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Encyclopedia > Árpáds

The Árpáds (Hungarian: Árpádok, Slovak: Arpádovci, Croatian: Arpadovići) were a dynasty ruling in historic Hungary from the late 9th century to 1301 (with some interruptions, e. g. 1038-46). ( 8th century - 9th century - 10th century - other centuries) Events Beowulf might have been written down in this century, though it could also have been in the 8th century Reign of Charlemagne, and concurrent (and controversially labeled) Carolingian Renaissance in western Europe Viking attacks on Europe begin Oseberg ship burial The... Events February 7 - Edward of Caernarvon (later King Edward II of England) becomes the first Prince of Wales End of the reign of Emperor Go-Fushimi of Japan Emperor Go-Nijo ascends to the throne of Japan Births June 19 - Prince Morikuni, 9th Kamakura shogun of Japan July 23 - Otto...


They were chieftains (dukes, Princes) till c. 970, Geza (c. 970–997) as well as till 1000 his son Stephen were Grand Princes, from c. 1000 onwards they were Kings. The seniority principle was replaced by the primogeniture, which led to struggles for the throne between 997–1163. The line was extinguished by 1301/1338. The Chieftains is an Irish musical group founded in 1962, known for performing and popularizing Irish traditional music. ... The term duke is a title of nobility which refers to the sovereign male ruler of a Continental European duchy, to a nobleman of the highest grade of the British peerage, or to the highest rank of nobility in various other European countries, including Spain and France (in Italy, principe... The term prince (from the Latin princeps), for a member of the highest aristocracy, has fundamentally different meanings Abstract The original but least common use is as a GENERIC (descriptive, not formal) term -originating in the application of terminology from Roman (actualy Byzantine) law and classical ideology to the European... Géza of Hungary (born around 940-945, died in 997) (possibly Gyécsa in Old Hungarian, Gejza in Slovak), was the fejedelem (ruling prince) of the Magyars from c. ... A statue of Stephen the Great King Stephen the Great or St. ... The title of Grand Duke (Latin, Magnus Dux; German, Großherzog, Russian, Великий князь) used in Slavic, Baltic, and Germanic countries, is ranked in honour below King but higher than a sovereign Duke (Herzog) or Prince (Fürst). ... A monarch is a type of ruler or head of state. ... Seniority is the concept of a person or group being in charge or in command of another person or group. ... Primogeniture is inheritance by the first-born of the entirety of a parents wealth, estate or office, or in the absence of children, by collateral relatives in order of seniority of the collateral line. ...

Contents

1 11th century
2 12th century
3 13th century
4 See also
5 External links

10th century

Árpád (died after 900), the founder of the dynasty who brought the proto-Hungarians to present-day Hungary in 896, was probably succeeded by his nephew, dux Szabolcs, who in turn was succeeded by Árpád’s grandson Fajsz (Fales, Falitzi). These two chieftains/dukes, who however did not control all proto-Hungarians yet, undertook almost fifty campaigns, by which they forced the Lombardy (905-950), the Saxons (924-932), the Byzantine Empire and Bulgaria (934-957) to pay tribute to them. They also destroyed Great Moravia probably around 907. The first two Hungarian chieftains/dukes (Bulcsu and Gylas) were baptized in the Byzantine Empire in 950. Árpád (ca. ... Szabolcs is the name of a historic administrative county (comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary in present-day north-eastern Hungary. ... Lombardy (in Italian Lombardia) is a region in northern Italy between the Alps and the Po Valley. ... This article is about the Saxons, a Germanic people. ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... Great Moravia (Czech Velká Morava, Slovak Veľká Morava, Latin Magna Moravia) was a Slav state existing on the territory of present-day Moravia and Slovakia between 833 and the early 10th century. ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ...


After the defeat of the Hungarians at the Lech in 955, the Hungarian dukes Lél, Bulcsú and Sur, who were not Árpáds, were executed (after they have been captured by the Germans) and their possessions were occupied by the Árpáds, who were led by Taksony at that time (c. 955-c. 971). Since the Nitrian principality (southwestern Slovakia) had been ruled by Lél since the 920s, it thus became part of the Árpáds' domain in 955. In addition, after 955, the defeated Hungarians decided to stay in what is present-day Hungary (more exactly Transdanubia) and adjacent regions, and to stop their raids in Europe, so that a gradual unification of proto-Hungarian tribes led by numerous local chieftains/dukes began. Perhaps the defining event for holding off the incursions of the Magyars into central Europe, the Battle of Lechfeld (10 August 955) was a decisive victory for the forces of the future Emperor Otto the Great over the Magyar leaders, the harka (military leader) Bulcsú and the chieftains Lél... Events Otto I the Great defeats Magyars in the Battle of Lechfeld Births Deaths November 8 - Pope Agapetus II Categories: 955 ... Sur was a literary journal published in Buenos Aires. ... Taksony (c. ...


While Taksony (c. 955–c. 971) ruled present-day Hungary, his father Zoltan, Árpád‘s son, ruled present-day southwestern Slovakia (the Nitrian principality) and probably had to accept the supremacy of Bohemia in western Slovakia (c. 955 – c. 970). According to less reliable sources, Taksony and then his son Geza (see below) were the rulers of Nitra before 971 instead. Zoltán, also known as Zolta, Zaltas, or Zsolt, is probably the name of the son of Árpád and the father of Taksony and possibly Jutas. ... Taksony (c. ... Géza of Hungary (born around 940-945, died in 997) (possibly Gyécsa in Old Hungarian, Gejza in Slovak), was the fejedelem (ruling prince) of the Magyars from c. ...


In 971, Geza (c. 971–997), the son of Taksony, became a „Grand Prince“, moved his seat to Esztergom and began to form a unified Hungarian state (hence the “grand” ) – a task completed only later by his son. Transdanubia was ruled by himself, the Nitrian principality was given in fief to his brother Michael (ruled there 971–995, see below), influence in Transylvania was gained through Geza’s marriage with the daughter of the Transylvanian duke Gyula I, but local proto-Hunagrian chieftains/dukes still ruled in other parts of present-day Hungary. Géza of Hungary (born around 940-945, died in 997) (possibly Gyécsa in Old Hungarian, Gejza in Slovak), was the fejedelem (ruling prince) of the Magyars from c. ... Taksony (c. ... Esztergom (German Gran, Slovak Ostrihom) is a small city in northern Hungary, about 70 km north-west of Budapest. ... Transylvania (Romanian: Transilvania or Ardeal, Hungarian: Erdély, German: Siebenbürgen, Serbian: Transilvanija, Turkish: Erdel, Slovak: Sedmohradsko or Transylvania, Polish: Siedmiogród) is a historic region that forms the western and the central parts of Romania. ...


Although Geza was de facto only the ruler of Transdanubia, he is said to have made the Árpád dynasty the ruling dynasty of Hungary. Pushed by Henry II. the Quarrelsome (Heinrich II. der Zänker), under Geza the Hungarians had to leave Ostarrîchi (Austria) and make peace with Otto I and Otto II (in 972). In 995, Geza brought a Latin (i. e. not Byzantine) bishop to Hungary (namely Adalbert, the Bishop of Prague) and was introducing Christianity by force. Henry II the Wrangler, Duke of Bavaria (951-995) was the son of Henry I the Quarrelsome and Judith of Bavaria. ... Ostarrîchi is an Old High German name found to the famous Ostarrîchi document of 996, where it refers to the Margraviate ruled by the Babenberg Count Henry I located mostly in what is today Lower Austria. ... Otto II ( 955 – December 7, 983, Rome), was the third German ruler of the Saxon or Ottonian dynasty. ... Latin is the language originally spoken in the region around Rome called Latium. ... Adalbert (Czech: Vojtěch, Polish: Wojciech, Germanic equivalent Adalbert - the joy of warrior) was a 10th century bishop of Prague who was martyred in his efforts to convert the Baltic Prussians. ... Prague (Praha in Czech) is the capital and largest city of the Czech Republic. ... Christianity is an Abrahamic religion based on the life, teachings, death by crucifixion, and resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth as described in the New Testament. ...


Geza’s brother Michael was married to Adelajda (Adelhaid) the „Beleknegini“, the daughter of the Polish Prince Mieszko I. By various deals with Slovak nobles, Michael managed to expand the Hungarian territory to some further parts of present-day Slovakia. Since Michael became too powerful, Geza had him killed in 995, and Michael's sons Vazul and Ladislaus the Bold fled abroad (see below). Reign From c. ... Géza of Hungary (born around 940-945, died in 997) (possibly Gyécsa in Old Hungarian, Gejza in Slovak), was the fejedelem (ruling prince) of the Magyars from c. ... Reign From 1025 until 1031 Coronation On December 25, 1025 in Gniezno Cathedral, Poland Royal House Piast Coat of Arms Orzeł Piastowski Parents Bolesław I Chrobry Emnilda Consorts Ryksa Children with Ryksa Boleslaw Zapomiany Kazimierz I Odnowiciel Gertruda Date of Birth 990 Place of Birth  ? Date of Death May 10... Reign From 992 until 1025 Coronation On April 18, 1025 in Gniezno Cathedral, Poland Royal House Piast Coat of Arms Orzeł Piastowski Parents Mieszko I Dubrawka Consorts Rikdaga Judith Enmilda Oda Children with Judith Bezprym with Enmilda Regelina Mieszko II Lambert Otton with Oda Matylda Date of Birth 966/967...


In the same year, Geza’s son Vajk (after his baptism called Stephen) was made, by his father, the ruler of the Nitrian Principality (southern Slovakia) within Hungary. He probably brought his Christian wife Gisela (the date of marriage is disputed, most probable are 995/996) to the old Christian center of Nitra, and that is why he became an ardent Christianizer first in the Nitrian principality, later in whole Hungary. His marriage of Gisela promoted the influence of Bavarian clerics and nobles in Hungary. He also established friendly relationships with Slovak nobles in present-day Slovakia (esp. the Poznans and the Hunts), who helped him in 997 to defeat Koppány (the duke of Somogy, member of a collateral branch of the Árpáds), who, supported by old Hungarian chieftain families, claimed Hungarian leadership after Geza’s death. Géza of Hungary (born around 940-945, died in 997) (possibly Gyécsa in Old Hungarian, Gejza in Slovak), was the fejedelem (ruling prince) of the Magyars from c. ... A statue of Stephen the Great King Stephen the Great or St. ... The term Christian means belonging to Christ and is derived from the Greek noun Χριστός Khristós which means anointed one, which is itself a translation of the Hebrew word Moshiach (Hebrew: משיח, also written Messiah), (and in Arabic it is pronounced Maseeh مسيح). ... Nitra (in German: Neutra, in Hungarian: Nyitra [in the past frequently Nyitria]) is a city in western Slovakia (and fourth largest urban settlement in Slovakia) situated at the foot of Zobor Mountain in Nitra river valley (see below). ... Bavarian can either when used as an adjective, refer to the German state of Bavaria; or refer to the Bavarian or Austro-Bavarian language, a group of closely related Austria and the South Tyrol. ... Somogy is the name of an administrative county (comitatus or megye) in present Hungary, and also in the former Kingdom of Hungary. ...


11th century

On December 25, 1000 (other sources: January 1, 1001), the Grand Prince Stephen was crowned (the first) King of Hungary (1000–1038) by order of Pope Sylvester II. Between 997 and c. 1006, he managed to unify Hungary, by subjugating Transylvania and other domains that had been ruled by Hungarian tribal chieftains. He introduced the county (comitatus) system, founded an ecclesiastic organization with ten bishoprics and the archbishopric of Esztergom, and introduced taxes for common people, the minting of coins (initially in Bratislava), and the official use of Latin, which remained the official language of Hungary till 1836. He moved his seat from Esztergom to Székesfehérvár. December 25 is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 6 days remaining. ... For other uses, see number 1000. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... Events Grand Prince Stephen I of Hungary is named the first King of Hungary by Pope Silvester II. Canonisation of Edward the Martyr, king of England. ... A statue of Stephen the Great King Stephen the Great or St. ... Gerbert of Aurillac, later known as pope Silvester II, (or Sylvester II), (ca. ... Transylvania (Romanian: Transilvania or Ardeal, Hungarian: Erdély, German: Siebenbürgen, Serbian: Transilvanija, Turkish: Erdel, Slovak: Sedmohradsko or Transylvania, Polish: Siedmiogród) is a historic region that forms the western and the central parts of Romania. ... Originally, a county was the land under the jurisdiction of a count (in Great Britain, an earl, though the original earldoms covered larger areas) by reason of that office. ... Esztergom (German Gran, Slovak Ostrihom) is a small city in northern Hungary, about 70 km north-west of Budapest. ... Bratislava is the capital of Slovakia and the countrys largest city, with a population of some 430,000. ... Székesfehérvár  listen (in Latin: Alba Regia; in colloquial speech Fehérvár) is a city in central Hungary, located around 65 km southwest of Budapest. ...


In 1001, Stephen lost the Nitrian principality to Poland. The Polish ruler made Stephen’s cousins Ladislaus the Bold (1001–1029) and Vazul (1029–1030), who had fled Hungary in 995, the rulers of the Nitrian principality (Slovakia) within the Polish principality. In 1030, Stephen reconquered Slovakia from Poland, Vazul was imprisoned, and in 1031 (when Stephen’s only son Imre died) he was blinded in Nitra so that he wouldn't succeed to the Hungarian throne. Reign From 992 until 1025 Coronation On April 18, 1025 in Gniezno Cathedral, Poland Royal House Piast Coat of Arms Orzeł Piastowski Parents Mieszko I Dubrawka Consorts Rikdaga Judith Enmilda Oda Children with Judith Bezprym with Enmilda Regelina Mieszko II Lambert Otton with Oda Matylda Date of Birth 966/967... Reign From 1025 until 1031 Coronation On December 25, 1025 in Gniezno Cathedral, Poland Royal House Piast Coat of Arms Orzeł Piastowski Parents Bolesław I Chrobry Emnilda Consorts Ryksa Children with Ryksa Boleslaw Zapomiany Kazimierz I Odnowiciel Gertruda Date of Birth 990 Place of Birth  ? Date of Death May 10... Nitra (in German: Neutra, in Hungarian: Nyitra [in the past frequently Nyitria]) is a city in western Slovakia (and fourth largest urban settlement in Slovakia) situated at the foot of Zobor Mountain in Nitra river valley (see below). ...


However, Vazul’s three sons (Levente, and the two future kings Andrew and Béla, and Domoslav (Bonuslaus), son of Ladislaus the Bold, managed to flee abroad. As a result, it were Stephen’s nephews from the female line, Peter Urseolo (1038–41 and 1044–46) and Samuel Aba (1041–1044), who were fighting for the throne. Peter Urseolo, supported by the German king Henry III, was expelled by the brothers Andrew and Béla, who returned to Hungary from abroad. These two Árpáds were the ancestors of all the following Árpád rulers of Hungary. Domoslav, in turn, was temporarily installed as the ruler of western Slovakia in 1042, when the territory was conquered by Bretislav I and Henry III. Peter Urseolo (or Orseolo) was the second king of Hungary and reigned from 1038 till 1041 and from 1044 till 1046 after a brief interuption of three years in which Sámuel Aba ruled the nation. ... Břetislav (b. ...


The Hungarian king Andrew I (1046–63) had his son Solomon marry Judith, the daughter of Henry III, in order to stop the continuing German attacks (1042–1052). In 1048, Andrew shared power with his brother Béla by making him apanage ruler of one-third of Hungary („tercia pars regni“, Ducatus, Nitrian Frontier Principality), the capital of which was Nitra, and which consisted of Southern Slovakia (Nitrian Principality) and north-eastern historic Hungary (called Bihar, however not identical with the later Bihar). Béla received the title “duke” (1048-1063). Henry III (1017-1056) was a member of the Salian (sometimes Franconian) dynasty of Holy Roman Emperors. ... The system of appanage has greatly influenced the territorial construction of France and explains the flag of many provinces of France. ... Nitra (in German: Neutra, in Hungarian: Nyitra [in the past frequently Nyitria]) is a city in western Slovakia (and fourth largest urban settlement in Slovakia) situated at the foot of Zobor Mountain in Nitra river valley (see below). ... Bihar is the name of a historic administrative county (comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary. ...


All the following dukes of Nitra were members of the Árpád dynasty and most of them were future Hungarian kings. Especially before 1077, the dukes had an independent foreign and internal policy and the duchy was accepted as a separate entity not only by Hungary, but also by the Pope and by the German emperor. For example, when King Andrew I was in conflict with Byzantium, the Byzantine emperor contacted Béla. In 1059, Béla fled to Poland to his brother-in-law Boleslaus II, after king Andrew I had his own son Solomon crowned future king in 1057 (to be able to engage him with Judith). The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... Categories: Poland-related stubs | Polish monarchs | Dukes of Wroclaw ...


In 1060, Béla returned to Hungary and defeated King Andrew I. The wounded Andrew sent his son Solomon to Germany, then he died (in 1061). Béla I (1061–1063) became the new king of Hungary and parallelly remained the duke of Nitra. After Béla's death in 1063, Henry installed Solomon as the new king of Hungary and Béla's sons Geza, Ladislaus and Lampert fled to Poland (to their kin, Boleslaus II). When Henry left Hungary, Boleslaus II attacked Solomon, defeated him and forced him to accept Geza as the king of Hungary. Géza I (Slovak: Gejza), who lived c. ... Ladislaus I, Saint (Hungarian: , Slovak: Ladislav I) (June 27, 1040–July 29, 1095) was a king of the Kingdom of Hungary (1077–1095). ... Categories: Poland-related stubs | Polish monarchs | Dukes of Wroclaw ...


Finally, however, in 1064, peace was made between Solomon and the sons of Béla, under which Solomon (1063–1074) remained king and Geza and Ladislaus received the Nitrian Frontier Duchy; more precisely, Géza became the Duke of Slovakia (11 counties), Ladislaus received Bihar (4 counties) and Lampert stayed in Nitra together with Geza without receiving own domains. New conflicts arose again soon and in 1074, Geza, Ladislaus and Lampert defeated Solomon. As a result, Geza I (1074–1077) became the new king of Hungary. His brother Ladislaus became the new Duke of the Nitrian Frontier Duchy (incl. Bihar) and later, in 1077, he succeeded his brother as the king of Hungary. Géza I (Slovak: Gejza), who lived c. ... Ladislaus I, Saint (Hungarian: , Slovak: Ladislav I) (June 27, 1040–July 29, 1095) was a king of the Kingdom of Hungary (1077–1095). ...


Under Ladislaus I (1077–1095) and Coloman (1095–1116), Hungary annexed the coastal regions of old Croatia, Dalmatia, Bosnian territories to the south of the Sava river, and northern western and central Slovakia. Ladislaus managed to defeat the Pecenegs and Cumanians. Ladislaus I, Saint (Hungarian: , Slovak: Ladislav I) (June 27, 1040–July 29, 1095) was a king of the Kingdom of Hungary (1077–1095). ... Coloman (Hungarian:Könyves Kálmán, Slovak and Croatian: Koloman) (1070 - February 3, 1116) was King of Hungary from 1095 to 1116. ... Dalmatia (Croatian Dalmacija, Italian Dalmazia, Serbian Далмација) is a region of Croatia on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea, spreading between the island of Pag in the northwest and the Bay of Kotor in the southeast. ... Sava also Save (German Save, Hungarian Száva) is a river in Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina and Serbia, a right side tributary of Danube at Belgrade. ... Pechenegs or Patzinaks also known as Besenyők, were a semi-nomadic steppe people of Central Asia that spoke a Turkic language. ... The Cumans, also known as Polovtsy (Slavic for yellowish) were a nomadic West Turkic tribe living on the north of the Black Sea along the Volga. ...


The Arpadian kings usually supported the reform Popes in quarrels between Rome and Germany. Ladislaus founded the bishoprics of Oradea and Zagreb, and unified the Greek bishopric of Bács with the Latin archbishopric of Kalocsa. Coloman founded the (renewed) bishopric of Nitra (1110, other sources: c. 1085). Ladislaus consolidated the proprietary relations by stricter penal laws; Coloman improved the organization of the kingdom. In 1077, Lampert became the new Duke of Nitra, however Ladislaus considerably restrained Lampert's powers and deprived him of an own army. In 1081, Ladislaus put an end to Solomon's rule in Bratislava, which the former king Solomon occupied in 1074, and Solomon renounced the throne. Oradea (Hungarian: Nagyvárad, German: Großwardein) is a city located in the county of Bihor (BH), in Transylvania, Romania. ... Zagreb (pronounced ZA-greb) is the capital city of Croatia. ... Nitra (in German: Neutra, in Hungarian: Nyitra [in the past frequently Nyitria]) is a city in western Slovakia (and fourth largest urban settlement in Slovakia) situated at the foot of Zobor Mountain in Nitra river valley (see below). ... Events Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor begs Pope Gregory VII to remove sentence of excommunication Robert Curthose instigates his first insurrection against his father, William the Conqueror Seljuk Turks capture Nicaea Süleyman I of Rüm becomes the leader of the Sultanate of Rüm in modern Turkey Anush... Bratislava is the capital of Slovakia and the countrys largest city, with a population of some 430,000. ...


Coloman's brother Álmos was the duke of the newly conquered eastern Croatia (conquered 1081; duke since 1084) and later – on the request of the Croats – the king of eastern Croatia (1091–1095). In 1095, he was then dethroned by Coloman and appointed the duke of the Nitrian Frontier Duchy instead. A conflict arose between King Coloman and Álmos, who was supported by Germany and Bohemia, in 1098, after Coloman had even declared himself the king of Croatia in 1097 (crowned in 1102). Álmos (or Almoš) (died 1127) was a Hungarian prince, the son of Geza I of Hungary, brother of Coloman of Hungary. ...


12th century

Finally in 1108, peace was made between the two brothers, but Coloman violated it and had Almos (and his son Béla) blinded and imprisoned in 1108 or 1109 to prevent him from becoming the future king. This act also marks the end of the Nitrian Frontier Duchy and thus a full integration of the territory of Slovakia into Hungary.


Coloman's childless son, Stephen II was engaged in a number of unnecessary wars (1116 Bohemia, 1123 Russia, 1127-29 Byzantium). He appointed Bela II the Blind (1131-41, see above) his successor. However Boris, the illegitimate brother of Stephen (whom his father Coloman did not legitimize), also wanted to become king and in 1132, supported by Polish and Russian troops, invaded the country, but was defeated (later once again in 1146). Since Béla was blind, his wife, the Serbian Ilona of Serbia, and his brother-in-law Ban Belos ruled instead of him. They had the supporters of Coloman killed during a Diet meeting, but as for international politics, they were good rulers. Béla II also became King of Bosnia. Boris is a Bulgarian name, also common in Russia. ... In politics, a Diet is a formal deliberative assembly. ... Bosnia and Herzegovina (officially Bosna i Hercegovina, shortened to BiH, also in English variously written Bosnia-Herzegovina, Bosnia and Hercegovina, Bosnia-Hercegovina) is a mountainous country in the western Balkans. ...


Under Béla’s son Géza II (1141–1161), Hungary became one of the most powerful countries in Europe for about a century. Géza successfully won battles in favor of his brother-in-law Izjaslav (Prince of Kiew 1148–52), and defeated his kin Manuel Komnenos (Byzantine Emperor 1152–56), who had attacked Hungary. It was Geza who (around 1150) invited the first German (Saxon) settlers to Slovakia (esp. Spis) and Transylvania. Also, the Knights of St. John of Jerusalem (Knights of Malta) and the Knights of the Cross got to Hungary. Fresco of Manuel I Manuel I Comnenus Megas (November 28, 1118? - September 24, 1180) was Byzantine Emperor from 1143 to 1180. ... The Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered at its capital in Constantinople. ... The Saxons were a large and powerful Germanic people located in what is now northwestern Germany and a small section of the eastern Netherlands. ... Spiš (in Latin: Scepusium, in Polish: Spisz, in German: Zips, in Hungarian: Szepes) is the name of a historic administrative county (comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary. ... Transylvania (Romanian: Transilvania or Ardeal, Hungarian: Erdély, German: Siebenbürgen, Serbian: Transilvanija, Turkish: Erdel, Slovak: Sedmohradsko or Transylvania, Polish: Siedmiogród) is a historic region that forms the western and the central parts of Romania. ... The Knights Hospitaller (the or Knights of Malta or Knights of Rhodes) is a tradition which began as a Benedictine nursing Order founded in the 11th century based in the Holy Land, but soon became a militant Christian Chivalric Order under its own charter, and was charged with the care... Knights of the Cross with red star (Ordo Militaris Crucigerorum cum Rubea Stella) is a religious order originating from Bohemia, devoted mainly to offering medical care. ...


Géza's son Stephen III (1162-72) had to fight against Manuel I Comnenus all the time, who supported the rival uncles of Stephen and managed to make them kings for a short time (Ladislaus II (1162–63) and Stephen IV (1163)), during which Stephen III controlled only the region around Bratislava. Stephen III (d. ... Fresco of Manuel I Manuel I Comnenus Megas (November 28, 1118? - September 24, 1180) was Byzantine Emperor from 1143 to 1180. ... Bratislava is the capital of Slovakia and the countrys largest city, with a population of some 430,000. ...


Finally, it was Béla III (educated in the Byzantium by Manuel) who became the new Hungarian king (1172-96). Béla III annexed Dalmatia and Croatia to Hungary again, reformed the financial system of the country, and founded Cistercian monasteries with his second wife Margaret Capet. Bela III of Hungary (Hungarian , Slovak: Belo III), born in 1148, was King of Kingdom of Hungary circa 1172-1196. ... Dalmatia (Croatian Dalmacija, Italian Dalmazia, Serbian Далмација) is a region of Croatia on the eastern coast of the Adriatic Sea, spreading between the island of Pag in the northwest and the Bay of Kotor in the southeast. ... Cistercians (OCist) (Latin Cistercenses), otherwise Gimey or White Monks (from the colour of the habit, over which is worn a black Catholic order of monks. ...


13th century

The elder son of Béla III Imre (1196–1204) married Constance of Aragon and his other son Andrew II (1205–1235) married Gertrude of Meran. Under these two kings, Western European influence was increasing in Hungary. The organization of the royal castles and court started to dissolve, the arising towns (mostly in Slovakia), received further foreign settlers (colonists). Under Imre's rule there were conflicts between the king and his brother Andrew (who was at that time the duke of Dalmatia and Croatia), so that Imre had Andrew even imprisoned in 1203. Under Andrew's rule (1205–1235), the international position of Hungary was improved, but within Hungary there were fights between the higher and lower gentry and the church. As a result, the king issued the Golden Bull, the Magna Carta of Hungary, in 1222 (revised in 1231). Emeric (or Imre) was a Hungarian king (1174–1204), who ruled from 1196 to 1204. ... Andrew II (1175-1235) (Hungarian:,Slovak:Ondrej II) was a son of Bela III of Hungary and succeeded his nephew, the infant Ladislaus III, in 1205. ... Gertrude of Meran was the first wife of András II, king of Hungary. ... Magna Carta placed certain checks on the absolute power of the English Monarchs. ...


The rule of his son Béla IV (1235–1270) was characterized by granting of the first civic privileges (town charter, town status) to arising towns in Hungary (in 1238 to Trnava, Banská Štiavnica/Selmecbánya), Krupina/Korpona and Zvolen/Zólyom), and by the disastrous invasion of the Mongols (wrongly called: Tartars) in 1241-1242 and the subsequent reconstruction of the country. As a result of the invasion, the king promoted the construction of castles made of stone and he also invited people living in Hungary, as well as foreign settlers, to settle in the depopulated territories (the Great Colonization). The nomadic Cumanians were settled in present-day central Hungary, and German settlers came mainly to present-day Slovakia and to Transsylvania. Béla IV (1206-1270) was the king of Hungary between 1235 and 1270. ... Trnava (Hungarian: Nagyszombat, German: Tyrnau) is a town in western Slovakia, 45 kilometers to the north-east of Bratislava, on the Trnávka river, and at the main Bratislava-Žilina railway and Bratislava-Žilina limited-access highway. ... Banská Štiavnica (Hungarian: Selmecbánya, German: Schemnitz) is a town in central Slovakia in the Štiavnické vrchy (Štiavnica Mountains). ... Zvolen (German: Altsohl, Hungarian Zólyom) is a town in central Slovakia, close to Banská Bystrica, at the Hron river. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Tatars or Tartars is a collective name applied to the Turkic-speaking people of Europe and Asia. ... The Cumans, also known as Polovtsy (Slavic for yellowish) were a nomadic West Turkic tribe living on the north of the Black Sea along the Volga. ... Transylvania (Romanian: Transilvania or Ardeal, Hungarian: Erdély, German: Siebenbürgen, Serbian: Transilvanija, Turkish: Erdel, Slovak: Sedmohradsko, Polish: Siedmiogród) is a historic region that forms the western and the central parts of Romania. ...


By his decree of 1267, Béla also started to increase the power of lower gentry, which also triggered the change of the traditional Hungarian royal counties into quasi-autonomous territories under the control of certain nobles. The king had his ambitious son Stephen (duke of Transylvania between 1257–1259 and after 1260, duke of Styria between 1259–1260) marry the Cumanian princess Elizabeth and in 1262 he granted him the title Rex iunior and the eastern part of Hungary as fief, which entailed fightings between Béla and Stephen. As a result, Hungary was divided in two till Béla’s death in 1270, after which Stephen became the new king of whole Hungary. Stephen V can refer to: Pope Stephen V Stephen V of Hungary This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Queen Elizabeth II, of the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada etc. ...


The short rule of Stephen V (1270–1272) was followed by the rule of his son, the young Ladislaus IV (1272–1290), who was influenced by his Cumanian mother and her surroundings, which brought about royal conflicts with the church and the oligarchs. The oligarchs were certain magnate families in Hungary that started to behave like independent rulers on their respective territories (eastern present-day Hungary, western present-day Hungary, western Slovakia, eastern Slovakia, Transylvania, and Croatia) from the 1270s – 1280s onwards. There were also fights against Austria and against the Mongols. Stephen V can refer to: Pope Stephen V Stephen V of Hungary This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Ladislaus IV the Cuman (Hungarian: IV László, Slovak: Ladislav IV)(1262 - July 10, 1290), also known as Laszlo IV, king of Hungary, was the son of Stephen V, whom he succeeded in 1272. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ...


After Ladislaus's death, Andrew III (1290–1301), an Árpád from Italy, was made king. He was a grandson of Andrew II by his third wife (but it is possible that his father was illegitimate). Due to the continuing rule of the oligarchs, total anarchy arose in the country in the late 1290s. The death of Andrew III on January 14, 1301 ended the male line of the Árpáds and his only daughter Elizabeth died in the Dominican monastery in Töss (Switzerland) on 6 May 1338. After a short interregnum the Angevin dynasty seized power and Charles Robert (grandson of Maria, sister of Ladislaus IV) became the new king. January 14 is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 7 - Edward of Caernarvon (later King Edward II of England) becomes the first Prince of Wales End of the reign of Emperor Go-Fushimi of Japan Emperor Go-Nijo ascends to the throne of Japan Births June 19 - Prince Morikuni, 9th Kamakura shogun of Japan July 23 - Otto... May 6 is the 126th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (127th in leap years). ... -1... Angevin is the name applied to two distinct medieval dynasties which originated as counts (from 1360, dukes) of the western French province of Anjou (of which angevin is the adjectival form), but later came to rule far greater areas including England, Hungary and Poland (see Angevin Empire). ... Charles I of Hungary (Anjou France 1288 or 1291 - Hungary July 16, 1342), also called Charles Robert, Carobert and Charles I Robert, was the king of Hungary from August 27, 1310. ...


See also

This is a list of all rulers of Hungary since Árpád. ... Notes: A stands for the house of Arpád M stands for the house of Mojmír In the 10th to 12th century, only app. ... Earliest history The details of the arrival of the Croats are scarcely documented. ... This is the history of Hungary. ... This is the history of Croatia. ... This article provides only a brief outline of each period of the History of Romania; details are presented in separate articles (see the links in the box and below). ... This is the history of Slovakia. ...

External links

  • The Vazul-line : Kings of the Árpád dynasty after St. Stephen (1038—1301) (http://mek.oszk.hu/01900/01955/)

 
 

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