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Encyclopedia > Åland Islands
Landskapet Åland
image:Åland_flag.png image:Åland.png
(In Detail) (Heraldry)
National A motto is a phrase or collection of words intended to describe the motivation or intention of a sociological grouping or organization. Many countries, universities, and other institutions have mottos, as do families with coats of arms. These mottos are traditionally in Latin or Romance languages, as well as in... motto: ?
Image:LocationAland.png
An official language is something that is given a unique status in the countries, states, and other territories. It is typically the language used in a nations legislative bodies, though the law in many nations requires that government documents be produced in other languages as well. Officially recognized minority... Official language Swedish (svenska  listen?) is a Scandinavian language language spoken predominantly in Sweden, Finland and Åland by over 8 million native speakers. Swedish is closely related to, and usually mutually intelligible with, Danish and Norwegian and to some degree with Faroese. Swedish began to evolve as a seperate language... Swedish
In politics a capital (also called capital city or political capital — although the latter phrase has an alternative meaning based on an alternative meaning of capital) is the principal city or town associated with its government. It is almost always the city which physically encompasses the offices and meeting... Capital Mariehamn is the capital of Åland, an autonomous territory under Finlands sovereignty. Mariehamn has 10,632 inhabitants on an area of 11 km² (2003), almost half of the population of Åland lives there. Mariehamn, founded in 1861, was named after the Tsaritsa Maria Alexandrovna. Mariehamn is the seat of... Mariehamn
The Governor, Maaherra, or Landshövding, of a province of Finland heads the activities of the State Provincial Office, Lääninhallitus, or Länsstyrelse. The governors are appointed by the President. List of Provincial Governors Eastern Finland Pirjo Ala-Kapee, 1997– Lapland Kaarlo Hillilä, 1938–1947 Uuno Hannula... Governor Peter Lindbäck
A premier is an executive official of government. In many nations the term premier is used interchangeably with the title of prime minister. For example, the Italian Premier or the Japanese Premier. In the Peoples Republic of China it is used somewhat more commonly but still interchangeably with Prime... Premier Roger Nordlund (born November 19, 1957) is a politician in the Åland Islands, an autonomous and unilingually Swedish territory of Finland. Lantråd (premier) since 1999 Vice Lantråd (deputy premier) 1995-1999 Minister of education and culture 1991-1995 Member of the Lagting (Åland parliament) 1983-1987 Chairman of... Roger Nordlund
This article explains the meaning of area as a physical quantity. The article area (geometry) is more mathematical. Area is a quantity expressing the size of a region of space. Surface area refers to the summation of the areas of the exposed sides of an object. Units Units for measuring... Total Area
 - Land
 - Water
6,784 Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. It is one of the SI derived units. 1 km² is equal to: the area of a square measuring 1 kilometre on each side 1 000 000 m2 100 hectares 0.386 102 square miles... km²
1,527 km²
5,258 km²
In the most common sense of the word, a population is the collection of people—or organisms of a particular species—living in a given geographic area. Population is studied in a wide variety of ways and disciplines. In population dynamics, size, age and sex structure, mortality, reproductive... Population
 - Total (2002)
 - Population density can be used as a measurement of any tangible item. However it is most frequently applied to living organisms, humans in particular. Population density is usually expressed in terms of items or organisms per unit area. Definitions of population density Population density, according to the definition above, depends... Density

26,257
17.9/km²
For other uses, see Independence (disambiguation) Independence is autonomous self-government of a country by its residents and indigenous population. The term independence is used in contrast to subjugation, which refers to a region as a territory —subject to the political and military control of an external government. Autonomy... Independence None - autonomous province of Finland
A currency is a unit of exchange, facilitating the transfer of goods and services. It is a form of money, where money is defined as a medium of exchange rather than e.g. a store of value. A currency zone is a country or region in which a specific currency... Currency Euro (disambiguation). The euro (€; ISO 4217 code EUR) is the currency of twelve of the twenty-five European Union member states. These twelve states, which form the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), are: Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal and Spain. It is... Euro, The euro (EUR or €) is the common currency for twelve member states of the European Union, including Finland. The euro coins have two different sides; one common, European side showing the value of the coin, and one national side featuring a design chosen by the EU member state where... Finnish euro coins
For the novel by Ayn Rand, see Anthem (novel). An anthem is a choral composition to an English religious text sung in church services. The term has evolved to mean a song of celebration, usually acting as a symbol for a certain group of people, as in the term national... Anthem Ålänningens sång
-1... Time zone UTC also stands for the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga Coordinated Universal Time or UTC, also sometimes referred to as Zulu time, is an atomic realization of Universal Time or Greenwich mean time, the astronomical basis for civil time. Time zones around the world are expressed as positive and negative... UTC +2
A postal code is a series of letters and/or digits appended to a postal address for the purpose of sorting mail. The vast majority of the worlds postal services and/or countries have postal code systems. However, contrary to common misconception, not all do: The Republic of Ireland... Post code prefix AX
A top-level domain (TLD) is the last part of which Internet domain names consist of. For example, in the domain name wikipedia.org the top-level domain is org (or ORG, as domain names are not case-sensitive). The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) currently classifies top-level domains... Internet TLD .fi is the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD) for Finland. It is operated by FICORA, the Finnish Communications Regulatory Authority. In the past FICORA regulated .fi domains quite harshly. Domain names were only admitted to company names or companies that owned trademarks. This policy lead to Finnish companies... .fi (to be replaced by The government of the Internet country code top-level domain (ccTLD). Currently, however, there is no such TLD and Åland still uses the Finnish ccTLD .fi. .fi will be replaced by .ax if ICANN accepts Ålands application. Most Ålandian websites are under the .aland.fi subdomain. IANA has .ax... .ax if ICANN is the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers. It is a California non-profit corporation consisting largely of Internet Society Members, and was created on September 18, 1998 in order to take over a number of Internet-related tasks previously performed by other organizations, notably IANA. The contract... ICANN accepts Åland's application, currently reserved but unassigned)
At a glance In depth Zone 1 – North American Numbering Plan Area (nanpa.com) United States of America Including U.S. territories in the Pacific Islands: Guam (671) Northern Mariana Islands (670) American Samoa (684) Canada Many, but not all, Caribbean nations, with area codes: Anguilla (264) Antigua and... Calling Code 358 (area code 18)

The Åland Islands, or Landskapet Åland in Swedish (svenska  listen?) is a Scandinavian language language spoken predominantly in Sweden, Finland and Åland by over 8 million native speakers. Swedish is closely related to, and usually mutually intelligible with, Danish and Norwegian and to some degree with Faroese. Swedish began to evolve as a seperate language... Swedish, or Ahvenanmaan maakunta in Finnish is spoken by the majority (92%) in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland. It is an official language in Finland. Finnish is a member of the Finno-Ugric language family and is an agglutinative language which modifies the forms of both noun and adjective depending on their roles... Finnish-language, are an Autonomy is the condition of something that does not depend on anything else. In politics, a self_governing city or region, e.g. Kurdistan, Kosovo or Hong Kong SAR (not necessarily as a result of formal secession), is autonomous. True autonomy is usually a pre-requisite to separation or secession, however... autonomous, demilitarised, monolingually Swedish (svenska  listen?) is a Scandinavian language language spoken predominantly in Sweden, Finland and Åland by over 8 million native speakers. Swedish is closely related to, and usually mutually intelligible with, Danish and Norwegian and to some degree with Faroese. Swedish began to evolve as a seperate language... Swedish-speaking Finland consists of 6 provinces (Finnish: läänit, Swedish: län), following a 1997 redesign that reduced their number from 12. The province authority is part of the central governments executive branch; a system that hasnt changed drastically since its creation in 1634. The State of Finland is... administrative province of The Republic of Finland ( Finnish: Suomen tasavalta, Swedish: Republiken Finland) is a Nordic country in northeastern Europe, bordered by the Baltic Sea to the southwest, the Gulf of Finland to the southeast and the Gulf of Bothnia to the west. Finland has land frontiers with Sweden, Norway and Russia and... Finland. The Åland Islands consist of a Main Island, Fasta Åland, with 90% of the population and east thereof an An archipelago is a landform which consists of a chain or cluster of islands. Archipelagoes usually occur in the open sea; less commonly a large land mass may neighbour them. Archipelagos are often volcanic, forming along ocean ridges or hotspots, but there are many other processes involved in their construction... archipelago of more than 6,500 A skerry is a small, rocky island, usually defined to be too small for habitation. It may simply be a rocky reef. In English this this is considered to be a dialect word, from the Orkneys; but it is a term more used in Scandinavian (skär), there being a... skerries and islands at the entrance to the Categories: Finland geography stubs | Sweden geography stubs | Seas | Baltic Sea ... Gulf of Bothnia. Fasta Åland is separated by open water from the coast of The Kingdom of Sweden ( Swedish: Konungariket Sverige  listen?) is a Nordic country in Scandinavia, in Northern Europe. It is bordered by Norway on the west, Finland on the northeast, the Skagerrak Strait and the Kattegat Strait on the southwest, and the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Bothnia on... Sweden, 40 kilometers to the west. In the east, the Åland archipelago is virtually contiguous with the Finnish Archipelago Sea.


By reason of Åland's autonomous status, the powers exercised at provincial level by representatives of the central state administration in the rest of Finland are here largely in the remit of the Government of Åland (Ålands landskapsregering).

Contents

Autonomy of Åland

The autonomous status of the islands was affirmed by a decision made by the The League of Nations was an international organisation founded after the First World War with its constitution being approved by the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. The Leagues goals included disarmament, preventing war through collective security, settling disputes between countries through negotiation and diplomacy, and improving global welfare. The... League of Nations in 1921 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). Events January 2 - The first religious radio broadcast ( KDKA AM in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) January 2 - Spanish liner Santa Isabel sinks off Villa Garcia - 244 dead January 2 - DeYoung Museum in Golden Gate Park San Francisco opens. January 20... 1921, and in a somewhat different context reaffirmed in the treaty on Finland's admission to the The European Union or EU is an intergovernmental organisation of European countries, which currently has 25 member states. The Union was established under that name by the Treaty on European Union (commonly known as the Maastricht Treaty) in 1992. However, many aspects of the EU existed before that date through... European Union. By law, Åland is politically neutral and entirely demilitarised. The islands were granted extensive autonomy by the The Eduskunta in Finnish, or the Riksdag in Swedish, is the parliament of Finland. The unicameral parliament has 200 members and is located in Helsinki, the capital of Finland. Parliament House in Helsinki History When the unicameral parliament was established in 1906, Finland was an autonomous Grand Duchy under the... Eduskunta, Finland's legislative assembly, in an Act on the Autonomy of Åland of 1920 is a leap year starting on Thursday (link will take you to calendar) Events January January 7 - Forces of Russian White admiral Kolchak surrender in Krasnoyarsk. January 9 - Britain announces it will build 1,000,000 homes for war veterans. January 10 - League of Nations holds its first meeting... 1920 (last revised in 1991 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. Events January January 2 - Sharon Pratt Dixon is sworn in as mayor of Washington, DC becoming the first black woman to lead a city of that size and importance. January 4 - The United Nations Security Council votes unanimously... 1991[1]  (http://www.lagtinget.aland.fi/eng/act.html)).


In connection with Finland's admission to the The European Union or EU is an intergovernmental organisation of European countries, which currently has 25 member states. The Union was established under that name by the Treaty on European Union (commonly known as the Maastricht Treaty) in 1992. However, many aspects of the EU existed before that date through... European Union a protocol on the Åland Islands provides, among other things, that provisions of the The Treaty of Rome signing ceremony Signatures in the Treaty The Treaty of Rome refers to the treaty which established the European Economic Community (EEC) and was signed by France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg on March 25, 1957. Its original full name was Treaty establishing the... European Community Treaty shall not force a change of the existing restrictions for foreigners (i.e. persons who do not enjoy "regional Citizenship is membership in a political community (originally a city but now a state), and carries with it rights to political participation; a person having such membership is a citizen. It is largely coterminous with nationality, although it is possible to have a nationality without being a citizen (i.e... citizenship" (hembygdsrätt) in Åland) to acquire and hold real property, implying a recognition of a separate Nationality is, in English usage, a legal relationship existing between a person and a state. The person becomes subject to the states jurisdiction, even while not on the states territory; in exchange the subject becomes entitled to the states protection, and to other rights as well. The... nationality.


See also: Two parts of the treaty of the European Community deal with special relationships: Article 299 which sets out the territories to which the treaty applies, supplemented by the accession treaties; and Articles 182-188 and Annex II on association with the non-European countries and territories which have special relations... Special member state territories and their relations with the EU.


History

Main article: History of Åland

The Åland Islands were among the territory ceded to The Russian Federation ( Russian: Росси́йская Федера́ция, transliteration: Rossiyskaya Federatsiya or Rossijskaja Federacija), or Russia (Russian: Росси́я, transliteration: Rossiya or Rossija), is a country that stretches... Russia by The Kingdom of Sweden ( Swedish: Konungariket Sverige  listen?) is a Nordic country in Scandinavia, in Northern Europe. It is bordered by Norway on the west, Finland on the northeast, the Skagerrak Strait and the Kattegat Strait on the southwest, and the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Bothnia on... Sweden under the The Treaty of Fredrikshamn (Freden i Fredrikshamn in Swedish and Haminan rauha in Finnish ) was a peace treaty concluded between Sweden and Russia on September 17, 1809. The treaty concluded the Finnish War and was signed in the present-day Finnish town of Hamina, which was located in a part... treaty of Fredrikshamn in September 1809 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). Events January 16 - Peninsular War: The British defeat the French at the Battle of Corunna. February 3 - Illinois Territory was created. February 11 - Robert Fulton patents the steamboat. February 20 - A decision by the Supreme Court of the... 1809; they became part of the semi- Autonomy is the condition of something that does not depend on anything else. In politics, a self_governing city or region, e.g. Kurdistan, Kosovo or Hong Kong SAR (not necessarily as a result of formal secession), is autonomous. True autonomy is usually a pre-requisite to separation or secession, however... autonomous The Grand Duchy of Finland was a state that existed 1809–1917. Official languages Swedish and, from 1883, Finnish Established church Evangelical Lutheran and Orthodox Capital Turku (1809-1812) Helsinki (1812-) Head of state Grand Duke of Finland Area - km² (-) Population 1 636 900 (1850) Currency Before... Grand duchy of Finland.


When the islands were ceded to Russia, the Swedes were unable to secure a provision that the islands should not be fortified. The issue was important not only for Sweden but for the The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and a member of the British Commonwealth and European Union. Usually known simply as the United Kingdom, UK or, inaccurately, as Great Britain or Britain, the UK has four constituent parts. Three of these parts... United Kingdom, which was concerned that a military presence on the islands could threaten their security and commercial interests.


During the The Civil War in Finland was fought from January to May 1918, between the Reds (punaiset), i.e. Social Democrats together with Communists, and the Whites (valkoiset), i.e. forces commanded by the Conservative Senate that in the preceding autumn had succeeded a National Unity Senate, intending to maintain the... Civil War in Finland, 1918 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). Events January-February January 8 - President Woodrow Wilson announces his Fourteen Points for the aftermath of World War I. January 24 - a decree of the Council of Peoples Commissars, introducing the Gregorian calendar in Russia since February... 1918, Swedish troops intervened as a Peacekeeping is a way to help countries torn by conflict create conditions for sustainable peace. UN peacekeepers—soldiers and military officers, civilian police officers and civilian personnel from many countries—monitor and observe peace processes that emerge in post-conflict situations and assist ex-combatants to implement the... peacekeeping force between the Russian troops stationed on the islands, and White and Red troops arriving over the ice from Finland. Within weeks the Swedes were replaced by German troops occupying by request of the Finnish The White Guards is one translation of the Finnish term Suojeluskunta (plural: Suojeluskunnat, Finland-Swedish: Skyddskår) that unfortunately has received many different translations to English, for instance: Security Guard, Civil Guard, National Guard, White Militia, Defence Corps, Protection Guard, Protection Corps and Protection Militia. These White Guards constituted the... "White" government.


From 1917 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). Events January-February President Woodrow Wilson of the United States announces to Congress the breaking of diplomatic relations with Germany January 2 - The Royal Bank of Canada takes over Quebec Bank. January 22 - World War I: President Woodrow... 1917 the residents of the islands aimed at having the islands ceded back to their mother country, Sweden. A petition for secession from Finland was signed by 96.2% of Åland's native adults (those working or living abroad excluded, although serious questions were later raised regarding this extraordinarily high figure). Swedish nationalist sentiments had grown strong particularly in the face of anti-Swedish tendencies in Finland, Finnish nationalism fuelled by Finland's struggle to retain its autonomy, and the Finnish resistance against The policy of Russification of Finland, 1899–1917, aimed at the termination of Finland’s autonomy but resulted in fierce Finnish resistance that ultimately led to Finlands declaration of independence in 1917. The russification was suspended and partially reversed 1905–07 and 1914–17 in... Russification. Also the conflict between the Swedish speaking minority in Finland and the Finnish speaking majority, which since the Events and Trends First signing of the Treaty of Waitangi (Te Tiriti o Waitangi) on February 6, 1840 at Waitangi New Zealand. The treaty between the British Crown and Maori made New Zealand a British colony and is considered the founding point of modern New Zealand. Introduction of the postage... 1840s had been prominent in Finland's political life, contributed to the Åland population's fear for its future in Finland. (See: Åland crisis)


However, as Finland was not willing to cede the islands, they were offered an autonomous status instead of reannexation. The residents did nevertheless not approve the offer, and the dispute over the islands was submitted to the The League of Nations was an international organisation founded after the First World War with its constitution being approved by the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. The Leagues goals included disarmament, preventing war through collective security, settling disputes between countries through negotiation and diplomacy, and improving global welfare. The... League of Nations. The latter decided that Finland should retain the Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme authority over a geographic region or group of people, such as a nation or a tribe. Sovereignty is generally vested in a government or other political agency, though there are cases where it is held by an individual. A monarch who rules... sovereignty over the province, but the Åland Islands should be made an autonomous territory. Thus Finland was under an obligation to ensure the residents of the Åland Islands a right to maintain the Swedish language, as well as their own culture and local traditions. At the same time, an international treaty was concluded on the neutral status of Åland, under which it was prohibited to place military headquarters or forces on the islands.


In the course of the (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... 20th century, the Finnish sovereignty has been perceived as benevolent, and even beneficial, by increasing numbers of the islanders. Together with disappointment over insufficient support from Sweden in the League of Nations, Swedish disrespect for Åland's demilitarised status in the Events and trends Technology Jet engine invented Science Nuclear fission discovered by Otto Hahn, Lise Meitner and Fritz Strassmann Pluto, the ninth planet from the Sun, is discovered by Clyde Tombaugh British biologist Arthur Tansley coins term ecosystem War, peace and politics Socialists proclaim The death of Capitalism Rise to... 1930s, and to some degree a feeling of shared destiny with Finland during and after World War II, this has resulted in a changed perception of Åland's relation to Finland: from "a Swedish province in Finnish possession" to "an autonomous part of Finland".


Politics

Main article: Politics of Åland

The Åland Islands are governed according to the Act on Åland Autonomy and international treaties, which guarantees autonomy and demilitarized status. The Government of Åland, or Landskapsregering, is dependent on the Parliament of Åland, or Lagting according to the principles of A parliamentary system, or parliamentarism, is distinguished by the executive branch of government being dependent on the direct or indirect support of the parliament, often expressed through a vote of confidence. Hence, there is no clear-cut separation of powers between the legislative and executive branches of government. Parliamentary systems... parliamentarism.


In Events Moses Amyrauts Traite de la predestination is published Curaçao captured by the Dutch Treaty of Polianovska First meeting of the Académie française The witchcraft affair at Loudun Jean Nicolet lands at Green Bay, Wisconsin Opening of Covent Garden Market in London English establish a settlement... 1634 Åland was made part of the Åbo and Björneborg County as a part of the grand administrative reforms initiated by count Count Axel Gustafsson Oxenstierna  listen? or Oxenstjerna ( June 16, 1583 - August 28, 1654), Lord High Chancellor of Sweden, was born at Fånö in Uplandia, and received his education with his brothers at the universities of Rostock, Jena and Wittenberg. On returning home in 1603 he took... Axel Oxenstierna. In 1918 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). Events January-February January 8 - President Woodrow Wilson announces his Fourteen Points for the aftermath of World War I. January 24 - a decree of the Council of Peoples Commissars, introducing the Gregorian calendar in Russia since February... 1918, following dominant Political separatism is a movement to obtain sovereignty and split a territory or group of people (usually a people with a distinctive national consciousness) from one another (or one nation from another; a colony from the metropolis). The term is often not accepted by actual separatist groups themselves as they... separatist opinions on Åland in connection with The Republic of Finland ( Finnish: Suomen tasavalta, Swedish: Republiken Finland) is a Nordic country in northeastern Europe, bordered by the Baltic Sea to the southwest, the Gulf of Finland to the southeast and the Gulf of Bothnia to the west. Finland has land frontiers with Sweden, Norway and Russia and... Finland's independence and the The Civil War in Finland was fought from January to May 1918, between the Reds (punaiset), i.e. Social Democrats together with Communists, and the Whites (valkoiset), i.e. forces commanded by the Conservative Senate that in the preceding autumn had succeeded a National Unity Senate, intending to maintain the... Civil War in Finland, it was separated into its own administrative entity. The The League of Nations was an international organisation founded after the First World War with its constitution being approved by the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. The Leagues goals included disarmament, preventing war through collective security, settling disputes between countries through negotiation and diplomacy, and improving global welfare. The... League of Nations' resolution of 1921 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). Events January 2 - The first religious radio broadcast ( KDKA AM in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) January 2 - Spanish liner Santa Isabel sinks off Villa Garcia - 244 dead January 2 - DeYoung Museum in Golden Gate Park San Francisco opens. January 20... 1921 left Åland under Finland's Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme authority over a geographic region or group of people, such as a nation or a tribe. Sovereignty is generally vested in a government or other political agency, though there are cases where it is held by an individual. A monarch who rules... sovereignty, but with a high degree of Autonomy is the condition of something that does not depend on anything else. In politics, a self-governing city or region, e.g. Kurdistan, Kosovo or Hong Kong SAR (not necessarily as a result of formal secession), is autonomous. Autonomy is usually a pre-requisite to separation or secession, however... autonomy and some exclusive rights for the National is the Japanese brand under which Matsushita products are sold. In the US, they are sold under the Panasonic brand. See also Nationality ... nationals of Åland.


Åland has its own national flag, has issued its own This 1974 stamp from Japan depicts a Class 8620 steam locomotive. A postage stamp is evidence of pre-paying a fee for postal services. Usually a small paper rectangle which is attached to an envelope, signifying that the person sending the letter or package has paid for delivery, it is... postage stamps since 1984 is a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. Events January January 1 - Brunei becomes a fully independent state January 1 - AT&T is broken up into 22 independent units January 5 - Richard Stallman starts developing GNU. January 7 - Brunei becomes the sixth member of the... 1984, has its own For the band, see The Police. For the Polish town, see Police, Poland. A car of the Devon and Cornwall Constabulary, England Police forces are government organisations ostensibly charged with the responsibility of maintaining law and order. The word comes from the French, and less directly from the Greek politeia... police force, and is a member of the The Nordic Council and the Nordic Council of Ministers is a cooperation forum for the governments of the Nordic countries. It was established following World War II and its first concrete results was the introduction in 1952 of a common labour market, social security, and free movement across borders without... Nordic Council. The islands are demilitarised and the male population is exempted from conscription. Parliamentarism has been the custom since 1988 is a leap year starting on a Friday of the Gregorian calendar. Events Environmental change Zebra mussels found in the Great lakes December 2 - Cyclone in Bangladesh leaves 5 million homeless - thousands dead December 7 - In Armenia an earthquake 6.9 on the Richter scale killed nearly 25.000... 1988. The Åland autonomy preceded the creation of the Finland is divided into 20 regions (maakunta/landskap in Finnish/Swedish). The regions are governed by Regional Councils, which serve as forums of cooperation for the municipalities of a region. Regions grouped by province Lapland Province Lapland (Lappi/ Lappland) Oulu Province Northern Ostrobothnia (Pohjois-Pohjanmaa/ Norra Österbotten) Kainuu (Kainuu/ Kajanaland... Regions of Finland, but the autonomous government of Åland also handles what the regional councils do.


The Sovereignty is the exclusive right to exercise supreme authority over a geographic region or group of people, such as a nation or a tribe. Sovereignty is generally vested in a government or other political agency, though there are cases where it is held by an individual. A monarch who rules... sovereignty over Åland belongs to Finland, and Åland is thus not This article discusses states as sovereign political entities. For other meanings, see state (disambiguation). In international law and international relations, a state is a geographic political entity possessing politicial sovereignty, i.e. not being subject to any higher political authority. In casual language, the idea of a state and a... independent. The Åland Islands is guaranteed representation in the The Eduskunta in Finnish, or the Riksdag in Swedish, is the parliament of Finland. The unicameral parliament has 200 members and is located in Helsinki, the capital of Finland. Parliament House in Helsinki History When the unicameral parliament was established in 1906, Finland was an autonomous Grand Duchy under the... Finnish parliament, and elects one representative.


Administration

The State Provincial Office on the Åland Islands has a somewhat different function from the other Finland consists of 6 provinces (Finnish: läänit, Swedish: län), following a 1997 redesign that reduced their number from 12. The province authority is part of the central governments executive branch; a system that hasnt changed drastically since its creation in 1634. The State of Finland is... Provinces of Finland due to its Autonomy is the condition of something that does not depend on anything else. In politics, a self-governing city or region, e.g. Kurdistan, Kosovo or Hong Kong SAR (not necessarily as a result of formal secession), is autonomous. Autonomy is usually a pre-requisite to separation or secession, however... autonomy. Generally a State Provincial Office is a joint regional authority of seven different ministries of the Politics of Finland Categories: Politics stubs | Finnish politics ... Government of Finland. In Åland the State Provincial Office also represents a set of other authorities of the central government, which in Mainland Finland (Manner-Suomi or Fasta Finland) is a term used for instance in statistics to exclude the autonomous Åland Islands under Finnish sovereignty. Mainland Finland is not to be confused with Finland Proper, that is the province adjacent to Åland. In a geographical sense it could, of course, as... Mainland Finland has separate bureaucracies. On the other hand duties, which on Mainland Finland are handled by the provincial offices, are transferred to the autonomous government of Åland.


Municipalities

Main article: Municipalities of Åland

  • Geta
  • Hammarland is a municipality of Åland, an autonomous territory of Finland. The municipality has a population of 1,365 and covers an area of 135.21 km² of which 1.99 km² is water. The population density is 10.1 inhabitants per km². The municipality is unilingually Swedish. Categories: Municipalities... Hammarland
  • Jomala is a municipality of Åland, an autonomous territory of Finland. The municipality has a population of 3,444 (2003) and covers an area of 143.01 km² of which 1.02 km² is water. The population density is 24.1 inhabitants per km². The municipality is unilingually Swedish. Categories... Jomala
  • Kumlinge is a municipality of Åland, an autonomous territory of Finland. The municipality has a population of 387 (2003) and covers an area of 96.59 km² of which 0.31 km² is water. The population density is 4.0 inhabitants per km². The municipality is unilingually Swedish. Categories: Stub... Kumlinge
  • Kökar
  • Lemland is a municipality of Åland, an autonomous territory of Finland. The municipality has a population of 1,662 (2003) and covers an area of 112.31 km² (excluding the sea) of which 0.74 km² is inland water. The population density is 14.8 inhabitants per km². The municipality... Lemland
  • Lumparland is a municipality of Åland, an autonomous territory of Finland. The municipality has a population of 383 (2003) and covers an area of 35.72 km² (excluding sea area) of which 0.03 km² is water. The population density is 10.7 inhabitants per km². The municipality is unilingually... Lumparland
  • Mariehamn is the capital of Åland, an autonomous territory under Finlands sovereignty. Mariehamn has 10,632 inhabitants on an area of 11 km² (2003), almost half of the population of Åland lives there. Mariehamn, founded in 1861, was named after the Tsaritsa Maria Alexandrovna. Mariehamn is the seat of... Mariehamn
  • Saltvik is a municipality of Åland, an autonomous territory of Finland. The municipality has a population of 1,747 (2003) and covers an area of 155.42 km² of which 4.68 km² is water. The population density is 11.6 inhabitants per km². The municipality is unilingually Swedish. Categories... Saltvik
  • Sottunga is a municipality of Åland, an autonomous territory of Finland. The municipality has a population of 134 (2003) and covers an area of 26.78 km2 of which 0.01 km2 is water. The population density is 5.0 inhabitants per km2. The municipality is unilingually Swedish. Categories: Finland... Sottunga
  • Sund
  • Vårdö

Geography

Åland Islands Map
Åland Islands
(larger map)

Main article: Geography of Åland

The Åland Islands occupy a position of great strategic importance, commanding as they do both one of the entrances to the port of Stockholm [, ] is the capital and the largest City of Sweden. The City of Stockholm is administratively a municipality within Stockholm County, the population of the city proper is 761,721 (2004), with the suburbs included, the population is 1,695,946 (2004) (Stockholm County except Norrtälje, Nykvarn, Nynäshamn... Stockholm and the approaches to the Categories: Finland geography stubs | Sweden geography stubs | Seas | Baltic Sea ... Gulf of Bothnia, in addition to being situated near the The Baltic Sea The Gulf of Finland is an arm of the Baltic Sea that extends between Finland (to the north) and Estonia (to the south) all the way to the city of Saint Petersburg in Russia, where the river Neva drains into it. Other major cities around the gulf... Gulf of Finland.


The Åland archipelago consists of nearly three hundred inhabitable islands, of which about eighty are inhabited, the remainder are merely some 6,000 A skerry is a small, rocky island, usually defined to be too small for habitation. It may simply be a rocky reef. In English this this is considered to be a dialect word, from the Orkneys; but it is a term more used in Scandinavian (skär), there being a... skerries and desolate rocks. The archipelago is connected to Abo redirects here. ABO is also a major determinant of blood type Turku, Åbo in Swedish, Aboa in Latin, is a city in Finland, founded in the 13th century. The exact year of foundation is not commonly agreed, but tradtionally it is often dated from the year 1229. According to... Turku archipelago in the east ( Finnish is spoken by the majority in Finland and by Ethnic Finns outside of Finland. It is one of two official languages of Finland. Finnish is a member of the Finno-Ugric language family and is an agglutinative language which modifies the forms of both noun and adjective depending on... Finnish: Turunmaan saaristo, Swedish (svenska) is a language spoken principally in Sweden, Finland (Finland-Swedish, Swedish: finlandssvenska), Åland and in the coastland of Estonia Swedish is classified as a member of the East section of the Scandinavian languages, a sub-group of the Germanic group of the Indo-European language family. History Swedish... Swedish: Åbo skärgård), the archipelago adjacent to the southwest coast of Finland.


The surface of the islands is generally sandy, the soil thin and the climate keen. There are several excellent harbours, most notably at Ytternäs.


The islands' landmass occupy a total area of 1,512 km². Ninety percent of the population live on Fasta Åland (the Main Island), which is also the site of the capital town of Mariehamn is the capital of Åland, an autonomous territory under Finlands sovereignty. Mariehamn has 10,632 inhabitants on an area of 11 km² (2003), almost half of the population of Åland lives there. Mariehamn, founded in 1861, was named after the Tsaritsa Maria Alexandrovna. Mariehamn is the seat of... Mariehamn. Fasta Åland is the largest island in the archipelago, extending over more than 70% of the province's land area, stretching 50 km from north to south and 45 km from east to west.


During the Åland crisis, the parties sought support from differently looking maps over the islands. On the Swedish map the most densely populated main-island dominated and many skerries were left out. On the Finnish map, a lot of smaller islands or skerries were for technical reasons given a slightly exaggerated size. The Swedish map made the islands appear to be closer to the mainland of Sweden than to Finland; the Finnish map stressed the continuousity of the archipelago between the main-island and Mainland Finland (Manner-Suomi or Fasta Finland) is a term used for instance in statistics to exclude the autonomous Åland Islands under Finnish sovereignty. Mainland Finland is not to be confused with Finland Proper, that is the province adjacent to Åland. In a geographical sense it could, of course, as... mainland Finland, while a greater gap appeared between the islands and the archipelago on the Swedish side. Although both Finns and Swedes of course argued for their respective interpretations, it's in retrospect hard to say that one is more correct than the other. A consequence is however, the oft repeated number of "over 6,000" skerries, that was given authority by the outcome of the arbitration.


Economy

Main article: Economy of Åland

Åland's economy is heavily dominated by shipping, trade and tourism. Shipping represents about 40% of the economy with several international carriers owned and operated off Åland. Most companies outside shipping are small companies with less than ten employees. Farming and fishing are important in combination with the food industry. A few, but high profile, technology companies contribute to a well-off economy.


The main ports are Mariehamn is the capital of Åland, an autonomous territory under Finlands sovereignty. Mariehamn has 10,632 inhabitants on an area of 11 km² (2003), almost half of the population of Åland lives there. Mariehamn, founded in 1861, was named after the Tsaritsa Maria Alexandrovna. Mariehamn is the seat of... Mariehamn (south), Storby (east) and Långnäs on the eastern shore of the Main Island.


The abolition of tax-free sales on ferry boats travelling between destinations within the The European Union or EU is an intergovernmental organisation of European countries, which currently has 25 member states. The Union was established under that name by the Treaty on European Union (commonly known as the Maastricht Treaty) in 1992. However, many aspects of the EU existed before that date through... European Union made Finland demand an exception for the Åland Islands. The exception allows for maintained tax-free sales on the ferries between Sweden and Finland, but has also made Åland a different tax-zone, meaning that tariffs must be levied on goods brought to the islands.


Unemployment is well below that of surrounding regions, 1.8% in 2004.


Demographics

Main article: Demographics of Åland

Most inhabitants have Swedish (svenska  listen?) is a Scandinavian language language spoken predominantly in Sweden, Finland and Åland by over 8 million native speakers. Swedish is closely related to, and usually mutually intelligible with, Danish and Norwegian and to some degree with Faroese. Swedish began to evolve as a seperate language... Swedish (the sole An official language is something that is given a unique status in the countries, states, and other territories. It is typically the language used in a nations legislative bodies, though the law in many nations requires that government documents be produced in other languages as well. Officially recognized minority... official language) as their First language (native language, mother tongue, or vernacular) is the language a person learns first. Correspondingly, the person is called a native speaker of the language. Usually a child learns the basics of their first language from their family. Good skills in native language are essential for further learning, as... mother tongue: 93.5% in 2001, although Finnish is spoken by the majority (92%) in Finland and by ethnic Finns outside Finland. It is an official language in Finland. Finnish is a member of the Finno-Ugric language family and is an agglutinative language which modifies the forms of both noun and adjective depending on their roles... Finnish speakers' rights are safeguarded. In the rest of Finland, both Finnish and Swedish are official languages. The majority of the population, 94.8%, belongs to the The Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland is a Lutheran Church and the most common church in Finland. With a subscription rate of 85 percent (2003) it is the largest denomination in Finland, though it has lost some membership as society has secularized. The head of the church is the Archbishop... Evangelical Lutheran Church.


The issue of the ethnical belonging of the Ålanders, and the correct linguistic classification of their language, remains somewhat sensitive and controversial. They may be considered Swede (turnip /neep in Scotland) is also the British name for what the Americans call rutabaga. The Swedes are a people of Germanic origin, having their primarily geographical location on the eastern side of the Scandinavian Peninsula in Northern Europe. Identification, or the identity, as Swedes are today resting on... Ethnic Swedes or Finland-Swedish is a variety of Swedish. Until 1863 Swedish, not Finnish, was the language of jurisdiction, administration and higher education in Finland. In 1892 Finnish and Swedish became official languages with equal status, and at Finlands independence in 1917 Finnish clearly dominated in government and society. Finland has... Finland Swedes, however their language is closer to the adjacent dialects in Sweden than to adjacent dialects of Finland-Swedish.


Culture

Main article: Culture of Åland

Holidays

Date English Name Local Name Remarks
January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. Here a calendar year refers to the order in which the months are displayed, January to December. The first day of the medieval Julian year was usually a day other than January 1... January 1 This page deals with the annual event. For the band, see The New Year. The New Year is an event that happens when a culture celebrates the end of one year and the beginning of the next. Cultures that measure yearly calendars all have New Year celebrations. Modern new year... New Year's Day Nyårsdagen  
January 6 is the 6th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. There are 359 days remaining (360 in leap years). Events 1066 - Harold Godwinson crowned King of England 1205 - Philip of Swabia becomes King of the Romans 1540 - King Henry VIII of England marries Anne of Cleves. 1579... January 6 This article is about the Christian feast. For other meanings see epiphany (disambiguation). Epiphany (Greek: επιφάνεια, the appearance, miraculous phenomenon) is a Christian feast intended to celebrate the shining forth or revelation of God to humankind in human form, in the person... Epiphany Trettondagen  
For the novel by Ernest Hemingway, see A Moveable Feast. In Christianity, a moveable feast or movable feast is a holy day -- a feast or a fast -- whose date is not fixed to a particular day of the calendar year but moves in response to the date of Easter, which... Moveable Friday Good Friday is a special day celebrated by Christians on the Friday before Easter or Pascha. It commemorates the crucifixion of Jesus. Special prayer services are often held on this day with readings from the Gospel accounts of the events leading up to the crucifixion. Mainstream Christian churches view Christ... Good Friday Långfredag The Friday before Easter Sunday
For the novel by Ernest Hemingway, see A Moveable Feast. In Christianity, a moveable feast or movable feast is a holy day -- a feast or a fast -- whose date is not fixed to a particular day of the calendar year but moves in response to the date of Easter, which... Moveable Sunday Easter (also called Pascha) is generally accounted the most important holiday of the Christian year, observed March or April each year to celebrate the Resurrection of Jesus from the dead (after his death by crucifixion; see Good Friday), which Christians believe happened at about this time of year, almost two... Easter Sunday Påskdagen  
For the novel by Ernest Hemingway, see A Moveable Feast. In Christianity, a moveable feast or movable feast is a holy day -- a feast or a fast -- whose date is not fixed to a particular day of the calendar year but moves in response to the date of Easter, which... Moveable Monday Easter (also called Pascha) is generally accounted the most important holiday of the Christian year, observed March or April each year to celebrate the Resurrection of Jesus from the dead (after his death by crucifixion; see Good Friday), which Christians believe happened at about this time of year, almost two... Easter Monday Annandag påsk The day after Easter Sunday
April 30 is the 120th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (121st in leap years). There are 245 days remaining. Events 313 - Roman emperor Licinius unifies the entire Eastern Roman Empire under his rule. 1492 - Spain gives Christopher Columbus his commission of exploration. 1671 - Petar Zrinski, the Croatian... April 30 Walpurgis Night (Valborgsmässoafton in Swedish, Vappu in Finnish, Volbriöö in Estonian, Valpurģu nakts or Valpurģi in Latvian, Walpurgisnacht in German) is a holiday celebrated on April 30, in Finland, Sweden, Estonia, Latvia and Germany. Finland and Sweden History The festival is named after Saint Walburga... Walpurgis Night Valborgsmässoafton  
May 1 is the 121st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (122nd in leap years). There are 244 days remaining. Events 300-1899 305 - Diocletian and Maximian retire from the office of Roman Emperor. 1328 - Wars of Scottish Independence end: Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton - England recognises Scotland as... May 1 For the distress signal, see: Mayday; For the James Bond villain see May Day (James Bond) May Day is a name for various holidays celebrated on May 1 (or in the beginning of May). Labour association May Day rallies, such as this one in Mumbai, are common. The holiday is... May Day Första maj  
For the novel by Ernest Hemingway, see A Moveable Feast. In Christianity, a moveable feast or movable feast is a holy day -- a feast or a fast -- whose date is not fixed to a particular day of the calendar year but moves in response to the date of Easter, which... Moveable Thursday For other meanings see Ascension (disambiguation) The Ascension is one of the great feasts in the Christian liturgical calendar, and commemorates the bodily Ascension of Jesus into Heaven forty days after his resurrection from the dead. The event is recorded in the New Testament in Acts Chapter 1. In the... Ascension Day Kristi himmelsfärdsdag 40 days after Easter
For the novel by Ernest Hemingway, see A Moveable Feast. In Christianity, a moveable feast or movable feast is a holy day -- a feast or a fast -- whose date is not fixed to a particular day of the calendar year but moves in response to the date of Easter, which... Moveable Sunday Note: This article is mostly about the Christian holiday of Pentecost. For the Jewish holiday of Pentecost see the article on Shavuot Pentecost (the 50th day in ancient Greek) is a holiday of Christianity, which commemorates the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the Apostles, fifty days after the resurrection... Pentecost Pingstdagen 50 days after Easter
For the novel by Ernest Hemingway, see A Moveable Feast. In Christianity, a moveable feast or movable feast is a holy day -- a feast or a fast -- whose date is not fixed to a particular day of the calendar year but moves in response to the date of Easter, which... Moveable Monday Note: This article is mostly about the Christian holiday of Pentecost. For the Jewish holiday of Pentecost see the article on Shavuot Pentecost (the 50th day in ancient Greek) is a holiday of Christianity, which commemorates the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the Apostles, fifty days after the resurrection... Whitmonday Annandag Pingst 51 days after Easter
Third Friday of June is the sixth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of four with the length of 30 days. June starts in Gemini and ends in Cancer. In the pagan wheel of the year the June spans summer solstice in the northern hemisphere and winter solstice in... June Midsummer celebration, Åmmeberg, Sweden Midsummer is the period of time centered upon the summer solstice. In the old Germanic calendar, it was referred to as Litha, a term still in use today but seemingly limited to modern Pagans (called neopagans). Midsummer-related holidays, traditions and celebrations, most of which are... Midsummer Eve Midsommarafton  
Third Saturday of June is the sixth month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of four with the length of 30 days. June starts in Gemini and ends in Cancer. In the pagan wheel of the year the June spans summer solstice in the northern hemisphere and winter solstice in... June Midsummer celebration, Åmmeberg, Sweden Midsummer is the period of time centered upon the summer solstice. In the old Germanic calendar, it was referred to as Litha, a term still in use today but seemingly limited to modern Pagans (called neopagans). Midsummer-related holidays, traditions and celebrations, most of which are... Midsummer Day Midsommardagen  
First Saturday of November is the eleventh month of the year in the Gregorian Calendar and one of four Gregorian months with the length of 30 days. November begins (astrologically) with the sun in the sign of Scorpio and ends in the sign of Sagittarius. Astronomically speaking, the sun begins in the constellation... November All Saints in Poland The festival of All Saints, also sometimes known as All Hallows, or Hallowmas, is a feast celebrated in honour of all the saints and martyrs, known or unknown. The Roman Catholic holiday (Festum omnium sanctorum) falls on November 1, followed by All Souls Day on November... All Saints Day Alla helgons dag  
December 6 is the 340th day (341st on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. There are 25 days remaining. Events 1240 - Kiev falls to the Mongols under Batu Khan. 1534 - Spanish found Quito, Ecuador. 1768 - First edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica is published. 1790 - U... December 6 Independence day Självständighetsdagen Independence of The Republic of Finland ( Finnish: Suomen tasavalta, Swedish: Republiken Finland) is a Nordic country in northeastern Europe, bordered by the Baltic Sea to the southwest, the Gulf of Finland to the southeast and the Gulf of Bothnia to the west. Finland has land frontiers with Sweden, Norway and Russia and... Finland ( 1917 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). Events January-February President Woodrow Wilson of the United States announces to Congress the breaking of diplomatic relations with Germany January 2 - The Royal Bank of Canada takes over Quebec Bank. January 22 - World War I: President Woodrow... 1917)
December 24 is the 358th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (359th in leap years). There are 7 days remaining. Events 640 - John IV becomes Pope 1777 - Kiritimati, also called Christmas Island, was discovered by James Cook. 1814 - The Treaty of Ghent was signed which ended the War... December 24 See also Christmas Christmas Eve, December 24, the day before Christmas Day, is treated to a greater or a lesser extent in most Christian societies as part of the festivities. Christmas Eve is the traditional day to trim the Christmas tree, but as the holiday season has been extended several... Christmas Eve Julafton  
December 25 is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 6 days remaining. It is the 300th day counting from March 1, every year. Events 800 - Coronation of Charlemagne as Holy Roman Emperor, in Rome. 1066 - Coronation of William the Conqueror as... December 25 Joseph and Mary with baby Jesus, at the first Christmas Christmas (literally, the Mass of Christ) is a holiday in the Christian calendar, usually observed on December 25, which celebrates the birth of Jesus. According to the Christian gospels, Jesus was born to Mary in Bethlehem, where she and her... Christmas Day Juldagen  
December 26 is the 360th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, 361st in leap years. There are 5 days remaining. Events 1481 - Battle of Westbroek - Holland defeats troops of Utrecht 1606 - King Lear performed in the Court of England 1620 - Elizabeth Bathorys crimes are uncovered 1620 - Pilgrim... December 26 Boxing Day is a public holiday observed in many Commonwealth countries on 26 December. In many European countries it is also a holiday, called St Stephens Day or the Second Day of Christmas. There is much dispute over the true origins of Boxing Day, but one common story of... Boxing Day Annandag jul  

External links

  • Åland (http://www.aland.fi/) - Official Site
  • Parliament of Åland (http://www.lagtinget.aland.fi/)
  • Government of Åland (http://www.ls.aland.fi/)
  • Act on Autonomy of Åland (http://www.lagtinget.aland.fi/eng/act.html)
  • The autonomous regime of Åland (http://virtual.finland.fi/finfo/english/minorit2.html)
  • Åland (http://www.goaland.net/) - Tourist site
  • About The Åland Islands (http://www.lundberg-lagerstedt.se/aland/)


The Nordic Council and the Nordic Council of Ministers is a cooperation forum for the governments of the Nordic countries. It was established following World War II and its first concrete results was the introduction in 1952 of a common labour market, social security, and free movement across borders without... Nordic Council
Denmark (disambiguation). The Kingdom of Denmark is geographically the smallest Nordic country and is part of the European Union. It is located in Scandinavia, which is in northern Europe. Denmark borders the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, and consists of a peninsula attached to Northern Germany named Jutland (Jylland... Denmark | The Republic of Finland ( Finnish: Suomen tasavalta, Swedish: Republiken Finland) is a Nordic country in northeastern Europe, bordered by the Baltic Sea to the southwest, the Gulf of Finland to the southeast and the Gulf of Bothnia to the west. Finland has land frontiers with Sweden, Norway and Russia and... Finland | Iceland (disambiguation). The Republic of Iceland ( Icelandic: Lýðveldið Ísland) is a borderless country in the northern Atlantic Ocean, located between Greenland, Scotland and Norway. National motto: None Official language None. Icelandic de facto. Capital and largest city Reykjavík President Ólafur Ragnar Gr... Iceland | The Kingdom of Norway is a Nordic country on the western portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, bordering Sweden, Finland and Russia, with territorial waters bordering Danish and British waters. It has a very elongated form and has an extensive coastline along the North Atlantic Ocean, where Norways famous fjords... Norway | The Kingdom of Sweden ( Swedish: Konungariket Sverige  listen?) is a Nordic country in Scandinavia, in Northern Europe. It is bordered by Norway on the west, Finland on the northeast, the Skagerrak Strait and the Kattegat Strait on the southwest, and the Baltic Sea and the Gulf of Bothnia on... Sweden
Associate members
Åland | Motto: None Official language Faroese Capital Tórshavn Monarch Margrethe II Prime Minister Jóannes Eidesgaard Area  - Total  - % water World ranking: 189th 1,399 km² — Population  - Total ( 2004)  - Density World ranking: 211th 48,228 33.1/km² Independence None (Danish dependency... Faroe Islands | This article is about Greenland, the island dependency of Denmark. For information about the United States town of Greenland, see Greenland, New Hampshire. Greenland (Greenlandic: Kalaallit Nunaat, The Land of the Greenlanders (Kalaallit); Danish: Grønland) is a self-governed Danish territory and an Arctic island nation located in North... Greenland


Finland consists of 6 provinces (Finnish: läänit, Swedish: län), following a 1997 redesign that reduced their number from 12. The province authority is part of the central governments executive branch; a system that hasnt changed drastically since its creation in 1634. The State of Finland is... Provinces of The Republic of Finland ( Finnish: Suomen tasavalta, Swedish: Republiken Finland) is a Nordic country in northeastern Europe, bordered by the Baltic Sea to the southwest, the Gulf of Finland to the southeast and the Gulf of Bothnia to the west. Finland has land frontiers with Sweden, Norway and Russia and... Finland File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. Click on date to download the file or see the image uploaded on that date. (del) (cur) 14:00, 7 Sep 2004 . . Samuelsen (241 bytes) (black border) (del) (rev) 07...
The Province of Eastern Finland is a province of Finland. It borders to the provinces of Oulu, Western Finland and Southern Finland. It also borders to Russia. Map highlighting the location of the Province of Eastern Finland Historical Provinces For History, Geography and Culture see: Savonia and Karelia In the... Eastern Finland | The Province of Lapland is one of the Provinces of Finland, and a part of the larger geographical area of Lapland, which spans over four countries. The municipalities in the province cooperate in a Regional Council, which also makes it the Region of Lapland. It borders to the Province of... Lapland | Oulu | The Province of Southern Finland is a province of Finland. It borders to the provinces of Western Finland and Eastern Finland. It also borders to the Gulf of Finland and Russia. Map highlighting the location of the Province of Southern Finland Historical Provinces For History, Geography and Culture see: Tavastia... Southern Finland | The Province of Western Finland is a province of Finland. It borders to the provinces of Oulu, Eastern Finland and Southern Finland. It also borders to the Gulf of Bothnia towards Åland. Map highlighting the location of the Province of Western Finland Historical Provinces For History, Geography and Culture see... Western Finland | Åland


The provinces or landskap were the subdivision of Sweden until 1634, when they were replaced by counties in a reform, led by Axel Oxenstierna, that still remains in force in Sweden proper. The county reform also survived until 1997 in Finland, despite the separation from Sweden in 1809. The provinces... Historical provinces of Sweden and Finland | The Realm of Sweden or Svenska väldet is a term that historically was used to comprise all the territories under the control of the Swedish monarchs. Lands of Sweden Main article: Lands of Sweden The nucleus of the Swedish kingdom lay in the unification of the ancient lands of... The Swedish Realm
Alandia | Angermannia, or Ångermanland, is a historical Sweden. It borders to Medelpadia, Jemtia, Laponia, Westrobothnia and the Gulf of Bothnia. Map highlighting the location of Angermannia Population The population of Angermannia is 140,188 as of 2004. It distrubutes over three counties as follows: Counties For current affairs see: Counties of... Angermannia | Bahusia, or Bohuslän, is a historical Sweden. It borders to Dalia and Westrogothia. It is also borders to Skagerrak and to Norway. By the treaty of Roskilde, this formerly Norwegian province was ceded to Sweden. The largest city is Uddevalla in the middle of Bahusia. Map highlighting the location... Bahusia | Blechingia (Blekinge) is a historical Sweden. It borders Smalandia, Scania and the Baltic Sea. Map highlighting the location of Blechingia County For current affairs see: Blekinge County Blekinge County has virtually the same boundaries as the province of Blechingia. History Main article: History of Blechingia Historically Blechingia belonged to the... Blechingia | Dalecarlia, or Dalarna, is a historical Province or landskap in the west of middle Sweden. It adjoins Herdalia, Helsingia, Gestricia, Westmannia and Wermelandia. It is also bounded by Norway in the west. Map highlighting the location of Dalecarlia County For current affairs see: Dalarna County Dalecarlia has virtually the same... Dalecarlia | Dalia or Dalsland, is a historical Province or landskap in the south west of Sweden. It borders to Bahusia, Wermelandia and Westrogothia. It and is also bounded by lake Vänern and Norway. Map highlighting the location of Dalia County For current affairs see: Västra Götaland County For... Dalia | Finland Proper, Varsinais-Suomi or Egentliga Finland, is a historical province in south western Finland. It borders Satakunda, Tavastia and Nylandia. It is also bounded by the Baltic sea facing Åland. There is also a modern region by the name Finland Proper. Finland Proper is not to be confused with... Finland Proper | Gestricia, or Gästrikland, is a historical Province or landskap on the eastern coast of Sweden. It borders Uplandia, Westmannia, Dalecarlia, Helsingia and the Gulf of Bothnia. Map highlighting the location of Gestricia County For current affairs see: Gävleborg County Gestricia makes up the southern part of the G... Gestricia | Gotlandia, or Gotland, a historical Province or landskap, of Sweden. It consists of the islands of Gotland, Fårö and a few smaller islands located in the Baltic Sea to the east of Öland. Map highlighting the location of Gotlandia County For current affairs see: Gotland County The island province... Gotlandia | Hallandia (Halland) is a historical Province (landskap) on the western coast of Sweden. It borders Westrogothia, Smalandia, Scania and the sea of Kattegat. The population is 287,558, of which 272,142 lives in Halland County, 13,363 in Västra Götaland County and 2,053 in Skåne... Hallandia | Helsingia, or Hälsingland, is a historical Province or landskap in the north of Sweden. It borders to Gestricia, Dalecarlia, Herdalia, Medelpadia and to the Gulf of Bothnia. Map highlighting the location of Helsingia County For current affairs see: Gävleborg County Helsingia comprises the northern part of Gävleborg... Helsingia | Herdalia, or Härjedalen, is a historical Province or landskap in the north of Sweden. It borders to Dalecarlia, Helsingia, Medelpadia, Jemtia and to Norway. Map highlighting the location of Herdalia County For current affairs see: Jämtland County Herdalia today makes up Härjedalen Municipality, which constitutes the southern... Herdalia | Jemtia, or Jämtland (or simply Jamtland as it is known by its local dialect), is a historical Province or landskap in the north of Sweden. It borders to Herdalia, Medelpadia, Angermannia, Laponia and to Norway. Some of its inhabitants speak the Jamska language. Map highlighting the location of Jemtia... Jemtia | Finnish Karelia, historically also Swedish Karelia or Carelia, is a historical province in eastern Finland. It refers to the western parts of Karelia that during the second millennium has been under western dominance, religiously and politically. Western Karelia is separate from East Karelia, or Russian Karelia, which has been dominated... Karelia | Laponia, or Lappland, was a historical Province or landskap in the extreme north of Sweden. In 1809 it was split into a Swedish western part and a Finnish eastern part. It borders to Jemtia, Angermannia and Westrobothnia in Sweden and to Ostrobothnia in Finland. It also borders to Norway and... Laponia | Medelpadia, or Medelpad, is a historical Province or landskap in north of Sweden. It borders to Helsingia, Herdalia, Jemtia, Angermannia and the Gulf of Bothnia. Map highlighting the location of Medelpadia County For current affairs see: Västernorrland County Medelpadia comprises the southern part of Västernorrland County. History Main... Medelpadia | Nericia, also Nerike or Närke, is a historical Province or landskap in middle Sweden. It borders to Westrogothia, Wermelandia, Westmannia, Sudermannia and Ostrogothia. Map highlighting the location of Nericia County For current affairs see: Örebro County The province of Nericia makes up the southern part of Örebro County. History... Nericia | Nylandia, Nyland or Uusimaa is a historical province in the south of Finland. It borders to Finland Proper, Tavastia, Savonia, and Karelia. Map highlighting the location of Nylandia Administration For current affairs see: Southern Finland Nyland is confined within the boundaries of the administrative province of Southern Finland, and was... Nylandia | Oelandia (Öland) is a historical Province (landskap) of Sweden. It is located in the Baltic Sea off the coast of Smalandia, and consists of the island of Öland, which is the largest island belonging to Sweden after Gotland. Map highlighting the location of Oelandia County For current affairs see: Kalmar... Oelandia | Ostrobothnia, Österbotten (literally East (of) Bottom / the Gulf of Bothnia) or Pohjanmaa (literally Bottom land / soil / ground), is a historical province to the north in Finland. It borders to Karelia, Savonia, Tavastia and Satakunda in the south, and to Westrobothnia in Sweden, and Laponia in the north. It is... Ostrobothnia | Ostrogothia | Satakunda (Satakunta) is a historical province in south western Finland. It borders to Finland Proper, Tavastia and Ostrobothnia. It is also bounded by the Baltic sea. Map highlighting the location of Satakunda Administration For current affairs see: Western Finland Satakunda is comprised within the boundaries of the administrative province of... Satakunda | Savonia, Savolax or Savo, is a historical province in the south of Finland. It borders to Nylandia, Tavastia, Ostrobothnia, and Karelia. Map highlighting the location of Savonia Administration For current affairs see: Eastern Finland Savonia is virtually comprised within the boundaries of the administrative province of Eastern Finland. History Main... Savonia | Scania (Skåne) is the southernmost historical Province (landskap) of Sweden. It borders Hallandia, Smalandia and Blechingia. To the east, west and south it also borders the Baltic Sea and the Öresund/Øresund strait, also known as The Sound. Map highlighting the location of Scania County For current affairs see... Scania | Smalandia (Småland, literally Small Countries) is a historical Province (landskap) in southern Sweden. It borders Blechingia, Scania, Hallandia, Westrogothia, Ostrogothia and the island province of Oelandia, which is in the Baltic Sea. Map highlighting the location of Smalandia Population The population of Smalandia as of 2004 is 708,896... Smalandia | Sudermannia or Södermanland, is a historical province or landskap on the south eastern coast of Sweden. It borders to Ostrogothia, Nericia, Westmannia and Uplandia. It is also bounded by lake Mälaren and the Baltic sea. Map highlighting the location of Sudermannia Population The population of Sudermannia is 1... Sudermannia | Tavastia, Tavastland or Häme, is a historical province in the south of Finland. It borders to Finland Proper, Satakunda, Ostrobothnia, Savonia and Nylandia. Map highlighting the location of Tavastia Administration For current affairs see: : Southern Finland and Western Finland Tavastia is divided upon the administrative provinces of Southern... Tavastia | Uplandia, or Uppland, is a historical Province or Landskap on the eastern coast of Sweden. It borders to Sudermannia, Westmannia and Gestricia. It is also bounded by lake Mälaren and the Baltic sea. Map highlighting the location of Uplandia Population The population of Uplandia is 1,339,154 as... Uplandia | Wermelandia, or Värmland, is a historical province or landskap in the west of middle Sweden. It borders to Westrogothia, Dalia, Dalecarlia, Westmannia and Nericia. It is also bounded by Norway in the east. Map highlighting the location of Wermelandia Population The population of Wermelandia is 312,966 as of... Wermelandia | Westmannia, or Västmanland, is a historical Province or landskap in middle Sweden. It borders to Sudermannia, Nericia, Wermelandia, Dalecarlia and Uplandia. Map highlighting the location of Westmannia County For current affairs see: Västmanland County or Örebro County Westmannia is divided upon Västmanland County, occupying the eastern half... Westmannia | Westrobothnia, or Västerbotten, is a historical Province or landskap in the north of Sweden. It borders to Angermannia, Laponia, Ostrobothnia and the Gulf of Bothnia, until early 20th century. Northern Westrobothnia, is on occasion considered to be a separate traditional province called Norrbotten. Map highlighting the location of Westrobothnia... Westrobothnia | Westrogothia (Västergötland) is a historical Province (landskap) in the southwest of Sweden. It borders Bahusia, Dalia, Wermelandia, Nericia, Ostrogothia, Map highlighting the location of Westrogothia Smalandia and Hallandia. It is also bounded by the lakes Vättern and Vänern, as well as the sea at the City... Westrogothia
Sweden was historically divided into four Lands or Landsdelar: Götaland Svealand Norrland Österland Götaland and Svealand were once rival kingdoms before being united under one Crown by Svealand. Götaland represents southern Sweden and Svealand is to its north in middle Sweden. Österland is the old name for... Lands of Sweden: Österland, or Österlanden, is a historical land of Sweden. Österland, which literally means eastern lands, is the old name for what today geographically is the southern part of the Republic of Finland. It is bounded to the north by the sparsely populated Norrland. Provinces The following seven... Finland/Österlanden | Götaland | Norrland is a historical land of Sweden. To the west it represents the northern half of Sweden bounded to the south by Svealand and to the east it represents the northern half of Finland bounded to the south by Österland. Provinces Norrland was made up of the following nine provinces... Norrland | Svealand is a historical region of Sweden. Geographically it is located in central Sweden, bounded to the north by Norrland and to the south by Götaland. Deep forests, Tiveden, Tylöskog, Kolmården, separated Svealand from Götaland. The inhabitants were called Svear. Svealand was the original Sweden, to... Svealand

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