Environment, Heritage and Local Government is responsible for: election matters such as the general election and presidential elections, including electronic voting; the environment, Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland; heritage; local authorities and related services. ... Paddy Smith was a senior Irish politician. ... The Minister for Communications, Marine & Natural Resources is the chief minister at the Department of the same name in the Irish Government. ... The Minister for Posts & Telegraphs was responsible for Irelands postal and telecommunications services since the foundation of the State until 1984, the department was one of the largest civil service departments in Ireland. ... Erskine Hamilton Childers (November 11, 1905 - November 17, 1974), the son of Robert Erskine Childers (the author of The Riddle of the Sands), served as the fourth President of Ireland from 1973 until his death in 1974. ...

Eighth Cabinet, March 1957-June 1959

The Taoiseach (plural: Taoisigh) or, more formally, An Taoiseach, is the head of government of the Republic of Ireland and the leader of the Irish cabinet1. ... The Tánaiste (plural: Tánaistithe), or more formally An Tánaiste, is the deputy prime minister of the Republic of Ireland1. ... Seán Francis Lemass ( July 15, 1899 - May 11, 1971) was Taoiseach of the Republic of Ireland and served as the second leader of Fianna Fáil from 1959 until 1966. ... The Irish Minister for Finance is the second most important ministerial position in the Irish Cabinet after that of the Taoiseach. ... Dr. James Ryan (December 6, 1891 - September 25, 1970), was a senior Irish politician. ... The Minister for Foreign Affairs is one of the most important ministerial positions in the Irish cabinet, with responsibility for the relations between the Republic of Ireland and foreign states. ... Frank Aiken (February 13, 1898 - May 18, 1983), was a senior Irish politician. ... The Department of Enterprise Trade and Employment is one of the most important economic ministeries in the Irish Cabinet. ... Seán Francis Lemass ( July 15, 1899 - May 11, 1971) was Taoiseach of the Republic of Ireland and served as the second leader of Fianna Fáil from 1959 until 1966. ... The Minister for Justice, Equality & Law Reform is the chief minister in charge of law and order in the Republic of Ireland. ... Oscar Traynor ( March 21, 1886- December 15, 1963), Fianna Fáil politician and revolutionary. ... The Minister for Agriculture and Food is an important position in the Irish Government. ... Frank Aiken (February 13, 1898 - May 18, 1983), was a senior Irish politician. ... The Minister for Defence is in charge of the Department of Defence in the Republic of Ireland. ... Kevin Boland (1917 - 2001), was a senior Irish politician. ... The Minister for Education & Science is the chief person at the Department of Education & Science is engaged in a wide range of activities covering pllicy planning, quality assurance and providing a broad range of services for education in the Republic of Ireland. ... John Mary Jack Lynch (Ir. ... The Minister for Community, Rural and Gaeltacht Affairs is responsible for one of Irelands newest Departments of State. ... John Mary Jack Lynch (Ir. ... The Minister for Health & Children has overall constitutional and political responsibility for the Department of Health & Children, while his or her duties include the creation and assessment of policy for the health services. ... Seán MacEntee ( 1889– 1984) was a senior Irish politician. ... The Minister for Social & Family Affairs is the chief person at the Department of Social & Family Affairs in the Irish Government. ... Paddy Smith was a senior Irish politician. ... The Minister for the Environment, Heritage and Local Government is responsible for: election matters such as the general election and presidential elections, including electronic voting; the environment, Radiological Protection Institute of Ireland; heritage; local authorities and related services. ... Paddy Smith was a senior Irish politician. ... The Minister for Communications, Marine & Natural Resources is the chief minister at the Department of the same name in the Irish Government. ... Erskine Hamilton Childers (November 11, 1905 - November 17, 1974), the son of Robert Erskine Childers (the author of The Riddle of the Sands), served as the fourth President of Ireland from 1973 until his death in 1974. ... The Minister for Posts & Telegraphs was responsible for Irelands postal and telecommunications services since the foundation of the State until 1984, the department was one of the largest civil service departments in Ireland. ... Neil Blaney (October 1, 1922 - November 8, 1995), was a senior Irish politician. ...

Changes


May 16 is the 136th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (137th in leap years). ... 1957 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... June 26 is the 177th day of the year (178th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 188 days remaining. ... 1957 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... December 4 is the 338th day (339th on leap years) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1957 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... John Ormonde was a senior Irish politician. ... November 20 is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Frank Aiken (February 13, 1898 - May 18, 1983), was a senior Irish politician. ... November 27 is the 331st day (332nd on leap years) of the year. ... 1957 was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Seán MacEntee ( 1889– 1984) was a senior Irish politician. ... Neil Blaney (October 1, 1922 - November 8, 1995), was a senior Irish politician. ... Paddy Smith was a senior Irish politician. ...

Preceded by:
Cathal Brugha
President of Dáil Éireann
1919-1921
Succeeded by:
office replaced by President of the Republic
Preceded by:
Office of President of Dáil Éireann
President of the Irish Republic
1921-1922
Succeeded by:
Arthur Griffith
Preceded by:
William J. Walsh
Chancellor of the National University of Ireland
1921–1975
Succeeded by:
T.K. Whitaker
Preceded by:
William T. Cosgrave
President of the Executive Council
1932-1937
Succeeded by:
Office abolished and replaced by Taoiseach
Preceded by:
Office of the President of the Executive Council
Taoiseach
1937-1948
Succeeded by:
John A. Costello
Preceded by:
Patrick McGilligan
Minister for External Affairs
1932-1948
Succeeded by:
Seán MacBride
Preceded by:
John A. Costello
Taoiseach
1951-1954
Succeeded by:
John A. Costello
Preceded by:
Seán MacBride
Minister for External Affairs
1951-1954
Succeeded by:
Liam Cosgrave
Preceded by:
John A. Costello
Taoiseach
1957-1959
Succeeded by:
Seán F. Lemass
Preceded by:
Seán T. Ó Ceallaigh
President of Ireland
1959-1973
Succeeded by:
Erskine Hamilton Childers


Charles William St John Burgess (Cathal Brugha) (18 July 1874-7 July 1922) was an Irish revolutionary, born in Dublin, who was active in the Easter Rising and the Irish Civil War. ... The head of government under the Dáil Constitution adopted by the First Dáil of the Irish Republic in January 1919. ... This article is about the president of the 1919-1922 Irish Republic Republic of Ireland see: President of Ireland. ... Arthur Griffith (Árt Ó Gríobhtha in Irish) (31 March 1871 - 12 August 1922) was the founder and first leader of Sinn Féin. ... The National University of Ireland (NUI) is a federal university system of constituent universities, previously called constituent colleges, and recognised colleges set up under the Irish Universities Act, 1908, as amended by the Universities Act, 1997. ... Dr. T.K. Whitaker (b. ... William Thomas Cosgrave, ( June 6, 1880 - November 16, 1965) served as the first President of the Executive Council of the Irish Free State from 1922 to 1932. ... The President of the Executive Council (Irish: Uachtaráin na hArd-Chomhairle) was the title of the prime minister in the Executive Council of the Irish Free State from 1922-37. ... The Taoiseach (plural: Taoisigh) or, more formally, An Taoiseach, is the head of government of the Republic of Ireland and the leader of the Irish cabinet1. ... John Aloysius Costello (20 June 1891 - 5 January 1976), a successful barrister, was one of the main legal advisors to the government of the Irish Free State after independence, Attorney-General of Ireland from 1926-1932 and Taoiseach from 1948-1951 and 1954-1957. ... Patrick McGilligan (1889-1979), Irish politician and lawyer. ... The Minister for Foreign Affairs is one of the most important ministerial positions in the Irish cabinet, with responsibility for the relations between the Republic of Ireland and foreign states. ... Seán MacBride (26 January 1904 – 15 January 1988) was a senior Irish politician, barrister, revolutionary & statesman. ... John Aloysius Costello (20 June 1891 - 5 January 1976), a successful barrister, was one of the main legal advisors to the government of the Irish Free State after independence, Attorney-General of Ireland from 1926-1932 and Taoiseach from 1948-1951 and 1954-1957. ... The Taoiseach (plural: Taoisigh) or, more formally, An Taoiseach, is the head of government of the Republic of Ireland and the leader of the Irish cabinet1. ... John Aloysius Costello (20 June 1891 - 5 January 1976), a successful barrister, was one of the main legal advisors to the government of the Irish Free State after independence, Attorney-General of Ireland from 1926-1932 and Taoiseach from 1948-1951 and 1954-1957. ... Seán MacBride (26 January 1904 – 15 January 1988) was a senior Irish politician, barrister, revolutionary & statesman. ... The Minister for Foreign Affairs is one of the most important ministerial positions in the Irish cabinet, with responsibility for the relations between the Republic of Ireland and foreign states. ... Liam Cosgrave (Ir. ... John Aloysius Costello (20 June 1891 - 5 January 1976), a successful barrister, was one of the main legal advisors to the government of the Irish Free State after independence, Attorney-General of Ireland from 1926-1932 and Taoiseach from 1948-1951 and 1954-1957. ... The Taoiseach (plural: Taoisigh) or, more formally, An Taoiseach, is the head of government of the Republic of Ireland and the leader of the Irish cabinet1. ... Seán Francis Lemass ( July 15, 1899 - May 11, 1971) was Taoiseach of the Republic of Ireland and served as the second leader of Fianna Fáil from 1959 until 1966. ... Sean Thomas OKelly (Ir: Seán Tomás Ó Ceallaigh, pronounced Shaun Tho-mass O Kealla) (August 25, 1882 - November 23, 1966) was the second President of Ireland (1945-1959). ... The President of Ireland (Irish: Uachtarán na hÉireann) is the head of state of the Republic of Ireland. ... Erskine Hamilton Childers (November 11, 1905 - November 17, 1974), the son of Robert Erskine Childers (the author of The Riddle of the Sands), served as the fourth President of Ireland from 1973 until his death in 1974. ...

Taoisigh na hÉireann
(Prime Minister of Ireland)

Eamon de Valera | John A. Costello | Seán F. Lemass | Jack M. Lynch | Liam T. Cosgrave | Charles J. Haughey | Garret FitzGerald | Albert Reynolds | John Bruton | Bertie Ahern The Taoiseach (plural: Taoisigh) or, more formally, An Taoiseach, is the head of government of the Republic of Ireland and the leader of the Irish cabinet1. ... The Coat of Arms of the Republic of Ireland This image depicts a seal, an emblem, a coat of arms or a crest. ... John Aloysius Costello (20 June 1891 - 5 January 1976), a successful barrister, was one of the main legal advisors to the government of the Irish Free State after independence, Attorney-General of Ireland from 1926-1932 and Taoiseach from 1948-1951 and 1954-1957. ... ... John Mary Jack Lynch (Ir. ... Liam Cosgrave (Ir. ... Charles James Haughey (born September 16, 1925) was the sixth Taoiseach of the Republic of Ireland. ... Dr. Garret FitzGerald (Irish: Gearóid MacGearailt) (born February 9, 1926) was the seventh Taoiseach of the Republic of Ireland. ... Albert Reynolds (born November 3, 1932) was the eighth Taoiseach of the Republic of Ireland from 1992 to 1994. ... John Bruton (born May 18, 1947) was the ninth Taoiseach of the Republic of Ireland from 1994 to 1997, leading a Fine Gael-Labour-Democratic Left Rainbow Coalition. ... Patrick Bartholemew Ahern ( Irish: Pádraig Parthalán Ó hEachtairn) (born September 12, 1951), commonly called Bertie Ahern is an Irish politician. ...


Presidents of the Executive Council
Eamon de Valera | William T. Cosgrave
The President of the Executive Council (Irish: Uachtaráin na hArd-Chomhairle) was the title of the prime minister in the Executive Council of the Irish Free State from 1922-37. ... William Thomas Cosgrave, (June 6, 1880 - November 16, 1965) served as the first President of the Executive Council of the Irish Free State from 1922 to 1932. ...

Uachtaráin na hÉireann
(Presidents of Ireland)

Douglas Hyde | Seán T. Ó Ceallaigh | Eamon de Valera | Erskine H. Childers | Cearbhall Ó Dálaigh | Patrick Hillery | Mary Robinson | Mary McAleese The President of Ireland (Irish: Uachtarán na hÉireann) is the head of state of the Republic of Ireland. ... The Coat of Arms of the Republic of Ireland This image depicts a seal, an emblem, a coat of arms or a crest. ... Douglas Hyde (Ir: Dubhghlas de hÍde [doog-las de heeja]) (January 17, 1860 - July 12, 1949) was a Gaelic scholar who served as the first President of Ireland (1938-1945). ... Sean Thomas OKelly ( Ir: Seán Tomás Ó Ceallaigh, pronounced Shaun Tho-mass O Kealla) ( August 25, 1882 - November 23, 1966) was the second President of Ireland (1945-1959). ... Erskine Hamilton Childers (November 11, 1905 - November 17, 1974), the son of Robert Erskine Childers (the author of The Riddle of the Sands), served as the fourth President of Ireland from 1973 until his death in 1974. ... Cearbhall Ó Dálaigh (12 February 1911 - 21 March 1978) (pronounced karol o dawl-ie. In English his name translated as Carroll ODaly, but he was invariably called by his Irish name in both Irish and English. ... Patrick John Hillery (born May 2, 1923) was the sixth President of Ireland (1976-1990). ... Mary Robinson is also the name of an English poet, see Mary Robinson (poet) Mary Robinson (born 21 May 1944) was the first female President of Ireland, serving from 1990 to 1997, and the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, from 1997 to 2002. ... Mary Patricia McAleese (born 27 June 1951) is the eighth, and current, President of Ireland. ...


 
 

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